WorldWideScience

Sample records for future biomedical research

  1. Future of fundamental discovery in US biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Michael; Levitt, Jonathan M

    2017-06-20

    Young researchers are crucially important for basic science as they make unexpected, fundamental discoveries. Since 1982, we find a steady drop in the number of grant-eligible basic-science faculty [principal investigators (PIs)] younger than 46. This fall occurred over a 32-y period when inflation-corrected congressional funds for NIH almost tripled. During this time, the PI success ratio (fraction of basic-science PIs who are R01 grantees) dropped for younger PIs (below 46) and increased for older PIs (above 55). This age-related bias seems to have caused the steady drop in the number of young basic-science PIs and could reduce future US discoveries in fundamental biomedical science. The NIH recognized this bias in its 2008 early-stage investigator (ESI) policy to fund young PIs at higher rates. We show this policy is working and recommend that it be enhanced by using better data. Together with the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Maximizing Investigators' Research Award (MIRA) program to reward senior PIs with research time in exchange for less funding, this may reverse a decades-long trend of more money going to older PIs. To prepare young scientists for increased demand, additional resources should be devoted to transitional postdoctoral fellowships already offered by NIH.

  2. Capital Investment for the Future of Biomedical Research: A University Chief Financial Officer's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massy, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Three principal aspects of capital needs in biomedical research are discussed: the significant and growing need for capital; sources; and the role of federal policy. Important assumptions, questions, and possible future trends are discussed. Consolidated thinking and effort are encouraged. (MSE)

  3. Biomedical research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The biomedical research Panel believes that the Calutron facility at Oak Ridge is a national and international resource of immense scientific value and of fundamental importance to continued biomedical research. This resource is essential to the development of new isotope uses in biology and medicine. It should therefore be nurtured by adequate support and operated in a way that optimizes its services to the scientific and technological community. The Panel sees a continuing need for a reliable supply of a wide variety of enriched stable isotopes. The past and present utilization of stable isotopes in biomedical research is documented in Appendix 7. Future requirements for stable isotopes are impossible to document, however, because of the unpredictability of research itself. Nonetheless we expect the demand for isotopes to increase in parallel with the continuing expansion of biomedical research as a whole. There are a number of promising research projects at the present time, and these are expected to lead to an increase in production requirements. The Panel also believes that a high degree of priority should be given to replacing the supplies of the 65 isotopes (out of the 224 previously available enriched isotopes) no longer available from ORNL

  4. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  5. African Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of biomedical Research was founded in 1998 as a joint project between a private communications outfit (Laytal Communications) and ... is aimed at being registered in future as a non-governmental organization involved in the promotion of scientific proceedings and publications in developing countries.

  6. Research prioritization through prediction of future impact on biomedical science: a position paper on inference-analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Orii, Naoki

    2013-08-30

    Advances in biotechnology have created "big-data" situations in molecular and cellular biology. Several sophisticated algorithms have been developed that process big data to generate hundreds of biomedical hypotheses (or predictions). The bottleneck to translating this large number of biological hypotheses is that each of them needs to be studied by experimentation for interpreting its functional significance. Even when the predictions are estimated to be very accurate, from a biologist's perspective, the choice of which of these predictions is to be studied further is made based on factors like availability of reagents and resources and the possibility of formulating some reasonable hypothesis about its biological relevance. When viewed from a global perspective, say from that of a federal funding agency, ideally the choice of which prediction should be studied would be made based on which of them can make the most translational impact. We propose that algorithms be developed to identify which of the computationally generated hypotheses have potential for high translational impact; this way, funding agencies and scientific community can invest resources and drive the research based on a global view of biomedical impact without being deterred by local view of feasibility. In short, data-analytic algorithms analyze big-data and generate hypotheses; in contrast, the proposed inference-analytic algorithms analyze these hypotheses and rank them by predicted biological impact. We demonstrate this through the development of an algorithm to predict biomedical impact of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) which is estimated by the number of future publications that cite the paper which originally reported the PPI. This position paper describes a new computational problem that is relevant in the era of big-data and discusses the challenges that exist in studying this problem, highlighting the need for the scientific community to engage in this line of research. The proposed

  7. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  8. Critical evaluation of challenges and future use of animals in experimentation for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Pratap, Kunal; Sinha, Juhi; Desiraju, Koundinya; Bahal, Devika; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2016-12-01

    Animal experiments that are conducted worldwide contribute to significant findings and breakthroughs in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of various diseases, bringing up appropriate clinical interventions. However, their predictive value is often low, leading to translational failure. Problems like translational failure of animal studies and poorly designed animal experiments lead to loss of animal lives and less translatable data which affect research outcomes ethically and economically. Due to increasing complexities in animal usage with changes in public perception and stringent guidelines, it is becoming difficult to use animals for conducting studies. This review deals with challenges like poor experimental design and ethical concerns and discusses key concepts like sample size, statistics in experimental design, humane endpoints, economic assessment, species difference, housing conditions, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses that are often neglected. If practiced, these strategies can refine the procedures effectively and help translate the outcomes efficiently. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Critical evaluation of challenges and future use of animals in experimentation for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Pratap, Kunal; Sinha, Juhi; Desiraju, Koundinya; Bahal, Devika; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2016-01-01

    Animal experiments that are conducted worldwide contribute to significant findings and breakthroughs in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of various diseases, bringing up appropriate clinical interventions. However, their predictive value is often low, leading to translational failure. Problems like translational failure of animal studies and poorly designed animal experiments lead to loss of animal lives and less translatable data which affect research outcomes ethically and economically. Due to increasing complexities in animal usage with changes in public perception and stringent guidelines, it is becoming difficult to use animals for conducting studies. This review deals with challenges like poor experimental design and ethical concerns and discusses key concepts like sample size, statistics in experimental design, humane endpoints, economic assessment, species difference, housing conditions, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses that are often neglected. If practiced, these strategies can refine the procedures effectively and help translate the outcomes efficiently. PMID:27694614

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  11. Shining Future of Biomedical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong

    2017-10-04

    Lihong V. Wang summarizes his tenure as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomedical Optics and introduces his successor, Brian Pogue, who will assume the role in January 2018. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  12. Biomedical waste management in Ayurveda hospitals - current practices & future prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Robin, Delvin T; M, Vandanarani

    2018-03-16

    Biomedical waste management is an integral part of traditional and contemporary system of health care. The paper focuses on the identification and classification of biomedical wastes in Ayurvedic hospitals, current practices of its management in Ayurveda hospitals and its future prospective. Databases like PubMed (1975-2017 Feb), Scopus (1960-2017), AYUSH Portal, DOAJ, DHARA and Google scholar were searched. We used the medical subject headings 'biomedical waste' and 'health care waste' for identification and classification. The terms 'biomedical waste management', 'health care waste management' alone and combined with 'Ayurveda' or 'Ayurvedic' for current practices and recent advances in the treatment of these wastes were used. We made a humble attempt to categorize the biomedical wastes from Ayurvedic hospitals as the available data about its grouping is very scarce. Proper biomedical waste management is the mainstay of hospital cleanliness, hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. Current disposal techniques adopted for Ayurveda biomedical wastes are - sewage/drains, incineration and land fill. But these methods are having some merits as well as demerits. Our review has identified a number of interesting areas for future research such as the logical application of bioremediation techniques in biomedical waste management and the usage of effective micro-organisms and solar energy in waste disposal. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomedical engineering continues to make the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kaplan, David

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) continues to make the future, not just respond to the present, by anticipating the needs of interface engineering and clinical medicine. In many respects, BME is the educational mode of the future, fostering collaboration among disciplines at its core by building on basic concepts in engineering and biology. We strive to educate where the needs, opportunities, and jobs are and will be in the future. The bridge between engineering, biology, and medicine is a growing link, and there is no sign that this interface will slow. With an aging population, dynamic changes in health care, as well as global economies and related themes upon us, we are only at the very beginning of the impact that BME will have on medicine and the quality of life. Those of us in BME are excited to be setting this agenda and welcome your participation. In part, this is why we have designed our BME major to cover both the depth and breadth, always a challenge, but one that we are committed to. The depth of the design projects, research experience, coursework, study abroad options, and internships all convenes to establish a solid foundation for our students as they embark on their career paths.

  14. Research evaluation support services in biomedical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzman, Karen Elizabeth; Bales, Michael E; Belter, Christopher W; Chambers, Thane; Chan, Liza; Holmes, Kristi L; Lu, Ya-Ling; Palmer, Lisa A; Reznik-Zellen, Rebecca C; Sarli, Cathy C; Suiter, Amy M; Wheeler, Terrie R

    2018-01-01

    The paper provides a review of current practices related to evaluation support services reported by seven biomedical and research libraries. A group of seven libraries from the United States and Canada described their experiences with establishing evaluation support services at their libraries. A questionnaire was distributed among the libraries to elicit information as to program development, service and staffing models, campus partnerships, training, products such as tools and reports, and resources used for evaluation support services. The libraries also reported interesting projects, lessons learned, and future plans. The seven libraries profiled in this paper report a variety of service models in providing evaluation support services to meet the needs of campus stakeholders. The service models range from research center cores, partnerships with research groups, and library programs with staff dedicated to evaluation support services. A variety of products and services were described such as an automated tool to develop rank-based metrics, consultation on appropriate metrics to use for evaluation, customized publication and citation reports, resource guides, classes and training, and others. Implementing these services has allowed the libraries to expand their roles on campus and to contribute more directly to the research missions of their institutions. Libraries can leverage a variety of evaluation support services as an opportunity to successfully meet an array of challenges confronting the biomedical research community, including robust efforts to report and demonstrate tangible and meaningful outcomes of biomedical research and clinical care. These services represent a transformative direction that can be emulated by other biomedical and research libraries.

  15. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research is the official journal of the International Association of Medical and Biomedical Researchers (IAMBR) and the Society for Free Radical Research Africa (SFRR-Africa). It is an internationally peer reviewed, open access and multidisciplinary journal aimed at publishing original ...

  18. Evolution of the use of ionizing radiation in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evolution, as a change of process, with the use of radioactivity in biomedical research, showing the consume of radioisotopes during the las 20 years indicating the evidences of these changes. The radioisotopic techniques applied at the present are described, and the future use of the radioisotopes in biomedical research is proposed, emphasizing the importance that the Molecular Imaging Techniques will have in this scientific area. (Author) 56 refs.

  19. Globalizing and crowdsourcing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-12-01

    Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing of medical research has emerged as a novel paradigm for many biomedical disciplines to rapidly collect, process and interpret data from high-throughput and high-dimensional experiments. The novelty and promise of these approaches have led to fundamental discoveries about RNA mechanisms, microbiome dynamics and even patient interpretation of test results. However, these methods require robust training protocols, uniform sampling methods and experimental rigor in order to be useful for subsequent research efforts. Executed correctly, crowdfunding and crowdsourcing can leverage public resources and engagement to generate support for scientific endeavors that would otherwise be impossible due to funding constraints and or the large number of participants needed for data collection. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of scientific studies that utilized crowdsourcing and crowdfunding to generate data. We also discuss our own experiences conducting citizen-science research initiatives (MetaSUB and PathoMap) in ensuring data robustness, educational outreach and public engagement. We demonstrate the efficacy of crowdsourcing mechanisms for revolutionizing microbiome and metagenomic research to better elucidate the microbial and genetic dynamics of cities around the world (as well as non-urban areas). Crowdsourced studies have been able to create an improved and unprecedented ability to monitor, design and measure changes at the microbial and macroscopic scale. Thus, the use of crowdsourcing strategies has dramatically altered certain genomics research to create global citizen-science initiatives that reveal new discoveries about the world's genetic dynamics. The effectiveness of crowdfunding and crowdsourcing is largely dependent on the study design and methodology. One point of contention for the present discussion is the validity and scientific rigor of data that are generated by non-scientists. Selection bias, limited sample

  20. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIMS AND SCOPE: The journal is conceived as an academic and professional journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. Articles from the Physical Sciences and humanities related to the Medical Sciences will also be considered. The African Journal of Biomedical Research ...

  1. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  2. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Challenges and opportunities for the biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, A J

    2000-01-01

    The biomedical research community of the new millennium has at its disposal the resources and knowledge to bring about major changes in human health. Technological advances on a scale never before seen mean that we can consider a level of medical investigation and intervention unimaginable only 20 years ago. But with this power comes a tremendous responsibility to think carefully about how those resources should best be used. For reasons of economy, biomedical research is likely to remain focussed on the needs of rich countries. This need not, however, mean that poorer countries cannot in the future receive a greater benefit from the current community of biomedical researchers. And given the nature of disease and its disrespect for national boundaries, a more global approach to biomedical research should be attractive to rich and poor countries alike. Achieving this change, no matter how modest in scale, will require a concerted effort at all levels within the biomedical research community. Indeed, the community is at a stage when it must pay closer attention to the sensitivities and concerns of its patient population. Only then will the tremendous potential of biomedical research be embraced and supported by our societies.

  4. The Need for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Moore, Rustin M.; Saville, William J.A.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rush, Laura J.; Mathes, Lawrence E.; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The number of veterinarians in the United States is inadequate to meet societal needs in biomedical research and public health. Areas of greatest need include translational medical research, veterinary pathology, laboratory-animal medicine, emerging infectious diseases, public health, academic medicine, and production-animal medicine. Veterinarians have unique skill sets that enable them to serve as leaders or members of interdisciplinary research teams involved in basic science and biomedical research with applications to animal or human health. There are too few graduate veterinarians to serve broad national needs in private practice; academia; local, state, and federal government agencies; and private industry. There are no easy solutions to the problem of increasing the number of veterinarians in biomedical research. Progress will require creativity, modification of priorities, broad-based communication, support from faculty and professional organizations, effective mentoring, education in research and alternative careers as part of the veterinary professional curriculum, and recognition of the value of research experience among professional schools’ admissions committees. New resources should be identified to improve communication and education, professional and graduate student programs in biomedical research, and support to junior faculty. These actions are necessary for the profession to sustain its viability as an integral part of biomedical research. PMID:19435992

  5. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael A; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an open source, extensible, high performance toolkit including a multibody mechanics library aimed at the needs of biomedical researchers. The resulting code, Simbody, supports research in a variety of fields including neuromuscular, prosthetic, and biomolecular simulation, and related research such as biologically-inspired design and control of humanoid robots and avatars. Simbody is the dynamics engine behind OpenSim, a widely used biomechanics simulation application. This article reviews issues that arise uniquely in biomedical research, and reports on the architecture, theory, and computational methods Simbody uses to address them. By addressing these needs explicitly Simbody provides a better match to the needs of researchers than can be obtained by adaptation of mechanical engineering or gaming codes. Simbody is a community resource, free for any purpose. We encourage wide adoption and invite contributions to the code base at https://simtk.org/home/simbody.

  6. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    OpenAIRE

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficul...

  7. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research is published by the College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin to encourage research into primary health care. The journal will publish original research articles, reviews, editorials, commentaries, case reports and letters to the editor. Articles are welcome in all ...

  9. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Vivien R; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-01

    The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research.

  11. Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien R Bonazzi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research.

  12. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la

    2013-01-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

  13. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the dual roles of the African Journal of Biomedical Research is to serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research findings within ... Editorial Team. Founding Editor. Raphael A. Elegbe, M.D. Managing Editor. Samuel. B. Olaleye. Department of Physiology,. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

  14. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research (IJMBR) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal by Michael Joanna Publications. It publishes data and information, useful to researchers in all aspects of Clinical and Basic Medical Sciences including Anatomical Sciences, Biochemistry, Dentistry, Genetics, ...

  15. Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Clare E; Cooper, Chris E

    2011-11-28

    In 1996, the Royal Society held a Discussion Meeting entitled 'Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of living systems'. In 2010, this topic was revisited in a Theo Murphy Royal Society Scientific Discussion Meeting entitled 'Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics'. The second meeting provided the opportunity for leading researchers to reflect on how the technology, methods and applications have evolved over the past 14 years and assess where they have made a major impact. Particular emphasis was placed on discussions of future prospects and associated challenges. This Introduction provides an overview of the state of the art of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and biomedical optics, with specific reference to the contributed papers from the invited speakers included in this issue. Importantly, we also reflect on the contributions from all of the attendees by highlighting the issues raised during oral presentations, facilitated panel sessions and discussions, and use these to summarize the current opinion on the development and application of optical systems for use in the clinical and life sciences. A notable outcome from the meeting was a plan to establish a biennial international conference for developers and users of NIRS technologies.

  16. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  17. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  18. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia in accordance with accepted veterinary practice. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents,Where waivers are required in relation to the provisions of article V, the decisions should not rest solely with the investigators directly concerned but should be made, with due regard to the provisions of articles IV, and V, by a suitably constituted review body. Such waivers should not be made solely for the purposes of teaching or demonstration,At the end of, or, when appropriate, during an experiment, animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain, distress, discomfort, or disablement that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed,The best possible living conditions should be maintained for animals kept for biomedical purposes. Normally the care of animals should be under the supervision of veterinarians having experience in laboratory animal science. In any case, veterinary care should be available as required,It is the responsibility of the director of an institute or department using animals to ensure that investigators and personnel have appropriate qualifications or experience for conducting procedures on animals. Adequate opportunities shall be provided for in-service training, including the proper and humane concern for the animals under their care. Also see Draft CIOMS Guiding Principles 2011 to be used by the international scientific community to guide the responsible use of vertebrate animals in scientific and/or educational activities[4].Go to:Alternatives for animal in biomedical researchThere remain many areas in biomedical research which, at least for the foreseeable future, will require animal experimentation. An intact live animal is more than the sum of the responses of isolated cells, tissues or organs; there are complex interactions in the whole animal that cannot be

  19. National Space Biomedical Research Institute Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2000. The NSBRI is responsible for the development of countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long-duration space flight and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research directed towards this specific goal. Its mission is to lead a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan by focusing on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This is accomplished by: designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of mankind, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Attachment:Appendices (A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O, and P.).

  20. Data Analysis in Experimental Biomedical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitriy

    This thesis covers two non-related topics in experimental biomedical research: data analysis in thrombin generation experiments (collaboration with Novo Nordisk A/S), and analysis of images and physiological signals in the context of neurovascular signalling and blood flow regulation in the brain...

  1. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, ... Survey of Current Practice of Labour Analgesia Among Obstetricians in Nigeria: Implications For Pain-free Labour Initiative.

  2. Practical radiation shielding for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.C.; Reginatto, M.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on calculations which exist for estimating shielding required for radioactivity; however, they are often not applicable for the radionuclides and activities common in biomedical research. A variety of commercially available Lucite shields are being marketed to the biomedical community. Their advertisements may lead laboratory workers to expect better radiation protection than these shields can provide or to assume erroneously that very weak beta emitters require extensive shielding. The authors have conducted a series of shielding experiments designed to simulate exposures from the amounts of 32 P, 51 Cr and 125 I typically used in biomedical laboratories. For most routine work, ≥0.64 cm of Lucite covered with various thicknesses of lead will reduce whole-body occupational exposure rates of < 1mR/hr at the point of contact

  3. Archives: International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  5. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context.

  6. Unbridle biomedical research from the laboratory cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Garet P

    2017-06-29

    Many biomedical research studies use captive animals to model human health and disease. However, a surprising number of studies show that the biological systems of animals living in standard laboratory housing are abnormal. To make animal studies more relevant to human health, research animals should live in the wild or be able to roam free in captive environments that offer a natural range of both positive and negative experiences. Recent technological advances now allow us to study freely roaming animals and we should make use of them.

  7. Pharmacovigilance and Biomedical Informatics: A Model for Future Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninger, Paul; Ibara, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    The discipline of pharmacovigilance is rooted in the aftermath of the thalidomide tragedy of 1961. It has evolved as a result of collaborative efforts by many individuals and organizations, including physicians, patients, Health Authorities, universities, industry, the World Health Organization, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and the International Conference on Harmonisation. Biomedical informatics is rooted in technologically based methodologies and has evolved at the speed of computer technology. The purpose of this review is to bring a novel lens to pharmacovigilance, looking at the evolution and development of the field of pharmacovigilance from the perspective of biomedical informatics, with the explicit goal of providing a foundation for discussion of the future direction of pharmacovigilance as a discipline. For this review, we searched [publication trend for the log 10 value of the numbers of publications identified in PubMed] using the key words [informatics (INF), pharmacovigilance (PV), phar-macovigilance þ informatics (PV þ INF)], for [study types] articles published between [1994-2015]. We manually searched the reference lists of identified articles for additional information. Biomedical informatics has made significant contributions to the infrastructural development of pharmacovigilance. However, there has not otherwise been a systematic assessment of the role of biomedical informatics in enhancing the field of pharmacovigilance, and there has been little cross-discipline scholarship. Rapidly developing innovations in biomedical informatics pose a challenge to pharmacovigilance in finding ways to include new sources of safety information, including social media, massively linked databases, and mobile and wearable wellness applications and sensors. With biomedical informatics as a lens, it is evident that certain aspects of pharmacovigilance are evolving more slowly. However, the high levels of mutual interest in

  8. Biomedical Research Institute, Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana, Shreveport, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0789, evaluating the environmental impacts of construction and operation of a Biomedical Research Institute (BRI) at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Medical Center, Shreveport, Louisiana. The purpose of the BRI is to accelerate the development of biomedical research in cardiovascular disease, molecular biology, and neurobiology. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required

  9. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  10. [Health care professional view on biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Jodar, E; Torres, M; Dalmau, D

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research is a necessary subject and enjoys social prestige. To ascertain the views and expectations of health care professionals on research, analysing the influence of their academic training and professional level. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to physicians and qualified nurses working in a, tertiary hospital, seven primary care centres and two nursing homes (health care centres for the elderly). Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.817. Response rate: 64% (432 out of 682 questionnaires distributed). Women: 71%. Mean age: 37 years. Mean years involved in health care: 14 years. 79% of people considered research as a part of their job, although in practice only 43% were doing it. Overall participation in activities was: Conferences (71%), education (42%), publications (34%) and ongoing projects (17%). Physicians dedicated more off duty time (37%) to research than qualified nurses (CI95%: 28 to 46%). The majority of physicians having their doctoral thesis would like to carry out research activities, and 84% did so in their free time and 74% had active research projects in progress. They identified physician workload as the main factor that impedes performing research. Proposals to increase research activities were focused on improving resources. The majority of health care professionals expressed a great motivation. The perception of research varies depending upon professional qualification. Physicians having their doctoral thesis were more involved and had a different perception of research, being more critical about available resources. Overall research perception was more positive among those with less academic training, as well as among those centres with less research activities.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9 ) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13--15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14 C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3 H, 41 Ca and 26 Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-10-20

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10{sup 9}) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10{sup 13--15} on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. {sup 14}C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. {sup 3} H, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 26}Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  13. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors.

  14. [Biomedical research from philanthropy to scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Antonio; De Fiore, Luca; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Some huge information technology companies have increased investment in biomedical research: recently Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. The latter presented the ambitious Zuckerberg-Chan Initiative involving three major Californian universities: UC San Francisco, Berkeley and Stanford. These important private investments arouse reflections. First, investing in scientific research improves the corporate image of the most generous companies and it is a great marketing strategy. Second, the availability of private funds is surely useful, especially if these funds are directed to relevant projects, and produce studies conducted and disseminated in a transparent way. Third, private funding should not replace public ones, representing an integration that will not likely affect the determination of the research agenda, which should remain the prerogative of public institutions. Fourth, the researchers involved in public funded projects should benefit from the margin of freedom that private industry promises, both in the decision of research pathways and in their course. Finally, the scarcity of resources is likely to divert energy and attention of the public researchers and this aspect should be considered by decision makers when determining size and recipients of research funding.

  15. Drug knowledge bases and their applications in biomedical informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Elemento, Olivier; Pathak, Jyotishman; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Recent advances in biomedical research have generated a large volume of drug-related data. To effectively handle this flood of data, many initiatives have been taken to help researchers make good use of them. As the results of these initiatives, many drug knowledge bases have been constructed. They range from simple ones with specific focuses to comprehensive ones that contain information on almost every aspect of a drug. These curated drug knowledge bases have made significant contributions to the development of efficient and effective health information technologies for better health-care service delivery. Understanding and comparing existing drug knowledge bases and how they are applied in various biomedical studies will help us recognize the state of the art and design better knowledge bases in the future. In addition, researchers can get insights on novel applications of the drug knowledge bases through a review of successful use cases. In this study, we provide a review of existing popular drug knowledge bases and their applications in drug-related studies. We discuss challenges in constructing and using drug knowledge bases as well as future research directions toward a better ecosystem of drug knowledge bases. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999

  17. Biomedical research competencies for osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruser, des Anges; Dubin, Bruce; Brown, Sarah K; Bakken, Lori L; Licciardone, John C; Podawiltz, Alan L; Bulik, Robert J

    2009-10-13

    Without systematic exposure to biomedical research concepts or applications, osteopathic medical students may be generally under-prepared to efficiently consume and effectively apply research and evidence-based medicine information in patient care. The academic literature suggests that although medical residents are increasingly expected to conduct research in their post graduate training specialties, they generally have limited understanding of research concepts.With grant support from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and a grant from the Osteopathic Heritage Foundation, the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) is incorporating research education in the osteopathic medical school curriculum. The first phase of this research education project involved a baseline assessment of students' understanding of targeted research concepts. This paper reports the results of that assessment and discusses implications for research education during medical school. Using a novel set of research competencies supported by the literature as needed for understanding research information, we created a questionnaire to measure students' confidence and understanding of selected research concepts. Three matriculating medical school classes completed the on-line questionnaire. Data were analyzed for differences between groups using analysis of variance and t-tests. Correlation coefficients were computed for the confidence and applied understanding measures. We performed a principle component factor analysis of the confidence items, and used multiple regression analyses to explore how confidence might be related to the applied understanding. Of 496 total incoming, first, and second year medical students, 354 (71.4%) completed the questionnaire. Incoming students expressed significantly more confidence than first or second year students (F = 7.198, df = 2, 351, P = 0.001) in their ability to understand the research concepts. Factor analyses

  18. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes. PMID:28119991

  19. Information Retrieval in Biomedical Research: From Articles to Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Information retrieval techniques have been applied to biomedical research for a variety of purposes, such as textual document retrieval and molecular data retrieval. As biomedical research evolves over time, information retrieval is also constantly facing new challenges, including the growing number of available data, the emerging new data types,…

  20. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  1. The experiential knowledge of patients: new resource for biomedical research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron - Flinterman, J.F.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Bunders - Aelen, J.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Both governments and patients' movements are increasingly making a plea in favour of the active participation of patients in biomedical research processes. One of the arguments concerns the contribution that patients could make to the relevance and quality of biomedical research based on their

  2. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  3. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2004-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  4. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use

  5. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  6. Antiemetic research: future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olver, Ian; Molassiotis, Alexander; Aapro, Matti

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE AND METHODS: As a part of reviewing the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) antiemetic guidelines in Perugia in 2009, an expert group identified directions for future antiemetic research. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In future trials, the prediction of nausea...... and vomiting may combine algorithms based on observed prognostic factors relating to the patient and the anticancer therapy, the identification of the genes that code for receptors, and pharmacogenetic studies of the metabolism of drugs. Design issues for future trials include standardising the emetic stimulus...... of an antiemetic. With current high rates of control of acute vomiting, future trials will need to consider new primary endpoints such as nausea, a complex symptom, where improvement is needed. Economic endpoints should be incorporated to ascertain the cost benefit of antiemetic prophylaxis, taking into account...

  7. Incorporating collaboratory concepts into informatics in support of translational interdisciplinary biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Sally; McDonald, David W.; Anderson, Nicholas; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Due to its complex nature, modern biomedical research has become increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Although a necessity, interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration is difficult. There is, however, a growing body of literature on the study and fostering of collaboration in fields such as computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and information science (IS). These studies of collaboration provide insight into how to potentially alleviate the difficulties of interdisciplinary collaborative research. We, therefore, undertook a cross cutting study of science and engineering collaboratories to identify emergent themes. We review many relevant collaboratory concepts: (a) general collaboratory concepts across many domains: communication, common workspace and coordination, and data sharing and management, (b) specific collaboratory concepts of particular biomedical relevance: data integration and analysis, security structure, metadata and data provenance, and interoperability and data standards, (c) environmental factors that support collaboratories: administrative and management structure, technical support, and available funding as critical environmental factors, and (d) future considerations for biomedical collaboration: appropriate training and long-term planning. In our opinion, the collaboratory concepts we discuss can guide planning and design of future collaborative infrastructure by biomedical informatics researchers to alleviate some of the difficulties of interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration. PMID:18706852

  8. Enrolment and Retention of African Women in Biomedical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant biomedical research literatures on Human Research Participants from Scirus, Pubmed and Medline computerized search were critically evaluated and highlighted. Information was also obtained from research ethics training as well as texts and journals in the medical libraries of the research ethics departments of ...

  9. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  10. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  11. [Research Biomedical Ethics and Practical Wisdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, in the field of Biomedical Ethics some methodological proposals have been put forward. They try to provide some guidelines in order to take proper decisions. These methodologies are quite useful insofar as they supply reasons for action, but they are essentially insufficient. In fact, taking a good decision requires a special skill that goes beyond sheer technique, and this skill is traditionally called practical wisdom. Not in the usual and more outlying sense of sheer caution, but in the more central one of phronesis or prudentia. Although it is not a new notion, it usually appears blurred in biomedical decision-making theory, playing the wrong role, or in a marginal or indefinite way. From this postulate, we will try to make a double analysis. First, we will try to show the need for a proper understanding of the core role that phronesis plays in decision making. Second, we will try to get the original meaning of Aristotelian phronesis back. For reasons of space, in this paper the second question will be just partially addressed.

  12. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L; Liu, Jing; Schnell, Santiago; Omary, M Bishr

    2017-06-15

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research.

  13. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  14. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine.

  15. Tackling conflict of interest and misconduct in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, J P

    2012-07-01

    Biomedical research forms the basis of evidence based practices in the field of health and nutrition. However, it is, increasingly being seen that conflicts of interest and misconduct are undermining research. More and more instances of using research to promote commercial interest are being reported. Fraudulent means, in the quest to publish, are also being used. This article discusses conflict of interest and misconduct in bio-medical research, reviews scientific evidence available on the subject, and proposes some solutions to check the menace.

  16. The distribution of biomedical research resources and international justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-05-01

    According to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor biomedical research face little political pressure to allocate funds for the problems of developing nations. This paper argues that developed nations have an obligation to address disparities related to biomedical research funding. To facilitate this effort, developed countries should establish a trust fund dedicated to research on the health problems of developing nations similar to the Global AIDS Fund.

  17. Important techniques in today's biomedical science research that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for best evidence has driven researchers into multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches which have become mainstay in today's biomedical science. The multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches to research in research-intensive academic medical centres in the USA and in other countries of affluence has ...

  18. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa. African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be ...

  19. Text summarization in the biomedical domain: a systematic review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Bian, Jiantao; Fiszman, Marcelo; Weir, Charlene R; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Mostafa, Javed; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2014-12-01

    The amount of information for clinicians and clinical researchers is growing exponentially. Text summarization reduces information as an attempt to enable users to find and understand relevant source texts more quickly and effortlessly. In recent years, substantial research has been conducted to develop and evaluate various summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. The goal of this study was to systematically review recent published research on summarization of textual documents in the biomedical domain. MEDLINE (2000 to October 2013), IEEE Digital Library, and the ACM digital library were searched. Investigators independently screened and abstracted studies that examined text summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. Information is derived from selected articles on five dimensions: input, purpose, output, method and evaluation. Of 10,786 studies retrieved, 34 (0.3%) met the inclusion criteria. Natural language processing (17; 50%) and a hybrid technique comprising of statistical, Natural language processing and machine learning (15; 44%) were the most common summarization approaches. Most studies (28; 82%) conducted an intrinsic evaluation. This is the first systematic review of text summarization in the biomedical domain. The study identified research gaps and provides recommendations for guiding future research on biomedical text summarization. Recent research has focused on a hybrid technique comprising statistical, language processing and machine learning techniques. Further research is needed on the application and evaluation of text summarization in real research or patient care settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  2. Developmental programming: State-of-the-science and future directions-summary from a Pennington biomedical symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 8-9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current s...

  3. Characteristics desired in clinical data warehouse for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Due to the unique characteristics of clinical data, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) have not been successful so far. Specifically, the use of CDWs for biomedical research has been relatively unsuccessful thus far. The characteristics necessary for the successful implementation and operation of a CDW for biomedical research have not clearly defined yet. THREE EXAMPLES OF CDWS WERE REVIEWED: a multipurpose CDW in a hospital, a CDW for independent multi-institutional research, and a CDW for research use in an institution. After reviewing the three CDW examples, we propose some key characteristics needed in a CDW for biomedical research. A CDW for research should include an honest broker system and an Institutional Review Board approval interface to comply with governmental regulations. It should also include a simple query interface, an anonymized data review tool, and a data extraction tool. Also, it should be a biomedical research platform for data repository use as well as data analysis. The proposed characteristics desired in a CDW may have limited transfer value to organizations in other countries. However, these analysis results are still valid in Korea, and we have developed clinical research data warehouse based on these desiderata.

  4. Can informetrics shape biomedical research? A case study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the paper addresses the application of informetrics to examine whether or not informetrics can be used to shape biomedical research, with special reference to HIV/AIDS research in sub-Saharan Africa. In that regard, the paper reports on an informetrics perspective of the relatedness of opportunistic diseases and ...

  5. Use of laboratory animals in biomedical and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  6. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  7. Future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  8. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research....... The Sheraton Crystal City. Oncology December 8-9, 2011.. The Sheraton Crystal City. Clinical Research...

  9. Repeat: a framework to assess empirical reproducibility in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie D. McIntosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproducibility of research is essential to rigorous science, yet significant concerns of the reliability and verifiability of biomedical research have been recently highlighted. Ongoing efforts across several domains of science and policy are working to clarify the fundamental characteristics of reproducibility and to enhance the transparency and accessibility of research. Methods The aim of the proceeding work is to develop an assessment tool operationalizing key concepts of research transparency in the biomedical domain, specifically for secondary biomedical data research using electronic health record data. The tool (RepeAT was developed through a multi-phase process that involved coding and extracting recommendations and practices for improving reproducibility from publications and reports across the biomedical and statistical sciences, field testing the instrument, and refining variables. Results RepeAT includes 119 unique variables grouped into five categories (research design and aim, database and data collection methods, data mining and data cleaning, data analysis, data sharing and documentation. Preliminary results in manually processing 40 scientific manuscripts indicate components of the proposed framework with strong inter-rater reliability, as well as directions for further research and refinement of RepeAT. Conclusions The use of RepeAT may allow the biomedical community to have a better understanding of the current practices of research transparency and accessibility among principal investigators. Common adoption of RepeAT may improve reporting of research practices and the availability of research outputs. Additionally, use of RepeAT will facilitate comparisons of research transparency and accessibility across domains and institutions.

  10. Biomedical text mining for research rigor and integrity: tasks, challenges, directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil

    2017-06-13

    An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications. These artifacts can be both the source and the manifestation of practices leading to research waste. For example, an article may describe a poorly designed experiment, or the authors may reach conclusions not supported by the evidence presented. In this article, we pose the question of whether biomedical text mining techniques can assist the stakeholders in the biomedical research enterprise in doing their part toward enhancing research integrity and rigor. In particular, we identify four key areas in which text mining techniques can make a significant contribution: plagiarism/fraud detection, ensuring adherence to reporting guidelines, managing information overload and accurate citation/enhanced bibliometrics. We review the existing methods and tools for specific tasks, if they exist, or discuss relevant research that can provide guidance for future work. With the exponential increase in biomedical research output and the ability of text mining approaches to perform automatic tasks at large scale, we propose that such approaches can support tools that promote responsible research practices, providing significant benefits for the biomedical research enterprise. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Artificial Nanostructures for Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Castro, Carlos; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-04

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes synthetic or biologic DNA as designer molecules for the self-assembly of artificial nanostructures. The field is founded upon the specific interactions between DNA molecules, known as Watson-Crick base pairing. After decades of active pursuit, DNA has demonstrated unprecedented versatility in constructing artificial nanostructures with significant complexity and programmability. The nanostructures could be either static, with well-controlled physicochemical properties, or dynamic, with the ability to reconfigure upon external stimuli. Researchers have devoted considerable effort to exploring the usability of DNA nanostructures in biomedical research. We review the basic design methods for fabricating both static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, along with their biomedical applications in fields such as biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 20 is June 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  12. [Required procedure for nominal data files processing in biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Dubray, C; Albuisson, E; Sauvant, M P

    2001-12-01

    To date, biomedical research using nominal data files for the data collection, data acquisition or data processing has had to comply with 2 French laws (Law of December, 20, 1988, modified, relating to the protection of patients participating in biomedical research, and the Law of January, 6, 1978, completed by the Law of July 1, 1994 n degrees 94-548, chapter V bis). This later law dictates rules not only for the establishment of nominal data files, but also confer individual rights to filed persons. These regulations concern epidemiological research, clinical trials, drug watch studies and economic health research. In this note, we describe the obligations and specific general and simplified procedure required for conducting biomedical research. Included in the requirements are an information and authorization procedure with the local and national consultative committees on data processing in biomedical research (CCTIRS, Comité Consultatif sur le Traitement de l'Information en Recherche Biomédicale, and CNIL, Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés).

  13. Intelligent biomedical clothing for personal health and disease management: state of the art and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, Andreas; Olsson, Silas

    2003-01-01

    Telemedicine has been introduced to overcome distance in order to get prompt access to medical knowledge and appropriate health care. More recently, work in telemedicine has aimed at developing solutions to support the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, and lung and heart diseases, as well as to provide support for home care services. Telemedicine is also entering the fields of health promotion/prevention disease, life style management, and well-being. The evolution and broadening of telemedicine gives birth to a nomenclature that includes "e-health," "telehealth," and "telecare." The latest developments in microsystems and nanotechnologies as well as in information processing and communication technologies allow miniaturization and non-invasive smart monitoring of physiological and physical data. Ongoing cutting-edge multidisciplinary research in textile fibers, biomedical sensors, and wireless and mobile telecommunications integrated with telemedicine, aims at developing intelligent biomedical clothing (IBC) that could pave the way to support personalized management of health and diseases at the point of need and at any time. In this study, we aim to describe the current status of multidisciplinary research and development of IBC, based on bibliographic research and reports from seminars, workshops, conferences, and working groups. A further aim is to inform the developers, the decision makers, and users in the health and healthcare sector regarding future solutions to support personalized health care and disease management. Both the textile sector and healthcare sector are looking with great interest at the innovative products and applications that could result from the integration of microsystems, nanotechnologies, biomedical sensors, textiles, and mobile telecommunications. For health monitoring, disease prevention and management, rehabilitation, and sport medicine, IBC may offer, in the mid-term future, a unique, wearable non

  14. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... Committee Act) that the Panel for Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on...

  15. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... Committee Act) that the Panel for Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on...

  16. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  17. Applications of Micro-Raman Imaging in Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Cornelis; de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; Duindam, J.J.; Duindam, J.J.; Sijtsema, N.M.; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Recent results are presented of the application of imaging micro-Raman spectrometers in cellular biophysics and biomedical research. Various micro-Raman spectrometers have been developed that are now routinely applied in these fields. Results are presented that were obtained with a linescan Raman

  18. Silicon Valley Meets Biomedical Research in the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Diana

    2017-05-18

    The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the philanthropy launched by Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan, drew attention with its stated goal of helping to "cure, manage, or treat all diseases" by the end of the century. They intend to do it through funding basic research and addressing gaps in biomedical technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radiopharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology; (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and non-radioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Priorities and summaries are based on statements in the references and from answers to a survey conducted in the fall of 1981. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for 26 Mg, 43 Ca, 70 Zn, 76 Se, 78 Se, 102 Pd, 111 Cd, 113 Cd, and 190 Os. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments

  20. Enrolment and Retention of African Women in Biomedical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, women have had minimal participation in biomedical research especially in clinical trials despite the epidemiologic realities of the trends and burden of diseases in the continent. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the challenges as well as suggesting ways of over-coming them in recruiting and ...

  1. ChE Undergraduate Research Projects in Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Pieter

    1981-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate research program in biomedical engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Includes goals and faculty comments on the program. Indicates that 58 percent of projects conducted between 1976 and 1980 have been presented at meetings or published. (SK)

  2. Community challenges in biomedical text mining over 10 years: success, failure and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    One effective way to improve the state of the art is through competitions. Following the success of the Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) in bioinformatics research, a number of challenge evaluations have been organized by the text-mining research community to assess and advance natural language processing (NLP) research for biomedicine. In this article, we review the different community challenge evaluations held from 2002 to 2014 and their respective tasks. Furthermore, we examine these challenge tasks through their targeted problems in NLP research and biomedical applications, respectively. Next, we describe the general workflow of organizing a Biomedical NLP (BioNLP) challenge and involved stakeholders (task organizers, task data producers, task participants and end users). Finally, we summarize the impact and contributions by taking into account different BioNLP challenges as a whole, followed by a discussion of their limitations and difficulties. We conclude with future trends in BioNLP challenge evaluations. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do not use abbreviations for keywords. Text Headings should be appropriate to the nature of the paper. For original research papers, text should be organized as Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References. For case reports, the author should organize the text as Introduction, Case details, ...

  5. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Consenting to Heteronormativity: Assumptions in Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottingham, M.D.; Fisher, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The process of informed consent is fundamental to basic scientific research with human subjects. As one aspect of the scientific enterprise, clinical drug trials rely on informed consent documents to safeguard the ethical treatment of trial participants. This paper explores the role of

  7. The Importance of Zebrafish in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Bárbara Tavares dos; Lopes, Susana Santos

    2013-01-01

    FUNDING SOURCE - PTDC/SAU-OBD/103981/2008 and SFRH/BPD/772587/2011 Introduction: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Material and Methods: Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomed...

  8. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  9. Evolution of the use of ionizing radiation in biomedical research; Evolucion del uso de las radiaciones ionizantes en investigacion biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the evolution, as a change of process, with the use of radioactivity in biomedical research, showing the consume of radioisotopes during the las 20 years indicating the evidences of these changes. The radioisotopic techniques applied at the present are described, and the future use of the radioisotopes in biomedical research is proposed, emphasizing the importance that the Molecular Imaging Techniques will have in this scientific area. (Author) 56 refs.

  10. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  11. Multidisciplinary Russian biomedical research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Sychev, V. N.; Samarin, G. I.; Ilyin, E. A.; Belakovskiy, M. S.; Kussmaul, A. R.

    2014-08-01

    Research activities on a comprehensive multidisciplinary program are vital for enhancement of the system of crew's medical care, environmental health and hygiene in space missions. The primary goal of the program must be identification of patterns, intensity and dynamics of structural and functional shifts in organism induced by an aggregate of spaceflight factors including microgravity, isolation, artificial environment, space radiation, etc. Also, the program must pursue differential assessment of emerging deviations from the standpoint of adequacy to the spaceflight conditions and prospects of returning to Earth and guide the development of principles, methods and techniques necessary to maintain health and working capacity of humans during short- and long-duration missions and on return to Earth. Over 50 years, since 1963, the IBMP researchers apply systemic and innovational approaches to fundamental and exploratory studies in the fields of medical sciences, radiation biology, engineering science, biotechnology, etc. with participation of various biological specimens and human volunteers. Investigations aboard manned spacecrafts and biological satellites as well as in ground-based laboratories further enhancement of the medical care system for crews on orbital and remote space missions; they give insight into the fundamental problems of gravitational physiology and biology, psychophysiology, radiation biology, and contribute thereby to the development of knowledge, methods and technologies, as well as medical and scientific equipment.

  12. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  13. Adipoparacrinology: an Emerging Field in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N. Chaldakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available White adipose tissue (WAT is a dynamic multicellular assembly composed of adipocytes and stromovascular cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial and immune cells, nerve fibers, and stem cells. In humans, WAT is a responsive and secretory (endocrine and paracrine tissue partitioned into two large depots (subcutaneous and visceral and many small depots associated with the heart, blood vessels, major lymph nodes, prostate gland, ovaries and mammary glands. This short review conceptualizes evidence for the paracrine activity of adipose tissue in founding a new research field, designated adipoparacrinology. Here we focus on (i epicardial and periadventitial adipose tissue in atherogenesis, (ii mammary gland-associated adipose tissue in breast cancer, and (iii periprostatic adipose tissue in prostate cancer. Other examples include: (i mesenteric adipose tissue in Crohn’s disease, (ii lymph node-associated (perinodal adipose tissue in Crohn’s disease and HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome, (iii infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa’s fat pad in knee osteoarthritis, (iv orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated (Graves’ ophthalmopathy, and (v parasellar region-associated adipose tissue in brain disorders. The therapy aspect of adipoparacrinology is also discussed.

  14. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radwaste requirements at a biomedical research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannegan, D.P.; Wolter, W.; Merenda, J.M.; Figdor, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) federal legislation that was passed during the 1980s was intended to provide an orderly system of LLRW disposal as the country's three waste sites proceeded toward excluding out-of-state generators. The system was based on a regional interstate compact system. As originally envisioned, several contiguous states were to form an association (compact) with one state receiving radwaste from the compact. Everyone is aware of the difficulties that followed as attempts were made to implement these laws and to meet the prescribed milestones to avoid financial penalties. Although the states (compacts) have labored for over 12 yr along this rocky road, no compact has developed and licensed a new disposal site prior to the January 1, 1993 deadline. A recent report by the Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University in St. Louis states that open-quotes The current regional interstate compact system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste is fatally flawed on both technical and practical political grounds.close quotes Thus, the system has broken down and the three original LLRW sites closed their gates (with the possible exception of Barnwell) as planned on January 1, 1993. It would appear that the fate of LLRW will be the same as that of high-level waste (HLW); it will be stored at the site of the generator until a solution to the problem is found. For the nonutility generator, storage is an entirely new problem. It must be appreciated that almost all nonutility generators are in the business of research or medical treatment and not in the business of storing LLRW. Thus, storage represents a new turn of events and a new aspect of doing business. It also means the diversion of limited resources to a problem that should not exist. Lastly, on-site LLRW storage for the nonutility generator will also require additional regulatory approval for the handling, storage, and ongoing monitoring of this waste

  16. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  17. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweileh Waleed M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18% articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9% articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  18. A roadmap for caGrid, an enterprise Grid architecture for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Chue Hong, Neil

    2008-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities.

  19. A Roadmap for caGrid, an Enterprise Grid Architecture for Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Hong, Neil Chue

    2012-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities. PMID:18560123

  20. Education and research in biomedical engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Z

    2006-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This review paper presents the biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) and its partner institutions. In the first parts the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering Education Program is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches most of them carried out in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of BUTE.

  1. Biomedical engineering education in developing countries: research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) contributes to development through improving human health. This paper examines BME education to address the needs of developing countries. Components of different BME programs described in the literature are synthesized to represent what has been proposed or implemented for the production of graduates able to address health problems in a manner suited to the local environment in which they occur. Published research on BME education is reviewed with reference to problem context, interventions and their mechanisms, and intended outcomes.

  2. Biomedical Engineering Bionanosystems Research at Louisiana Tech University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, James; Lvov, Yuri; Hegab, Hisham; Snow, Dale; Wilson, Chester; McDonald, John; Walker, Lynn; Pratt, Jon; Davis, Despina; Agarwal, Mangilal; DeCoster, Mark; Feng, June; Que, Long; O' Neal, Chad; Guilbeau, Eric; Zivanovic, Sandra; Dobbins, Tabbetha; Gold, Scott; Mainardi, Daniela; Gowda, Shathabish; Napper, Stan

    2010-03-25

    The nature of this project is to equip and support research in nanoengineered systems for biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Funds provided by the Department of Energy (DoE) under this Congressional Directive were used to support two ongoing research projects at Louisiana Tech University in biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Two major projects (Enzyme Immobilization for Large Scale Reactors to Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Costs, and Nanocatalysts for Coal and Biomass Conversion to Diesel Fuel) and to fund three to five additional seed projects were funded using the project budget. The project funds also allowed the purchase and repair of sophisticated research equipment that will support continued research in these areas for many years to come. Project funds also supported faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students, contributing to the development of a technically sophisticated work force in the region and the State. Descriptions of the technical accomplishments for each funded project are provided. Biofuels are an important part of the solution for sustainable transportation fuel and energy production for the future. Unfortunately, the country's appetite for fuel cannot be satisfied with traditional sugar crops such as sugar cane or corn. Emerging technologies are allowing cellulosic biomass (wood, grass, stalks, etc.) to also be converted into ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol does not compete with food production and it has the potential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 86% versus current fossil fuels (current techniques for corn ethanol only reduce greenhouse gases by 19%). Because of these advantages, the federal government has made cellulosic ethanol a high priority. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires a minimum production of at least 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol by 2022. Indeed, the Obama administration has signaled an ambitious commitment of achieving

  3. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as "cell" or "image" or "tissue" or "microscope" that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data.

  4. Nano-biotechnology for biomedical and diagnostic research

    CERN Document Server

    Zahavy, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The title ""Nano Biotechnology for Biomedical and Diagnostics Research"" will address research aspects related to nanomaterial in imaging and biological research, nanomaterials as a biosensing tool, DNA nanotechnology, nanomaterials for drug delivery, medicinal and therapeutic application and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. These topics will be covered by 16 different manuscripts. Amongst the authors that will contribute to the book are major scientific leaders such as S. Weiss - UCLA, I. Willner, and G. Golomb -- HUJI, S. Esener - UCSD, E.C. Simmel - Tech. Univ. Munchen, I. Medintz -- NRL, N.

  5. Current and Future Applications of Biomedical Engineering for Proteomic Profiling: Predictive Biomarkers in Neuro-Traumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ganau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI, a critical worldwide health problem with an estimated 10 billion people affected annually worldwide. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only experimental articles revolving around the management of TBI, in which the role of new devices based on innovative discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering were highlighted, have been included and analyzed in this study. Based on theresults gathered from this research on innovative methods for genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics, their future application in this field seems promising. Despite the outstanding technical challenges of identifying reliable biosignatures for TBI and the mixed nature of studies herein described (single cells proteomics, biofilms, sensors, etc., the clinical implementation of those discoveries will allow us to gain confidence in the use of advanced neuromonitoring modalities with a potential dramatic improvement in the management of those patients.

  6. Science communication in the field of fundamental biomedical research (editorial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sam; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this special issue on science communication is to inspire and help scientists who are taking part or want to take part in science communication and engage with the wider public, clinicians, other scientists or policy makers. For this, some articles provide concise and accessible advice to individual scientists, science networks, or learned societies on how to communicate effectively; others share rationales, objectives and aims, experiences, implementation strategies and resources derived from existing long-term science communication initiatives. Although this issue is primarily addressing scientists working in the field of biomedical research, much of it similarly applies to scientists from other disciplines. Furthermore, we hope that this issue will also be used as a helpful resource by academic science communicators and social scientists, as a collection that highlights some of the major communication challenges that the biomedical sciences face, and which provides interesting case studies of initiatives that use a breadth of strategies to address these challenges. In this editorial, we first discuss why we should communicate our science and contemplate some of the different approaches, aspirations and definitions of science communication. We then address the specific challenges that researchers in the biomedical sciences are faced with when engaging with wider audiences. Finally, we explain the rationales and contents of the different articles in this issue and the various science communication initiatives and strategies discussed in each of them, whilst also providing some information on the wide range of further science communication activities in the biomedical sciences that could not all be covered here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical editing of research reports in biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Middleton, Philippa

    2008-10-08

    Most journals try to improve their articles by technical editing processes such as proof-reading, editing to conform to 'house styles', grammatical conventions and checking accuracy of cited references. Despite the considerable resources devoted to technical editing, we do not know whether it improves the accessibility of biomedical research findings or the utility of articles. This is an update of a Cochrane methodology review first published in 2003. To assess the effects of technical editing on research reports in peer-reviewed biomedical journals, and to assess the level of accuracy of references to these reports. We searched The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007; MEDLINE (last searched July 2006); EMBASE (last searched June 2007) and checked relevant articles for further references. We also searched the Internet and contacted researchers and experts in the field. Prospective or retrospective comparative studies of technical editing processes applied to original research articles in biomedical journals, as well as studies of reference accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the selection criteria and assessed the methodological quality of each study. One review author extracted the data, and the second review author repeated this. We located 32 studies addressing technical editing and 66 surveys of reference accuracy. Only three of the studies were randomised controlled trials. A 'package' of largely unspecified editorial processes applied between acceptance and publication was associated with improved readability in two studies and improved reporting quality in another two studies, while another study showed mixed results after stricter editorial policies were introduced. More intensive editorial processes were associated with fewer errors in abstracts and references. Providing instructions to authors was associated with improved reporting of ethics requirements in one study and fewer errors in references in two studies, but no

  8. Reasons behind the participation in biomedical research: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed through several databases using the keywords: "motivation", "decision", "reason", "biomedical research", "clinical research", "recruitment", "enrollment", "participation", "benefits", "altruism", "decline", "vulnerability" and "ethics", between August and November 2013, in English and in Portuguese. RESULTS: The review pointed out that the reasons can be different according to some characteristics such as the disease being treated, study phase, prognoses and socioeconomic and cultural environment. Access to better health care, personal benefits, financial rewards and altruism are mentioned depending on the circumstances. CONCLUSION: Finding out more about individuals' reasons for taking part in the research will allow clinical investigators to design studies of greater benefit for the community and will probably help to remove undesirable barriers imposed to participation. Improving the information to health care professionals and patients on the benefits and risks of clinical trials is certainly a good start.

  9. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  10. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. IT Infrastructure for Biomedical Research in North-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Insa; Zeleke, Atinkut; Freitag, Michael; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The efficient use of routine data for biomedical research presupposes an IT infrastructure designed for health care facilities. The objective of this study was to analyse which IT infrastructure is used in hospitals and by general practitioners' (GP) practices in the region Oldenburg-Bremen and to examine how well this supports research projects. To this end, IT managers and GPs were interviewed. The usage of hospital information systems (HIS) and data warehouse systems (DWS) in hospitals is of major importance for the study. Over 90 % use DWS for administration, 42 % for clinical research. None of the hospitals implemented consent for the use of routine data for research. Only a third of the GPs have participated in studies. The GPs' offices based EHR systems in use offer virtually no support for research projects. The study results demonstrate that technical and organisational measures are required for the further usage of routine data in the region.

  12. Developing expertise in bioinformatics for biomedical research in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Quansah, Emmanuel; Mohamed, Wael M Y

    2015-09-01

    Research in bioinformatics has a central role in helping to advance biomedical research. However, its introduction to Africa has been met with some challenges (such as inadequate infrastructure, training opportunities, research funding, human resources, biorepositories and databases) that have contributed to the slow pace of development in this field across the continent. Fortunately, recent improvements in areas such as research funding, infrastructural support and capacity building are helping to develop bioinformatics into an important discipline in Africa. These contributions are leading to the establishment of world-class research facilities, biorepositories, training programmes, scientific networks and funding schemes to improve studies into disease and health in Africa. With increased contribution from all stakeholders, these developments could be further enhanced. Here, we discuss how the recent developments are contributing to the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa.

  13. Developing expertise in bioinformatics for biomedical research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in bioinformatics has a central role in helping to advance biomedical research. However, its introduction to Africa has been met with some challenges (such as inadequate infrastructure, training opportunities, research funding, human resources, biorepositories and databases that have contributed to the slow pace of development in this field across the continent. Fortunately, recent improvements in areas such as research funding, infrastructural support and capacity building are helping to develop bioinformatics into an important discipline in Africa. These contributions are leading to the establishment of world-class research facilities, biorepositories, training programmes, scientific networks and funding schemes to improve studies into disease and health in Africa. With increased contribution from all stakeholders, these developments could be further enhanced. Here, we discuss how the recent developments are contributing to the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa.

  14. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  15. A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenaude Johane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs, especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. Methods We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. Results The proposed model includes the following: 1 a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2 offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3 protects the participant's confidentiality and 4 adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. Conclusion Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs

  16. Financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research: the need to improve the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Amy T; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Fifty years ago, the issue of conflict of interest in biomedical research appeared in the national spotlight and has remained in a state of constant evolution. Government legislation caused a boom in collaborations between physicians, researchers, academic institutions and industry. These relationships continue to advance medical science and make meaningful progress, yet they may threaten the integrity of physicians and researchers and the public's trust in medicine. This article will highlight the evolution of industry relationships and conflict of interest over time, discuss methods by which industry can potentially exert effects and propose new directions for the future. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  18. Internal Contamination Program in hospital and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Macias, M.T.; Plaza, R.; Martinez Hidalgo, C.

    1992-01-01

    Program and the criteria for establishing such program to control the internal contamination from a point of view, not yet systematized and standardized in Hospital and Biomedical Research centers. The main purpose of this work is to review our own situation, to establish and systematize an operative program with variable means (instruments) and the use of external means if need. This program will be established taking into account the new recommendations of I.C.R.P. and the new criteria A.L.I. (author)

  19. The Neurolab mission and biomedical engineering: a partnership for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowsky, D. R.; Frey, M. A.; Sulzman, F. M.; White, R. J.; Likowsky, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last five years, with the advent of flights of U.S. Shuttle/Spacelab missions dedicated entirely to life sciences research, the opportunities for conducting serious studies that use a fully outfitted space laboratory to better understand basic biological processes have increased. The last of this series of Shuttle/Spacelab missions, currently scheduled for 1998, is dedicated entirely to neuroscience and behavioral research. The mission, named Neurolab, includes a broad range of experiments that build on previous research efforts, as well as studies related to less mature areas of space neuroscience. The Neurolab mission provides the global scientific community with the opportunity to use the space environment for investigations that exploit microgravity to increase our understanding of basic processes in neuroscience. The results from this premier mission should lead to a significant advancement in the field as a whole and to the opening of new lines of investigation for future research. Experiments under development for this mission will utilize human subjects as well as a variety of other species. The capacity to carry out detailed experiments on both human and animal subjects in space allows a diverse complement of studies that investigate functional changes and their underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. In order to conduct these experiments, a wide array of biomedical instrumentation will be used, including some instruments and devices being developed especially for the mission.

  20. Opening of the national biobank of Korea as the infrastructure of future biomedical science in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Yun; Hong, Eun Jung; Nam, Jung Min; Han, Bogkee; Chu, Chaeshin; Park, Ok

    2012-09-01

    On April 26, 2012, the Korea National Institute of Health officially held the opening ceremony of newly dedicated biobank building, 'NationalBiobank of Korea'. The stocked biospecimens and related information have been distributed for medical and public health researches. The Korea Biobank Project, which was initiated in 2008, constructed the Korea Biobank Network consisting of the National Biobank of Korea (NBK) with 17 regional biobanks in Korea. As of December 2011, a total of 525,416 biospecimens with related information have been secured: 325,952 biospecimens from the general population obtained through cohort studies and 199,464 biospecimens of patients from regional biobanks. A large scale genomic study, Korea Association Resource (KARE) and many researches utilized the biospecimens secured through Korea Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Korea Biobank Project (KBP). Construction of 'National Biobank of Korea', a dedicated biobank building at Osong means that NBK can manage and check quality of the biospecimens with promising distribution of 26 million vials of biospecimen, which provide the infrastructure for the development of health technology in Korea. The NBK and the National Library of Medicine (to be constructed in 2014) will play a central role in future biomedical research in Korea.

  1. Research by pediatric radiologists - past accomplishments and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effmann, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Pediatric radiologists have made numerous and important contributions to the body of medical knowledge. This essay reviews aspects of biomedical and radiological research, analyses the state of scholarship in pediatric radiology today, and examines future research opportunities. The author's research interest in cardiopulmonary malformations and in the use of murine models of human disease serve to illustrate of but one of many investigative areas open to academic pediatric radiologists. Finally, the application process for NIH funding is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  3. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  4. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  5. Improving biomedical journals' ethical policies: the case of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  7. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  8. Integrated Confocal and Scanning Probe Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Haupt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM continues to be developed, not only in design, but also in application. The new focus of using AFM is changing from pure material to biomedical studies. More frequently, it is being used in combination with other optical imaging methods, such as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and fluorescent imaging, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of biological systems. To date, AFM has been used increasingly as a precise micromanipulator, probing and altering the mechanobiological characteristics of living cells and tissues, in order to examine specific, receptor-ligand interactions, material properties, and cell behavior. In this review, we discuss the development of this new hybrid AFM, current research, and potential applications in diagnosis and the detection of disease.

  9. Cyanobacterial Sunscreen Scytonemin: Role in Photoprotection and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are the most promising group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing an array of natural products of industrial importance. Scytonemin is a small hydrophobic alkaloid pigment molecules present in the extracellular sheath of several cyanobacteria as a protective mechanism against short wavelength solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It has great efficacy to minimize the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of DNA lesions. The biosynthesis of scytonemin is regulated by different physico-chemical stressors. Scytonemin display multiple roles, functioning as a potent UV sunscreen and antioxidant molecules, and can be exploited in cosmetic and other industries for the development of new cosmeceuticals. Herein, we review the occurrence, biosynthesis, and potential application of scytonemin in photoprotection, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical research.

  10. Small animal PET and its applications in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Feichan

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. As the leading technology in nuclear medicine, PET has extended its applications from the clinical field to the study of small laboratory animals. In recent years, the development of new detector technology has dramatically improved the spatial resolution and image quality of small animal PET scanner, which is being used increasingly as a basic tool in modern biomedical research. In particular, small animal PET will play an important role in drug discovery and development, in the study of small animal models of human diseases, in characterizing gene expression and in many other ways. (authors)

  11. Atomic force microscopy in biomedical research - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pier Carlo Braga and Davide Ricci are old friends not only for those researchers familiar with Atomic force microscopy (AFM but also for those beginners (like the undersigned that already enthusiastically welcomed their 2004 edition (for the same Humana press printing types of Atomic force microscopy: Biomedical methods and applications, eventhough I never had used the AFM. That book was much intended to overview the possible AFM applications for a wide range of readers so that they can be in some way stimulated toward the AFM use. In fact, the great majority of scientists is afraid both of the technology behind AFM (that is naturally thought highly demanding in term of concepts not so familiar to biologists and physicians and of the financial costs: both these two factors are conceived unapproachable by the medium range granted scientist usually not educated in terms of biophysics and electronic background....

  12. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  13. A Web-based platform for interdisciplinary biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Guenter; Messmer, Juergen; Rauchegger, Guenter; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The European Neuroblastoma Group of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPEN) is dedicated to the research and treatment of neuroblastoma. The medical research network SIOPEN-R-NET is an extensive web-based European IT network for interdisciplinary biomedical research. The IT infrastructure has been built using state-of-the-art multi-tiered architecture principles. Basic features required for electronic data capture in clinical trials were implemented. Additionally, advanced tools were developed for registration, review, user management, communication and image management. Currently three clinical trials and eight supporting scientific studies are implemented. The medical research network is already in use by 345 active users from 240 institutions in 18 countries. More than 960 000 item entries and 7962 images from 1260 patients are stored. Challenges, which resulted from the fact that only 16 % of the centres had more than 2 patients per year, have been addressed by an intuitive user interface, hierarchical roles, user required features, and experienced support. The system has already been used extensively and has helped to make significant progress in the area of Neuroblastoma research.

  14. A survey of working conditions within biomedical research in the United Kingdom [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Riddiford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent articles have presented a bleak view of career prospects in biomedical research in the US. Too many PhDs and postdocs are trained for too few research positions, creating a “holding-tank” of experienced senior postdocs who are unable to get a permanent position. Coupled with relatively low salaries and high levels of pressure to publish in top-tier academic journals, this has created a toxic environment that is perhaps responsible for a recently observed decline in biomedical postdocs in the US, the so-called “postdocalypse”. Methods: To address the gulf of information relating to working habits and attitudes of UK-based academic biomedical researchers, a link to an online survey was included in an article published in the Guardian newspaper. Survey data were collected between 21st March 2016 and 6th November 2016 and analysed to examine discrete profiles for three major career stages: PhD, postdoc and principal investigator. Results: Overall, the data presented here echo trends observed in the US: The 520 UK-based biomedical researchers responding to the survey reported feeling disillusioned with academic research, due to the low chance of getting a permanent position and the long hours required at the bench. Also like the US, large numbers of researchers at each distinct career stage are considering leaving biomedical research altogether. Conclusions: There are several systemic flaws in the academic scientific research machine – for example the continual overproduction of PhDs and the lack of stability in the early-mid stages of a research career - that are slowly being addressed in countries such as the US and Germany. These data suggest that similar flaws also exist in the UK, with a large proportion of respondents concerned about their future in research. To avoid lasting damage to the biomedical research agenda in the UK, addressing such concerns should be a major priority.

  15. Knowledge of the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics Among Biomedical Researchers in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Daniel, Folasade; Ansa, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Responsibility for protection of research participants from harm and exploitation rests on Research Ethics Committees and principal investigators. The Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics defines responsibilities of stakeholders in research so its knowledge among researchers will likely aid ethical conduct of research. The levels of awareness and knowledge of the Code among biomedical researchers in southern Nigerian research institutions was assessed. Four institutions were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Research participants were selected by purposive sampling and completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A total of 102 biomedical researchers completed the questionnaires. Thirty percent of the participants were aware of the National Code though 64% had attended at least one training seminar in research ethics. Twenty-five percent had a fairly acceptable knowledge (scores 50%-74%) and 10% had excellent knowledge of the code (score ≥75%). Ninety-five percent expressed intentions to learn more about the National Code and agreed that it is highly relevant to the ethical conduct of research. Awareness and knowledge of the Code were found to be very limited among biomedical researchers in southern Nigeria. There is need to improve awareness and knowledge through ethics seminars and training. Use of existing Nigeria-specific online training resources is also encouraged.

  16. [Hospital biomedical research through the satisfaction of a Health Research Institute professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R

    2015-01-01

    A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproducible Research Practices and Transparency across the Biomedical Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen A Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing movement to encourage reproducibility and transparency practices in the scientific community, including public access to raw data and protocols, the conduct of replication studies, systematic integration of evidence in systematic reviews, and the documentation of funding and potential conflicts of interest. In this survey, we assessed the current status of reproducibility and transparency addressing these indicators in a random sample of 441 biomedical journal articles published in 2000-2014. Only one study provided a full protocol and none made all raw data directly available. Replication studies were rare (n = 4, and only 16 studies had their data included in a subsequent systematic review or meta-analysis. The majority of studies did not mention anything about funding or conflicts of interest. The percentage of articles with no statement of conflict decreased substantially between 2000 and 2014 (94.4% in 2000 to 34.6% in 2014; the percentage of articles reporting statements of conflicts (0% in 2000, 15.4% in 2014 or no conflicts (5.6% in 2000, 50.0% in 2014 increased. Articles published in journals in the clinical medicine category versus other fields were almost twice as likely to not include any information on funding and to have private funding. This study provides baseline data to compare future progress in improving these indicators in the scientific literature.

  18. Appropriation of value in Biomedical research outcome at Public Research Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kensah, D.K.; Groen, Arend J.

    2008-01-01

    Transactions on biomedical research outcomes bring into play strategies that are determined by leveraging resources into quasi-markets and on options based on expectations. To govern such transactions, the choice of appropriate governance structures and the governance of interaction are all too

  19. Development of Tritium AMS for Biomedical Sciences Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingley, K H; Chiarappa-Zucca, M L

    2002-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological research. Normally in the biological sciences, 3 H is quantified by liquid scintillation counting. For the most sensitive measurements, liquid scintillation counting requires large samples and counting times of several-hours. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be-used to quantify 3 H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological research community. However, before 3 H AMS can be used routinely and successfully, two areas of concern needed to be addressed: (1) sample preparation methods needed to be refined and standardized, and (2) smaller and simpler AMS instrumentation needed to be developed. To address these concerns, the specific aims of this project were to: (1) characterize small dedicated 3 H AMS spectrometer (2) develop routine and robust biological sample preparation methods, and (3) with the aid of our external collaborations, demonstrate the application of 3 H AMS in the biomedical sciences. Towards these goals, the 3 H AMS instrument was installed and optimized to enhance performance. The sample preparation methodology was established for standard materials (water and tributyrin) and biological samples. A number of biological and environmental studies which require 3 H AMS were undertaken with university collaborators and our optimized analysis methods were employed to measure samples from these projects

  20. Derivation of porcine pluripotent stem cells for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yang, Jenn-Rong; Liao, Yu-Jing; Kuo, Ting-Yung; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Kang, Ching-Hsun; Tai, Chein; Anderson, Gary B; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2016-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of self-renew and limitlessly proliferating in vitro with undifferentiated characteristics. They are able to differentiate in vitro, spontaneously or responding to suitable signals, into cells of all three primary germ layers. Consequently, these pluripotent stem cells will be valuable sources for cell replacement therapy in numerous disorders. However, the promise of human ESCs and EGCs is cramped by the ethical argument about destroying embryos and fetuses for cell line creation. Moreover, there are still carcinogenic risks existing toward the goal of clinical application for human ESCs, EGCs, and iPSCs. Therefore, a suitable animal model for stem cell research will benefit the further development of human stem cell technology. The pigs, on the basis of their similarity in anatomy, immunology, physiology, and biochemical properties, have been wide used as model animals in the study of various human diseases. The development of porcine pluripotent stem cell lines will hold the opportunity to provide an excellent material for human counterpart to the transplantation in biomedical research and further development of cell-based therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Common husbandry-related variables in biomedical research with animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2004-07-01

    Common, often overlooked, variables in biomedical research with animals are reviewed. The barren primary enclosure is an abnormal living environment for laboratory animals. Species-appropriate enrichment attenuates some of the distress resulting from chronic understimulation. Social deprivation distress of individually-caged social animals is best mitigated by the provision of compatible companionship. Biotelemetry and positive reinforcement training avoid or minimize stress reactions that typically occur when animals are forcibly restrained during procedures. The variables, 'light' and 'position of living quarters' are inherent in the multi-tier caging system. To date there is no satisfactory alternative other than the single-tier cage arrangement that eliminates both variables. Removing test animals from their familiar home environment and from their cage mates for procedures introduces stress as an avoidable influential variable. Music may become an important variable if not all subjects are exposed to it. Disturbance time cannot be controlled as an extraneous variable but it should at least be mentioned to explain possible incongruities of data. A positive relationship between animal care personnel and research subjects is a key requisite to minimize stress as a data-confounding variable.

  2. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a ...

  3. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L

    2010-06-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.

  4. [The system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-07-01

    Realizing scientific biomedical research conducted on human-beings demands obeying ample ethical rules. However, states keep independence in the means of implementing deontological guidelines to legislative acts. The aim of the article is to compare rules of law relative to protection of scientific biomedical research participants in two European Union member states--France and Poland. French regulations cover more types of scientific biomedical research than those in Poland. In France almost all types of interventional scientific biomedical research including research on human biological samples and research on cosmetics are covered by the rules of law. Polish regulations are limited to interventional research conducted by doctors and dentists. In both states projects of clinical trials of medicinal products demands double acceptance - from bioethics committee and from competent state authority. In protection of scientific biomedical research participants the role of state authority competent for personal data is more vital in France than it is in Poland. In France there is also National Ethics Advisory Committee whereas in Poland there is no such institution. The systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants differs therefore in both states in many vital aspects and French measures cover more types of scientific biomedical research, hence the level of participants protection in various types of research is more equitable.

  5. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Liu, Thomas T; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Jeremy Bockholt, H; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical data sets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 data set consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 T scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 data sets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN's multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  7. Future needs in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, L.

    1994-01-01

    The major part of safety research in Finland is organized in nationally coordinated research programmes. Two programmes for the years 1990-1994 adress reactor safety: Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety (YKAe) and Nuclear Power Plant Structurl Integrity (RATU). Public funding to these programmes is provided by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). The Ministry of Trade and Industry appointed a group to review the future nuclear safety research needs and to plan co-ordinated research programmes after the present programmes. The group identified a number of research areas to which they would like to see priority given and proposed that two new coordinated programmes are staretd in the areas of reactor safety and structural safety in the beginning of 1995. In addition, two separate projects, that especially fulfil the needs of the regulatory body, were proposed. These deal with the environmental effects of nuclear energy and with programmable automation systems. Research of advanced reactor types and of the safety of neighbouring plants are included in the research of respective areas, and therefore are not shown as separate projects in the proposal of the group. The largest growth in funding is foreseen in projects dealing with fire risks, non-destructive examinations and organizational and human factors. (orig.)

  8. Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Alge, Daniel L; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-12-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and chemical functionality. Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its infancy, with the majority of research focusing on elucidating unique material characteristics and few reports focusing on biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent rapid advances in 2D nanomaterials have raised important and exciting questions about their interactions with biological moieties. 2D nanoparticles such as carbon-based 2D materials, silicate clays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide enhanced physical, chemical, and biological functionality owing to their uniform shapes, high surface-to-volume ratios, and surface charge. Here, we focus on state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials as well as recent developments that are shaping this emerging field. Specifically, we describe the unique characteristics that make 2D nanoparticles so valuable, as well as the biocompatibility framework that has been investigated so far. Finally, to both capture the growing trend of 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and to identify promising new research directions, we provide a critical evaluation of potential applications of recently developed 2D nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Council of Europe's instruments on biomedical research: how is conflict of interest addressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2002-07-01

    Conflict of interest is an issue that has been put in the spotlight by the commercial application of the new biomedical technologies. This paper presents the approach of the Council of Europe and the binding legal instruments to deal with this problem. The main focus is on the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, and its draft additional Protocol on Biomedical Research.

  10. Diversity in the biomedical research workforce: developing talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Richard; Saran, Suman; Krulwich, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for and barriers to achievement of greater diversity in the biomedical workforce from the perspectives of gender, race, and ethnicity; this is not a new topic. These discussions often center around a "pipeline" metaphor that imagines students flowing through a series of experiences to eventually arrive at a science career. Here we argue that diversity will only be achieved if the primary focus is on (1) what is happening within the pipeline, not just counting individuals entering and leaving it; (2) de-emphasizing the achievement of academic milestones by typical ages; and (3) adopting approaches that most effectively develop talent. Students may develop skills at different rates based on factors such as earlier access to educational resources, exposure to science (especially research experiences), and competing demands for time and attention during high school and college. Therefore, there is wide variety among students at any point along the pipeline. Taking this view requires letting go of imagining the pipeline as a sequence of age-dependent steps in favor of milestones of skill and talent development decoupled from age or educational stage. Emphasizing talent development opens up many new approaches for science training outside of traditional degree programs. This article provides examples of such approaches, including interventions at the postbaccalaureate and PhD levels, as well as a novel coaching model that incorporates well-established social science theories and complements traditional mentoring. These approaches could significantly impact diversity by developing scientific talent, especially among currently underrepresented minorities. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  11. DIVERSITY IN THE BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WORKFORCE: DEVELOPING TALENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Richard; Saran, Suman; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for and barriers to achievement of greater diversity in the biomedical workforce from the perspectives of gender, race and ethnicity; this is not a new topic. These discussions often center around a ‘pipeline metaphor’ which imagines students flowing through a series of experiences to eventually arrive at a science career. Here we argue that diversity will only be achieved if the primary focus is on: what is happening within the pipeline, not just counting individuals entering and leaving it; de-emphasizing achieving academic milestones by ‘typical’ ages; and adopting approaches that most effectively develop talent. Students may develop skills at different rates based on factors such as earlier access to educational resources, exposure to science (especially research experiences), and competing demands for time and attention during high school and college. Therefore, there is wide variety among students at any point along the pipeline. Taking this view requires letting go of imagining the pipeline as a sequence of age-dependent steps in favor of milestones of skill and talent development decoupled from age or educational stage. Emphasizing talent development opens up many new approaches for science training outside of traditional degree programs. This article provides examples of such approaches, including interventions at the post-baccalaureate and PhD levels, as well as a novel coaching model that incorporates well-established social science theories and complements traditional mentoring. These approaches could significantly impact diversity by developing scientific talent, especially among currently underrepresented minorities. PMID:22678863

  12. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  13. Crowdsourcing biomedical research: leveraging communities as innovation engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Costello, James C; Friend, Stephen H; Kellen, Michael R; Mangravite, Lara; Meyer, Pablo; Norman, Thea; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2016-07-15

    The generation of large-scale biomedical data is creating unprecedented opportunities for basic and translational science. Typically, the data producers perform initial analyses, but it is very likely that the most informative methods may reside with other groups. Crowdsourcing the analysis of complex and massive data has emerged as a framework to find robust methodologies. When the crowdsourcing is done in the form of collaborative scientific competitions, known as Challenges, the validation of the methods is inherently addressed. Challenges also encourage open innovation, create collaborative communities to solve diverse and important biomedical problems, and foster the creation and dissemination of well-curated data repositories.

  14. Support for biomedical research and its impact on radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, D G; Hendee, W R

    1994-12-01

    Research in medical imaging has experienced substantial growth during the past decade. Still, research is a small fraction of the budget of the typical academic radiology program. Few radiology faculty participate in hypothesis-driven research projects. Funding of research will be more difficult to secure in the future, since clinical subsidies will diminish or disappear, support from industry is decreasing, and funds from private foundations and philanthropists are not likely to increase. Support from the NIH will probably remain about level in constant dollars. In response to these constraints, radiology will have to be both more creative and more opportunistic to tap the limited remaining resources of research support. An excellent compilation of some major resources was recently published by Williams and Holden (9). Efforts of the Conjoint Committee will continue to be critical for continuing support of the LDRR, encouraging the allocation of intramural and extramural resources of the NCI to medical imaging, guiding the development of the American Academy of Radiologic Research, providing research training opportunities for physicians and scientists in radiology, and leading the research effort in medical imaging in general (10). Within individual institutions and departments, imaging research must continue to be acknowledged as a priority despite increasing pressures to generate clinical revenue. Enhanced efforts are warranted to nurture the research interests of younger faculty and selected residents and fellows, including pairing them with research mentors and providing them with opportunities to develop skills in areas such as research design, statistical analysis, and evaluative techniques. The long-term well-being of radiology and its important contributions to patient care are dependent on its continued investment in research and development.

  15. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  16. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  17. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lander

    Full Text Available A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1 uncertainty about outcomes, 2 diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3 the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs. The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research.PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction.After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%. The paper presents qualitative details.The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  18. Providing Experiential Business and Management Training for Biomedical Research Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Kimberly A.; Carnahan, Robert H.; Brown, Abigail M.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2017-01-01

    Many biomedical PhD trainees lack exposure to business principles, which limits their competitiveness and effectiveness in academic and industry careers. To fill this training gap, we developed Business and Management Principles for Scientists, a semester-long program that combined didactic exposure to business fundamentals with practical…

  19. Use of dual isotope tracers in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F

    Biomedical stable isotope studies involve administration of tracer and measurement of isotope enrichment in blood, urine, feces or breath. The aim of the studies is to gather quantitative information about a specific metabolic function. However, the measured isotope enrichment may be affected by

  20. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of the Journal SLJBR is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to ...

  1. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most interesting applications of the results of probability theory involves estimating unknown probability and making decisions on the basis of new (sample) information. Biomedical scientists often use the Bayesian decision theory for the purposes of computing diagnostic values such as sensitivity and specificity ...

  2. Biomedical Engineering: A Compendium of Research Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document was prepared to provide a comprehensive view of the programs in biomedical engineering in existence in 1969. These programs are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and are located at 18 universities. This compendium provides information as to the intent and content of these programs from data provided by…

  3. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status...... of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest......In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been...

  4. Reflections on my journey in biomedical research: the art, science, and politics of advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, H C

    2013-01-01

    Scientific Discovery often reflects the art, science, and advocacy for biomedical research. Here the author reflects on selected highlights of discovery that contributed to several aspects of our understanding of craniofacial biology and craniofacial diseases and disorders.

  5. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considera...

  6. Research Workforce Diversity: The Case of Balancing National versus International Postdocs in US Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Hawley, Joshua; Desai, Anand

    2014-03-01

    The US government has been increasingly supporting postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences to develop the domestic research workforce. However, current trends suggest that mostly international researchers benefit from the funding, many of whom might leave the USA after training. In this paper, we describe a model used to analyse the flow of national versus international researchers into and out of postdoctoral training. We calibrate our model in the case of the USA and successfully replicate the data. We use the model to conduct simulation-based analyses of effects of different policies on the diversity of postdoctoral researchers. Our model shows that capping the duration of postdoctoral careers, a policy proposed previously, favours international postdoctoral researchers. The analysis suggests that the leverage point to help the growth of domestic research workforce is in the pregraduate education area, and many policies implemented at the postgraduate level have minimal or unintended effects on diversity.

  7. Research Workforce Diversity: The Case of Balancing National versus International Postdocs in US Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Hawley, Joshua; Desai, Anand

    2013-01-01

    The US government has been increasingly supporting postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences to develop the domestic research workforce. However, current trends suggest that mostly international researchers benefit from the funding, many of whom might leave the USA after training. In this paper, we describe a model used to analyse the flow of national versus international researchers into and out of postdoctoral training. We calibrate our model in the case of the USA and successfully replicate the data. We use the model to conduct simulation-based analyses of effects of different policies on the diversity of postdoctoral researchers. Our model shows that capping the duration of postdoctoral careers, a policy proposed previously, favours international postdoctoral researchers. The analysis suggests that the leverage point to help the growth of domestic research workforce is in the pregraduate education area, and many policies implemented at the postgraduate level have minimal or unintended effects on diversity. PMID:25368504

  8. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A proposed key escrow system for secure patient information disclosure in biomedical research databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Todd A; Garrison, Gregory M; Lowe, Henry J

    2002-01-01

    Access to clinical data is of increasing importance to biomedical research. The pending HIPAA privacy regulations provide specific requirements for the release of protected health information. Under the regulations, biomedical researchers may utilize anonymized data, or adhere to HIPAA requirements regarding protected health information. In order to provide researchers with anonymized data from a clinical research database, we reviewed several published strategies for de-identification of protected health information. Critical analysis with respect to this project suggests that de-identification alone is problematic when applied to clinical research databases. We propose a hybrid system; utilizing secure key escrow, de-identification, and role-based access for IRB approved researchers.

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) JSC Summer Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Forrest Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This project optimized the calorie content in a breakfast meal replacement bar for the Advanced Food Technology group. Use of multivariable optimization yielded the highest weight savings possible while simultaneously matching NASA Human Standards nutritional guidelines. The scope of this research included the study of shelf-life indicators such as water activity, moisture content, and texture analysis. Key metrics indicate higher protein content, higher caloric density, and greater mass savings as a result of the reformulation process. The optimization performed for this study demonstrated wide application to other food bars in the Advanced Food Technology portfolio. Recommendations for future work include shelf life studies on bar hardening and overall acceptability data over increased time frames and temperature fluctuation scenarios.

  11. Alginate: Current Use and Future Perspectives in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, alginates, natural multifunctional polymers, have increasingly drawn attention as attractive compounds in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields due to their unique physicochemical properties and versatile biological activities. The focus of the paper is to describe biological and pharmacological activity of alginates and to discuss the present use and future possibilities of alginates as a tool in drug formulation. The recent technological advancements with using alginates, issues related to alginates suitability as matrix for three-dimensional tissue cultures, adjuvants of antibiotics, and antiviral agents in cell transplantation in diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases treatment, and an update on the antimicrobial and antiviral therapy of the alginate based drugs are also highlighted.

  12. The future is in the numbers: the power of predictive analysis in the biomedical educational environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical programs have a potential treasure trove of data they can mine to assist admissions committees in identification of students who are likely to do well and help educational committees in the identification of students who are likely to do poorly on standardized national exams and who may need remediation. In this article, we provide a step-by-step approach that schools can utilize to generate data that are useful when predicting the future performance of current students in any given program. We discuss the use of linear regression analysis as the means of generating that data and highlight some of the limitations. Finally, we lament on how the combination of these institution-specific data sets are not being fully utilized at the national level where these data could greatly assist programs at large. PMID:27374246

  13. The future is in the numbers: the power of predictive analysis in the biomedical educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Gullo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical programs have a potential treasure trove of data they can mine to assist admissions committees in identification of students who are likely to do well and help educational committees in the identification of students who are likely to do poorly on standardized national exams and who may need remediation. In this article, we provide a step-by-step approach that schools can utilize to generate data that are useful when predicting the future performance of current students in any given program. We discuss the use of linear regression analysis as the means of generating that data and highlight some of the limitations. Finally, we lament on how the combination of these institution-specific data sets are not being fully utilized at the national level where these data could greatly assist programs at large.

  14. Nanocellulose as a sustainable biomass material: structure, properties, present status and future prospects in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Mou, Zihao; Xiao, Huining

    2017-10-12

    Nanocellulose, extracted from the most abundant biomass material cellulose, has proved to be an environmentally friendly material with excellent mechanical performance owing to its unique nano-scaled structure, and has been used in a variety of applications as engineering and functional materials. The great biocompatibility and biodegradability, in particular, render nanocellulose promising in biomedical applications. In this review, the structure, treatment technology and properties of three different nanocellulose categories, i.e., nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), are introduced and compared. The cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and frontier applications in biomedicine of the three nanocellulose categories were the focus and are detailed in each section. Future prospects concerning the cytotoxicity, applications and industrial production of nanocellulose are also discussed in the last section.

  15. Future of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyojiro

    1989-09-01

    In spite of the easing of worldwide energy supply and demand situation in these years, we believe that research efforts towards the next generation nuclear energy are indispensably necessary. Firstly, the nuclear colleagues believe that nuclear energy is the best major energy source from many points of view including the global environmental viewpoint. Secondly, in the medium- and long-range view, there will once again be a high possibility of a tight supply and demand situation for oil. Thirdly, nuclear energy is the key energy source to overcome the vulnerability of the energy supply structure in industrialized countries like Japan where virtually no fossil energy source exists. In this situation, nuclear energy is a sort of quasi-domestic energy as a technology-intensive energy. Fourthly, the intensive efforts to develop the nuclear technology in the next generation will give rise to a further evolution in science and technology in the future. A few examples of medium- and long-range goals of the nuclear energy research are development of new types of reactors which can meet various needs of energy more flexibly and reliably than the existing reactors, fundamental and ultimate solution of the radioactive waste problems, creation and development of new types of energy production systems which are to come beyond the fusion, new development in the biological risk assessment of the radiation effects and so on. In order to accomplish those goals it is quite important to introduce innovations in such underlying technologies as materials control in more microscopic manners, photon and particle beam techniques, accelerator engineering, artificial intelligence, and so on. 32 refs, 2 figs

  16. Conflicts of interest in biomedical research--the FASEB guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Laura M; Furcht, Leo T

    2006-12-01

    The rise in academia-industry relationships has been accompanied by increasing concerns about financial conflicts of interest. To date, policy recommendations addressing financial conflicts of interest have focused on the role of academic institutions in reviewing and overseeing investigator relationships with industry. However, investigators as a group determine the effectiveness of policies and practices. Therefore, there is a clear need for a consensus statement of standards for academia-industry interactions from the scientists' perspective. To meet that need, we propose conflict of interest guidelines for individual biomedical investigators to address the critical challenges faced when financial relationships with industry exist.

  17. Prediction markets and their potential role in biomedical research--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Predictions markets are marketplaces for trading contracts with payoffs that depend on the outcome of future events. Popular examples are markets on the outcome of presidential elections, where contracts pay $1 if a specific candidate wins the election and $0 if someone else wins. Contract prices on prediction markets can be interpreted as forecasts regarding the outcome of future events. Further attractive properties include the potential to aggregate private information, to generate and disseminate a consensus among the market participants, and to offer incentives for the acquisition of information. It has been argued that these properties might be valuable in the context of scientific research. In this review, we give an overview of key properties of prediction markets and discuss potential benefits for science. To illustrate these benefits for biomedical research, we discuss an example application in the context of decision making in research on the genetics of diseases. Moreover, some potential practical problems of prediction market application in science are discussed, and solutions are outlined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research Involving Children: Recommendations of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the ten recommendations of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research regarding ethical considerations involved in using children as experimental subjects. Journal availability: see EC 111 045. (DLS)

  19. Environmental Scanning, Futures Research, Strategic Foresight and Organizational Future Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Bade, Manuel

    to adjacent research disciplines. Through such integration and linkage research should produce better recommendations for managers on how to build an organizational future orientation, drive organizational adaptation, and make their firms robust towards external discontinuous change....

  20. Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: Interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H.; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international non-profit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several National/Ethnic Genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine to society in various countries. Also, educational activities include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia®, which are high profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine, and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts. PMID:22379996

  1. Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannan Forsyth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology’s manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput. These properties, coupled with the potential for integration into portable instrumentation, contribute to G-FETs’ suitability for point-of-care diagnostics. This review focuses on elucidating the recent developments in the field of G-FET sensors that act on a bioaffinity basis, whereby a binding event between a bioreceptor and the target analyte is transduced into an electrical signal at the G-FET surface. Recognizing and quantifying these target analytes accurately and reliably is essential in diagnosing many diseases, therefore it is vital to design the G-FET with care. Taking into account some limitations of the sensor platform, such as Debye–Hükel screening and device surface area, is fundamental in developing improved bioelectronics for applications in the clinical setting. This review highlights some efforts undertaken in facing these limitations in order to bring G-FET development for biomedical applications forward.

  2. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Skytland, Nicholas G.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    With the ambitious goals to send manned missions to asteroids and onto Mars, substantial work will be required to ensure the well being of the men and women who will undertake these difficult missions. Unlike current International Space Station or Shuttle missions, astronauts will be required to endure long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation, isolation and reduced gravity. These new operation conditions will pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Therefore, it is essential to develop and apply advanced tools to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. NASA s Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and apply computational models of physiologic response to space flight operation conditions over various time periods and environmental circumstances. The collective application and integration of well vetted models assessing the physiology, biomechanics and anatomy is referred to as the Digital Astronaut. The Digital Astronaut simulation environment will serve as a practical working tool for use by NASA in operational activities such as the prediction of biomedical risks and functional capabilities of astronauts. In additional to space flight operation conditions, DAP s work has direct applicability to terrestrial biomedical research by providing virtual environments for hypothesis testing, experiment design, and to reduce animal/human testing. A practical application of the DA to assess pre and post flight responses to exercise is illustrated and the difficulty in matching true physiological responses is discussed.

  3. Challenges facing academic research in commercializing event-detector implantable devices for an in-vivo biomedical subcutaneous device for biomedical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanola-Feliu, E.; Colomer-Farrarons, J.; Miribel-Català, P.; Samitier, J.; Valls-Pasola, J.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the welfare of the most advanced economies is at risk, and that the only way to tackle this situation is by controlling the knowledge economies and dealing with. To achieve this ambitious goal, we need to improve the performance of each dimension in the "knowledge triangle": education, research and innovation. Indeed, recent findings point to the importance of strategies of adding-value and marketing during R+D processes so as to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the market and so ensure the successful commercialization of new technology-based products. Moreover, in a global economy in which conventional manufacturing is dominated by developing economies, the future of industry in the most advanced economies must rely on its ability to innovate in those high-tech activities that can offer a differential added-value, rather than on improving existing technologies and products. It seems quite clear, therefore, that the combination of health (medicine) and nanotechnology in a new biomedical device is very capable of meeting these requisites. This work propose a generic CMOS Front-End Self-Powered In-Vivo Implantable Biomedical Device, based on a threeelectrode amperometric biosensor approach, capable of detecting threshold values for targeted concentrations of pathogens, ions, oxygen concentration, etc. Given the speed with which diabetes can spread, as diabetes is the fastest growing disease in the world, the nano-enabled implantable device for in-vivo biomedical analysis needs to be introduced into the global diabetes care devices market. In the case of glucose monitoring, the detection of a threshold decrease in the glucose level it is mandatory to avoid critic situations like the hypoglycemia. Although the case study reported in this paper is complex because it involves multiple organizations and sources of data, it contributes to extend experience to the best practices and models on nanotechnology applications and

  4. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey), all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Arab countries also scored less when the data were normalized to population, gross domestic product (GDP), and GDP/capita. The publications from the Arab countries also have a significantly lower (p Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries. PMID:19374747

  5. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  6. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran

    2009-04-17

    Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001-2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey), all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p GDP), and GDP/capita. The publications from the Arab countries also have a significantly lower (p < 0.001) citation frequency. The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  7. Research traceability using provenance services for biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Branson, Andrew; Habib, Irfan; McClatchey, Richard; Solomonides, Tony; Soomro, Kamran; The Neugrid Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We outline the approach being developed in the neuGRID project to use provenance management techniques for the purposes of capturing and preserving the provenance data that emerges in the specification and execution of workflows in biomedical analyses. In the neuGRID project a provenance service has been designed and implemented that is intended to capture, store, retrieve and reconstruct the workflow information needed to facilitate users in conducting user analyses. We describe the architecture of the neuGRID provenance service and discuss how the CRISTAL system from CERN is being adapted to address the requirements of the project and then consider how a generalised approach for provenance management could emerge for more generic application to the (Health)Grid community.

  8. Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

  9. Effects of government spending on research workforce development: evidence from biomedical postdoctoral researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjo Hur

    Full Text Available We examine effects of government spending on postdoctoral researchers' (postdocs productivity in biomedical sciences, the largest population of postdocs in the US. We analyze changes in the productivity of postdocs before and after the US government's 1997 decision to increase NIH funding. In the first round of analysis, we find that more government spending has resulted in longer postdoc careers. We see no significant changes in researchers' productivity in terms of publication and conference presentations. However, when the population is segmented by citizenship, we find that the effects are heterogeneous; US citizens stay longer in postdoc positions with no change in publications and, in contrast, international permanent residents (green card holders produce more conference papers and publications without significant changes in postdoc duration. Possible explanations and policy implications of the analysis are discussed.

  10. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  11. MBR Technology: future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.; Temmink, B.G.; Remy, M.J.J.; Geilvoet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cutting down the operational costs of MBR technology will be the key driver for research. This article outlines some research areas and specific topics that potentially will contribute to lower costs. Special attention to these topics should be given the coming years. Long term research should focus

  12. Kennedy: Future Academic Research Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…

  13. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Maihle, Nita J; Rice, Treva K; Gonzalez, Juan E; Hess, Caryl A; Makala, Levi H; Jeffe, Donna B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Pace, Betty S; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-07-21

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants' perceptions of PRIDE's impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees' testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators.

  14. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  15. Supporting novel biomedical research via multilayer collaboration networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Konstantin; Lu, Xiaoyan; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi; Zhuang, Juntao; Gaiteri, Chris; Szymanski, Boleslaw K

    2016-01-01

    The value of research containing novel combinations of molecules can be seen in many innovative and award-winning research programs. Despite calls to use innovative approaches to address common diseases, an increasing majority of research funding goes toward "safe" incremental research. Counteracting this trend by nurturing novel and potentially transformative scientific research is challenging, it must be supported in competition with established research programs. Therefore, we propose a to...

  16. qPortal: A platform for data-driven biomedical research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mohr

    Full Text Available Modern biomedical research aims at drawing biological conclusions from large, highly complex biological datasets. It has become common practice to make extensive use of high-throughput technologies that produce big amounts of heterogeneous data. In addition to the ever-improving accuracy, methods are getting faster and cheaper, resulting in a steadily increasing need for scalable data management and easily accessible means of analysis. We present qPortal, a platform providing users with an intuitive way to manage and analyze quantitative biological data. The backend leverages a variety of concepts and technologies, such as relational databases, data stores, data models and means of data transfer, as well as front-end solutions to give users access to data management and easy-to-use analysis options. Users are empowered to conduct their experiments from the experimental design to the visualization of their results through the platform. Here, we illustrate the feature-rich portal by simulating a biomedical study based on publically available data. We demonstrate the software's strength in supporting the entire project life cycle. The software supports the project design and registration, empowers users to do all-digital project management and finally provides means to perform analysis. We compare our approach to Galaxy, one of the most widely used scientific workflow and analysis platforms in computational biology. Application of both systems to a small case study shows the differences between a data-driven approach (qPortal and a workflow-driven approach (Galaxy. qPortal, a one-stop-shop solution for biomedical projects offers up-to-date analysis pipelines, quality control workflows, and visualization tools. Through intensive user interactions, appropriate data models have been developed. These models build the foundation of our biological data management system and provide possibilities to annotate data, query metadata for statistics and future

  17. A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on researchers as virtuous and caring physicians. This approach was in concordance with the paternalistic clinical practice of physicians outside of research settings during the same period. Period 2, starting from the late 1990s, was partly due to revealing of ethical flaws that occurred in biomedical research in Iran. The regulatory and funding bodies concluded that it was not sufficient to rely solely on the personal and professional virtues of researchers to safeguard human subjects' rights and welfare. The necessity for independent oversight, emphasized by international declarations, became obvious and undeniable. This paradigm shift led to the establishment of research ethics committees throughout the country, the establishment of academic research centers focusing on medical ethics (MEHR) and the compilation of the first set of national ethical guidelines on biomedical research-one of the first and most important projects conducted by and in the MEHR. Although not yet arrived, 'period 3' is on its way. It is predictable from the obvious trends toward performance of high-quality clinical research and the appearance of a highly educated new generation, especially among women. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Biomedical Informatics Research and Education at the EuroMISE Center

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, Suppl. (2006), s. 166-173 ISSN 0026-1270 Grant - others:Evropské sociální fondy CZ04307/42011/0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biomedical informatics * research * education * healthcare * information society Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2006

  19. Why do people refuse to take part in biomedical research studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found nine key factors that influence people to refuse to participate in biomedical research. The factors are failure to follow traditional customs , lack of study benefits, superstition, poor informed consent procedures, ignorance of health research, fear of strangers, lack of cultural sensitivity, poor timing, and previous bad ...

  20. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  1. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  2. Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N., comp. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the...

  3. Deliberating about race as a variable in biomedical research | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Race as a variable in research ethics is investigated: to what extent is it morally appropriate to regard the race of research subjects as pivotal for research outcomes? The challenges it poses to deliberation in research ethics committees are considered, and it is concluded that race sometimes must be considered, subject to ...

  4. The NIH-NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center at the Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research. The SRC makes available, free of charge (including international shipping costs, not only infected host organisms but also a wide array of molecular reagents derived from all life stages of each of the three main human schistosome parasites. As the field of schistosomiasis research rapidly advances, it is likely to become increasingly reliant on omics, transgenics, epigenetics, and microbiome-related research approaches. The SRC has and will continue to monitor and contribute to advances in the field in order to support these research efforts with an expanding array of molecular reagents. In addition to providing investigators with source materials, the SRC has expanded its educational mission by offering a molecular techniques training course and has recently organized an international schistosomiasis-focused meeting. This review provides an overview of the materials and services that are available at the SRC for schistosomiasis researchers, with a focus on updates that have occurred since the original overview in 2008.

  5. Description of color/race in Brazilian biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa Veronica Catonho; Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years, the terms race and ethnicity have been used to ascertain inequities in public health. However, this use depends on the quality of the data available. This study aimed to investigate the description of color/race in Brazilian scientific journals within the field of biomedicine. Descriptive study with systematic search for scientific articles in the SciELO Brazil database. A wide-ranging systematic search for original articles involving humans, published in 32 Brazilian biomedical scientific journals in the SciELO Brazil database between January and December 2008, was performed. Articles in which the race/ethnicity of the participants was identified were analyzed. In total, 1,180 articles were analyzed. The terms for describing race or ethnicity were often ambiguous and vague. Descriptions of race or ethnicity occurred in 159 articles (13.4%), but only in 42 (26.4%) was there a description of how individuals were identified. In these, race and ethnicity were used almost interchangeably and definition was according to skin color (71.4%), ancestry (19.0%) and self-definition (9.6%). Twenty-two races or ethnicities were cited, and the most common were white (37.3%), black (19.7%), mixed (12.9%), nonwhite (8.1%) and yellow (8.1%). The absence of descriptions of parameters for defining race, as well as the use of vague and ambiguous terms, may hamper and even prevent comparisons between human groups and the use of these data to ascertain inequities in healthcare.

  6. Navy Telemedicine: Current Research and Future Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    .... This report reviews military and civilian models for evaluating telemedicine systems in order to determine future directions for Navy telemedicine research within the current funding environment...

  7. Lasers: present and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, P.

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of lasers are reviewed in particular in the French laboratories. Different lasers are briefly described related to their applications: rare gas halide, iodine, metal vapor, color center, transition-metal solid state, CO 2 , chemical, blue-green and free electron lasers. Among applications researches on thermonuclear fusion are given p. 125 and researches concerning isotope separation are given p. 126 and 127 [fr

  8. [Metrology research on biomedical engineering publications from China in recent years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Su, Juan; Wang, Ying; Sha, Xianzheng

    2014-12-01

    The present paper is to evaluate the scientific research level and development trends of biomedical engineering in China using metrology analysis on Chinese biomedical engineering scientific literatures. Pubmed is used to search the biomedical engineering publications in recent 5 years which are indexed by Science Citation Index, and the number and cited times of these publications and the impact factor of the journals are analyzed. The results show that comparing with the world, although the number of the publication in China has increased in recent 5 years, there is still much room for improvement. Among Chinese mainland, Hongkong and Taiwan, Chinese mainland maintains the obvious advantage in this subject, but Hongkong has the highest average cited number. Shanghai and Beijing have better research ability than other areas in Chinese mainland.

  9. Management control in biomedical research and pharmaceutical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, Simon Willem Frederik

    1995-01-01

    This monograph concentrates on the research floor level, the research unit (the professors with their scientific, technical, analytical and administrative staff in universities, or the department heads with their staff in institutes), and the system of research units which together form the R&D

  10. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  11. The future of psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders place considerable burden on individuals and on public health. Funding for research in psychiatry is less than ideal, but even so high quality research is being conducted at many centers. However, these studies have not impacted clinical practice as much as expected. The complexity of psychiatric disorders is one of the reasons why we face difficulties in translating research results to patient care. New technologies and improved methodologies are now available and must be incorporated to deal with this complexity and to accelerate the translational process. I discuss the application of modern techniques for data acquisition and analysis and also the new possibilities for performing trials in virtual models of biological systems. Adoption of new technologies is necessary, but will not reduce the importance of some of the fundamentals of all psychiatry research, such as the developmental and translational perspectives. Psychiatrists wishing to integrate these novelties into their research will need to work with contributors with whom they are unaccustomed to working, such as computer experts, a multidisciplinary team, and stakeholders such as patients and caregivers. This process will allow us to further understand and alleviate the suffering and impairment of people with psychiatric disorders.

  12. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  13. A Review of Additive Mixed-Electric Discharge Machining: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Surface Modification of Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment remained a key solution to numerous problems of synthetic hard tissues. The basic methods of implant surface modification include various physical and chemical deposition techniques. However, most of these techniques have several drawbacks such as excessive cost and surface cracks and require very high sintering temperature. Additive mixed-electric discharge machining (AM-EDM is an emerging technology which simultaneously acts as a machining and surface modification technique. Aside from the mere molds, dies, and tool fabrication, AM-EDM is materializing to finishing of automobiles and aerospace, nuclear, and biomedical components, through the concept of material migrations. The mechanism of material transfer by AM-EDM resembles electrophoretic deposition, whereby the additives in the AM-EDM dielectric fluids are melted and migrate to the machined surface, forming a mirror-like finishing characterized by extremely hard, nanostructured, and nanoporous layers. These layers promote the bone in-growth and strengthen the cell adhesion. Implant shaping and surface treatment through AM-EDM are becoming a key research focus in recent years. This paper reports and summarizes the current advancement of AM-EDM as a potential tool for orthopedic and dental implant fabrication. Towards the end of this paper, the current challenges and future research trends are highlighted.

  14. Future uses of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The use of research reactors in the next decade will be driven by two key forces: the retirement of obsolete facilities and the development of new capabilities, both in the United States and worldwide. Most research reactors in use in the United States began operation in the period from the late 1950s to the middle of the 1960s, both at universities and at the national laboratories. New design concepts include the 10-MW MAPLE by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited intended to provide an order-of-magnitude upgrade for the 2-MW university swimming-pool facilities and the advanced neutron source by the U.S. Department of Energy intended as the ultimate steady-state neutron facility. A rational program for U.S. research reactors might include the following components: (1) an inexpensive and very reliable reactor to replace the underutilized or underfunded university facilities of 2 MW or less; (2) a simple design in the 10- to 20-MW range to provide full research capability for some universities and other laboratories (the MAPLE design is a step in this direction); and (3) one or more of a high-end reactor with a power level up to 250 MW. Recent experience has shown that an important design criterion for any such facilities must be reliability of operation. All of these reactors would provide high-quality neutron beams as well as a variety of irradiation facilities

  15. Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Sussex, Jon; Robin, Enora; Guthrie, Sue; Wooding, Steve

    2017-02-02

    Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014. To help us to classify and understand that literature, we first undertook a review of econometric literature discussing models for analysing economies of scale and/or scope in research generally (not limited to biomedical and health research). We found a large and disparate literature. We reviewed 60 empirical studies of (dis-)economies of scale and/or scope in biomedical and health research, or in categories of research including or overlapping with biomedical and health research. This literature is varied in methods and findings. At the level of universities or research institutes, studies more often point to positive economies of scale than to diseconomies of scale or constant returns to scale in biomedical and health research. However, all three findings exist in the literature, along with inverse U-shaped relationships. At the level of individual research units, laboratories or projects, the numbers of studies are smaller and evidence is mixed. Concerning economies of scope, the literature more often suggests positive economies of scope than diseconomies, but the picture is again mixed. The effect of varying the scope of activities by a research group was less often reported than the effect of scale and the results were more mixed. The absence of predominant findings for or against the existence of

  16. FOSER - Future of Software Engineering Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The 2010 Report of the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology PCAST, entitled ?Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and...

  17. Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212).......Guest post on research results published in the article "Mapping the Landscape of Future Research Themes in Supply Chain Management" by Andreas Wieland, Robert Handfield and Christian Durach ( Journal of Business Logistics (2016). Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 205-212)....

  18. Chimpanzees in AIDS research: A biomedical and bioethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Akker (Ruud); M. Balls; J.W. Eichberg; J. Goodall; J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.M. Prince; I. Spruit

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present article represents a consensus view of the appropriate utilization of chimpanzees in AIDS research arrived at as a result of a meeting of a group of scientists involved in AIDS research with chimpanzees and bioethicists. The paper considers which types of studies are

  19. AIDS--Challenges to Basic and Clinical Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical trials and access to therapeutic drugs pose dilemmas for researchers, physicians, and AIDS patients. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recognizing the need for greater access to drugs by a broader spectrum of the infected population, is establishing the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. (Author/MLW)

  20. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, they will propose an ethical framework for health research and put forward the basic elements of a training course for professionals, researchers and decision-makers in the area of bioethics and health and the environment. The work will be carried out in three West African Countries (Bénin, Cameroon and Nigeria), ...

  1. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be made to respect their integrity, all the more so because they are poor and ...

  2. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of ...

  3. Instructions to Prospective Authors by Indian Biomedical Journals: An Opportunity to Promote Responsible Conduct of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anup; Shah, Akash; Sherighar, Swathi G

    2017-04-01

    Journals provide instructions to prospective authors to facilitate the process of manuscript publication. The information provided under such instructions could be a potential opportunity to promote responsible conduct of research (RCR). We analyzed 74 Indian biomedical journals for the type of information provided in the "instructions to authors" section and adherence to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations. Among the 71 journals that had an "instructions to authors" section, 53 journals adhered to ICMJE recommendations. We discuss sections of the ICMJE recommendations detailed by Indian biomedical journals under the "instructions to authors" section and emphasize components that require greater exposure.

  4. Governance of biomedical research in Singapore and the challenge of conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Calvin Wai Loon; De Castro, Leonardo D; Campbell, Alastair V

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the establishment of a governance framework for biomedical research in Singapore. It focuses on the work of the Bioethics Advisory Committee (BAC), which has been instrumental in institutionalizing a governance framework, through the provision of recommendations to the government, and through the coordination of efforts among government agencies. However, developing capabilities in biomedical sciences presents challenges that are qualitatively different from those of past technologies. The state has a greater role to play in balancing conflicting and potentially irreconcilable economic, social, and political goals. This article analyzes the various ways by which the BAC has facilitated this.

  5. Biomedical engineering - A means to add new dimension to medicine and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is an evolving science that seeks to insert technically oriented and trained personnel to assist medical professionals in solving technological problems in the pursuit of innovations in the delivery of health care. Consequently, engineering solutions are brought to bear on problems that previously were outside the training of physicians and beyond the understanding or appreciation of the conventionally educated electrical or mechanical engineers. This physician/scientist/engineer team has a capability to extend medicine and research far beyond the capability of a single entity operating alone. How biomedical engineering has added a new dimension to medical science at the Kennedy Space Center is described.

  6. Suitability of customer relationship management systems for the management of study participants in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, J; Rienhoff, O; Schulze, T G; Nussbeck, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.

  7. [The long pilgrimage of Spanish biomedical journals toward excellence. Who helps? Quality, impact and research merit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Biomedical journals must adhere to strict standards of editorial quality. In a globalized academic scenario, biomedical journals must compete firstly to publish the most relevant original research and secondly to obtain the broadest possible visibility and the widest dissemination of their scientific contents. The cornerstone of the scientific process is still the peer-review system but additional quality criteria should be met. Recently access to medical information has been revolutionized by electronic editions. Bibliometric databases such as MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science and Scopus offer comprehensive online information on medical literature. Classically, the prestige of biomedical journals has been measured by their impact factor but, recently, other indicators such as SCImago SJR or the Eigenfactor are emerging as alternative indices of a journal's quality. Assessing the scholarly impact of research and the merits of individual scientists remains a major challenge. Allocation of authorship credit also remains controversial. Furthermore, in our Kafkaesque world, we prefer to count rather than read the articles we judge. Quantitative publication metrics (research output) and citations analyses (scientific influence) are key determinants of the scientific success of individual investigators. However, academia is embracing new objective indicators (such as the "h" index) to evaluate scholarly merit. The present review discusses some editorial issues affecting biomedical journals, currently available bibliometric databases, bibliometric indices of journal quality and, finally, indicators of research performance and scientific success. Copyright 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research: an international legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.

  9. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges.…

  10. IMIA Accreditation of Biomedical and Health Informatics Education: Current State and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M. W.; Mantas, J.; Borycki, E.; Hasman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The educational activities initiated by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) have had global impacts and influenced national societies and local academic programs in the field of Biomedical and Health Informatics (BMHI). After the successful publication and

  11. Future Direction of USDA Forest Service Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has been involved in Texas oak wilt research since 1976. Despite research successes, there are still many important research areas that have not been addressed or sufficiently investigated to answer the key questions required for making sound disease management decisions. Some of the priority areas planned for future research by the Southern...

  12. ETHICAL REVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN BELARUS: CURRENT STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2011-04-01

    The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and political factors of transition have major impact on capacities of the Belarusian RECs to ensure adequate protection of human subjects. Among the main problems identified are non-equivalent stringency of ethical review for different types of biomedical research; lack of independence, multidisciplinarity, pluralism and lay representation experienced by RECs; low level of research ethics education and transparency of RECs activities. Recommendations are made to raise the issue of research ethics on the national agenda in order to develop and maintain the research ethics system capable to effectively protect research participants and promote ethical conduct in research.

  13. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  14. Measuring the outcome of biomedical research: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Thonon

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1 to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2 enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points.We have searched 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science using the following keywords: [Research outcome* OR research output* OR bibliometric* OR scientometric* OR scientific production] AND [indicator* OR index* OR evaluation OR metrics]. We included articles presenting, discussing or evaluating indicators measuring the scientific production of an institution. The search was conducted by two independent authors using a standardised data extraction form. For each indicator we extracted its definition, calculation, its rationale and its positive and negative points. In order to reduce bias, data extraction and analysis was performed by two independent authors.We included 76 articles. A total of 57 indicators were identified. We have classified those indicators into 6 categories: 9 indicators of research activity, 24 indicators of scientific production and impact, 5 indicators of collaboration, 7 indicators of industrial production, 4 indicators of dissemination, 8 indicators of health service impact. The most widely discussed and described is the h-index with 31 articles discussing it.The majority of indicators found are bibliometric indicators of scientific production and impact. Several indicators have been developed to improve the h-index. This indicator has also inspired the creation of two indicators to measure industrial production and collaboration. Several articles propose indicators measuring research impact without detailing a methodology for calculating them. Many bibliometric indicators identified

  15. Conflict of interest in biomedical research: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I address the conflict of interest (CoI) issue from a legal point of view at a European level. We will see that the regulatory framework that exists in Europe does state the need for the independence of ethics committee involved in authorisation of research and clinical trials. We will see that CoI is an element that has to be closely monitored at National and International level. Therefore, Member States and Newly Associated States do have to address CoI in the authorisation process of research and clinical protocols of biomedicine.

  16. Direction od developmentup until 2025 unmanned space systams for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudkoglyad, Valeria

    In the period up to 2025 will be provided for the continuation of biomedical research using two specialized unmanned spacecraft "Bion -M" (launch planned in 2019 and 2021 ) with a service life of 60-90 days in orbit up to 1000 km , the possibility of developing a platform with the recovery vehicle intended for radiobiological research in the radiation belts of the Earth in orbit ~ 2000 km ( launch planned in 2021 ) , and into a high orbit of ~ 200 000 km (launch planned in 2025 ) Also considered the possibility of biological research on the board of served by ISS free-flying spacecraft "OKA-T" during periodic docking with the ISS which is planned for the period 2019-2025 years. The report presents the results of design studies and basic technical characteristics of developed and proposed the development of unmanned space systems research and applied purposes, proposals for scientific equipment and experiments in the areas of biomedical research using these spacecraft

  17. Role of institutional climate in fostering diversity in biomedical research workforce: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Gary C; Hurd, Yasmin; Palermo, Ann-Gel S; Delbrune, Denise; Saran, Suman; Zony, Chati; Krulwich, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the barriers to diversity in biomedical research and describes the evolution of efforts to address climate issues to enhance the ability to attract, retain, and develop underrepresented minorities, whose underrepresentation is found both in science and medicine, in the graduate-school biomedical research doctoral programs (PhD and MD/PhD) at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. We also describe the potential beneficial impact of having a climate that supports diversity and inclusion in the biomedical research workforce. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine diversity-climate efforts are discussed as part of a comprehensive plan to increase diversity in all institutional programs: PhD, MD/PhD, and MD, and at the residency, postdoctoral fellow, and faculty levels. Lessons learned from 4 decades of targeted programs and activities at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine may be of value to other institutions interested in improving diversity in the biomedical science and academic medicine workforce. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  18. Molecular mass spectrometry imaging in biomedical and life science research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2010), s. 423-443 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GPP206/10/P018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Chemical imaging * Molecular imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  19. Biomedical Informatics Research for Individualized Life - Long Shared Healthcare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana; Hanzlíček, Petr; Nagy, Miroslav; Přečková, Petra; Zvára, K.; Seidl, L.; Bureš, V.; Šubrt, D.; Dostálová, T.; Seydlová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2009), s. 31-41 ISSN 0208-5216 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * semantic interoperability * dentistry * cardiology Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. The miniature pig as an animal model in biomedical research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Petr; Smetana Jr., K.; Dvořánková, B.; Emerick, T.; Xu, Y.; Ourednik, J.; Ourednik, V.; Motlík, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1049, - (2005), s. 161-171 ISSN 0077-8923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : animal model * stem cell * transgenic pig Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.971, year: 2005

  1. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  2. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  3. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Federal Policies Regarding Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    Existing federal government policies and systems to protect against scientific misconduct in government-supported research projects are described, and additional considerations not covered in federal policy are enumerated. Misconduct inquiries and review procedures are outlined. Applicant and institutional responsibility and the role of prevention…

  5. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  6. Motivational factors for participation in biomedical research: evidence from a qualitative study of biomedical research participation in Blantyre District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Masiye, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining effective informed consent from research participants is a prerequisite to the conduct of an ethically sound research. Yet it is believed that obtaining quality informed consent is generally difficult in settings with low socioeconomic status. This is so because of the alleged undue inducements and therapeutic misconception among participants. However, there is a dearth of data on factors that motivate research participants to take part in research. Hence, this study was aimed at filling this gap in the Malawian context. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with community members in urban and rural communities of Blantyre in Malawi. Most participants reported that they accepted the invitation to participate in research because of better quality treatment during study also known as ancillary care, monetary and material incentives given to participants, and thorough medical diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Misrepresentation and distortion of research in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-03-13

    Publication in peer-reviewed journals is an essential step in the scientific process. However, publication is not simply the reporting of facts arising from a straightforward analysis thereof. Authors have broad latitude when writing their reports and may be tempted to consciously or unconsciously "spin" their study findings. Spin has been defined as a specific intentional or unintentional reporting that fails to faithfully reflect the nature and range of findings and that could affect the impression the results produce in readers. This article, based on a literature review, reports the various practices of spin from misreporting by "beautification" of methods to misreporting by misinterpreting the results. It provides data on the prevalence of some forms of spin in specific fields and the possible effects of some types of spin on readers' interpretation and research dissemination. We also discuss why researchers would spin their reports and possible ways to avoid it.

  8. Adverse reproduction outcomes among employees working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennborg, H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Stenbeck, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate reproductive outcomes such as birthweight, preterm births, and postterm births among women working in research laboratories while pregnant. Methods Female university personnel were identified from a source cohort of Swedish laboratory employees.......4). Conclusions There was a slightly elevated risk for some reproductive outcomes among the women working with certain laboratory tasks, specifically for preterm and postterm births in relation to work with solvents and bacteria....

  9. Ethical considerations in biomedical research: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlöf, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Ethical considerations are made when an experiment is planned and take a regulatory system of moral principles into account. Ethical considerations should first and foremost be made in order to protect the individual subject/animal from being exposed to any unethical and perhaps even illegal intervention and to ensure that the experimental conditions used are appropriate. The main role of research ethics committees is to assess the scientific and ethical aspects of submitted protocols and follow up the trial until its closure.

  10. Disparate foundations of scientists' policy positions on contentious biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2017-06-13

    What drives scientists' position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take a public stand on important scientific policies. Using 19,257 papers published by participants, we reconstructed their collaboration networks and research specializations. Although we found significant peer associations overall, those opposing "gain-of-function" research are more sensitive to peers than are proponents. Conversely, specializing in fields directly related to gain-of-function research (immunology, virology) predicts public support better than specializing in fields related to potential pathogenic risks (such as public health) predicts opposition. These findings suggest that different social processes might drive support compared with opposition. Supporters are embedded in a tight-knit scholarly community that is likely both more familiar with and trusting of the relevant risk mitigation practices. Opponents, on the other hand, are embedded in a looser federation of widely varying academic specializations with cognate knowledge of disease and epidemics that seems to draw more heavily on peers. Understanding how scientists' social embeddedness shapes the policy actions they take is important for helping sides interpret each other's position accurately, avoiding echo-chamber effects, and protecting the role of scientific expertise in social policy.

  11. Contributions of aeromedical research to flight and biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E H

    1986-10-01

    Pilot and plane capabilities to withstand high-Gz combat maneuvers are tactically important. Sustained 10-15 Gz capabilities of current and future planes outstrip safe physiologic limits in spite of the combined use of World War II-vintage straining maneuvers and relatively ineffective anti-G suits to prevent losses of vision and consciousness. However, the extreme arterial pressure increases needed to maintain cerebral blood flow (e.g. 400 mm Hg at heart level during exposures to 13.5 G when sitting upright) carry risks of anatomic damage to the circulatory system and rupture of air-containing, essentially unprotectable, lungs. These could be minimized, and incapacitating losses of consciousness avoided, by use of horizontal positions designed to eliminate heart-to-head hydrostatic gradients. Development of a prone-position cockpit with a counterweighted, forward-looking head support plus optical-electronically aided all-directional visibility is the most physiologic, safest, and surest way to achieve this goal.

  12. [Biomedical informatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  13. [Scientific information systems: tools for measures of biomedical research impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete Cortés, José; Banqueri Ozáez, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    The present article provides an analysis and description of the use of scientific information systems as instruments to measure and monitor results and investigative activity in biomedicine. Based on the current situation concerning the use and implementation of these systems, we offer a detailed description of the actors of these systems and propose a functional architecture for this class of software. In addition, the instruments that these types of systems offer for the measurement of the impact of the results of research are described in depth, as these instruments can help in decision making. Finally, a selection of national and international scientific information systems are listed and reviewed.

  14. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors...... caused by sample contamination or interference from other elements. The distribution of determinations of Cu in chorion villi from normal pregnant women is used as an example, and after screening it proved to be closely approximated by a logarithmic normal distribution with a mean value of 0.6 mg...

  15. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  16. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Engineering makes multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. Communication training is important for students, who have a potential to develop Biomedical Engineering. Communication is not easy in a multidisciplinary research area, because each area has its own background of thinking. Because each nation has its own background of culture, on the other hand, international communication is not easy, either. A cross-cultural student program has been designed for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area. Students from a variety of backgrounds of research area and culture have joined in the program: mechanical engineering, material science, environmental engineering, science of nursing, dentist, pharmacy, electronics, and so on. The program works well for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area of biomedical engineering. Foreign language and digital data give students chance to study several things: how to make communication precisely, how to quote previous data. The experience in the program helps students not only understand new idea in the laboratory visit, but also make a presentation in the international research conference. The program relates to author's several experiences: the student internship abroad, the cross-cultural student camp, multi PhD theses, various affiliations, and the creation of the interdisciplinary department.

  18. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications...

  19. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  20. Guidelines for Developing and Reporting Machine Learning Predictive Models in Biomedical Research: A Multidisciplinary View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Phung, Dinh; Tran, Truyen; Gupta, Sunil; Rana, Santu; Karmakar, Chandan; Shilton, Alistair; Yearwood, John; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Ho, Tu Bao; Venkatesh, Svetha; Berk, Michael

    2016-12-16

    As more and more researchers are turning to big data for new opportunities of biomedical discoveries, machine learning models, as the backbone of big data analysis, are mentioned more often in biomedical journals. However, owing to the inherent complexity of machine learning methods, they are prone to misuse. Because of the flexibility in specifying machine learning models, the results are often insufficiently reported in research articles, hindering reliable assessment of model validity and consistent interpretation of model outputs. To attain a set of guidelines on the use of machine learning predictive models within clinical settings to make sure the models are correctly applied and sufficiently reported so that true discoveries can be distinguished from random coincidence. A multidisciplinary panel of machine learning experts, clinicians, and traditional statisticians were interviewed, using an iterative process in accordance with the Delphi method. The process produced a set of guidelines that consists of (1) a list of reporting items to be included in a research article and (2) a set of practical sequential steps for developing predictive models. A set of guidelines was generated to enable correct application of machine learning models and consistent reporting of model specifications and results in biomedical research. We believe that such guidelines will accelerate the adoption of big data analysis, particularly with machine learning methods, in the biomedical research community. ©Wei Luo, Dinh Phung, Truyen Tran, Sunil Gupta, Santu Rana, Chandan Karmakar, Alistair Shilton, John Yearwood, Nevenka Dimitrova, Tu Bao Ho, Svetha Venkatesh, Michael Berk. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.12.2016.

  1. BUILDing SCHOLARS: enhancing diversity among U.S. biomedical researchers in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Aley, Stephen B; Boland, Thomas; Corral, Guadalupe; Cox, Marc B; Echegoyen, Lourdes E; Grineski, Sara E; Morera, Osvaldo F; Nazeran, Homer

    2017-01-01

    With funding from the National Institutes of Health, BUILDing SCHOLARS was established at The University of Texas at El Paso with the goal of implementing, evaluating and sustaining a suite of institutional, faculty and student development interventions in order to train the next generation of biomedical researchers from the U.S. Southwest region, where the need is dire among underserved communities. The focus is on supporting the infrastructure necessary to train and mentor students so they persist on pathways across a range of biomedical research fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the design and implementation of BUILDing SCHOLARS' key interventions, which offer a systemic student training model for the U.S. Southwest. In-depth reporting of evaluation results is reserved for other technical publications. BUILDing SCHOLARS uses a comprehensive regional approach to undergraduate training through a multi-institution consortium that includes 12 research partners and various pipeline partners across Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Through faculty collaborations and undergraduate research training, the program integrates social and behavioral sciences and biomedical engineering while emphasizing seven transdisciplinary nodes of biomedical research excellence that are common across partner institutions: addiction, cancer, degenerative and chronic diseases, environmental health, health disparities, infectious diseases, and translational biomedicine. Key interventions aim to: (1) improve institutional capacities by expanding undergraduate research training infrastructures; (2) develop an intra- and cross-institutional mentoring-driven "community of practice" to support undergraduate student researchers; (3) broaden the pool of student participants, improve retention, and increase matriculation into competitive graduate programs; and (4) support faculty and postdoctoral personnel by training them in research pedagogy and mentoring techniques and providing

  2. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  3. Applications of nanotechnology, next generation sequencing and microarrays in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elingaramil, Sauli; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies, microarrays and advances in bio nanotechnology have had an enormous impact on research within a short time frame. This impact appears certain to increase further as many biomedical institutions are now acquiring these prevailing new technologies. Beyond conventional sampling of genome content, wide-ranging applications are rapidly evolving for next-generation sequencing, microarrays and nanotechnology. To date, these technologies have been applied in a variety of contexts, including whole-genome sequencing, targeted re sequencing and discovery of transcription factor binding sites, noncoding RNA expression profiling and molecular diagnostics. This paper thus discusses current applications of nanotechnology, next-generation sequencing technologies and microarrays in biomedical research and highlights the transforming potential these technologies offer.

  4. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  5. Introduction: The Future of Social Movement Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is

  6. Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-03-01

    This report consists of answers submitted by various laboratory directors or individual investigators who responded to an International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire concerning their present research programme, future scope of that programme, the investigators' ideas and opinions on marine radioecology research. Information on the possibility of co-operation with other laboratories is also included

  7. Translational Biomedical Informatics and Pharmacometrics Approaches in the Drug Interactions Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyue; Wu, Heng‐Yi; Chiang, Chien‐Wei; Wang, Lei; Binkheder, Samar; Wang, Xueying; Zeng, Donglin; Quinney, Sara K.

    2018-01-01

    Drug interaction is a leading cause of adverse drug events and a major obstacle for current clinical practice. Pharmacovigilance data mining, pharmacokinetic modeling, and text mining are computation and informatic tools on integrating drug interaction knowledge and generating drug interaction hypothesis. We provide a comprehensive overview of these translational biomedical informatics methodologies with related databases. We hope this review illustrates the complementary nature of these informatic approaches and facilitates the translational drug interaction research. PMID:29193890

  8. The ICMJE and URM: Providing Independent Advice for the Conduct of Biomedical Research and Publication

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Weyden, Martin B

    2007-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is a working group of editors of selected medical journals that meets annually. Founded in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978, it currently consists of 11 member journals and a representative of the US National Library of Medicine. The major purpose of the Committee is to address and provide guidance for the conduct and publishing of biomedical research and the ethical tenets underpinning these activities. This advice is detailed in the C...

  9. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Background Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country’s international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) a...

  10. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.; Bigler, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on biomedical studies using cyclotron-produced 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, 53 Co, and 43 K. The following research projects are described: tumor detection and diagnosis; neurological studies; radiopharmaceutical development; 38 K as an indicator of blood flow to the myocardium; dosimetry for internally deposited isotopes in animals and man; cyclotron development; positron tomographic imaging with the TOKIM System; and review of positron emission transaxial tomograph instruments

  11. Biomedical Research, A Tool to Address the Health Issues that Affect African Populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to d...

  12. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  13. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  14. Research Skills for the Future: Research Workforce Under the Spotlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dobozy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and training needs of the future research workforce is under the spotlight. In this article, I take up Ulrich and Dash's (2013 somewhat provocative invitation to engage in discussion and debate about current and future research. In my three-tiered response, I first discuss Ulrich and Dash's article, followed by my own observations about the APEC/Deloitte (2010 research report: "Skills and Competencies Needed in the Research Field: Objectives 2020," and finally, I explore, in some detail, challenges of building a twentyfirst-century research workforce.

  15. Structure determination of biological macromolecules by NMR in solution: impact in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuethrich, K.

    1995-01-01

    Three-dimensional protein structures have a key role in biological and biomedical research, both as a basis for investigating correlations between molecular structure and physiological functions in natural systems, and as a platform for protein design and protein engineering. Although in this article little consideration was given to compounds other than peptides and proteins, the same applies to other biological macromolecules, in particular nucleic acids and their interactions with effector molecules and drugs. Eight years ago NMR spectroscopy in solution was introduced as a second method for structure determination of biopolymers, besides X-ray diffraction in protein crystals. In the meantime more than 200 NMR solution structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes of drugs with molecules of these two classes of compounds have been determined, which is an important contribution toward easing the bottleneck in protein engineering and drug design caused by the scarcity of data on 3D structures. More importantly, perhaps, the structural data collected by NMR in solution complement the information obtained from crystallography, in particular by additional characterization of dynamic molecular properties. Combined use of information from the two techniques can therefore establish a more reliable structural foundation for modern biomedical research. In the present report this is illustrated with the cyclophilin-cyclosporin A system, which is of keen interest in the biomedical field. (author). 54 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Liberty to decide on dual use biomedical research: an acknowledged necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleyan, Emma

    2010-03-01

    Humanity entered the twenty-first century with revolutionary achievements in biomedical research. At the same time multiple "dual-use" results have been published. The battle against infectious diseases is meeting new challenges, with newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Both natural disaster epidemics, such as SARS, avian influenza, haemorrhagic fevers, XDR and MDR tuberculosis and many others, and the possibility of intentional mis-use, such as letters containing anthrax spores in USA, 2001, have raised awareness of the real threats. Many great men, including Goethe, Spinoza, J.B. Shaw, Fr. Engels, J.F. Kennedy and others, have recognized that liberty is also a responsibility. That is why the liberty to decide now represents an acknowledged necessity: biomedical research should be supported, conducted and published with appropriate measures to prevent potential "dual use". Biomedical scientists should work according to the ethical principles of their Code of Conduct, an analogue of Hippocrates Oath of doctors; and they should inform government, society and their juniors about the problem. National science consulting boards of experts should be created to prepare guidelines and control the problem at state level. An international board should develop minimum standards to be applicable by each country. Bio-preparedness is considered another key-measure.

  17. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.

  18. The Futures of Qualitative Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I begin by reviewing past views on the future of qualitative social research. In different ways, all of these views give the same account of a problematic present state which must be overcome by following their own particular "mandatory directives" for future developments. I then discuss four structural mechanisms from which current problems in the transmission of qualitative and interpretative designs or approaches originate. Recently, supporters of "post-qualitative research" have addressed such problems by arguing for a form of strong theorism in qualitative social research. However, this type of response can lead back to an outdated dominance of theory over research and empirical substance. In conclusion, some alternative options for navigating qualitative and interpretative research through post-positivist waters are discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401165

  19. Futures Research, Policy Research, and the Policy Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Richard C.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that a greatly expanded attention given to futurism in educational institutions and an intensive, systematic use of futures research applied to educational policy making can go a long way toward meeting criticisms that education is backwards looking and resistant to change, and that education tends to develop an in-capacity for future…

  20. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay

    2017-05-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC is an e-learning platform that empowers the biomedical community to develop, launch and share open training materials. It deploys hands-on software training toolboxes through virtualization technologies such as Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox. The BBDTC facilitates migration of courses across other course management platforms. The framework encourages knowledge sharing and content personalization through the playlist functionality that enables unique learning experiences and accelerates information dissemination to a wider community.

  1. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lukarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, learning analytics (LA has attracted a great deal of attention in technology-enhanced learning (TEL research as practitioners, institutions, and researchers are increasingly seeing the potential that LA has to shape the future TEL landscape. Generally, LA deals with the development of methods that harness educational data sets to support the learning process. This paper provides a foundation for future research in LA. It provides a systematic overview on this emerging field and its key concepts through a reference model for LA based on four dimensions, namely data, environments, context (what?, stakeholders (who?, objectives (why?, and methods (how?. It further identifies various challenges and research opportunities in the area of LA in relation to each dimension.

  3. Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research: scientific and cultural exchange in undergraduate engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, Andrew D; Huang, Lixia; Hong, Bo; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    A model for an international undergraduate biomedical engineering research exchange program is outlined. In 2008, the Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Tsinghua University in Beijing, China established the Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research. Undergraduate biomedical engineering students from both universities are offered the opportunity to participate in research at the overseas institution. Programs such as these will not only provide research experiences for undergraduates but valuable cultural exchange and enrichment as well. Currently, strict course scheduling and rigorous curricula in most biomedical engineering programs may present obstacles for students to partake in study abroad opportunities. Universities are encouraged to harbor abroad opportunities for undergraduate engineering students, for which this particular program can serve as a model.

  4. Scenario research: Can the future be predicted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2000-01-01

    possible futures. In the process of creating the scenarios, researchers at MAPP and the Danish Technical University formulated mini scenarios based on their research. The scenarios were used as inspiration in discussions with experts from industry, trade organisations, authorities etc. and later discussed...... and supplemented at workshops - one for each of the four sectors. Experts from industry, trade organisations, retailing, authorities and other interested parties participated....

  5. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  6. International symposium on Biomedical Data Infrastructure (BDI 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Sarinder; Advances in biomedical infrastructure 2013

    2013-01-01

    Current Biomedical Databases are independently administered in geographically distinct locations, lending them almost ideally to adoption of intelligent data management approaches. This book focuses on research issues, problems and opportunities in Biomedical Data Infrastructure identifying new issues and directions for future research in Biomedical Data and Information Retrieval, Semantics in Biomedicine, and Biomedical Data Modeling and Analysis. The book will be a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development in biomedical data management.

  7. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  8. Patterns of biomedical science production in a sub-Saharan research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnandji Selidji T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research activities in sub-Saharan Africa may be limited to delegated tasks due to the strong control from Western collaborators, which could lead to scientific production of little value in terms of its impact on social and economic innovation in less developed areas. However, the current contexts of international biomedical research including the development of public-private partnerships and research institutions in Africa suggest that scientific activities are growing in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to describe the patterns of clinical research activities at a sub-Saharan biomedical research center. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a core group of researchers at the Medical Research Unit of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital from June 2009 to February 2010 in Lambaréné, Gabon. Scientific activities running at the MRU as well as the implementation of ethical and regulatory standards were covered by the interview sessions. Results The framework of clinical research includes transnational studies and research initiated locally. In transnational collaborations, a sub-Saharan research institution may be limited to producing confirmatory and late-stage data with little impact on economic and social innovation. However, ethical and regulatory guidelines are being implemented taking into consideration the local contexts. Similarly, the scientific content of studies designed by researchers at the MRU, if local needs are taken into account, may potentially contribute to a scientific production with long-term value on social and economic innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further research questions and methods in social sciences should comprehensively address the construction of scientific content with the social, economic and cultural contexts surrounding research activities.

  9. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Gerd J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application

  10. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  11. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Gerd J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2003-05-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  12. Perceptions of Chinese Biomedical Researchers Towards Academic Misconduct: A Comparison Between 2015 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing-Jiao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Bai, Yu; Eslick, Guy D; He, Xing-Xiang; Zhang, Shi-Bing; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; He, Hua

    2018-04-01

    Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman's rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% (446/9986) and 5.5% (832/15,127), respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% (39.8 ± 23.5% in 2010; 40.2 ± 24.5% in 2015) of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in

  13. Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

    2014-07-01

    While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking.

  14. PhysioNet: a research resource for studies of complex physiologic and biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, G B; Mark, R G; Goldberger, A L

    2000-01-01

    PhysioNet (http://www.physionet.org/) is a web-based resource supplying well-characterized physiologic signals and related open-source software to the biomedical research community. Inaugurated in September 1999 under the auspices of the NIH's National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), PhysioNet provides an on-line forum for free dissemination and exchange of research data and software, with facilities for cooperative analysis of data and evaluation of new analytic methods. As of September 2000, PhysioBank, the data archive made available via PhysioNet, contained roughly 35 gigabytes of recorded signals and annotations. PhysioNet is a public service of the Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals, a cooperative project initiated by researchers at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston University, McGill University, and MIT.

  15. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Duracinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d’Articles Médicaux survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France, the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers’ satisfaction and perceived needs. Methods A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d’Interrogation, de Gestion et d’Analyse des Publications Scientifiques bibliometric database. Results Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches––accreditation to direct research––: 45%. 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79% or submit (27%, limited skills in English (40% or in writing (32%, and difficulty in starting writing (35%. 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%, critical reediting (63%, formatting (52%, and/or writing (41%, to save time (92% and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%. 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%, medical writing (21%, or publication (38% fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73% and/or by the added financial value obtained by their

  16. Journal of Controversies in Biomedical Research - the Need of the Hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christudas Morais

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 75-89% of the peer–reviewed published literature are thought to be non-reproducible. A need exists to better address the problem of irreproducibility of research data so that contradictory, null and negative findings can be disclosed in an unbiased, non-judgemental, yet scientifically plausible manner. Journal of Controversies in Biomedical Research (JCBMR; www.jcbmr.com is an attempt to address the ‘reproducibility crisis’ in biomedical research. JCBMR is an online-only open access journal that will publish basic science or clinical research articles that meet any of the following criteria: a original articles that demonstrate biologically plausible negative, neutral or contentious findings; b original articles that challenge previously published results in peer-reviewed journals; c original articles that show effects of compounds on disease models (either in vitro or in vivo are contradictory to the expected outcome; d review articles that critically evaluate and challenge established norms and offer possible solutions to the problem; e any manuscript that will assist the scientific community to re-think and re–evaluate the established norm.

  17. Collaborative mining and interpretation of large-scale data for biomedical research insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Tsiliki

    Full Text Available Biomedical research becomes increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Researchers need to efficiently and effectively collaborate and make decisions by meaningfully assembling, mining and analyzing available large-scale volumes of complex multi-faceted data residing in different sources. In line with related research directives revealing that, in spite of the recent advances in data mining and computational analysis, humans can easily detect patterns which computer algorithms may have difficulty in finding, this paper reports on the practical use of an innovative web-based collaboration support platform in a biomedical research context. Arguing that dealing with data-intensive and cognitively complex settings is not a technical problem alone, the proposed platform adopts a hybrid approach that builds on the synergy between machine and human intelligence to facilitate the underlying sense-making and decision making processes. User experience shows that the platform enables more informed and quicker decisions, by displaying the aggregated information according to their needs, while also exploiting the associated human intelligence.

  18. Critically engaging: integrating the social and the biomedical in international microbicides research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Pool, Robert

    2011-09-27

    Randomized controlled trials and critical social theory are known not to be happy bedfellows. Such trials are embedded in a positivist view of the world, seeking definitive answers to testable questions; critical social theory questions the methods by which we deem the world knowable and may consider experiments in the biomedical sciences as social artifacts. Yet both of these epistemologically and methodologically divergent fields offer potentially important advances in HIV research. In this paper, we describe collaboration between social and biomedical researchers on a large, publicly funded programme to develop vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention. In terms of critical engagement, having integrated and qualitative social science components in the protocol meant potentially nesting alternative epistemologies at the heart of the randomized controlled trial. The social science research highlighted the fallibility and fragility of trial data by demonstrating inconsistencies in key behavioural measurements. It also foregrounded the disjuncture between biomedical conceptions of microbicides and the meanings and uses of the study gel in the context of users' everyday lives. These findings were communicated to the clinical and epidemiological members of the team on an ongoing basis via a feedback loop, through which new issues of concern could also be debated and, in theory, data collection adjusted to the changing needs of the programme. Although critical findings were taken on board by the trialists, a hierarchy of evidence nonetheless remained that limited the utility of some social science findings. This was in spite of mutual respect between clinical epidemiologists and social scientists, equal representation in management and coordination bodies, and equity in funding for the different disciplines. We discuss the positive role that social science integrated into an HIV prevention trial can play, but nonetheless highlight tensions that remain where a hierarchy

  19. More regulation of industry-supported biomedical research: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Malmstrom, David Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Industry-sponsored biomedical research is under the microscope. In an attempt to achieve just results in extraordinary cases, critics are suggesting regulations that would pervert the U.S. clinical trial process. However, the arguments made to justify such regulation are weak at best. All the proposals to regulate industry sponsorship of clinical trials that we surveyed (over a hundred articles and ten books, most written in the past decade) suffer from some form of fallacious reasoning. In the interest of advocating sound policy, this article points out some of the most common reasoning errors found in the literature on financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials.

  20. Jupyter and Galaxy: Easing entry barriers into complex data analyses for biomedical researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A Grüning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it take to convert a heap of sequencing data into a publishable result? First, common tools are employed to reduce primary data (sequencing reads to a form suitable for further analyses (i.e., the list of variable sites. The subsequent exploratory stage is much more ad hoc and requires the development of custom scripts and pipelines, making it problematic for biomedical researchers. Here, we describe a hybrid platform combining common analysis pathways with the ability to explore data interactively. It aims to fully encompass and simplify the "raw data-to-publication" pathway and make it reproducible.

  1. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.; Bigler, R.E.

    1978-09-30

    Progress is reported on biomedical studies using cyclotron-produced /sup 18/F, /sup 15/O, /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 52/Fe, /sup 38/K, /sup 206/Bi, /sup 73/Se, /sup 53/Co, and /sup 43/K. The following research projects are described: tumor detection and diagnosis; neurological studies; radiopharmaceutical development; /sup 38/K as an indicator of blood flow to the myocardium; dosimetry for internally deposited isotopes in animals and man; cyclotron development; positron tomographic imaging with the TOKIM System; and review of positron emission transaxial tomograph instruments. (HLW)

  2. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  3. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  4. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Protist Collections: Essential for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Votýpka, Jan; Grellier, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The vouchered deposit of protist type specimens in institution-maintained collections is a prerequisite for species description, and greatly enhances the chances of sample availability and preservation for future generations. However, specimens are currently most often deposited in personal collections maintained by the individual effort of researchers. We discuss the disadvantages of such a scenario and propose a change to this arrangement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bridging the social and the biomedical: engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-09-27

    This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.

  7. Informed consent document improvement does not increase patients' comprehension in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adeline; Brandt, Christian; Cornu, Catherine; Maison, Patrick; Thalamas, Claire; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2010-03-01

    International guidelines on ethics in biomedical research require that the informed consent of all enrolled participants is obtained. A written document describing the research, the informed consent (IC) document, must be given to all participants by the investigator. Most IC documents are long, containing much information. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the modification of the IC document by a working group or systematic improvement in its lexicosyntactic readability can improve comprehension of the written information given to patients participating in biomedical research. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were randomized to read one of the three versions of the IC document: unchanged document, document modified using systematic improvement of lexicosyntactic readability and document modified by a working group. Neither the improvement in the lexicosyntactic readability, nor the intervention of the working group significantly improved the score of objective comprehension for the subjects included in this study: it was 66.6 (95% confidence interval 64.0, 69.2) for the control group, 68.8 (66.2, 71.4) for the group with the document improved for lexicosyntactic readability and 69.2 (66.0, 72.4) for the group who read the document improved by the working group (P= 0.38). We failed to show that improving IC document comprehension through a lexicosyntactic approach or by a working group leads to better comprehension.

  8. Credibility Assessment of Deterministic Computational Models and Simulations for Space Biomedical Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Human missions beyond low earth orbit to destinations, such as to Mars and asteroids will expose astronauts to novel operational conditions that may pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of health risk countermeasures for these missions. Consequently, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and implement computational models and simulations (M&S) to help predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. In order to effectively accomplish these goals, the DAP evaluates its models and simulations via a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment process to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to both inform research intended to mitigate potential risk as well as guide countermeasure development. In doing so, DAP works closely with end-users, such as space life science researchers, to establish appropriate M&S credibility thresholds. We will present and demonstrate the process the DAP uses to vet computational M&S for space biomedical analysis using real M&S examples. We will also provide recommendations on how the larger space biomedical community can employ these concepts to enhance the credibility of their M&S codes.

  9. Proposal for a new LEIR Slow Extraction Scheme dedicated to Biomedical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Carli, C

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a proposal for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a biomedical research facility at CERN. LEIR has to be maintained as a heavy ion accumulator ring for LHC and for fixed-target experiments with the SPS. In parallel to this on-going operation for physics experiments, an additional secondary use of LEIR for a biomedical research facility was proposed [Dosanjh2013, Holzscheiter2012, PHE2010]. This facility would complement the existing research beam-time available at other laboratories for studies related to ion beam therapy. The new slow extraction [Abler2013] is based on the third-integer resonance. The reference beam is composed of fully stripped carbon ions with extraction energies of 20-440 MeV/u, transverse physical emittances of 5-25 µm and momentum spreads of ±2-9•10-4. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible...

  10. Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiwa, Nina; Bailey, Jarrod; Clausing, Peter; Daneshian, Mardas; Eileraas, Marianne; Farkas, Sándor; Gyertyán, István; Hubrecht, Robert; Kobel, Werner; Krummenacher, Goran; Leist, Marcel; Lohi, Hannes; Miklósi, Adám; Ohl, Frauke; Olejniczak, Klaus; Schmitt, Georg; Sinnett-Smith, Patrick; Smith, David; Wagner, Kristina; Yager, James D; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use of dogs as laboratory animals. The report gives an overview on the use of dogs in biomedical research, safety assessment and the drug developmental process and reflects the discussion on the use of dogs as second (non-rodent)species in toxicity testing. Approximately 20,000 dogs are used in scientific procedures in Europe every year, and their distinct genetic, physiological and behavioral characteristics may support their use as models for e.g. behavioral analysis and genetic research. Advances in the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of experiments using dogs) are described, potential opportunities are discussed and recommendations for further progress in this area are made.

  11. Canine as a biomedical research model: immunological, hematological, and oncological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Wilson, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The canine has been used as a biomedical research model in radiation studies by a number of laboratories supported primarily by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors. These studies were unique in that they covered the life spans of the canines and permitted the collection of data from birth to death under controlled conditions. Since these were multiparametric studies, an extensive data base has been established, not the least of which are normative values covering all biologic systems, including immunohematology. The canine model has also been extensively used by other groups, such as transplantation biologists. The virtues of the canine as a model in these and many other endeavors are becoming increasingly more apparent with the passing of time. One of the primary goals of this volume was to compile the knowledge and experience of researchers using the canine model and to focus their expertise on furthering the use of the canine for studies in immunology, hematology, and oncology. We have attempted to present some of the contemporary, diverse uses of the canine in biomedical research, emphasizing immunologic endpoints, and also to present in detail some of the latest technology used in such studies

  12. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care. PMID:26843812

  13. Big Data Application in Biomedical Research and Health Care: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Wu, Min; Gopukumar, Deepika; Zhao, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Big data technologies are increasingly used for biomedical and health-care informatics research. Large amounts of biological and clinical data have been generated and collected at an unprecedented speed and scale. For example, the new generation of sequencing technologies enables the processing of billions of DNA sequence data per day, and the application of electronic health records (EHRs) is documenting large amounts of patient data. The cost of acquiring and analyzing biomedical data is expected to decrease dramatically with the help of technology upgrades, such as the emergence of new sequencing machines, the development of novel hardware and software for parallel computing, and the extensive expansion of EHRs. Big data applications present new opportunities to discover new knowledge and create novel methods to improve the quality of health care. The application of big data in health care is a fast-growing field, with many new discoveries and methodologies published in the last five years. In this paper, we review and discuss big data application in four major biomedical subdisciplines: (1) bioinformatics, (2) clinical informatics, (3) imaging informatics, and (4) public health informatics. Specifically, in bioinformatics, high-throughput experiments facilitate the research of new genome-wide association studies of diseases, and with clinical informatics, the clinical field benefits from the vast amount of collected patient data for making intelligent decisions. Imaging informatics is now more rapidly integrated with cloud platforms to share medical image data and workflows, and public health informatics leverages big data techniques for predicting and monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola. In this paper, we review the recent progress and breakthroughs of big data applications in these health-care domains and summarize the challenges, gaps, and opportunities to improve and advance big data applications in health care.

  14. The Aotus nancymaae erythrocyte proteome and its importance for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, D A; García-Valiente, R; Ibarrola, N; Muro, A; Patarroyo, M A

    2017-01-30

    The Aotus nancymaae species has been of great importance in researching the biology and pathogenesis of malaria, particularly for studying Plasmodium molecules for including them in effective vaccines against such microorganism. In spite of the forgoing, there has been no report to date describing the biology of parasite target cells in primates or their biomedical importance. This study was thus designed to analyse A. nancymaae erythrocyte protein composition using MS data collected during a previous study aimed at characterising the Plasmodium vivax proteome and published in the pertinent literature. Most peptides identified were similar to those belonging to 1189 Homo sapiens molecules; >95% of them had orthologues in New World primates. GO terms revealed a correlation between categories having the greatest amount of proteins and vital cell function. Integral membrane molecules were also identified which could be possible receptors facilitating interaction with Plasmodium species. The A. nancymaae erythrocyte proteome is described here for the first time, as a starting point for more in-depth/extensive studies. The data reported represents a source of invaluable information for laboratories interested in carrying out basic and applied biomedical investigation studies which involve using this primate. An understanding of the proteomics characteristics of A. nancymaae erythrocytes represents a fascinating area for research regarding the study of the pathogenesis of malaria since these are the main target for Plasmodium invasion. However, and even though Aotus is one of the non-human primate models considered most appropriate for biomedical research, knowledge of its proteome, particularly its erythrocytes, remains unknown. According to the above and bearing in mind the lack of information about the A. nancymaae species genome and transcriptome, this study involved a search for primate proteins for comparing their MS/MS spectra with the available information for

  15. Current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    To analyse current ranking (2013) of institutions, journals and researchers in the Republic of Macedonia. the country rankings of R. Macedonia were analyzed with SCImago Country & Journal Rank (SJR) for subject area Medicine in the years 1996-2013, and ordered by H-index. SCImago Institutions Rankings for 2013 was used for the scientific impact of biomedical institutions in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal metrics from Elsevier for the Macedonian scholarly journals for the period 2009-2013 were performed. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), the Impact per Publication (IPP), and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) were analysed. Macedonian scholarly biomedical journals included in Google Scholar metrics (2013, 2012) were analysed with h5-index and h5-median (June 2014). A semantic analysis of the PubMed database was performed with GoPubMed on November 2, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the field of biomedical sciences affiliated with the country of Macedonia. Harzing's Publish or Perish software was used for author impact analysis and the calculation of the Hirsh-index based on Google Scholar query. The rank of subject area Medicine of R. Macedonia according to the SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SJR) is 110th in the world and 17th in Eastern Europe. Of 20 universities in Macedonia, only Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, and the University St Clement of Ohrid, Bitola, are listed in the SCImago Institutions Rankings (SIR) for 2013. A very small number of Macedonian scholarly journals is included in Web of Sciences (2), PubMed (1), PubMed Central (1), SCOPUS (6), SCImago (6), and Google Scholar metrics (6). The rank of Hirsh index (h-index) was different from the rank of number of abstracts indexed in PubMed for the top 20 authors from R. Macedonia. The current biomedical scientific impact (2013) of institutions, academic journals and researchers in R. Macedonia is very low. There is an urgent need for organized measures to improve the quality

  16. Biomedical Science Undergraduate Major: A New Pathway to Advance Research and the Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS

  17. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  19. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  20. Integrating Contemplative Tools into Biomedical Science Education and Research Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic preparation of science researchers and/or human or veterinary medicine clinicians through the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM curriculum has usually focused on the students (1 acquiring increased disciplinary expertise, (2 learning needed methodologies and protocols, and (3 expanding their capacity for intense, persistent focus. Such educational training is effective until roadblocks or problems arise via this highly-learned approach. Then, the health science trainee may have few tools available for effective problem solving. Training to achieve flexibility, adaptability, and broadened perspectives using contemplative practices has been rare among biomedical education programs. To address this gap, a Cornell University-based program involving formal biomedical science coursework, and health science workshops has been developed to offer science students, researchers and health professionals a broader array of personal, contemplation-based, problem-solving tools. This STEM educational initiative includes first-person exercises designed to broaden perceptional awareness, decrease emotional drama, and mobilize whole-body strategies for creative problem solving. Self-calibration and journaling are used for students to evaluate the personal utility of each exercise. The educational goals are to increase student self-awareness and self-regulation and to provide trainees with value-added tools for career-long problem solving. Basic elements of this educational initiative are discussed using the framework of the Tree of Contemplative Practices.

  1. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  2. Are Russian propolis ethanol extracts the future for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambi, Ashwin; Bryan, Julia; Borbon, Katherine; Centeno, Daniel; Liu, Tianchi; Chen, Tung Po; Cattabiani, Thomas; Traba, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis. If the metals found in propolis are removed, cell lysis still occurs and these modified extracts may be used in the prevention of medical and biomedical implant contaminations. The antibacterial activity of metal-free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE) on two biofilm forming bacteria: penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated using MTT and a Live/Dead staining technique. Toxicity studies were conducted on mouse osteoblast (MC-3T3) cells using the same viability assays. In the MTT assay, biofilms were incubated with MTT at 37°C for 30min. After washing, the purple formazan formed inside the bacterial cells was dissolved by SDS and then measured using a microplate reader by setting the detecting and reference wavelengths at 570nm and 630nm, respectively. Live and dead distributions of cells were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Complete biofilm inactivation was observed when biofilms were treated for 40h with 2µg/ml of MFRPEE. Results indicate that the metals present in propolis possess antibacterial activity, but do not have an essential role in the antibacterial mechanism of action. Additionally, the same concentration of metals found in propolis samples, were toxic to tissue cells. Comparable to samples with metals, metal free samples caused damage to the cell membrane structures of both bacterial species, resulting in cell lysis. Results suggest that the structural mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol

  3. Assessing the impact of biomedical research in academic institutions of disparate sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzakis Angelos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of academic research performance is nowadays a priority issue. Bibliometric indicators such as the number of publications, total citation counts and h-index are an indispensable tool in this task but their inherent association with the size of the research output may result in rewarding high production when evaluating institutions of disparate sizes. The aim of this study is to propose an indicator that may facilitate the comparison of institutions of disparate sizes. Methods The Modified Impact Index (MII was defined as the ratio of the observed h-index (h of an institution over the h-index anticipated for that institution on average, given the number of publications (N it produces i.e. (α and β denote the intercept and the slope, respectively, of the line describing the dependence of the h-index on the number of publications in log10 scale. MII values higher than 1 indicate that an institution performs better than the average, in terms of its h-index. Data on scientific papers published during 2002–2006 and within 36 medical fields for 219 Academic Medical Institutions from 16 European countries were used to estimate α and β and to calculate the MII of their total and field-specific production. Results From our biomedical research data, the slope β governing the dependence of h-index on the number of publications in biomedical research was found to be similar to that estimated in other disciplines (≈0.4. The MII was positively associated with the average number of citations/publication (r = 0.653, p Conclusion The MII should complement the use of h-index when comparing the research output of institutions of disparate sizes. It has a conceptual interpretation and, with the data provided here, can be computed for the total research output as well as for field-specific publication sets of institutions in biomedicine.

  4. Biomedical Applications of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, He; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structure and exceptional phyiscal and chemical properties that lead to many potential applications. Among various applications, biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last three years. In this review, we present an overview of current advances in applications of graphene in biomedicine with focus on drug delivery, cancer therapy and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:22448195

  5. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt

    2015-01-01

    in the process of scientific knowledge production. Finally, a re-focus on experience as the genuine object of research in psychology as well as a transdisciplinary understanding of human psychological functioning within a socially co-constructed, biological, as well as material world was discussed.......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light...

  6. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  7. Report on the Results of the 1988 Survey of Former Biomedical Engineering Technology Students. Research Report Number 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livieratos, Barbara B.

    In spring 1988, a telephone survey was conducted of students who had been enrolled in Howard Community College's (HCC's) Biomedical Engineering Technology (BMET) program between 1972 and 1987. The study sought to gather information for future student recruitment and program planning efforts. Responses were obtained from 43 (35%) of a potential…

  8. Social networks, web-based tools and diseases: implications for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2013-03-01

    Advances in information technology have improved our ability to gather, collect and analyze information from individuals online. Social networks can be seen as a nonlinear superposition of a multitude of complex connections between people where the nodes represent individuals and the links between them capture a variety of different social interactions. The emergence of different types of social networks has fostered connections between individuals, thus facilitating data exchange in a variety of fields. Therefore, the question posed now is "can these same tools be applied to life sciences in order to improve scientific and medical research?" In this article, I will review how social networks and other web-based tools are changing the way we approach and track diseases in biomedical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposal for a data publication and citation framework when sharing biomedical research resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Ganzinger, Matthias; Hurdle, John F; Knaup, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Research data and biospecimen repositories are valuable resources for biomedical investigators. Sharing these resources has great potential benefits including efficient use of resources, avoiding duplicate experiments, gathering adequate sample sizes, and promoting collaboration. However, concerns from data producers about difficulties of getting proper acknowledgement for their data contributions are increasingly becoming obstacles for efficient and large-scale data sharing in reality. In this research project we analyzed the inadequacy of current policy-based solution for promoting data sharing. The recommendations in this paper emphasize data publication and citation. This project aims to promote the acknowledgement of data contributors with realizable informatics tools that augment informal policy-level strategies, and do so in a way that promotes data sharing.

  10. Research in intelligent biomedical clothing vs. realities in the European textile business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    In order to make intelligent biomedical clothing a market reality, a critical mass of scientific, technical and industrial capacities from various disciplines and industries must be successfully brought together. The textiles and clothing sector, i.e. the industry that transform natural or man-made fibres into yarns then with a myriad of processing options into complex tissues and finally into clothing, is undoubtedly a crucial element in such development. With Europe disposing of the world's most diverse, productive and innovative textiles and clothing industry, in addition to relevant expertise and resources in other scientific disciplines and industrial sectors, it could play a leading role in the advancement of the concept of intelligent biomedical clothing. In this process, a great number of challenges--firstly scientific and technical in nature--still need to be overcome and support from public funding programmes could constitute the necessary trigger for research and industrial efforts to be seriously undertaken. In view of the great benefits of such new products for the individual consumer, national health care systems and the society as a whole, a concerted effort in private-public partnership seems merited.

  11. A systematic review of comparisons between protocols or registrations and full reports in primary biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective study protocols and registrations can play a significant role in reducing incomplete or selective reporting of primary biomedical research, because they are pre-specified blueprints which are available for the evaluation of, and comparison with, full reports. However, inconsistencies between protocols or registrations and full reports have been frequently documented. In this systematic review, which forms part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical, we aimed to survey the existing evidence of inconsistencies between protocols or registrations (i.e., what was planned to be done and/or what was actually done and full reports (i.e., what was reported in the literature; this was based on findings from systematic reviews and surveys in the literature. Methods Electronic databases, including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE, were searched to identify eligible surveys and systematic reviews. Our primary outcome was the level of inconsistency (expressed as a percentage, with higher percentages indicating greater inconsistency between protocols or registration and full reports. We summarized the findings from the included systematic reviews and surveys qualitatively. Results There were 37 studies (33 surveys and 4 systematic reviews included in our analyses. Most studies (n = 36 compared protocols or registrations with full reports in clinical trials, while a single survey focused on primary studies of clinical trials and observational research. High inconsistency levels were found in outcome reporting (ranging from 14% to 100%, subgroup reporting (from 12% to 100%, statistical analyses (from 9% to 47%, and other measure comparisons. Some factors, such as outcomes with significant results, sponsorship, type of outcome and disease speciality were reported to be significantly related to inconsistent reporting. Conclusions We found that inconsistent reporting between protocols or

  12. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  13. Research Data Management Education for Future Curators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Science has progressed by “standing on the shoulders of giants” and for centuries research and knowledge have been shared through the publication and dissemination of books, papers and scholarly communications. Moving forward, much of our understanding builds on (large scale datasets, which have been collected or generated as part of the scientific process of discovery. How will this be made available for future generations? How will we ensure that, once collected or generated, others can stand on the shoulders of the data we produce?Educating students about the challenges and opportunities of data management is a key part of the solution and helps the researchers of the future to start to think about the problems early on in their careers. We have compiled a set of case studies to show the similarities and differences in data between disciplines, and produced a booklet for students containing the case studies and an introduction to the data lifecycle and other data management practices. This has already been used at the University of Southampton within the Faculty of Engineering and is now being adopted centrally for use in other faculties. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the case studies and the guide, and reflect on the reception the guide has had to date.

  14. The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge for the Environmental Health Sciences and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Herne, Mose; Castille, Dorothy

    2017-08-29

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a term, relatively new to Western science, that encompasses a subset of traditional knowledge maintained by Indigenous nations about the relationships between people and the natural environment. The term was first shared by tribal elders in the 1980s to help raise awareness of the importance of TEK. TEK has become a construct that Western scientists have increasingly considered for conducting culturally relevant research with Tribal nations. The authors aim to position TEK in relation to other emerging schools of thought, that is, concepts such as the exposome, social determinants of health (SDoH), and citizen science, and to explore TEK's relevance to environmental health research. This article provides examples of successful application of TEK principles in federally funded research when implemented with respect for the underlying cultural context and in partnership with Indigenous communities. Rather than treating TEK as an adjunct or element to be quantified or incorporated into Western scientific studies, TEK can instead ground our understanding of the environmental, social, and biomedical determinants of health and improve our understanding of health and disease. This article provides historical and recent examples of how TEK has informed Western scientific research. This article provides recommendations for researchers and federal funders to ensure respect for the contributions of TEK to research and to ensure equity and self-determination for Tribal nations who participate in research. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP858.

  15. Developing an Open-Source Bibliometric Ranking Website Using Google Scholar Citation Profiles for Researchers in the Field of Biomedical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Lin, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    We developed the Biomedical Informatics Researchers ranking website (rank.informatics-review.com) to overcome many of the limitations of previous scientific productivity ranking strategies. The website is composed of four key components that work together to create an automatically updating ranking website: (1) list of biomedical informatics researchers, (2) Google Scholar scraper, (3) display page, and (4) updater. The site has been useful to other groups in evaluating researchers, such as tenure and promotions committees in interpreting the various citation statistics reported by candidates. Creation of the Biomedical Informatics Researchers ranking website highlights the vast differences in scholarly productivity among members of the biomedical informatics research community.

  16. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  17. Biomedical and health informatics education and research at the Information Technology Institute in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, R; Khalifa, A

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, Egypt has experienced a revolution in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that has had a corresponding impact on the field of healthcare. Since 1993, the Information Technology Institute (ITI) has been leading the development of the Information Technology (IT) professional training and education in Egypt to produce top quality IT professionals who are considered now the backbone of the IT revolution in Egypt. For the past five years, ITI has been adopting the objective of building high caliber health professionals who can effectively serve the ever-growing information society. Academic links have been established with internationally renowned universities, e.g., Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) in US, University of Leipzig in Germany, in addition those with the Egyptian Fellowship Board in order to enrich ITI Medical Informatics Education and Research. The ITI Biomedical and Health Informatics (BMHI) education and training programs target fresh graduates as well as life-long learners. Therefore, the program's learning objectives are framed within the context of the four specialization tracks: Healthcare Management (HCM), Biomedical Informatics Research (BMIR), Bioinformatics Professional (BIP), and Healthcare Professional (HCP). The ITI BMHI research projects tackle a wide-range of current challenges in this field, such as knowledge management in healthcare, providing tele-consultation services for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases for underserved regions in Egypt, and exploring the cultural and educational aspects of Nanoinformatics. Since 2006, ITI has been positively contributing to develop the discipline of BMHI in Egypt in order to support improved healthcare services.

  18. Improving the biomedical research literature: insights from authors' editors can help journal editors define and refine their core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Valerie; Shashok, Karen

    2018-01-01

    A team of stakeholders in biomedical publishing recently proposed a set of core competencies for journal editors, as a resource that can inform training programs for editors and ultimately improve the quality of the biomedical research literature. This initiative, still in its early stages, would benefit from additional sources of expert information. Based on our experiences as authors' editors, we offer two suggestions on how to strengthen these competencies so that they better respond to the needs of readers and authors - the main users of and contributors to research journals. First, journal editors should be able to ensure that authors are given useful feedback on the language and writing in submitted manuscripts, beyond a (possibly incorrect) blanket judgement of whether the English is "acceptable" or not. Second, journal editors should be able to deal effectively with inappropriate text re-use and plagiarism. These additional competencies would, we believe, be valued by other stakeholders in biomedical research publication as markers of editorial quality.

  19. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  20. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda L; Bodin, Lennart; Wennborg, Helena

    2006-01-01

    of male employees in biomedical research laboratories are examined. METHODS: Offspring to males employed 1970-1989 at four Swedish universities were identified via the Medical Birth Register (MBR), along with other pregnancy parameters. Offspring of fathers with laboratory work (n = 2,281) is considered...... significant increased ORs concerning birth weight and/or gestational age, but work specifically with radioactive isotopes gave OR 1.8 (CI 1.0-3.2) for high birth weight and a relative risk of 1.2 (CI 1.0-1.4) for sex ratio (male/female). CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear association between periconceptional...... paternal laboratory work and adverse reproductive outcomes, but use of radioactive isotopes showed increased OR for high birth weight in offspring....

  1. Concept for linking de-identified biomedical research data using a study participant management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmann, Alexander; Bauer, Christian R K D; Schwanke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research projects show an increasing demand of large numbers of participants from different recruiting centers to achieve statistically significant results. The collected types of data are stored in distributed databases and are linked to the participant by different non-resolvable identifiers (layered pseudonyms) for de-identification. To ensure the quality of the gathered data, regular quality assurance analyses are required at each local center. Because of the distributed databases and layered pseudonyms the analyses can only be achieved manually. Therefore, the process is error-prone and laborious. The objective of this paper is to propose a solution concept to automate the manual process by using a local study participant management system. It orchestrates the process and enables the quality assurance analyses within a clinical data warehouse.

  2. Small animal MRI: clinical MRI as an interface to basic biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkernelle, J.G.; Stelter, L.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.

    2008-01-01

    The demand for highly resolved small animal MRI for the purpose of biomedical research has increased constantly. Dedicated small animal MRI scanners working at ultra high field strengths from 4.7 to 7.0 T and even above are MRI at its best. However, using high resolution RF coils in clinical scanners up to 3.0 T, small animal MRI can achieve highly resolved images showing excellent tissue contrast. In fact, in abundant experimental studies, clinical MRI is used for small animal imaging. Mostly clinical RF coils in the single-loop design are applied. In addition, custom-built RF coils and even gradient inserts are used in a clinical scanner. For the reduction of moving artifacts, special MRI-compatible animal ECG und respiration devices are available. In conclusion, clinical devices offer broad availability, are less expense in combination with good imaging performance and provide a translational nature of imaging results. (orig.)

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1983-02-01

    Biomedical and health effects research conducted at PNL in 1982 on the evaluation of risk to man from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies are described. Most of the studies described in this report relate to activities for three major energy technologies: nuclear fuel cycle; fossil fuel cycle (oil, gas, and coal process technologies, mining, and utilization; synfuel development), and fudion (biomagnetic effects). The report is organized under these technologies. In addition, research reports are included on the application of nuclear energy to biomedical problems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  5. The Brazilian research and teaching center in biomedicine and aerospace biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-08-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications.

  6. [Biomedical research practice and therapeutic practice: to whom does the human body belong?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaille-Nikodimov, Marie

    2006-02-01

    Who owns the human body? This issue has been formerly raised about the status of the slave. Today, it has become a prominent stake for when reflecting on biomedical research and healthcare practices. In our cultures, many answers may be given to this question : they are derived from philosophical or theological traditions ; they are borrowed from anthropological, sociological or psychological knowledge ; they may be formulated in a moral or political perspective. All of them give different insights and reveal one of the various dimensions of the question. When examining the status of the body and its relation to the human subject in the various stages of his/her life (including his/her death), one of the main difficulties is to deal with each of these answers and to understand how they meet and interact in the public debate. Another matter is related to the fact that law also plays a crucial role in the process of giving an answer to this question. In our book, A qui appartient le corps humain ? Médecine, politique et droit (Paris, Belles Lettres, 2004), Claire Crignon-De Oliveira and I have tried to deal with both difficulties. In this article, I focus on the meaning of the various law traditions. In western world, the laws are all derived, up to a certain extent, from the Roman tradition. Whether they have chosen to consider the human body as a property or to associate the body to the person, they have taken very different options. However, an examination of the ways laws are elaborated on this topic shows that these two conceptions can meet in unexpected manners and that lawmaking can give creative answers to both the problem of protecting the person and to the requirements of biomedical research and healthcare practices.

  7. Understanding the relative valuation of research impact: a best–worst scaling experiment of the general public and biomedical and health researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alexandra; Potoglou, Dimitris; Patil, Sunil; Burge, Peter; Guthrie, Susan; King, Suzanne; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To test the use of best–worst scaling (BWS) experiments in valuing different types of biomedical and health research impact, and (2) to explore how different types of research impact are valued by different stakeholder groups. Design Survey-based BWS experiment and discrete choice modelling. Setting The UK. Participants Current and recent UK Medical Research Council grant holders and a representative sample of the general public recruited from an online panel. Results In relation to the study's 2 objectives: (1) we demonstrate the application of BWS methodology in the quantitative assessment and valuation of research impact. (2) The general public and researchers provided similar valuations for research impacts such as improved life expectancy, job creation and reduced health costs, but there was less agreement between the groups on other impacts, including commercial capacity development, training and dissemination. Conclusions This is the second time that a discrete choice experiment has been used to assess how the general public and researchers value different types of research impact, and the first time that BWS has been used to elicit these choices. While the 2 groups value different research impacts in different ways, we note that where they agree, this is generally about matters that are seemingly more important and associated with wider social benefit, rather than impacts occurring within the research system. These findings are a first step in exploring how the beneficiaries and producers of research value different kinds of impact, an important consideration given the growing emphasis on funding and assessing research on the basis of (potential) impact. Future research should refine and replicate both the current study and that of Miller et al in other countries and disciplines. PMID:27540096

  8. Understanding the relative valuation of research impact: a best-worst scaling experiment of the general public and biomedical and health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alexandra; Potoglou, Dimitris; Patil, Sunil; Burge, Peter; Guthrie, Susan; King, Suzanne; Wooding, Steven; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-08-18

    (1) To test the use of best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments in valuing different types of biomedical and health research impact, and (2) to explore how different types of research impact are valued by different stakeholder groups. Survey-based BWS experiment and discrete choice modelling. The UK. Current and recent UK Medical Research Council grant holders and a representative sample of the general public recruited from an online panel. In relation to the study's 2 objectives: (1) we demonstrate the application of BWS methodology in the quantitative assessment and valuation of research impact. (2) The general public and researchers provided similar valuations for research impacts such as improved life expectancy, job creation and reduced health costs, but there was less agreement between the groups on other impacts, including commercial capacity development, training and dissemination. This is the second time that a discrete choice experiment has been used to assess how the general public and researchers value different types of research impact, and the first time that BWS has been used to elicit these choices. While the 2 groups value different research impacts in different ways, we note that where they agree, this is generally about matters that are seemingly more important and associated with wider social benefit, rather than impacts occurring within the research system. These findings are a first step in exploring how the beneficiaries and producers of research value different kinds of impact, an important consideration given the growing emphasis on funding and assessing research on the basis of (potential) impact. Future research should refine and replicate both the current study and that of Miller et al in other countries and disciplines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Assessing the impact of biomedical research in academic institutions of disparate sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypsa, Vana; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2009-05-29

    The evaluation of academic research performance is nowadays a priority issue. Bibliometric indicators such as the number of publications, total citation counts and h-index are an indispensable tool in this task but their inherent association with the size of the research output may result in rewarding high production when evaluating institutions of disparate sizes. The aim of this study is to propose an indicator that may facilitate the comparison of institutions of disparate sizes. The Modified Impact Index (MII) was defined as the ratio of the observed h-index (h) of an institution over the h-index anticipated for that institution on average, given the number of publications (N) it produces i.e. MII = h/10alphaNbeta (alpha and beta denote the intercept and the slope, respectively, of the line describing the dependence of the h-index on the number of publications in log10 scale). MII values higher than 1 indicate that an institution performs better than the average, in terms of its h-index. Data on scientific papers published during 2002-2006 and within 36 medical fields for 219 Academic Medical Institutions from 16 European countries were used to estimate alpha and beta and to calculate the MII of their total and field-specific production. From our biomedical research data, the slope beta governing the dependence of h-index on the number of publications in biomedical research was found to be similar to that estimated in other disciplines ( approximately 0.4). The MII was positively associated with the average number of citations/publication (r = 0.653, p or = 100 citations (r = 0.211, p = 0.004) but not with the number of publications (r = -0.020, p = 0.765). It was the most highly associated indicator with the share of country-specific government budget appropriations or outlays for research and development as % of GDP in 2004 (r = 0.229) followed by the average number of citations/publication (r = 0.153) whereas the corresponding correlation coefficient for the

  10. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA L. ANDERSEN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  11. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Winter, Lucile M F

    2017-09-04

    Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  12. Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting Modern Standards in Biomedical Research. ... biomedical techniques. SOTA biomedical science needs adequate financial investment for the scientific resources as well as stable civic infrastructure, thus these public institutions need more of such provisions.

  13. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  14. Qualitative study of physicians' varied uses of biomedical research in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Moorhead, Laura L; Willinsky, John M

    2016-11-21

    To investigate the nature of physicians' use of research evidence in experimental conditions of open access to inform training and policy. This qualitative study was a component of a larger mixed-methods initiative that provided 336 physicians with relatively complete access to research literature via PubMed and UpToDate, for 1 year via an online portal, with their usage recorded in web logs. Using a semistructured interview protocol, a subset of 38 physician participants were interviewed about their use of research articles in general and were probed about their reasons for accessing specific articles as identified through their web logs. Transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Physician participants were recruited from and registered in the USA. 38 physicians from 16 US states, engaged in 22 medical specialties, possessing more than 1 year of experience postresidency training participated. 26 participants attested to the value of consulting research literature within the context of the study by making reference to their roles as clinicians, educators, researchers, learners, administrators and advocates. The physicians reported previously encountering what they experienced as a prohibitive paywall barrier to the research literature and other frustrations with the nature of information systems, such as the need for passwords. The findings, against the backdrop of growing open access to biomedical research, indicate that a minority of physicians, at least initially, is likely to seek out and use research and do so in a variety of common roles. Physicians' use of research in these roles has not traditionally been part of their training or part of the considerations for open access policies. The findings have implications for educational and policy initiatives directed towards increasing the effectiveness of this access to and use of research in improving the quality of healthcare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  15. On Determining Factors for Good Research in Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective What are the determining factors for good research in medical informatics or, from a broader perspective, in biomedical and health informatics? Method From the many lessons learned during my professional career, I tried to identify a fair sampling of such factors. On the occasion of giving the IMIA Award of Excellence lecture during MedInfo 2013, they were presented for discussion. Results Sixteen determining factors (df) have been identified: early identification and promotion (df1), appropriate education (df2), stimulating persons and environments (df3), sufficient time and backtracking opportunities (df4), breadth of medical informatics competencies (df5), considering the necessary preconditions for good medical informatics research (df6), easy access to high-quality knowledge (df7), sufficient scientific career opportunities (df8), appropriate conditions for sustainable research (df9), ability to communicate and to solve problems (df10), as well as to convey research results (df11) in a highly inter- and multidisciplinary environment, ability to think for all and, when needed, taking the lead (df12), always staying unbiased (df13), always keeping doubt (df14), but also always trying to provide solutions (df15), and, finally, being aware that life is more (df16). Conclusions Medical Informatics is an inter- and multidisciplinary discipline “avant la lettre”. Compared to monodisciplinary research, inter- and multidisciplinary research does not only provide significant opportunities for solving major problems in science and in society. It also faces considerable additional challenges for medical informatics as a scientific field. The determining factors, presented here, are in my opinion crucial for conducting successful research and for developing a research career. Since medical informatics as a field has today become an important driving force for research progress, especially in biomedicine and health care, but also in fields like

  16. On determining factors for good research in biomedical and health informatics. Some lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, R

    2014-05-22

    What are the determining factors for good research in medical informatics or, from a broader perspective, in biomedical and health informatics? From the many lessons learned during my professional career, I tried to identify a fair sampling of such factors. On the occasion of giving the IMIA Award of Excellence lecture during MedInfo 2013, they were presented for discussion. Sixteen determining factors (df) have been identified: early identification and promotion (df1), appropriate education (df2), stimulating persons and environments (df3), sufficient time and backtracking opportunities (df4), breadth of medical informatics competencies (df5), considering the necessary preconditions for good medical informatics research (df6), easy access to high-quality knowledge (df7), sufficient scientific career opportunities (df8), appropriate conditions for sustainable research (df9), ability to communicate and to solve problems (df10), as well as to convey research results (df11) in a highly inter- and multidisciplinary environment, ability to think for all and, when needed, taking the lead (df12), always staying unbiased (df13), always keeping doubt (df14), but also always trying to provide solutions (df15), and, finally, being aware that life is more (df16). Medical Informatics is an inter- and multidisciplinary discipline "avant la lettre". Compared to monodisciplinary research, inter- and multidisciplinary research does not only provide significant opportunities for solving major problems in science and in society. It also faces considerable additional challenges for medical informatics as a scientific field. The determining factors, presented here, are in my opinion crucial for conducting successful research and for developing a research career. Since medical informatics as a field has today become an important driving force for research progress, especially in biomedicine and health care, but also in fields like computer science, it may be helpful to consider such

  17. The future of nearshore processes research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Feddersen, Falk; Foster, Diane; Hapke, Cheryl J.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Tuba Ӧzkan-Haller, H.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The nearshore is the transition region between land and the continental shelf including (from onshore to offshore) coastal plains, wetlands, estuaries, coastal cliffs, dunes, beaches, surf zones (regions of wave breaking), and the inner shelf (Figure ES-1). Nearshore regions are vital to the national economy, security, commerce, and recreation. The nearshore is dynamically evolving, is often densely populated, and is under increasing threat from sea level rise, long-term erosion, extreme storms, and anthropogenic influences. Worldwide, almost one billion people live at elevations within 10 m of present sea level. Long-term erosion threatens communities, infrastructure, ecosystems, and habitat. Extreme storms can cause billions of dollars of damage. Degraded water quality impacts ecosystem and human health. Nearshore processes, the complex interactions between water, sediment, biota, and humans, must be understood and predicted to manage this often highly developed yet vulnerable nearshore environment. Over the past three decades, the understanding of nearshore processes has improved. However, societal needs are growing with increased coastal urbanization and threats of future climate change, and significant scientific challenges remain. To address these challenges, members of academia, industry, and federal agencies (USGS, USACE, NPS, NOAA, FEMA, ONR) met at the “The Past and Future of Nearshore Processes Research: Reflections on the Sallenger Years and a New Vision for the Future” workshop to develop a nearshore processes research vision where societal needs and science challenges intersect. The resulting vision is comprised of three broad research themes: Long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes: As global climate change alters the rates of sea level rise and potentially storm patterns and coastal urbanization increases over the coming decades, an understanding of coastal evolution is critical. Improved knowledge of long

  18. CDIO Experiences in Biomedical Engineering: Preparing Spanish Students for the Future of Medicine and Medical Device Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Serrano Olmedo, José Javier; Ros Felip, Antonio; Jiménez Fernández, Javier; Muñoz García, Julio; Claramunt Alonso, Rafael; Carpio Huertas, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is one of the more recent fields of engineering, aimed at the application of engineering principles, methods and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes, mainly as a support for preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic tasks. Biomedical engineering professionals are expected to achieve, during their studies and professional practice, considerable knowledge of both health sciences and engineering. Studying biomedical engineering programmes, or combin...

  19. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department, creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European Union. Apart from Metropolitan France, the country contains overseas territories, remnants of its colonial past. Over the centuries, France has known several political systems, from Ancient History to the current Republic. According to Ernest Renan, the French nation is more an ideology than a reality, primarily based on “the desire of living together and the wish to highlight our legacy”(1. The tragic attacks of November 2015 and all the reactions over the next days illustrate this. Brazil, discovered by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares during the 16th century, is established on half of South America and is about 16 times bigger than France. This giant does not look to the past but is always moving forward. The concept of nation is really strong throughout the country, as shown by the enthusiasm of soccer players wearing the national auriverde jersey and the National Team supporters. Furthermore, they possess a strong culture of entrepreneurship defined by Stefan Zweig as the legacy of the early colonial era(2. Biomedical research is a human activity which aims to give expected solutions, and sometimes unexpected ones too, to a major and insoluble problem at a given time. This research is based on knowledge and will question it with a scientific approach, spread between what is known today and what will be known tomorrow. Ideally, the point of getting new knowledge is to improve a group of people or the entire population’s health. The researcher is a

  20. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  1. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  2. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  3. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  4. CollaborationViz: interactive visual exploration of biomedical research collaboration networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bian

    Full Text Available Social network analysis (SNA helps us understand patterns of interaction between social entities. A number of SNA studies have shed light on the characteristics of research collaboration networks (RCNs. Especially, in the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA community, SNA provides us a set of effective tools to quantitatively assess research collaborations and the impact of CTSA. However, descriptive network statistics are difficult for non-experts to understand. In this article, we present our experiences of building meaningful network visualizations to facilitate a series of visual analysis tasks. The basis of our design is multidimensional, visual aggregation of network dynamics. The resulting visualizations can help uncover hidden structures in the networks, elicit new observations of the network dynamics, compare different investigators and investigator groups, determine critical factors to the network evolution, and help direct further analyses. We applied our visualization techniques to explore the biomedical RCNs at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences--a CTSA institution. And, we created CollaborationViz, an open-source visual analytical tool to help network researchers and administration apprehend the network dynamics of research collaborations through interactive visualization.

  5. The "Research Audit" Model: A Prototype for Data-Driven Discovery of Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interdisciplinarity of scientific research creates both challenges and opportunities for librarians. The liaison model may be inadequate for supporting campus research that represents multiple disciplines and geographically dispersed departments. The identification of units, researchers, and projects is a first step in planning and…

  6. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  7. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  8. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  9. Analysis and Implementation of an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in a Biomedical Research Institute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    Full Text Available Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs will probably replace paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs in academic research due to their advantages in data recording, sharing and security. Despite several reports describing technical characteristics of ELNs and their advantages over PLNs, no study has directly tested ELN performance among researchers. In addition, the usage of tablet-based devices or wearable technology as ELN complements has never been explored in the field. To implement an ELN in our biomedical research institute, here we first present a technical comparison of six ELNs using 42 parameters. Based on this, we chose two ELNs, which were tested by 28 scientists for a 3-month period and by 80 students via hands-on practical exercises. Second, we provide two survey-based studies aimed to compare these two ELNs (PerkinElmer Elements and Microsoft OneNote and to analyze the use of tablet-based devices. We finally explore the advantages of using wearable technology as ELNs tools. Among the ELNs tested, we found that OneNote presents almost all parameters evaluated (39/42 and both surveyed groups preferred OneNote as an ELN solution. In addition, 80% of the surveyed scientists reported that tablet-based devices improved the use of ELNs in different respects. We also describe the advantages of using OneNote application for Apple Watch as an ELN wearable complement. This work defines essential features of ELNs that could be used to improve ELN implementation and software development.

  10. Analysis and Implementation of an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in a Biomedical Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Santiago; Dujardin, Gwendal; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Indacochea, Alberto; Inglés-Ferrándiz, Marta; Nadimpalli, Hima Priyanka; Collu, Nicola; Dublanche, Yann; De Mingo, Ismael; Camargo, David

    2016-01-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) will probably replace paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs) in academic research due to their advantages in data recording, sharing and security. Despite several reports describing technical characteristics of ELNs and their advantages over PLNs, no study has directly tested ELN performance among researchers. In addition, the usage of tablet-based devices or wearable technology as ELN complements has never been explored in the field. To implement an ELN in our biomedical research institute, here we first present a technical comparison of six ELNs using 42 parameters. Based on this, we chose two ELNs, which were tested by 28 scientists for a 3-month period and by 80 students via hands-on practical exercises. Second, we provide two survey-based studies aimed to compare these two ELNs (PerkinElmer Elements and Microsoft OneNote) and to analyze the use of tablet-based devices. We finally explore the advantages of using wearable technology as ELNs tools. Among the ELNs tested, we found that OneNote presents almost all parameters evaluated (39/42) and both surveyed groups preferred OneNote as an ELN solution. In addition, 80% of the surveyed scientists reported that tablet-based devices improved the use of ELNs in different respects. We also describe the advantages of using OneNote application for Apple Watch as an ELN wearable complement. This work defines essential features of ELNs that could be used to improve ELN implementation and software development.

  11. Non-invasive biomedical research and diagnostics enabled by innovative compact lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-11-01

    For over half a century, laser technology has undergone a technological revolution. These technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers, are employed in a myriad of fields. Optical medical diagnostics, one of the emerging areas of laser application, are on the forefront of application around the world. Optical methods of non- or minimally invasive bio-tissue investigation offer significant advantages over alternative methods, including rapid real-time measurement, non-invasiveness and high resolution (guaranteeing the safety of a patient). These advantages demonstrate the growing success of such techniques. In this review, we will outline the recent status of laser technology applied in the biomedical field, focusing on the various available approaches, particularly utilising compact semiconductor lasers. We will further consider the advancement and integration of several complimentary biophotonic techniques into single multimodal devices, the potential impact of such devices and their future applications. Based on our own studies, we will also cover the simultaneous collection of physiological data with the aid a multifunctional diagnostics system, concentrating on the optimisation of the new technology towards a clinical application. Such data is invaluable for developing algorithms capable of delivering consistent, reliable and meaningful diagnostic information, which can ultimately be employed for the early diagnosis of disease conditions in individuals from around the world.

  12. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates: a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to

  13. Doctors in space (ships): biomedical uncertainties and medical authority in imagined futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Carter, Simon

    2016-12-01

    There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative. Our analysis highlights that the qualities, norms and ethics represented by doctors in space (ships) are intertwined with issues of gender equality, speciesism and posthuman ethics. We explore the signifying practices and political articulations that are played out through these cultural imaginaries. For example, the ways in which 'the simple country doctor' is deployed to help establish hegemonic formations concerning potentially destabilising technoscientific futures involving alternative sexualities, or military dystopia. Doctors mostly function to provide the ethical point of narrative stability within a world in flux, referencing a nostalgia for the traditional, attentive, humanistic family physician. The science fiction doctor facilitates the personalisation of technological change and thus becomes a useful conduit through which societal fears and anxieties concerning medicine, bioethics and morality in a 'post 9/11' world can be expressed and explored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. The intriguing evolution of effect sizes in biomedical research over time: smaller but more often statistically significant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsarrat, Paul; Vergnes, Jean-Noel

    2018-01-01

    In medicine, effect sizes (ESs) allow the effects of independent variables (including risk/protective factors or treatment interventions) on dependent variables (e.g., health outcomes) to be quantified. Given that many public health decisions and health care policies are based on ES estimates, it is important to assess how ESs are used in the biomedical literature and to investigate potential trends in their reporting over time. Through a big data approach, the text mining process automatically extracted 814 120 ESs from 13 322 754 PubMed abstracts. Eligible ESs were risk ratio, odds ratio, and hazard ratio, along with their confidence intervals. Here we show a remarkable decrease of ES values in PubMed abstracts between 1990 and 2015 while, concomitantly, results become more often statistically significant. Medians of ES values have decreased over time for both "risk" and "protective" values. This trend was found in nearly all fields of biomedical research, with the most marked downward tendency in genetics. Over the same period, the proportion of statistically significant ESs increased regularly: among the abstracts with at least 1 ES, 74% were statistically significant in 1990-1995, vs 85% in 2010-2015. whereas decreasing ESs could be an intrinsic evolution in biomedical research, the concomitant increase of statistically significant results is more intriguing. Although it is likely that growing sample sizes in biomedical research could explain these results, another explanation may lie in the "publish or perish" context of scientific research, with the probability of a growing orientation toward sensationalism in research reports. Important provisions must be made to improve the credibility of biomedical research and limit waste of resources. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  16. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Guidez, J.; Bignan, G.

    2010-01-01

    Due mainly to nuclear renaissance and its needs in material testing, but also to new needs in nano sciences and bio sciences, research reactors appear to be an essential tool for the future. There is also an increasing worldwide demand for radio-isotopes. The fleet of experimental reactors is dwindling in Europe. For instance, all the European experimental fast reactors have been shut down. To face these challenges, new projects have been launched: the RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor) that is being built in France and that will meet the industry and public needs related to safety, competitiveness and innovations for the existing generations and the future systems; the Pallas reactor for securing the production of radio-nuclides for medical applications; a fast spectrum project for addressing the next generation energy systems and actinides recycling; and ASTRID that is a prototype sodium cooled fast reactor. We have to pinpoint the fact that these research reactors are more and more international reactors used as international user's platform. For instance 10 countries are now members of the RJH consortium. (A.C.)

  17. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  18. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandel M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1 high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2 research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3 measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE, which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  19. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  20. Government Cloud Computing Policies: Potential Opportunities for Advancing Military Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeda, Frank J; Zalatoris, Jeffrey J; Scheerer, Julia B

    2018-02-07

    This position paper summarizes the development and the present status of Department of Defense (DoD) and other government policies and guidances regarding cloud computing services. Due to the heterogeneous and growing biomedical big datasets, cloud computing services offer an opportunity to mitigate the associated storage and analysis requirements. Having on-demand network access to a shared pool of flexible computing resources creates a consolidated system that should reduce potential duplications of effort in military biomedical research. Interactive, online literature searches were performed with Google, at the Defense Technical Information Center, and at two National Institutes of Health research portfolio information sites. References cited within some of the collected documents also served as literature resources. We gathered, selected, and reviewed DoD and other government cloud computing policies and guidances published from 2009 to 2017. These policies were intended to consolidate computer resources within the government and reduce costs by decreasing the number of federal data centers and by migrating electronic data to cloud systems. Initial White House Office of Management and Budget information technology guidelines were developed for cloud usage, followed by policies and other documents from the DoD, the Defense Health Agency, and the Armed Services. Security standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Government Services Administration, the DoD, and the Army were also developed. Government Services Administration and DoD Inspectors General monitored cloud usage by the DoD. A 2016 Government Accountability Office report characterized cloud computing as being economical, flexible and fast. A congressionally mandated independent study reported that the DoD was active in offering a wide selection of commercial cloud services in addition to its milCloud system. Our findings from the Department of Health and Human Services

  1. Lessons learned in the generation of biomedical research datasets using Semantic Open Data technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources. Such heterogeneity makes difficult not only the generation of research-oriented dataset but also its exploitation. In recent years, the Open Data paradigm has proposed new ways for making data available in ways that sharing and integration are facilitated. Open Data approaches may pursue the generation of content readable only by humans and by both humans and machines, which are the ones of interest in our work. The Semantic Web provides a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation and offers a range of technologies for generating not only Open Datasets but also Linked Datasets, that is, open datasets linked to other open datasets. According to the Berners-Lee's classification, each open dataset can be given a rating between one and five stars attending to can be given to each dataset. In the last years, we have developed and applied our SWIT tool, which automates the generation of semantic datasets from heterogeneous data sources. SWIT produces four stars datasets, given that fifth one can be obtained by being the dataset linked from external ones. In this paper, we describe how we have applied the tool in two projects related to health care records and orthology data, as well as the major lessons learned from such efforts.

  2. Caring for nonhuman primates in biomedical research facilities: scientific, moral and emotional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine

    2011-03-01

    Animal care for nonhuman primates (NHPs) in biomedical facilities has undergone major changes in the past few decades. Today, most primate facilities have dedicated and highly trained animal care technicians who go to great efforts to ensure the physiological and psychological well being of the primates in their charge. These caretakers work closely with the animals and, as a result, often develop strong relationships with them. Once discouraged and considered a potential threat to scientific objectivity, such positive relationships are now seen as important components to animal care. Positive interactions between caretakers and primates can benefit the primates by reducing their stress and improving their overall well being which can, in turn, help the scientific endeavor. Further, providing the best possible care is our moral responsibility. However, there can also be emotional costs associated with caring for NHPs in research facilities, particularly when animals become ill or have to be euthanized. Facilities can do much to help ease this conflict. High-quality and conscientious animal care is good for the animals, science, and public perception of research facilities. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. An Update to Space Biomedical Research: Tissue Engineering in Microgravity Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barzegari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The severe need for constructing replacement tissues in organ transplantation has necessitated the development of tissue engineering approaches and bioreactors that can bring these approaches to reality. The inherent limitations of conventional bioreactors in generating realistic tissue constructs led to the devise of the microgravity tissue engineering that uses Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV bioreactors initially developed by NASA. Methods: In this review article, we intend to highlight some major advances and accomplishments in the rapidly-growing field of tissue engineering that could not be achieved without using microgravity. Results: Research is now focused on assembly of 3 dimensional (3D tissue fragments from various cell types in human body such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, hepatocytes and pancreas islet cells. Hepatocytes cultured under microgravity are now being used in extracorporeal bioartificial liver devices. Tissue constructs can be used not only in organ replacement therapy, but also in pharmaco-toxicology and food safety assessment. 3D models of various cancers may be used in studying cancer development and biology or in high-throughput screening of anticancer drug candidates. Finally, 3D heterogeneous assemblies from cancer/immune cells provide models for immunotherapy of cancer. Conclusion: Tissue engineering in (simulated microgravity has been one of the stunning impacts of space research on biomedical sciences and their applications on earth.

  4. The role of ontologies in biological and biomedical research: a functional perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-04-10

    Ontologies are widely used in biological and biomedical research. Their success lies in their combination of four main features present in almost all ontologies: provision of standard identifiers for classes and relations that represent the phenomena within a domain; provision of a vocabulary for a domain; provision of metadata that describes the intended meaning of the classes and relations in ontologies; and the provision of machine-readable axioms and definitions that enable computational access to some aspects of the meaning of classes and relations. While each of these features enables applications that facilitate data integration, data access and analysis, a great potential lies in the possibility of combining these four features to support integrative analysis and interpretation of multimodal data. Here, we provide a functional perspective on ontologies in biology and biomedicine, focusing on what ontologies can do and describing how they can be used in support of integrative research. We also outline perspectives for using ontologies in data-driven science, in particular their application in structured data mining and machine learning applications.

  5. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords.

  6. New Development in NASA's Rodent Research Hardware for Conducting Long Duration Biomedical and Basic Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Choi, S.; Harris, C.; Gong, C.; Beegle, J. E.; Stube, K. C.; Martin, K. J.; Nevitt, R. G.; Globus, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models, particularly rodents, are the foundation of pre-clinical research to understand human diseases and evaluate new therapeutics, and play a key role in advancing biomedical discoveries both on Earth and in space. The National Research Councils Decadal survey emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to enhance science return for both commercial (CASIS) and government-sponsored rodent research. The Rodent Research program at NASA ARC has pioneered a new research capability on the International Space Station and has progressed toward translating research to the ISS utilizing commercial rockets, collaborating with academia and science industry, while training crewmembers to assist in performing research on orbit. Throughout phases of these missions, our practices, hardware and operations have evolved from tested to developed standards, and we are able to modify and customize our procedure and operations for mission specific requirements. The Rodent Research Habitat is capable of providing a living environment for animals on ISS according to standard animal welfare requirements. Using the cameras in the Habitat, the Rodent Research team has the ability to perform daily health checks on animals, and further analyze the collected videos for behavioral studies. A recent development of the Rodent Research hardware is inclusion of enrichment, to provide the animals the ability to rest and huddle. The Enrichment Hut is designed carefully for adult mice (up to 35 week old) within animal welfare, engineering, and operations constraints. The Hut is made out of the same stainless steel mesh as the cage interior, it has an ingress and an egress to allow animals move freely, and a hinge door to allow crewmembers remove the

  7. Redefining responsible research and innovation for the advancement of biobanking and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Helen

    2016-12-01

    One of the core objectives of responsible research and innovation (RRI) is to maximize the value of publicly funded research so that it may be returned to benefit society. However, while RRI encourages innovation through societal engagement, it can give rise to complex and previously untested issues that challenge the existing legal frameworks on intellectual property (IP) and public entitlement to benefits of research. In the case of biobanking, the personal nature of human biological materials and often altruistic intention of participants to donate samples intensifies the need to adhere to RRI principles with respect to the research, development, and commercialization of innovations derived from biobanks. However, stakeholders participate and collaborate with others in the innovation process to fulfill their own agenda. Without IP to safeguard investments in R&D, stakeholders may hesitate to contribute to the translation of discoveries into innovations. To realize the public benefit objective, RRI principles must protect the interests of stakeholders involved in the translation and commercialization of knowledge. This article explores the seemingly contradictory and competing objectives of open science and commercialization and proposes a holistic innovation framework directed at improving RRI practice for positive impact on obtaining the optimal social and economic values from research.

  8. Pressure-tuning FTIR Spectroscopy: Applications to Biomedical Research and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick T. T.

    2004-08-01

    A pressure-tuning FTIR spectroscopic technology for the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties at the molecular level in biological cells and tissues has been developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to study the molecular basis of various biomedical events including structural and dynamic changes of bio-molecules in diseased tissues and cells. After a brief introduction of this technology and a summary of various biomedical applications of this technology, details of the biomedical applications to the study of structural changes in bio-molecules of human tissues during the neoplastic transition and to the screening of human cervical cancer and precancerous lesions including clinical statistics are given.

  9. Bridging medicine and biomedical technology: enhance translation of fundamental research to patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Adam B; Seiler, Theo G; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    The 'Bridging medicine and biomedical technology' special all-congress session took place for the first time at the OSA Biophotonics Congress: Optics in Life Sciences in 2017 (http://www.osa.org/enus/meetings/osa_meetings/optics_in_the_life_sciences/bridging_medicine_and_biomedical_technology_specia/). The purpose was to identify key challenges the biomedical scientists in academia have to overcome to translate their discoveries into clinical practice through robust collaborations with industry and discuss best practices to facilitate and accelerate the process. Our paper is intended to complement the session by providing a deeper insight into the concept behind the structure and the content we developed.

  10. Towards Multidisciplinary HIV-Cure Research: Integrating Social Science with Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Ross, Anna Laura; Auerbach, Judith D; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Tucker, Joseph D; Noseda, Veronica; Possas, Cristina; Rausch, Dianne M

    2016-01-01

    The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multidisciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV-cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Auricular acupuncture and biomedical research--A promising Sino-Austrian research cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pei-Jing; Zhao, Jing-Jun; Li, Yu-Qing; Litscher, Daniela; Li, Shao-yuan; Gaischek, Ingrid; Zhai, Xu; Wang, Lu; Luo, Man; Litscher, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Treatment by auricular acupuncture has a long history. Ear-acupoint research has been advancing step by step in China and also in Europe. Auricles are rich in nerves, therefore a close relationship with different functions of the human body has been proved by the research teams of the two main authors of this article from China and Austria. In recent years, great progress has been made in the research of regulating human body functions through electroacupuncture at the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, which is part of auricular acupuncture therapy. It is well known that the auricular branch of the vagus nerve is the only peripheral pathway to the cerebral cortex. Studies of the Chinese team on hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy and depression have shown that the mechanism of auricular vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may be comparable with cervical VNS in terms of pathways. Auricular VNS has a broad clinical application prospect.

  12. Towards multi-disciplinary HIV cure research: integrating social science with biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Ross, Anna Laura; Auerbach, Judith D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Tucker, Joseph D.; Noseda, Veronica; Possas, Cristina; Rausch, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multi-disciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community. PMID:26642901

  13. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under the Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act...'Enfant Plaza Hotel, and not on June 11-12, 2012. Clinical Research Program will meet on June 7-8, 2012, at *VA Central Office and not at Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. The addresses of the hotel and...

  14. Using multicriteria decision analysis to support research priority setting in biomedical translational research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Buskens, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention) and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker's preferences for certain criteria.

  15. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  16. Using qualitative research methods in biomedical innovation: the case of cultured red blood cells for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Catherine; King, Emma

    2016-05-11

    Qualitative research has a key role to play in biomedical innovation projects. This article focuses on the appropriate use of robust social science methodologies (primarily focus group studies) for identifying the public's willingness and preference for emerging medical technologies. Our study was part of the BloodPharma project (now known as the Novosang project) to deliver industrially generated red blood cells for transfusion. Previous work on blood substitutes shows that the public prefers donated human blood. However, no research has been conducted concerning attitudes to stem cell derived red blood cells. Qualitative research methods including interviews and focus groups provide the methodological context for this paper. Focus groups were used to elicit views from sub-sections of the UK population about the potential use of such cultured red blood cells. We reflect on the appropriateness of that methodology in the context of the BloodPharma project. Findings are in the form of lessons transferable to other interdisciplinary, science-led teams about what a social science dimension can bring; why qualitative research should be included; and how it can be used effectively. Qualitative data collection offers the strength of exploring ambivalence and investigating the reasons for views, but not necessarily their prevalence in wider society. The inherent value of a qualitative method, such as focus groups, therefore lies in its ability to uncover new information. This contrasts with a quantitative approach to simply 'measuring' public opinion on a topic about which participants may have little prior knowledge. We discuss a number of challenges including: appropriate roles for embedded social scientists and the intricacies of doing upstream engagement as well as some of the design issues and limitations associated with the focus group method.

  17. Future and benefits of corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of corrosion is a design science. The subject of stress analysis is a design science as is the subject of heat transfer. When the subject of corrosion is considered in the framework design a clear framework of the priorities and objectives becomes apparent. Further, corrosion becomes a more explicit and important subject in the overall design, manufacturing, and operation phases of equipment: in this framework, the funding and support of corrosion work is necessary to the designers and users of equipment. The subject of corrosion is usually less important in the early stages of operation of equipment: in these early stages, the subjects. Corrosion becomes important to the longer term reliability and safety of equipment. Corrosion is often a principal determiner of design life. Corrosion is often more important after the manufacturing warranty is expired: therefore the subject is often more important to the user than to the manufacturer. In order that the subject of corrosion is considered and incorporated in the design as well as in user specifications, there must be a language and means of easily understood communication between the design-operation community and the corrosion community. For example, the designers do not understand the language of 'pitting potential': rather, they understand design life and permissible stress. Thus, corrosion must be put into terms that can be understood and utilized by designers and operators. Two methodologies have been developed for communicating effectively between the corrosion and the design communities: these are the 'Corrosion Based Design Approach' and the 'Location for Analysis Matrix.' These provide simple check off lists to designers for asking questions and assuring that credible answers have been obtained on issues that affect reliable and economic performance. Both of these subject are discussed in this presentation. The future of corrosion research is its effective linkage with design and operation of

  18. An opinion about the future of forest recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F., Jr. Hamilton

    1971-01-01

    A discussion of the research environment, with emphasis on the quality of future research. Some current research attitudes are criticized and a suggestion is given for increasing the value of research.

  19. Public views on the donation and use of human biological samples in biomedical research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Clotworthy, Margaret; Hilton, Shona; Magee, Caroline; Robertson, Mark J; Stubbins, Lesley J; Corfield, Julie

    2013-08-07

    A mixed methods study exploring the UK general public's willingness to donate human biosamples (HBSs) for biomedical research. Cross-sectional focus groups followed by an online survey. Twelve focus groups (81 participants) selectively sampled to reflect a range of demographic groups; 1110 survey responders recruited through a stratified sampling method with quotas set on sex, age, geographical location, socioeconomic group and ethnicity. (1) Identify participants' willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research, (2) explore acceptability towards donating different types of HBSs in various settings and (3) explore preferences regarding use and access to HBSs. 87% of survey participants thought donation of HBSs was important and 75% wanted to be asked to donate in general. Responders who self-reported having some or good knowledge of the medical research process were significantly more likely to want to donate (pfamily members might benefit. The most controversial types of HBSs to donate included: brain post mortem (29% would donate), eyes post mortem (35%), embryos (44%), spare eggs (48%) and sperm (58%). Regarding the use of samples, there were concerns over animal research (34%), research conducted outside the UK (35%), and research conducted by pharmaceutical companies (56%), although education and discussion were found to alleviate such concerns. There is a high level of public support and willingness to donate HBSs for biomedical research. Underlying concerns exist regarding the use of certain types of HBSs and conditions under which they are used. Improved education and more controlled forms of consent for sensitive samples may mitigate such concerns.

  20. Real-time Data Fusion Platforms: The Need of Multi-dimensional Data-driven Research in Biomedical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Satyajeet; Kite, Bobbie; Ramanathan, Jay; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Systems designed to expedite data preprocessing tasks such as data discovery, interpretation, and integration that are required before data analysis drastically impact the pace of biomedical informatics research. Current commercial interactive and real-time data integration tools are designed for large-scale business analytics requirements. In this paper we identify the need for end-to-end data fusion platforms from the researcher's perspective, supporting ad-hoc data interpretation and integration.

  1. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis: A powerful tool in biomedical research and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bischetti, Simone; Lamsira, Harpreet Kaur; Bonfiglio, Rita; Bonanno, Elena

    2018-03-15

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis is a technique of elemental analysis associated to electron microscopy based on the generation of characteristic Xrays that reveals the presence of elements present in the specimens. The EDX microanalysis is used in different biomedical fields by many researchers and clinicians. Nevertheless, most of the scientific community is not fully aware of its possible applications. The spectrum of EDX microanalysis contains both semi-qualitative and semi-quantitative information. EDX technique is made useful in the study of drugs, such as in the study of drugs delivery in which the EDX is an important tool to detect nanoparticles (generally, used to improve the therapeutic performance of some chemotherapeutic agents). EDX is also used in the study of environmental pollution and in the characterization of mineral bioaccumulated in the tissues. In conclusion, the EDX can be considered as a useful tool in all works that require element determination, endogenous or exogenous, in the tissue, cell or any other sample.

  2. A genetic algorithm for simulating correlated binary data from biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Jochen; Lepenies, Bernd; Jung, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Correlated binary data arise in a large variety of biomedical research. In order to evaluate methods for their analysis, computer simulations of such data are often required. Existing methods can often not cover the full range of possible correlations between the variables or are not available as implemented software. We propose a genetic algorithm that approaches the desired correlation structure under a given marginal distribution. The procedure generates a large representative matrix from which the probabilities of individual observations can be derived or from which samples can be drawn directly. Our genetic algorithm is evaluated under different specified marginal frequencies and correlation structures, and is compared against two existing approaches. The evaluation checks the speed and precision of the approach as well as its suitability for generating also high-dimensional data. In an example of high-throughput glycan array data, we demonstrate the usability of our approach to simulate the power of global test procedures. An implementation of our own and two other methods were added to the R-package 'RepeatedHighDim'. The presented algorithm is not restricted to certain correlation structures. In contrast to existing methods it is also evaluated for high-dimensional data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food preferences and aversions in human health and nutrition: how can pigs help the biomedical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Val-Laillet, D

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of food preferences and aversions determines the modulation of eating behaviour and the optimization of food intake. These phenomena rely on the learning and memory abilities of the organism and depend on different psychobiological mechanisms such as associative conditionings and sociocultural influences. After summarizing the various behavioural and environmental determinants of the establishment of food preferences and aversions, this paper describes several issues encountered in human nutrition when preferences and aversions become detrimental to health: development of eating disorders and obesity, aversions and anorexia in chemotherapy-treated or elderly patients and poor palatability of medical substances and drugs. Most of the relevant biomedical research has been performed in rodent models, although this approach has severe limitations, especially in the nutritional field. Consequently, the final aim of this paper is to discuss the use of the pig model to investigate the behavioural and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the establishment of food preferences and aversions by reviewing the literature supporting analogies at multiple levels (general physiology and anatomy, sensory sensitivity, digestive function, cognitive abilities, brain features) between pigs and humans.

  4. High pressure FT-IR spectroscopy for biomedical and cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick T. T.

    1994-07-01

    By resolving technical and methodological problems, we are now able to obtain extremely high quality infrared spectra of animal and human tissues and cells as a function of pressure. This allows us to analyze the spectra in great details in terms of structural and dynamic properties at the molecular level in a wide range of biological and biomedical problems. For instance, in our cancer research we found that many structural modifications of cellular molecules in the malignant transformation are common to all the cancers that we have studied to data. Recently, large scale evaluation of the use of high-pressure FT-IR spectroscopy for the prescreening of cancer as well as preinvasive lesions of the cervix has been initiated in our laboratory. In order to optimize the specificity of the FT-IR technology for cervical screening, we have systematically studied and analyzed the high-pressure infrared spectra of individual abnormal lessons of the cervix. The results of one of these studies, differentiation between malignancy and inflammation in the human uterine cervix are given in this paper.

  5. [Chapter 7. Vulnerable elderly people in biomedical research: what are the responses in European law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennet, Éloïse; Kressig, Reto W

    2016-12-19

    As the main medications consumers, elderly persons are estimated to represent up to 30% of the European population in 2050. Paradoxically there is a considerable lack of information about drug prescription in older persons, which is compromising the quality of treatments, and leaving to physicians the considerable responsibility of improvised prescriptions, which are potentially either dangerous or ineffective. In fact, the geriatric population is either excluded from clinical trials or represented by relatively healthy elderly persons who do not accurately represent real world patients. Despite repeated demonstrations of the need to include frail elderly persons in clinical trials in the medical literature, European law only offers disappointing responses to the problem. The frequent decline in older persons' cognitive capacities makes the task even more difficult (cognitive frailty, early dementia like Alzheimer's disease or psychiatric disorders). Many older persons have reduced decision making capacity without benefiting from legal protection yet. Surprisingly, ethics guidelines as well as European law are not very sensitive to the phases before legal incompetence, and do not consider alternative ways to obtain informed consent as suggested in medical and ethical literature. Although these questions fall under national competencies, the issue is common to Europe and solutions will necessarily have to go beyond state borders. Involving the European legislator is essential in order to at least act as an incentive for a better inclusion of frail elderly persons in biomedical research, and for a better promotion of their autonomy.

  6. Low statistical power in biomedical science: a review of three human research domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine S.; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Studies with low statistical power increase the likelihood that a statistically significant finding represents a false positive result. We conducted a review of meta-analyses of studies investigating the association of biological, environmental or cognitive parameters with neurological, psychiatric and somatic diseases, excluding treatment studies, in order to estimate the average statistical power across these domains. Taking the effect size indicated by a meta-analysis as the best estimate of the likely true effect size, and assuming a threshold for declaring statistical significance of 5%, we found that approximately 50% of studies have statistical power in the 0–10% or 11–20% range, well below the minimum of 80% that is often considered conventional. Studies with low statistical power appear to be common in the biomedical sciences, at least in the specific subject areas captured by our search strategy. However, we also observe evidence that this depends in part on research methodology, with candidate gene studies showing very low average power and studies using cognitive/behavioural measures showing high average power. This warrants further investigation. PMID:28386409

  7. Multidimensional electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) for quantitative analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome in clinical and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroch, Stefan; Schommartz, Tim; Brune, Wolfram; Zahedi, René Peiman; Sickmann, Albert

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics have become key disciplines in understanding cellular processes. Fundamental research can be done using cell culture providing researchers with virtually infinite sample amounts. In contrast, clinical, pre-clinical and biomedical research is often restricted to minute sample amounts and requires an efficient analysis with only micrograms of protein. To address this issue, we generated a highly sensitive workflow for combined LC-MS-based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics by refining an ERLIC-based 2D phosphoproteomics workflow into an ERLIC-based 3D workflow covering the global proteome as well. The resulting 3D strategy was successfully used for an in-depth quantitative analysis of both, the proteome and the phosphoproteome of murine cytomegalovirus-infected mouse fibroblasts, a model system for host cell manipulation by a virus. In a 2-plex SILAC experiment with 150 μg of a tryptic digest per condition, the 3D strategy enabled the quantification of ~75% more proteins and even ~134% more peptides compared to the 2D strategy. Additionally, we could quantify ~50% more phosphoproteins by non-phosphorylated peptides, concurrently yielding insights into changes on the levels of protein expression and phosphorylation. Beside its sensitivity, our novel three-dimensional ERLIC-strategy has the potential for semi-automated sample processing rendering it a suitable future perspective for clinical, pre-clinical and biomedical research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  9. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  10. Building integrated pathways to independence for diverse biomedical researchers: Project Pathways, the BUILD program at Xavier University of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozesh, Maryam; Giguette, Marguerite; Morgan, Kathleen; Johanson, Kelly; D'Amour, Gene; Coston, Tiera; Wilkins-Green, Clair

    2017-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana is a historically Black and Catholic university that is nationally recognized for its science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula. Approximately 73% of Xavier's students are African American, and about 77% major in the biomedical sciences. Xavier is a national leader in the number of STEM majors who go on to receive M.D. degrees and Ph.D. degrees in science and engineering. Despite Xavier's advances in this area, African Americans still earn about 7.5% of the Bachelor's degrees, less than 8% of the Master's degrees, and less than 5% of the doctoral degrees conferred in STEM disciplines in the United States. Additionally, although many well-prepared, highly-motivated students are attracted by Xavier's reputation in the sciences, many of these students, though bright and capable, come from underperforming public school systems and receive substandard preparation in STEM disciplines. The purpose of this article is to describe how Xavier works to overcome unequal education backgrounds and socioeconomic challenges to develop student talent through expanding biomedical training opportunities and build on an established reputation in science education. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)-funded BUILD (Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity) Program at Xavier University of Louisiana, Project Pathways , is a highly-innovative program designed to broaden the career interests of students early on, and to engage them in activities that entice them to continue their education towards biomedical research careers. Project strategies involve a transformation of Xavier's academic and non-academic programs through the redesign, supplementation and integration of academic advising, tutoring, career services, personal counseling, undergraduate research training, faculty research mentoring, and development of new biomedical and research skills courses. The Program also

  11. A research education program model to prepare a highly qualified workforce in biomedical and health-related research and increase diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Elahé T

    2014-09-24

    The National Institutes of Health has recognized a compelling need to train highly qualified individuals and promote diversity in the biomedical/clinical sciences research workforce. In response, we have developed a research-training program known as REPID (Research Education Program to Increase Diversity among Health Researchers) to prepare students/learners to pursue research careers in these fields and address the lack of diversity and health disparities. By inclusion of students/learners from minority and diverse backgrounds, the REPID program aims to provide a research training and enrichment experience through team mentoring to inspire students/learners to pursue research careers in biomedical and health-related fields. Students/learners are recruited from the University campus from a diverse population of undergraduates, graduates, health professionals, and lifelong learners. Our recruits first enroll into an innovative on-line introductory course in Basics and Methods in Biomedical Research that uses a laboratory Tool-Kit (a lab in a box called the My Dr. ET Lab Tool-Kit) to receive the standard basics of research education, e.g., research skills, and lab techniques. The students/learners will also learn about the responsible conduct of research, research concept/design, data recording/analysis, and scientific writing/presentation. The course is followed by a 12-week hands-on research experience during the summer. The students/learners also attend workshops and seminars/conferences. The students/learners receive scholarship to cover stipends, research related expenses, and to attend a scientific conference. The scholarship allows the students/learners to gain knowledge and seize opportunities in biomedical and health-related careers. This is an ongoing program, and during the first three years of the program, fifty-one (51) students/learners have been recruited. Thirty-six (36) have completed their research training, and eighty percent (80%) of them have

  12. Recognizing speculative language in biomedical research articles: a linguistically motivated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Bergler, Sabine

    2008-11-19

    Due to the nature of scientific methodology, research articles are rich in speculative and tentative statements, also known as hedges. We explore a linguistically motivated approach to the problem of recognizing such language in biomedical research articles. Our approach draws on prior linguistic work as well as existing lexical resources to create a dictionary of hedging cues and extends it by introducing syntactic patterns. Furthermore, recognizing that hedging cues differ in speculative strength, we assign them weights in two ways: automatically using the information gain (IG) measure and semi-automatically based on their types and centrality to hedging. Weights of hedging cues are used to determine the speculative strength of sentences. We test our system on two publicly available hedging datasets. On the fruit-fly dataset, we achieve a precision-recall breakeven point (BEP) of 0.85 using the semi-automatic weighting scheme and a lower BEP of 0.80 with the information gain weighting scheme. These results are competitive with the previously reported best results (BEP of 0.85). On the BMC dataset, using semi-automatic weighting yields a BEP of 0.82, a statistically significant improvement (p information gain weighting yields a BEP of 0.70. Our results demonstrate that speculative language can be recognized successfully with a linguistically motivated approach and confirms that selection of hedging devices affects the speculative strength of the sentence, which can be captured reasonably by weighting the hedging cues. The improvement obtained on the BMC dataset with a semi-automatic weighting scheme indicates that our linguistically oriented approach is more portable than the machine-learning based approaches. Lower performance obtained with the information gain weighting scheme suggests that this method may benefit from a larger, manually annotated corpus for automatically inducing the weights.

  13. [The role of animal testing advisory committees in biomedical research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the German Animal Welfare Act, animal experiments in fundamental biomedical research may only be performed after licensing by the responsible authority. This license may only be granted if the experiments are considered indispensable and if the distress of the animals seems ethically acceptable in relation to the purpose of the study. Since 1987 advisory committees have been established to support the authorities in the evaluation of these provisions. Animal welfare organisations had expected case-by-case evaluations of the in-dispensability of research proposals and of the distress of the animals and the scientific benefit of the experiments to take place in these committees, so that such projects that would not meet the criteria of ethical acceptability could be prevented. However, already the lack of parity in the advisory committees alone, in which as a rule four scientists counterpart two representatives from animal welfare organisations, often-times prevents a balanced discussion of these provisions from taking place. Additionally, due to the freedom of science granted in the German Constitution without reservations, until 2002 also the licensing authorities were merely permitted to perform a formal examination of the applications. In the mean time, by including animal welfare as a national objective in the Constitution, the preconditions were made to enable an examination of the contents. From the point of view of animal welfare it therefore is to be requested that now also the advisory committees are ascribed more importance in the course of the licensing procedure and to establish the legal framework for this, if necessary by a revision of the Animal Welfare Act.

  14. Converging micro-nano-bio technologies towards integrated biomedical systems: state of the art and future perspectives under the EU-information & communication technologies program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, A

    2008-01-01

    Research and development at the convergence of microelectronics, nano-materials, biochemistry, measurement technology and information technology is leading to a new class of biomedical systems and applications e.g. molecular imaging, point of care testing, gene therapy and bionics (including on and inside the body sensors and other miniaturised smart systems) which are expected to revolutionise the healthcare provision and quality of life. In particular they are expected to identify diseases at the earliest possible stage, intervene before symptomatic disease becomes apparent and monitor both the progress of the diseases and the effect of intervention and therapeutic procedures. The group of EC-funded projects on Micro-Nano-Bio Convergence Systems, "so-called" MNBS, is made by projects developing systems that use a vast array of technologies to integrate across traditional boundaries between the micro-nano-bio, and info worlds, enabling a wide range of applications from health care to food quality monitoring. It includes mainly two sub-groups, one dealing with systems for in vitro molecular diagnosis and biological/biochemical analysis and the other is dealing with systems for in vivo interaction with the human body. Current status of development and future challenges, technological and socioeconomic, are briefly presented in this paper as background introductory information to the mini-symposium on MNBS. Relevant examples of R&D within the group will be presented in the mini-symposium.

  15. Examining the role of collaboration in studies of health information technologies in biomedical informatics: A systematic review of 25 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikey, Elizabeth V; Reddy, Madhu C; Kuziemsky, Craig E

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to identify and examine studies of collaboration in relation to the use of health information technologies (HIT) in the biomedical informatics field. We conducted a systematic literature review of articles through PubMed searches as well as reviewing a variety of individual journals and proceedings. Our search period was from 1990-2015. We identified 98 articles that met our inclusion criteria. We excluded articles that were not published in English, did not deal with technology, and did not focus primarily on individuals collaborating. We categorized the studies by technology type, user groups, study location, methodology, processes related to collaboration, and desired outcomes. We identified three major processes: workflow, communication, and information exchange and two outcomes: maintaining awareness and establishing common ground. Researchers most frequently studied collaboration within hospitals using qualitative methods. Based on our findings, we present the "collaboration space model", which is a model to help researchers study collaboration and technology in healthcare. We also discuss issues related to collaboration and future research directions. While collaboration is being increasingly recognized in the biomedical informatics community as essential to healthcare delivery, collaboration is often implicitly discussed or intertwined with other similar concepts. In order to evaluate how HIT affects collaboration and how we can build HIT to effectively support collaboration, we need more studies that explicitly focus on collaborative issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  17. Projecting the Future for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and theories appears to be a key challenge. In this paper we commence with a DESRIST paper from 2012 that instantiated design principles in an artifact for a bank. That paper included plans and techniques for future use of its principles (propagation), including prescriptions for a five-phase adoption process...

  18. Singularity is the Future of ICT Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... tech systems, and how in the near future. Artificial Intelligence may impact our lives, AI, Robotics, nanotechnology, mechatronics are collaborative agents of technological singularity. The singularity is already here! Think of modern houses now remotely controlled from far distances, think of e-commerce and.

  19. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Compliance with National Ethics Requirements for Human-Subject Research in Non-biomedical Sciences in Brazil: A Changing Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2018-02-06

    Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number. We analyzed institutional documents (collected from June 2014 to May 2015) from 171 graduate programs at six prestigious Brazilian universities in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the states that fund most of the science conducted in Brazil. Among these programs, 149 were in HSS. The results suggest that non-compliance with standard regulation seems to be the rule in most of these programs. The data may reflect not only a resistance from scientists in these fields to comply with standard regulations for ethics in HSR but also a disciplinary tradition that seems prevalent when it comes to research ethics in HSR. However, recent encounters between Brazilian biomedical and non-biomedical scientists for debates over ethics in HSR point to a changing culture in the approach to research ethics in the country.

  1. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel

    2010-01-01

    During the 1950's and 60's, the European countries built several research reactors, partially to support their emerging nuclear-powered electricity programs. Now, over forty years later, the use and operation of these reactors have both widened and grown more specialized. The irradiation reactors test materials and fuels for power reactors, produce radio-isotopes for medicine, neutro-graphies, doping silicon, and other materials. The neutron beam reactors are crucial to science of matter and provide vital support to the development of nano-technologies. Other reactors are used for other specialized services such as teaching, safety tests, neutron physics measurements... The modifications to the operating uses and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to increasing closures year after year. Since last ENC, for example, we have seen, only in France, the closure of the training reactor Ulysse in 2007, the closure of the safety test dedicated reactor Phebus in 2008 and recently the Phenix reactor, last fast breeder in operation in the European Community, has been shut down after a set of 'end of life' technological and physical tests. For other research reactors, safety re-evaluations have had to take place, to enable extension of reactor life. However, in the current context of streamlining and reorganization, new European tools have emerged to optimally meet the changing demands for research. However the operation market of these reactors seems now increasing in all fields. For the neutron beams reactors (FRMII, ORPHEE, ILL, ISIS,..) the experimental needs are increasing years after years, especially for nano sciences and bio sciences new needs. The measurement of residual stress on manufactured materials is also more and more utilised. All these reactors have increasing utilizations, and their future seems promising. A new project project based on a neutron spallation is under definition in Sweden (ESSS: European Spallation Source Scandinavia). The nuclear

  2. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  3. Biomedical Research Priorities for Modern Syphilis Clinical Management, Diagnosis, and Vaccines: Overview and Commentary for Unit 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2018-03-09

    The first session at the 2016 Syphilis Summit provided an opportunity for laboratory researchers and clinicians to comment on gaps in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Predominant themes in the presentations and discussion included the need for optimization of existing diagnostic tests, commercial availability and FDA approval of nucleic acid amplification tests for primary and secondary syphilis, development of sensitive and specific new blood tests for diagnosis of active (vs. treated) syphilis infection, clarification of the best measures for adequacy of response to treatment, continued study of complications of syphilis including neuro- and ocular syphilis, and development of a safe and effective vaccine that will protect against transmission and complications of disseminated infection (including congenital and neurosyphilis). Renewed and sustained support of biomedical syphilis research and an influx of talent could move the needle in the fight against this re-emerging ancient disease.

  4. Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Niinomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nb, Ta and Zr are the favorable non-toxic alloying elements for titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Low rigidity titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements are getting much attention. The advantage of low rigidity titanium alloy for the healing of bone fracture and the remodeling of bone is successfully proved by fracture model made in tibia of rabbit. Ni-free super elastic and shape memory titanium alloys for biomedical applications are energetically developed. Titanium alloys for not only implants, but also dental products like crowns, dentures, etc. are also getting much attention in dentistry. Development of investment materials suitable for titanium alloys with high melting point is desired in dental precision castings. Bioactive surface modifications of titanium alloys for biomedical applications are very important for achieving further developed biocompatibility. Low cost titanium alloys for healthcare goods, like general wheel chairs, etc. has been recently proposed.

  5. International Business Research: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    David A Ricks

    1985-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) always try to publish the best international business research. Unfortunately, there will probably never be a simple response to the question, What constitutes excellent international business research? We might make some progress, however, if we first attempt to define international business research and then identify several noteworthy examples.© 1985 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1985) 16, 1–4

  6. ["Investigación Clínica": 50 years disseminating biomedical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2010-06-01

    INVESTIGACION CLINICA was founded by the initiative of Américo Negrette, who became its first editor, and it has been published uninterruptedly since July 1960, with a quarterly frequency. The first issues consisted mainly of a collection of reviews of seminars held at the now called Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, its publisher. Very soon, original research results from this institution were included in the novel journal. In the 60's, papers on results obtained during the outbreaks of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis present in the area, were prominent. Originally, the journal published 3-4 papers, but due to the increased number of contributions, in 2001, its format changed from 1/16 to 1/8, and now each number includes 11 original articles. Currently, INVESTIGACION CLINICA publishes 44 papers a year, in Spanish or English on different biomedical topics, from contributors all around the world. Progressively it has been included in different renowned indexes, such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Excerpta Medica, Tropical Diseases Bulletin, Copernicus, Scopus, Periodica, and several others. Besides, it can be found in open access through www.Scielo.org.ve, www.freemedicaljournals.com and in our new Web page: https://sites. google.com/site/revistainvestigacionesclinicas/home. Most papers published in INVESTIGACION CLINICA have been cited in the regional or foreign literature accumulating more than 1200 citations by now. For this particular issue, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of INVESTIGACION CLINICA, we have invited some of our more recent referees or authors to contribute with Reviews in their respective areas of expertise.

  7. A reconsideration of the role of self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Ludovica; Bacchini, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    A considerable number of studies in epidemiology and biomedicine investigate the etiology of complex diseases by considering (self-identified) race as a relevant variable and focusing on the differences in risk among racial groups in the United States; they extensively draw on a genetic hypothesis--viz. the hypothesis that differences in the risk of complex diseases among racial groups are largely due to genetic differences covarying with genetic ancestry--that appears highly problematic in the light of both current biological evidence and the theory of human genome evolution. Is this reason for dismissing self-identified races? No. An alternative promising use of self-identified races exists, and ironically is suggested by those studies that investigate the etiology of complex diseases without focusing on racial differences. These studies provide a large amount of empirical evidence supporting the primacy of the contribution of non-genetic as opposed to genetic factors to the risk of complex diseases. We show that differences in race--or, better, in racial self-identification--may be critically used as proxies for differences in risk-related exposomes and epigenomes in the context of the United States. Self-identified race is what we need to capture the complexity of the effects of present and past racism on people's health and investigate risk-related external and internal exposures, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic events. In fact patterns of racial self-identifications on one side, and patterns of risk-related exposomes and epigenomes on the other side, constantly coevolve and tend to match each other. However, there is no guarantee that using self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research will be beneficial all things considered: special attention must be paid at balancing positive and negative consequences. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research Part 1: Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Research in the biomedical sciences at PNL is described. Activities reported include: inhaled plutonium in dogs; national radiobiology archives; statistical analysis of data from animal studies; genotoxicity of inhaled energy effluents; molecular events during tumor initiation; biochemistry of free radical induced DNA damage; radon hazards in homes; mechanisms of radon injury; genetics of radon induced lung cancer; and in vivo/in vitro radon induced cellular damage.

  10. Whitehead Biomedical Research Building at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Laboratories for the 21st Century Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-04-01

    This case study of the Whitehead Biomedical Research Building is one in series of case studies for ''Laboratories for the 21st Century,'' a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings.

  11. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  12. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  13. Research: the basis for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaggio, Maria C.

    2001-01-01

    The significance of the scientific research for the technological development of a country is outlined and a short survey is given of the research activities in different fields carried out at the Argentine CNEA. The international Auger Project on very high-energy cosmic rays is described and the Argentine participation in it is also outlined

  14. Future Research in Psycho-Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerling, Ute; Mehnert, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s psycho-oncology and psycho-oncological research have been systematically developed in many industrialized countries and have produced nationally and internationally accepted guidelines. In this article developments and challenges are presented and discussed. From the perspective of various oncological treatment options, different needs for further psycho-oncological research are considered.

  15. The future of network governance research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The popularity and scope of network governance research and practice continues to expand from its divergent foundations, assumptions and ethodological positions. This paper introduces a symposium of papers on this substantial sub-field by first summarizing the sprawling research endeavour...

  16. The rise of the middle author: Investigating collaboration and division of labor in biomedical research using partial alphabetical authorship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mongeon

    Full Text Available Contemporary biomedical research is performed by increasingly large teams. Consequently, an increasingly large number of individuals are being listed as authors in the bylines, which complicates the proper attribution of credit and responsibility to individual authors. Typically, more importance is given to the first and last authors, while it is assumed that the others (the middle authors have made smaller contributions. However, this may not properly reflect the actual division of labor because some authors other than the first and last may have made major contributions. In practice, research teams may differentiate the main contributors from the rest by using partial alphabetical authorship (i.e., by listing middle authors alphabetically, while maintaining a contribution-based order for more substantial contributions. In this paper, we use partial alphabetical authorship to divide the authors of all biomedical articles in the Web of Science published over the 1980-2015 period in three groups: primary authors, middle authors, and supervisory authors. We operationalize the concept of middle author as those who are listed in alphabetical order in the middle of an authors' list. Primary and supervisory authors are those listed before and after the alphabetical sequence, respectively. We show that alphabetical ordering of middle authors is frequent in biomedical research, and that the prevalence of this practice is positively correlated with the number of authors in the bylines. We also find that, for articles with 7 or more authors, the average proportion of primary, middle and supervisory authors is independent of the team size, more than half of the authors being middle authors. This suggests that growth in authors lists are not due to an increase in secondary contributions (or middle authors but, rather, in equivalent increases of all types of roles and contributions (including many primary authors and many supervisory authors. Nevertheless

  17. Optical coherence tomography—current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    such as birefringence, motion, or the distributions of certain substances can be detected with high spatial resolution. Its main field of application is biomedical imaging and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, OCT is accepted as a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of a number of retinal...

  18. Clustering cliques for graph-based summarization of the biomedical research literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Han; Fiszman, Marcelo; Shin, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Graph-based notions are increasingly used in biomedical data mining and knowledge discovery tasks. In this paper, we present a clique-clustering method to automatically summarize graphs of semantic predications produced from PubMed citations (titles and abstracts).Results: Sem...

  19. Japanese research and development on metallic biomedical, dental, and healthcare materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hanawa, Takao; Narushima, Takayuki

    2005-04-01

    There is considerable demand for metallic materials for use in medical and dental devices. Metals and alloys are widely used as biomedical materials and are indispensable in the medical field. In dentistry, metal is used for restorations, orthodontic wires, and dental implants. This article describes R&D on metallic biomaterials primarily conducted by the members of the Japan Institute of Metals.

  20. The future of naval ocean science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

  1. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  2. ANTARES - Recent research and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    ANTARES is an advanced accelerator-based facility dedicated to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis (IBA). Research programs based on the AMS spectrometer include applications of 14 C, 10 Be, 129 I and other long-lived radionuclides in quaternary science studies, global climate change and nuclear safeguards. Ion beam analysis methods based on elastic recoil detection are used for the in-situ determination of specific elements or isotopes in surface materials. New analytical systems under construction will be presented, including an AMS beamline for the measurement of actinide isotopes and a heavy ion microprobe for elemental imaging with micron resolution. It is estimated that these capabilities will allow the development of exciting research programs in materials and life sciences and foster novel applications in industrial research

  3. ANTARES - Recent research and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    ANTARES is an advanced accelerator-based facility dedicated to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis (IBA). Research programs based on the AMS spectrometer include applications of {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 129}I and other long-lived radionuclides in quaternary science studies, global climate change and nuclear safeguards. Ion beam analysis methods based on elastic recoil detection are used for the in-situ determination of specific elements or isotopes in surface materials. New analytical systems under construction will be presented, including an AMS beamline for the measurement of actinide isotopes and a heavy ion microprobe for elemental imaging with micron resolution. It is estimated that these capabilities will allow the development of exciting research programs in materials and life sciences and foster novel applications in industrial research. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Sediment processes in estuaries: Future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. R.

    1989-10-01

    The gaps in current understanding of the erosion, transport and deposition of sediment in estuaries are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that future work should give priority to (1) the formation, movement and entrainment of high concentration near bed layers; (2) particle interactions, including flocculation, cycling processes, and chemical and biological interactions; (3) intertidal mudflat processes, sediment exchanges in shallow water and wave induced mud transport; (4) development of improved parameterization of exchange processes for inclusion in 3D mathematical models. (5) development and use of new instrumentation for field measurements, especially of intermittent events, and over the long term. This work should be carried out within interdisciplinary studies involving physicists, sediment dynamicists, biologists, and chemists.

  5. European neutron research prepares for future challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Neutrons are among the fundamental building blocks of matter. Some of the processes in which they are involved are responsible for energy generation in nuclear power plants. In this context, CERN’s n_TOF and other facilities participating in the ERINDA EU-funded programme help the community integrate all the scientific efforts needed to produce high-quality nuclear data for future nuclear technologies.   The 4π calorimeter inside the n_TOF experimental area. Image courtesy of the n_TOF Collaboration. Accurate measurements of the interactions between neutrons and each of the elements present in nuclear reactors are vital tools enabling scientists to explore solutions – other than simple protected storage – for the treatment of radioactive waste deriving from a number of applications, ranging from energy production to the medical field. Particularly valuable is the contribution provided by the 13 accelerator-based neutron sources, which the ERINDA EU-funded...

  6. The Future of Asthma Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masefield, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Hansen, Kjeld S.

    2017-01-01

    A unified approach to innovation is needed to address the challenge of asthma in Europe. It is the opinion of the EARIP consortium and associated members (comprising most asthma networks, societies and professional groups) that if all of these research priority areas were funded and the 15 resear...

  7. Investigating land dynamics: future research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on land dynamics still has many unresolved fundamental issues. A multi-scape system approach is presented that can serve as a simple qualitative framework to identify relevant issues. Land can appear in different realities as different phenomena, which are referred to as 'scapes'. Because

  8. European Research towards Future Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge; Prasad, Ramjee; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of four on-going European research projects in the field of mobile and wireless communications leading to the next generations of wireless communications. The projects started in 2004. They investigate requirements and definition of access technology, network...... architecture, antennas and propagation, security, services, applications and socio-economic impact....

  9. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, I.; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  10. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  11. Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Atlee, Joanne M.

    In this paper, we review current requirements engineering (RE) research and identify future research directions suggested by emerging software needs. First, we overview the state of the art in RE research. The research is considered with respect to technologies developed to address specific requirements tasks, such as elicitation, modeling, and analysis. Such a review enables us to identify mature areas of research, as well as areas that warrant further investigation. Next, we review several strategies for performing and extending RE research results, to help delineate the scope of future research directions. Finally, we highlight what we consider to be the “hot” current and future research topics, which aim to address RE needs for emerging systems of the future.

  12. The Evolutional Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Outside the Chinese mainland: Challenges, Training, Practice, Research, and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This overview has provided an account of evolutional changes of an experience-based traditional medical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM towards modernisation to keep up with recent advances in analytical and biomedical sciences, and information technology, which may help readers to understand why applying biomedical research methodology to TCM modernisation, while maintaining the experience-based concepts, principles and heritage of TCM’s personalised health and medical approaches in balancing body’s functions with physical and mental harmony when facing environmental changes, can contribute to gain global appreciation and acceptance of TCM in healthcare. It is envisaged that such future development and integration with biomedicine-based main-stream medicine (MSM in practice will provide valuable medical care in the development of future personalised health and medicine as well as TCM product development.

  13. Ranking Iranian biomedical research centers according to H-variants (G, M, A, R) in Scopus and Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Zoleikha; Tahamtan, Iman; Sedghi, Shahram; Roudbari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive bibliometrics analysis to calculate the H, G, M, A and R indicators for all Iranian biomedical research centers (IBRCs) from the output of ISI Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus between 1991 and 2010. We compared the research performance of the research centers according to these indicators. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, conducted on 104 Iranian biomedical research centers between August and September 2011. We collected our data through Scopus and WoS. Pearson correlation coefficient between the scientometrics indicators was calculated using SPSS, version 16. The mean values of all indicators were higher in Scopus than in WoS. Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences had the highest number of publications in both WoS and Scopus databases. This research center along with Royan Institute received the highest number of citations in both Scopus and WoS, respectively. The highest correlation was seen between G and R (.998) in WoS and between G and R (.990) in Scopus. Furthermore, the highest overlap of the 10 top IBRCs was between G and H in WoS (100%) and between G-R (90%) and H-R (90%) in Scopus. Research centers affiliated to the top ranked Iranian medical universities obtained a better position with respect to the studied scientometrics indicators. All aforementioned indicators are important for ranking bibliometrics studies as they refer to different attributes of scientific output and citation aspects.

  14. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  15. Futures research: A neglected dimension in environmental policy and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    The need for strategic foresight in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world poses a formidable challenge to environmental planners and policy makers. Th is paper introduces futures research as an under used but fruitful set of approaches to addressing this challenge. Futures research is a transdisciplinary social science that uses a wide range of methods to...

  16. Overview of some biomedical research projects in tropical medicine conducted at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Egidio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC is a government-funded multidisciplinary academic institution dedicated to research, development and technology in many areas of knowledge. Biomedical projects and publications comprise about 40% of the total at IVIC. In this article, we present an overview of some selected research and development projects conducted at IVIC which we believe contain new and important aspects related to malaria, ancylostomiasis, dengue fever, leishmaniasis and tuberculosis. Other projects considered of interest in the general area of tropical medicine are briefly described. This article was prepared as a small contribution to honor and commemorate the centenary of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

  17. Lesbian health research: a review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S J

    2001-09-01

    Prior to 1990 lesbians were "invisible" in health care research. Researchers who asked questions specifically about lesbian health concerns were rare, and the burgeoning research on women's health seldom included variables that measured sexual orientation or behavior. In the last decade, however, lesbian health has emerged as a major area of study. A 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on Lesbian Health has outlined the challenges and gaps in this area of research and has called for focus and funding on specific areas of need. In this article I review research on lesbian health, discuss methodological issues specific to this area of research, and summarize the recommendations of the IOM report.

  18. The Future of Collateral Artery Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Verberne, Hein J.; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. Extensive efforts have focused on developing compounds for augmenting the growth of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis). Nonetheless, clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of these compounds resulted in disappointing outcomes. Previous studies focused on developing compounds that stimulated collateral vessel growth by enhancing monocyte survival and activity. The limited success of these compounds in clinical studies, led to a paradigm shift in arteriogenesis research. Recent studies have shown genetic heterogeneity between CAD patients with sufficient and insufficient collateral vessels. The genetic predispositions in patients with poorly developed collateral vessels include overexpression of arteriogenesis inhibiting signaling pathways. New directions of arteriogenesis research focus on attempting to block such inhibitory pathways to ultimately promote arteriogenesis. Methods to detect collateral vessel growth are also critical in realizing the therapeutic potential of newly developed compounds. Traditional invasive measurements of intracoronary derived collateral flow index remain the gold standard in quantifying functional capacity of collateral vessels. However, advancements made in hybrid diagnostic imaging modalities will also prove to be advantageous in detecting the effects of pro-arteriogenic compounds. PMID:23638829

  19. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  20. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  1. The Role of Scientific Communication Skills in Trainees’ Intention to Pursue Biomedical Research Careers: A Social Cognitive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Lee, Hwa Young; Anderson, Cheryl; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D.; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Scientific communication (SciComm) skills are indispensable for success in biomedical research, but many trainees may not have fully considered the necessity of regular writing and speaking for research career progression. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between SciComm skill acquisition and research trainees’ intentions to remain in research careers. We used social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to test a model of the relationship of SciComm skills to SciComm-related cognitive variables in explaining career intentions. A sample of 510 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at major academic health science centers in the Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas, were surveyed online. Results suggested that interest in performing SciComm tasks, SciComm outcome expectations (SCOEs), and SciComm productivity predicted intention to remain in a research career, while SciComm self-efficacy did not directly predict career intention. SCOEs also predicted interest in performing SciComm tasks. As in other SCCT studies, SciComm self-efficacy predicted SCOEs. We conclude that social cognitive factors of SciComm skill acquisition and SciComm productivity significantly predict biomedical trainees’ intentions to pursue research careers whether within or outside academia. While further studies are needed, these findings may lead to evidence-based interventions to help trainees remain in their chosen career paths. PMID:26628562

  2. Indicators for the use of robotic labs in basic biomedical research: a literature analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Paul; Cox, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Robotic labs, in which experiments are carried out entirely by robots, have the potential to provide a reproducible and transparent foundation for performing basic biomedical laboratory experiments. In this article, we investigate whether these labs could be applicable in current experimental practice. We do this by text mining 1,628 papers for occurrences of methods that are supported by commercial robotic labs. Using two different concept recognition tools, we find that 86%–89% of the paper...

  3. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  4. The computational future for climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, Warren M

    2005-01-01

    The development of climate models has a long history starting with the building of atmospheric models and later ocean models. The early researchers were very aware of the goal of building climate models which could integrate our knowledge of complex physical interactions between atmospheric, land-vegetation, hydrology, ocean, cryospheric processes, and sea ice. The transition from climate models to earth system models is already underway with coupling of active biochemical cycles. Progress is limited by present computer capability which is needed for increasingly more complex and higher resolution climate models versions. It would be a mistake to make models too complex or too high resolution. Arriving at a 'feasible' and useful model is the challenge for the climate model community. Some of the climate change history, scientific successes, and difficulties encountered with supercomputers will be presented

  5. The past and future of tuberculosis research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Comas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewed efforts in tuberculosis (TB research have led to important new insights into the biology and epidemiology of this devastating disease. Yet, in the face of the modern epidemics of HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and multidrug resistance--all of which contribute to susceptibility to TB--global control of the disease will remain a formidable challenge for years to come. New high-throughput genomics technologies are already contributing to studies of TB's epidemiology, comparative genomics, evolution, and host-pathogen interaction. We argue here, however, that new multidisciplinary approaches--especially the integration of epidemiology with systems biology in what we call "systems epidemiology"--will be required to eliminate TB.

  6. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  7. Applying systems biology to biomedical research and health care: a précising definition of systems medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schleidgen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems medicine has become a key word in biomedical research. Although it is often referred to as P4-(predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory-medicine, it still lacks a clear definition and is open to interpretation. This conceptual lack of clarity complicates the scientific and public discourse on chances, risks and limits of Systems Medicine and may lead to unfounded hopes. Against this background, our goal was to develop a sufficiently precise and widely acceptable definition of Systems Medicine. Methods In a first step, PubMed was searched using the keyword “systems medicine”. A data extraction tabloid was developed putting forward a means/ends-division. Full-texts of articles containing Systems Medicine in title or abstract were screened for definitions. Definitions were extracted; their semantic elements were assigned as either means or ends. To reduce complexity of the resulting list, summary categories were developed inductively. In a second step, we applied six criteria for adequate definitions (necessity, non-circularity, non-redundancy, consistency, non-vagueness, and coherence to these categories to derive a so-called précising definition of Systems Medicine. Results We identified 185 articles containing the term Systems Medicine in title or abstract. 67 contained at least one definition of Systems Medicine. In 98 definitions, we found 114 means and 132 ends. From these we derived the précising definition: Systems Medicine is an approach seeking to improve medical research (i.e. the understanding of complex processes occurring in diseases, pathologies and health states as well as innovative approaches to drug discovery and health care (i.e. prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment through stratification by means of Systems Biology (i.e. data integration, modeling, experimentation and bioinformatics. Our study also revealed the visionary character of Systems Medicine. Conclusions Our

  8. Reuse for Research: Curating Astrophysical Datasets for Future Researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Anders Sparre; Rasmus, Handberg; Svendsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (KASC) when he presented our task to us. The data in question consists of data products produced by KASC researchers and working groups as part of their research, as well as underlying data imported from the NASA archives. The overall requirements for 50 years of preservation while, at the same time......, enabling reuse of the data for active research presented a number of specific challenges, closely intertwining data handling and data infrastructure with scientific issues. This paper reports our work to deliver the best possible solution, performed in close cooperation between the research team...

  9. Acupuncture and depth: future direction for acupuncture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, You Li; Ho, Chin Ee; Zhao, Baixiao

    2014-01-01

    The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at PNL in FY 1988. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 1, Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes progress on OHER biomedical and health-effects research conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1987. The research develops the knowledge and scientific principles necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy-related radiation and chemicals. Our continuing emphasis is to decrease the uncertainty of health-effects risk estimates from existing and/or developing energy-related technologies through an increased understanding of how radiation and chemicals cause health effects. The report is arranged to reflect PNL research relative to OHER programmatic structure. The first section, on human health effects, concerns statistical and epidemiological studies for assessing health risks. The next section, which contains reports of health-effects research in biological systems, includes research with radiation and chemicals. The last section is related to medical applications of nuclear technology

  13. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  14. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  15. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  16. Advances in porcine genomics and proteomics - a toolbox for developing the pig as a model organism for molecular biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Larsen, Knud

    2010-01-01

    Our current knowledge of human biology is often based on studying a wide range of animal species. In particular, for understanding human diseases, the development of adequate animal models is of immediate importance. Although genetic strains and transgenic animal model organisms like fruit fly...... the pig into a novel model organism for biomedical research. This toolbox includes the near completion of the pig genome, catalogues of genes and genetic variation in pigs, extensive characterization of pig proteomes and transcriptomes, as well as the development of transgenic disease models. The aim...

  17. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties...... such as birefringence, motion, or the distributions of certain substances can be detected with high spatial resolution. Its main field of application is biomedical imaging and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, OCT is accepted as a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of a number of retinal...

  18. Indicators for the use of robotic labs in basic biomedical research: a literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Groth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotic labs, in which experiments are carried out entirely by robots, have the potential to provide a reproducible and transparent foundation for performing basic biomedical laboratory experiments. In this article, we investigate whether these labs could be applicable in current experimental practice. We do this by text mining 1,628 papers for occurrences of methods that are supported by commercial robotic labs. Using two different concept recognition tools, we find that 86%–89% of the papers have at least one of these methods. This and our other results provide indications that robotic labs can serve as the foundation for performing many lab-based experiments.

  19. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  20. Action GRID: assessing the impact of Nanotechnology on biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Hermosilla-Gimeno, Isabel; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Maojo, Victor; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando J

    2008-11-06

    Recent advances in Nanotechnology are slowly extending their influence in biomedical research and clinical practice (nanomedicine). The authors have recently been granted with an European Commission research project, Action-GRID. This initiative will review current developments in nanomedicine, and analyze the area of nanoinformatics. Its main outcome will be the identification of needs and the discussion of future challenges and priorities for Biomedical Informatics in terms of information processing in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine.