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Sample records for future biodiesel para

  1. Biodiesel for Brazilian development: current situation and challenges for a sustainable future; Biodiesel para o desenvolvimento brasileiro: situacao atual e desafios para um futuro sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Aleksandra Sliwowska; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This article aims at analyzing the state of art and trends of biodiesel in Brazil, with resort to the Industry Strategic Map, a tool developed by National Industry Federation (CNI). The situation of biodiesel will be analyzed considering : Bases for Development, Processes and Activities, Market and Results for Country. At the beginning is presented the evolution of biodiesel in Brazil e are explained the construction of the Strategic Map by CNI. (author)

  2. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  3. Enzymatic reactors for biodiesel synthesis: Present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2015-01-01

    Lipases are being extensively researched for the production of biodiesel as a "silver bullet" in order to avoid the drawbacks of the traditional alkaline transesterification. In this review, we analyzed the main factors involved in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel, focusing in the choice of the immobilization protocol, and the parameters involved in the choice and configuration of the reactors. An extensive discussion is presented about the advantages and disadvantages of each type of reactor and their mode of operation. The current scenario of the market for enzymatic biodiesel and some future prospects and necessary developments are also briefly presented.

  4. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... of existing oil and waste today. A methodological discussion was also necessary to include sustainable dimensions on the scenario methods. Therefore, the environment, economics, technology, social, territorial, national and international institutional, cultural and political aspects were considered....... In order to carry on this work, it was necessary to develop a cross-disciplinary research, since sustainability requires a long run vision and a comprehensive approach. Brazil is a large country (851 Mha), with soil and weather conditions that are suitable to produce oilseeds, and available land...

  5. Calophyllum inophyllum L. as a future feedstock for bio-diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabania, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan)], email: a_atabani2@msn.com, email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id; Silitonga, A.S.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjukia, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the concerns about climate change, the possibility of using biodiesel as an alternative energy resource has been examined. It has been found that biodiesel could be a solution for the future but the first generation of biodiesel, prepared from edible vegetable oils, has raised important concerns about food and environmental problems. The aim of this study is to assess if Calophyllum inophyllum, a non-edible oil, could be used for biodiesel production. Density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flashpoint and iodine value were determined on Calophyllum inophyllum trees from Cilacap, Indonesia and compared in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. It was found that Calophyllum inophyllum would be a satisfactory feedstock to produce biodiesel in the future. This study demonstrated that Calophyllum inophyllum has the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock and further research should be carried out on engine performance, combustion and emission performance of biodiesel produced from Calophyllum inophyllum.

  6. Analysis of the potential use of palm oil biodiesel for power generation in Amazonian remote systems; Analise do potencial do biodiesel de dende para geracao eletrica em sistemas isolados da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential of palm-oil biodiesel production and consumption in remote Amazonian systems (not connected to the national grid), taking into account economic, social and environmental impacts of this biofuel alternative. Through a detailed analysis of remote systems and in particular the examination of the national subside called 'Combustible Consumption Account', the study presents potential scenarios of biodiesel demand for electricity generation in the region, considering also the generation and grid connections projects in forthcoming years. Definition of current and future quantities of biodiesel needed to maintain thermal production in this system defines the Biodiesel investment necessities in remote Amazonian states (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima). Possibility of using biodiesel made progress with the launch of the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in 2004. Although African Palm-oil trees adapt very well Amazonian soil, wide adoption of this specie as raw material for biodiesel production shows some barriers, like raise of palm oil price in global market, palm tree long maturation time and attractive price for conventional diesel in the region. Even if using palmoil biodiesel result in obvious significant social and environmental benefits, these benefits tend not to compensate the inefficiency of the market and, thus, expand the biofuel production in the Northern Region. (author)

  7. New regulatory landmark for biodiesel use; Novo marco regulatorio para usos de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rosangela Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Biodiesel Production and Use of Biodiesel - PNPB, made possible the insert of Biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix. The National Agency of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP was responsible to create the outline regulatory that established the rules for entrance and commercialization of this new fuel in the country. This work seeks to present the effects of the implantation of the new relative rules to the biodiesel use. (author)

  8. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  9. El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla como combustible alternativo para motores diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIRIO BENAVIDES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio experimental sobre la producción y utilización del biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla. El máximo rendimiento de metilésteres en la reacción de transesterificación del aceite de higuerilla usado se obtiene bajo las siguientes condiciones: temperatura ambiente, una relación molar metanol/aceite de 9 y una concentración de catalizador de 0.8%. El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla puede ser mezclado con el combustible diesel convencional derivado del petróleo en proporciones hasta del 15%, sin que la mezcla resultante se salga de las especificaciones de calidad estipuladas en los estándares nacionales e internacionales para combustibles diesel. La mayor dificultad para el uso del biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla en motores es su alta viscosidad. Sin embargo este biocombustible presenta excelentes propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura (valores bajos para los puntos de nube y fluidez. Las pruebas en motor con mezclas biodiesel de higuerilla/diesel convencional, en el rango de proporciones de biodiesel ensayadas, muestran que ha medida que se incrementa la proporción de biodiesel en la mezcla aumenta el consumo específico de combustible, disminuye el dosado relativo, la opacidad de humos se disminuye levemente, mientras que el rendimiento efectivo y las emisiones de CO y CO2 prácticamente permanecen constantes

  10. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  11. Síntesis de Aditivos para Biodiesel a partir de Modificaciones Químicas de la Glicerina Synthesis of Additives for Biodiesel through Chemical Modifications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Y Giraldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestran los resultados experimentales de la síntesis de cetales de glicerina para su uso como aditivos que mejoren las propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura de un biodiesel de aceite de palma. Se evalúo su producción empleando catalizadores heterogéneos ácidos del tipo resinas de poliestireno sulfonadas (Amberlyst 15, Dowex 50X2 y homogéneos (ácido sulfúrico y p-toluensulfónico. Se analizó el efecto del cetal en las propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura al mezclarse en diferentes proporciones con el biodiesel, evaluando el punto de nube y el punto de fluidez a cada mezcla. Mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido se evaluó los puntos de cristalización de las mezclas del aditivo con el biodiesel y se comparó con el correspondiente para el biodiesel puro. Se encontró que con el empleo de catalizadores heterogéneos se pueden obtener conversiones por encima del 90% y la adición de los cetales al biodiesel puede lograr disminuciones de hasta 6ºC en el punto de nube y fluidez. También, los termogramas de enfriamiento mostraron una disminución efectiva en las temperaturas de cristalización.In this work the results of the synthesis of glycerin ketals for application as additives to improve the cold flow properties of palm oil biodiesel employing heterogeneous and homogeneous catalyst are shown. Sulfonated polystyrene resins (Amberlyst 15, Dowex 50X2 were employed as heterogeneous catalysts, and homogenous catalysts (sulfuric acid and p-toluensulfonic acid. The effect of amount of ketals on cold flow properties of biodiesel was analyzed through determination of cloud point and pour point for each blend. Through differential scanning calorimetry crystallization points of additive-biodiesel blends were evaluated and compared with those of unmodified biodiesel. It was found that with the use of heterogeneous catalysts, conversions of glycerin above 90% were obtained. Also, the addition of ketals to biodiesel allows

  12. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

  13. Biodiesel and electrical energy to overall development; Biodiesel e energia eletrica para o desenvolvimento social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maisa Medeiros Pacheco de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy is everything around you. Everything that is matter haves energy, organic or not. The energy can manifest itself in many forms. The most common forms are the kinetic, nuclear, thermal, hydro, solar, wind and electric energies. They can be subdivided in secondary and primary energies. The primary energies are those forms of energy that are directly in nature and not suffered any processing, such as wind energy. While the secondary are those that have suffered interference of man and is already present in the way will be used for him. However, in this work the electric energy will have a greater focus, due to its importance in daily life of civilization current. The electricity is seen, actually, as essential to social development, enabling the improvement of the living conditions of poor people. Through access to electric energy, such people could benefit from better conditions of health, education, work, leisure, information, security, finally, may considerably improve their condition of life. To promote universal access to energy, the federal government implemented some public policies, including the National Programme of Biodiesel, vital to the promotion of social development of the country. (author)

  14. Metodologia analítica para quantificar o teor de biodiesel na mistura biodiesel: diesel utilizando espectroscopia na região do infravermelho Determination of biodiesel percentage in biodiesel: diesel mixtures using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Lefol Nani Guarieiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered the best substitute for diesel, biodiesel can be blended with diesel in any ratio, bringing lots of environmental, economic and social advantages. Brazilian law Nº 11097/2005, proposes the introduction of biodiesel in to the Brazilian energy matrix, mixed with diesel at a minimum percentage of 2%. For consumers and sellers to be sure that the commercialized mixture of biodiesel:diesel contains the correct percentage, it is necessary to develop analytical methodologies to quantify the amount of biodiesel added. This work presents a fast, low-cost and simple methodology to determine the biodiesel proportion in mixtures of biodiesel:diesel, based on infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  16. Escherichia coli as a fatty acid and biodiesel factory: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziaur; Rashid, Naim; Nawab, Javed; Ilyas, Muhammad; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has received widespread attention as a sustainable, environment-friendly, and alternative source of energy. It can be derived from plant, animal, and microbial organisms in the form of vegetable oil, fats, and lipids, respectively. However, biodiesel production from such sources is not economically feasible due to extensive downstream processes, such as trans-esterification and purification. To obtain cost-effective biodiesel, these bottlenecks need to be overcome. Escherichia coli, a model microorganism, has the potential to produce biodiesel directly from ligno-cellulosic sugars, bypassing trans-esterification. In this process, E. coli is engineered to produce biodiesel using metabolic engineering technology. The entire process of biodiesel production is carried out in a single microbial cell, bypassing the expensive downstream processing steps. This review focuses mainly on production of fatty acid and biodiesel in E. coli using metabolic engineering approaches. In the first part, we describe fatty acid biosynthesis in E. coli. In the second half, we discuss bottlenecks and strategies to enhance the production yield. A complete understanding of current developments in E. coli-based biodiesel production and pathway optimization strategies would reduce production costs for biofuels and plant-derived chemicals.

  17. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  18. Evaluación integral de la eficiencia económica y ambiental de procesos para la obtención de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluaron tres esquemas de proceso para la obtención de biodiesel: el proceso convencional a partir de aceite de palma y etanol, el proceso por reacción extracción a partir de aceite de palma y etanol, y el proceso por destilación reactiva a partir de ácido oleico y metanol. La evaluación se inicia desde el análisis del aceite de palma como materia prima potencial para la producción de biodiesel en Colombia y una breve historia del uso de aceites como combustibles, junto co...

  19. Búsqueda de Catalizadores Sólidos Básicos para la Producción de Biodiesel Searching for Solid base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Becerra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo la búsqueda de catalizadores sólidos básicos activos y estables que contribuyan al desarrollo de sistemas de reacción heterogéneos para producción limpia de biodiesel. Se prepararon y evaluaron en la transesterificación de triacetina tres tipos de catalizadores: CaO, γ-Al2O3 modificada con Na y K, y MgO modificado con Na, Li, Rb y Cs. Se analizó la influencia de las propiedades texturales, tipo y cantidad de metal impregnado y la activación con N2, sobre la basicidad y el comportamiento catalítico. Se estudió la estabilidad de estos materiales mediante absorción atómica y reusos consecutivos. Los resultados mostraron que la impregnación de metales no conduce a la formación de sólidos estables, ya que éstos se lixivian en el medio de reacción. El CaO mantuvo una elevada actividad catalítica durante cinco ciclos de reacción convirtiéndolo en un material con alto potencial para ser utilizado en un proceso industrial.This work aimed to find active and stable solid base catalysts for clean biodiesel production using heterogeneous reaction systems. Three types of catalysts were synthesized and evaluated in the transesterification of triacetin: CaO, γ-Al2O3 modified with Na and K, and MgO modified with Na, Li, Rb and Cs. The influence of the textural proprieties, the type and amount of alkali metal impregnated and the activation with N2 on the basicity and the catalytic behavior were analyzed. Stability of catalysts was analyzed using atomic absorption measurements and reuse reactions. Results showed that metal impregnation does not lead to the formation of stable solids, because they present lixiviation in the reaction system. The CaO maintained a high catalytic activity during five reaction cycles showing its high potential of its use in an industrial process.

  20. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putzig, Mollie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  1. Modelos de regressão multivariada empregando seleção de intervalos para a quantificação do biodiesel em blendas biodiesel/diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Flôres Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram analisados e comparados modelos de regressão multivariados por mínimos quadrados parciais porintervalo (iPLS e por mínimos quadrados parciais por exclusão (biPLS que selecionaram regiões do espectro mais adequadas,retirando informações não relevantes e otimizando o modelo de calibração, a fim de determinar a concentração de biodiesel emblendas de biodiesel/diesel a partir de dados obtidos por espectroscopia no infravermelho por reflectância total atenuada (HATRFTIR.Foram utilizadas 45 amostras de blendas biodiesel/diesel com concentrações de 8 a 30% de biodiesel e os espectros foramadquiridos em dois distintos espectrofotômetros e misturados aleatoriamente para a realização dos modelos, onde foram construídosmodelos para calibração utilizando 2/3 dos espectros das amostras obtendo assim os valores de RMSECV, e o restante dos espectrosforam empregados no conjunto de previsão, obtendo então os valores de RMSEP. Os dados espectrais foram autoescalados (AUTOou centrados na média (MEAN, com ou sem o emprego da correção multiplicativa de sinal (MSC. A utilização dos métodos deseleção das faixas espectrais aplicados aos espectros por ATR se mostrou viável para a quantificação do biodiesel nas blendas, sendoque a utilização da espectroscopia no infravermelho apresenta vantagens como à necessidade de pequena quantidade de amostra ebaixo tempo de análise, além de ser um procedimento não destrutivo e não gerador de resíduos, otimizando assim o processo emquestão.Abstract In the present work multivariate regressionmodels using interval partial least square (iPLS and backwardinterval partial least square (biPLS had been analyzed andcompared. iPLS and biPLS models had been developed todetermine the concentration of biodiesel in blends ofbiodiesel/diesel using infrared spectroscopy signals. 45samples with concentrations in range 8-30% of biodiesel, andtwo distinct spectrophotometers were

  2. The possibilities and the feasibility of the use of Bioethanol as well as Biodiesel as fuels for the Mexican transport; Potenciales y Viabilidad del Uso de Bioetanol y Biodiesel para el Transporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera Cerutti, Omar [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Martinez, Nicolas [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ignacio Lazcano Martinez (and others)

    2006-07-01

    It is contained in this report a thorough study about the possibilities of the use of bioethanol or biodiesel as fuels for the Mexican transport. Such study was coordinated by the Mexican Secretary of Energy (SENER) and it was sponsored by both the Inter-American Development Bank (project ME-T1007 - ATN/DO-9375-ME) and the GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) (Project PN 04.21487.7-001.00) commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Having hired a group of Mexican and International consultants, in order to carry out the different activities of this study. Following, it will be presented the major results of the study of each of the analyzed fuels: bioethanol and biodiesel. As a result of the individual analysis that was carried out, the problems and the technological alternatives as well as those concerning the policies are quiet specifics for each of the fuels, despite the common properties they have. It is found on the final document of the project (Final report), the detailed reports of each of these activities for both ethanol and biodiesel. [Spanish] Este reporte contiene un estudio exhaustivo sobre las posibilidades del bioetanol y el biodiesel como combustibles para el transporte en Mexico. El estudio fue coordinado por la Secretaria de Energia de Mexico (SENER) y patrocinado por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (Proyecto ME-T1007 - ATN/DO-9375-ME) y la GTZ (Cooperacion Tecnica Alemana) (Proyecto PN 04.2148.7-001.00) por encargo del Ministerio de Cooperacion Economica y de Desarrollo (BMZ). Para la realizacion de las diferentes actividades de este estudio se contrato un grupo de consultores mexicanos e internacionales. A continuacion se presentan los principales resultados del estudio para cada uno de los combustibles analizados: bioetanol y biodiesel. Aunque existen aspectos comunes a estos combustibles, la problematica y las opciones tecnologicas y de politica son muy especificas a cada uno de ellos, lo que

  3. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  4. IMPACTO DE ESTABLECER JATROPHA CURCAS PARA PRODUCIR BIODIESEL, EN TRES COMUNIDADES DE MICHOACÁN, MÉXICO, ABORDADO A PARTIR DE DIFERENTES ESCALAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hinojosa Flores, Isaías Daniel; Skutsch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    México, a pesar de ser un país productor de petróleo, impulsa en el 2007 el “Programa Nacional de Introducción de Bioenergéticos”, sin que existan aportes reales al desarrollo del mercado interno de biodiesel. En Michoacán, la iniciativa privada y el gobierno local gestionaron infraestructura para obtener biodiesel sin que se tengan resultados; no obstante, varias comunidades en el Estado han plantado Jatropha curcas con ayuda de subsidios del gobierno Federal y el apoyo de la iniciativa priv...

  5. Puesta a punto y optimización de técnicas para la cuantificación de biodiesel producido a partir de aceites comestibles usados

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Nahuel; Matkovic, Silvana R.

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos años, el biodiesel ha ganado considerable atención debido a la creciente preocupación por los problemas ambientales asociados con el uso de combustibles fósiles. Los estudios e investigación que se presentan en este trabajo comienzan con la puesta a punto y optimización de técnicas volumétricas para la cuantificación de glicerol. El método está destinado a cuantificar glicerol libre y total a fin de determinar el rendimiento en la producción de biodiesel. Adicionalmente, se pro...

  6. Viabilidade sustentável de biomassas de Moringa oleifera para produção de biodiesel e briquetes

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, Francisco Sávio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho investigou algumas propriedades das biomassas (sementes, cascas, grãos das sementes, óleos brutos e purificado, tortas de prensagem e da extração com hexano e biodiesel metílico do óleo) da Moringa oleifera Lamarck, partindo de suas vagens (frutos maduros), para aplicação energética. O óleo obtido dos grãos por prensagem mecânica teve média de 11,36% e 36,48% por extração com hexano. As biomassas da moringa apresentaram teores de umidade entre 0,06 e 10,86%, cinza...

  7. Biodiesel: Paving the Way for DoD’s Renewable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    addressing users concerns: 1. Stability of the biodiesel 2. Accelerated deterioration during high temperature storage 3. Vehicle operation and fuel ...Demonstration Plan • Established Laboratory Fuel Analysis Contract • Began Collecting Data at 4 DoD Sites: – 29 Palms – July 2009 – NSWC Crane – August 2009...Concern #3: Vehicle operation and fuel properties in low temperatures) – 29 Palms (Humvees) • Both Test and Control Vehicles have trouble starting

  8. Oleaginous yeasts for biodiesel: current and future trends in biology and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Garay, Luis A; Sestric, Ryan; Levin, David; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-11-15

    Production of biodiesel from edible plant oils is quickly expanding worldwide to fill a need for renewable, environmentally-friendly liquid transportation fuels. Due to concerns over use of edible commodities for fuels, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils including microbial oils is being developed. Microalgae biodiesel is approaching commercial viability, but has some inherent limitations such as requirements for sunlight. While yeast oils have been studied for decades, recent years have seen significant developments including discovery of new oleaginous yeast species and strains, greater understanding of the metabolic pathways that determine oleaginicity, optimization of cultivation processes for conversion of various types of waste plant biomass to oil using oleaginous yeasts, and development of strains with enhanced oil production. This review examines aspects of oleaginous yeasts not covered in depth in other recent reviews. Topics include the history of oleaginous yeast research, especially advances in the early 20th century; the phylogenetic diversity of oleaginous species, beyond the few species commonly studied; and physiological characteristics that should be considered when choosing yeast species and strains to be utilized for conversion of a given type of plant biomass to oleochemicals. Standardized terms are proposed for units that describe yeast cell mass and lipid production.

  9. Utilização de argilas para purificação de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Juliana Almeida de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively.

  10. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  11. Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories; Biodiesel de soja - reacao de transesterificacao para aulas praticas de quimica organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geris, Regina; Santos, Nadia Alessandra Carmo dos; Amaral, Bruno Andrade; Maia, Isabelle de Souza; Castro, Vinicius Dourado; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rmgeris@ufba.br

    2007-09-15

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas. (author)

  12. Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO; Biodiesel na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Machado, Tupinamba da Conceicao S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    TRANSPETRO took the challenge, in early 2007, to design and install in less than one year, the systems of injection of Biodiesel in its Distribution Bases with loading truck. The basics premises, adopted for the development of the project, were based on the criteria of safety, operational reliability and to complying with legal deadline. These points guided the actions of Coordinating with two goals: Ensure the injection of Biodiesel according to time by law and the future flexibility of the system. Two to three sets were installed in each Distribution Base, respecting the characteristics of the market and the distance from centers producers of Biodiesel. TRANSPETRO was one of the first companies in Brazil using cutting-edge technology in injection of this product through the use of digital valves in the control of flow of the product. Sum up the storage capacity of Biodiesel the first and second phase of the project, TRANSPETRO will provide 8 to 10 days' stock of Biodiesel to its customers based on the injection of 5% to Diesel Oil. The Project Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO was differentiated by working in teams, the strategy for deployment and the modular aspect with focus on future demand. (author)

  13. OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE ESTERIFICACIÓN DE ACEITES VEGETALES USADOS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Laborde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe la optimización del proceso de esterificación de aceites vegetales usados (AVUs para la producción de biodiesel a partir de un análisis estructural mediante simulación . L a optimización energética se determin ó mediante una programación matemática, y posterior resolución mediante el software GAMS ® . Se analizaron dos alternativas tecnológicas . La Alternativa 1 incluye el proceso de esterificación aplicando una torre de lavado a la salida del reactor , mientras que la Alternativa 2 aplica un decantador a la salida del reactor . Se determinó que la A lternativa 2 fue la mejor opción debido a que el costo de servicio s totales anual es fue menor. Para la optimización energética del proceso seleccionado , se incorporó una bomba de calor entre las corrientes del condensador y del rehervidor de la torre de destilación y se diseñó una red de intercambio calórico entre las corrientes del proceso , esto permitiría un ahorro energético de servicios externos de 64,21% .

  14. Logística Reversa Para Gestão de Resíduos e Coprodutos da Cadeia de Biodiesel – Estudo de Caso Em Usinas do Nordeste Brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    ALMEIDA, Kelma Maria Vitorino

    2012-01-01

    A consciência ambiental sobre fontes alternativas de energia tem atraído o interesse mundial para pesquisas sobre biodiesel. No Brasil, o Programa Nacional para o Uso e Produção de Biodiesel (PNPB) foi criado em 2005. O aumento da produção de biodiesel, por sua vez, resulta numa maior geração de coprodutos e resíduos, como a torta proveniente da etapa de extração de óleo, e a glicerina do processo de produção de biodiesel, não existindo dados consolidados a respeito da gestão d...

  15. A ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA APLICADA NO MELHORAMENTO DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR: UMA NOVA ALTERNATIVA PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Távora da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology have made great advances in genetic improvement. In this sense, aimed to address currentcontexts of dynamic institutional, organizational and technological in which genetically modified organisms are included.The initial concern was to describe the technologies for sustainable production and genetic modification of sugar cane forthe production of biodiesel. For this, we used recombinant DNA technology, which allows you to isolate, prepare,manipulate and study small segments of DNA, and have been widely used to become resistant to herbicides, somecommercially important crops. The gene transformation allows you to transfer the gene of interest through naturalmethods such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and direct physical methods such as electroporation and biolistic. Theproduction of biodiesel is an alternative option that would circumvent the shortage of oil, because it is made carbonneutral. However, using biotechnology to improve the production process of biodiesel, requires attention for the controlof possible risks to the environment and ecological balance. Based on this literature review, we conclude that there arestill few conclusive studies on the genetic improvement of sugar cane in the production of biodiesel, and future studiesare needed to validate the process.

  16. Avances en la evaluación de la eficiencia energética del proceso de producción de biodiesel para distintas escalas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONATO L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl biodiesel es un biocombustible producido por la reacción entre aceite vegetal o grasa animal y alcohol.El balance energético es uno de los puntos críticos al momento de evaluar la sustentabilidad del mismo. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre la energía consumida y generada en dos sistemas de producción de biodiesel: uno para autoconsumo en un establecimiento agropecuario y otro para abastecer el corte interno de gasoil y las exportaciones. Con datos de la etapa agrícola e industrial y mediante la aplicación de indicadores energéticos, se obtuvieron los resultados para cada caso. En el sistema de producción para autoconsumo, la colza y el girasol se presentan como las mejores alternativas desde el punto de vista energético. En el caso de la producción para el corte interno y exportación, el mejor resultado se produce con soja de siembra directa y tecnología de punta. Se necesitan conocer el consumo de energía fósil para la fabricación de los principales insumos (fertilizantes, agroquímicos y alcohol para obtener un análisis con mayor certeza del balance energético en nuestro país.biocombustibles; balance energético.AbstractBiodiesel is a biofuel produced by the reaction between vegetable oil or animal fat and alcohol. The energy balance is a critical point when assessing the sustainability. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between energy consumed and generated in two biodiesel production systems: one for consumption on a farm and other to supply the diesel blended and export. Using data from the agricultural and industrial stage by application of energy indicators, results were obtained for each case. In the system of production for own consumption, rapeseed and sunflower are presented as the best alternative from an energy standpoint. In production for domestic and export cut, soybean tillage system with advanced technology provides the best results of energy balance. In

  17. Agricultural capacity and economic aspects of the main oleaginous with potential for biodiesel production for use in Brazilian transportation sector; Capacidade agricola e aspectos economicos das principais oleaginosas com potencial para producao de biodiesel para uso no setor de transporte brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabieri, Rodrigo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: galbieri@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Law n. 11.097, of January 13th, 2005, stabilised as mandatory the addition of 2% of biodiesel in the diesel beginning in 2008, increasing this amount to 5% in 2013. Many economics, environmental and social benefits can be reached through this new law. The diversity of raw material that could be used to produce biodiesel is large, mainly to the vegetables oil producer ones. Does the following cultures: palm oil, soy, babacu, peanut, mamona, and sunflower have enough stabilised agriculture areas to supply the goal of B2 and B5? What regarding to future fuel of type B10, B15 and B20? (author)

  18. Comparison of energy expenditure and closed-loop performance of thermal and reactive distillation sequences coupled for biodiesel production; Comparacion de gasto energetico y desempeno a lazo cerrado de secuencias de destilacion reactiva y termicamente acopladas para produccion de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Jacob, J.L [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Vazquez-Ojeda, M; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G; Hernandez, S [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Biodiesel is the common name for fatty acid methyl esters, obtained by esterification (basic catalysis) or trans-esterification (acid catalysis) of vegetable or animal oils with alcohols, and used as liquid fuel. Production involves the reaction, under mild conditions, between the oil and, typically, excess of methanol. Traditional production of biodiesel exhibits some handicaps, such as the shift of equilibrium to fatty acids by using excess of alcohol that must be separated and recycled. As alternative, it is possible to integrate reaction/separation operations into a single intensified unit, a reactive distillation column, followed by a second separation unit. These configurations exhibit several advantages such as shifting equilibrium in the reactive region and, because of the thermal integration with the second unit, energy savings during products separation. In order to design these production sequences taking advantage of steady state knowledge (energy savings) and considering dynamic performance, this work performs a controllability analysis for six possible configurations; open-loop control properties, evaluated by single value decomposition, are probed by implementing PI controllers to the system. The reactive distillation column coupled to a stripper, without reboilers, shows to be the best option in terms of closed-loop performance and energy savings. [Spanish] Biodiesel es el nombre comun dado a metil esteres de acidos grasos obtenidos por esterificacion (catalisis basica) o trans-esterificacion (catalisis acida) de aceites animales o vegetales con alcoholes, y usados como combustibles liquidos. Su produccion involucra la reaccion entre el aceite y, tipicamente, exceso de metanol a condiciones moderadas. La produccion tradicional de biodiesel exhibe algunas desventajas como el desplazamiento del equilibrio hacia acidos grasos debido al exceso de alcohol, que debe ser separado y reciclado. Alternativamente, es posible integrar las operaciones reaccion

  19. Integración de Jatropha curcas L. en agroecosistemas como materia prima para biodiesel en la región centro de Chiapas, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Solís Guzmán, Blanca Flor

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. es una opción de importancia en Chiapas como materia prima para biodiesel y se han establecido alrededor de 10 mil hectáreas, aún con escasa información como cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el potencial de integración de J. curcas en agroecosistemas de la Región Centro de Chiapas, México. Esta investigación se realizó en tres etapas de 2008 a 2011. Primero se determinaron áreas potenciales con el programa ArcView GIS Ver. 3.2®, en dos escenarios: 1) pend...

  20. Amadurecimento pós-colheita de frutos de macaúba e qualidade do óleo para a produção de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Samuel de Melo

    2014-01-01

    A macaúba [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Martius] é uma espécie promissora como fonte de matéria prima para a produção do biodiesel devido a alta produtividade em óleo, a possibilidade de completo aproveitamento de seus frutos e sua adaptabilidade a diversos biomas brasileiros. Devido ao sistema extrativista de exploração da espécie praticado até os dias atuais, informações a respeito do comportamento fisiológico pós-colheita de seus frutos e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade do óleo, bem ...

  1. Aprovechamiento de las oleinas residuales procedentes del proceso de refinado de los aceites vegetales comestibles, para la fabricación de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Mateos, P.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to obtain Biodiesel from “Oleinas” is studied. Biodiesel is a suitable product to replace diesel oil currently used to power the Diesel engines. It consists of a mixture of methyl esters of the fatty acids presents as triglycerides in vegetables oils (olive, sunflower, soya, rape oils. As a result of the refining of these oils for their use as food, a waste product is formed, the “oleinas” (acidulated soapstock. The oleinas consist of a mixture of triglycerides and free fatty acids, the latter amounting to 50% or more of the mixture and are subject to a fluctuating market, therefore it exist at times a problem for their disposal. In our research work we have tried to obtain biodiesel from oleinas. The process resulting from our experimental work is as follows: 1. Sterification of the free fatty acids with methanol, by acid catalysis, centrifuging the reaction product and removal of the acid-methanol phase. Drying of the latter. At this stage we have a product containing about 70% of methyl esters. 2. Transesterification of the triglycerides present in the sterified product with methanol by alkaline catalysis, washing the reaction product with a water methanol solution. Centrifuging and removal of the water-methanol phase. At this stage a biodiesel product is obtained containing about 90% of methyl esters. 3. Fractional vacuum distillation of the 90% biodiesel gives a final product with a methyl esters content higher than 98%.Se estudia un procedimiento para la obtención de Biodiesel a partir de las “Oleínas”. Biodiesel es un producto capaz de sustituir al combustible Diesel ordinario que se obtiene del petróleo y que consiste en una mezcla de ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. Las oleínas son unos residuos que resultan del proceso de refinado de aceites vegetales para su uso alimentario y se componen de una mezcla de triglicéridos y ácidos grasos libres, con un contenido de estos últimos

  2. Catalisadores heterogêneos para a produção de monoésteres graxos (biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiney Soares Cordeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the world biodiesel demand, along with the need to reduce costs while improving the environmental sustainability of the entire biodiesel production chain, have led to the search for heterogeneous catalysts that would be efficient and highly amenable to recycling. Many classes of materials have been tested for these purposes. Among these are zeolites, ion-exchange resins, inorganic oxides, guanidines, metal complexes, layered compounds and ionic liquids. This review article describes the structure, properties, synthesis and performance of compounds that are catalytic active in both esterification and transesterification reactions.

  3. Metodología basada en el Modelo de Referencia para Cadenas de Suministro para Analizar el Proceso de producción de Biodiesel a partir de Higuerilla Methodology based on the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model to Analyze the Production Process of Biodiesel from Castor Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis para la producción de Biodiesel a partir de Higuerilla usando el Modelo de Referencia para Cadenas de Suministro (SCOR. Se identificaron los niveles del proceso, indicadores clave de desempeño, atributos y operaciones logísticas que se llevan a cabo en toda la cadena de la producción de biodiesel de higuerilla. La utilidad de la aplicación del modelo SCOR se determina por la identificación que logra de los componentes de la cadena, evidenciando fortalezas y debilidades que presenta en las relaciones externas e internas de la logística. Desde esta perspectiva se observó que la aplicación del modelo SCOR hace más eficiente las operaciones logísticas a lo largo de la cadena.The production process of Biodiesel from castor oil plants is analyzed using the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR. The different levels of the process, the key performance indicators, the attributes and the logistic operations carried out throughout the chain were analyzed. The usefulness of applying the SCOR model is determined by the identification of the components of the chain, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of external and internal relations of the logistics. From this perspective it was observed that the implementation of the SCOR model makes more efficient the logistics operations through the whole chain.

  4. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN REACTOR DISCONTINUO PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DEL ACEITE DE Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un reactor discontinuo para obtener biodiesel a partir de 5 litros de extracto obtenido de la semilla de Ricinus communis. El reactor es de acero inoxidable, con longitud de 29 cm; diámetro interno de 15,24 cm y fondo cónico de 20cm de largo, espesor de la pared de 0,2cm, resistencia tubular de 1000 W y motor de 110 volt. Se extrajo y se comparó con las normas respectivas las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite crudo. Se realizaron pruebas preliminares de transesterificación del aceite catalizadas con NaOH para constatar la viabilidad de la reacción y definir las condiciones operacionales. El biodiesel obtenido fue caracterizado y comparado con referencias presentes en la literatura. Los resultaron mostraron que es posible obtener el biocombustible en el reactor discontinuo con un grado de conversión 88%; confirmando su aplicación en reacciones de transesterificación en medio básico.

  5. Método para monitorear el rendimiento y contenido de metil-ésteres en el biodiesel usando la espectroscopia vibracional IR Método para monitorear el rendimiento y contenido de metil-ésteres en el biodiesel usando la espectroscopia vibracional IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El producto principal de la trans-esterificación de aceite comestible fue caracterizado por medio de la espectroscopia del infrarrojo confirmando la presencia de metil-esteres en los mismos, así como la presencia notable de alcanos posiblemente presentes en el diesel, lo que indica que se trata de biodiesel obtenido a partir de aceite comestible. En este trabajo se considera la diferencia en intensidad de los picos en el espectro del infrarrojo en las posiciones 2 925 cm-1 y 1 170 cm-1, que corresponden a las vibraciones de los grupos –CH3 y C=O presentes en el biodiesel, diferencia que se relaciona con el rendimiento del producto y con otras propiedades a través de un modelo matemático que prediga el comportamiento de la variabilidad de diferentes factores. Se puede obtener información a partir del modelo matemático generado con la relación de intensidades de picos característicos y confirmarse con pruebas experimentales. Esto para emplear el modelo matemático para pronosticar diferentes propiedades inherentes sin necesidad de llevar a cabo la experimentación, disminuyendo tiempo y costos.Trans-esterification main product from corn oil were synthesized and characterised by infrared spectroscopy technique, detecting methyl-esters and normal paraffins, compounds present in diesel and confirming that biodiesel from fresh and cocking oil was obtained. In this work, the difference for infrared peaks intensities at 2 925 cm-1 and 1 170 cm-1, that correspond to vibrations of –CH3 y C=O groups in biodiesel, was related with product yield and other proprieties through a regression model that fit behaviour of several factors. Important information is generated from this mathematical model combining handling factors and using differences between two infrared typical peaks in order to predict inherent proprieties, reducing thus time and costs.

  6. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  7. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  8. Adaptación del método Bligh & Dyer a la extracción de lípidos de microalgas colombianas para la producción de biodiesel de tercera generación

    OpenAIRE

    González Delgado, Ángel; Galindo, Leisslly; González, Silvia; Peralta Ruiz, Yeimmy; Kafarov, Viatchesla

    2012-01-01

    En la cadena de producción de biodiesel a partir de microalgas, las etapas de disrupción celular y extracción de lípidos son importantes para la obtención de triglicéridos que pueden ser transesterificados a biodiesel y glicerina. En este trabajo se adaptó el método propuesto por Bligh & Dyer, a la extracción de lípidos de microalgas nativas, evaluando conjuntamente el pretratamiento organosolv o hidrólisis ácida como mecanismo de disrupción celular y utilizando el cloroformo (CHCl3), el meta...

  9. ANÁLISES DE PARÂMETROS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS DO ÓLEO EXTRAÍDO DE ESPÉCIES VEGETAIS UTILIZADAS PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Juliana R. Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered an excellent alternative to diesel derived from fossil sources, due to its renewable nature, which minimizes environmental impacts. In this research, several parameters were analyzed, such as the oil content of seeds, acidity and saponification indexes for oil extracted from different plant species, and qualitative analysis for the verification of free fatty acids in the biodiesel composition by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Four cultivars were evaluated for each specie: canola, sunflower, corn and soybean. Oil samples were submitted to the transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey and F significance tests for evaluation of differences between and within species. A significant difference was observed in the percentage of oil between species, sunflower (40.4% to 46.6%, Análises físico-químicas de óleos vegetais para a produção de biodiesel 131 Colloquium Exactarum, v. 7, n.2, Abr-Jun. 2015, p.130 –141. DOI: 10.5747/ce.2015.v07.n2.e121 canola (38.4% to 41.9%, soy (17.1% at 21 , 8% and corn (4.3% to 6.4%. The acidity and the saponification indexes values showed no differences between and within species, indicating the good quality of the oil. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids in the biodiesel synthesized from each specie.

  10. Desenvolvimento de procedimento analítico para a determinação in situ de glicerol livre em biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Sodré Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    O biodiesel é um biocombustível proveniente de fontes renováveis, que pode ser obtido a partir da transesterificação de óleos vegetais e/ou gordura animal, produzindo alquil-ésteres de ácidos graxos e um importante resíduo, o glicerol. Este coproduto deve ser removido para a comercialização do biocombustível, pois concentrações altas podem causar danos aos motores de ciclo diesel, além da produção de gases altamente tóxicos durante a combustão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento ...

  11. Biodiesel production using immobilized enzyme-current state and future perspective%固定化酶生产生物柴油的现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚仁敏; 代苗苗; 何所惧; 杜艳

    2011-01-01

    Recently,with the global shortage of fossil fuels,price hike of crude oil and increased environmental concerns have resulted in the rapid growth of biodiesel production.The central reaction in the biodiesel production is the transesterification reaction which can be catalyzed either chemically or biologically.Enzymatic transesterification has certain advantages over chemical catalysis of transesterification,as it is less energy intensive,allows easy recovery of glycerol as a by-product and the transesterification of glycerides with high free fatty acid contents.This article reviews the current status and latest development of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase,including various feedstocks,source of lipases,immobilization techniques,lipase inactivation caused by methanol(ethanol)and glycerol.Lastly,future perspective for biodiesel production catalyzed by immobilized lipase is discussed.%近年来由于化石燃料的全球性短缺、原油价格的过度上涨和环境问题的加剧致使生物柴油的生产迅速增长。生物柴油生产的关键反应是化学或生物催化的转酯反应,酶催化的转酯反应与化学催化相比有相对节能、副产物甘油易回收及适合高含量游离脂肪酸油脂作为底物等明显优势。本文综述了固定化脂肪酶生产生物柴油的现状及最新进展,包括生物柴油的原料、脂肪酶的来源、酶的固定化技术、甲(乙)醇及甘油对脂肪酶的失活作用,展望了固定化脂肪酶生产生物柴油的未来前景。

  12. Aplicação das Transformadas Wavelets em Dados de Espectroscopia no Infravermelho para a Determinação de Biodiesel e Óleo Vegetal em Blendas Biodiesel/Óleo Vegetal/Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Werlang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS calibration models were compared for the determination of biodiesel and vegetable oil in different blends using infrared spectra data (FTIR/ATR. Eighty binary and ternary blends containing biodiesel, vegetable oil and diesel were made, 48 were employed to compose the calibration set and 32 for prediction set. Initially the spectral signals of samples containing biodiesel and vegetable oil between 0 and 8 %(v/v were compressed using Discrete Wavelet Transform. The best models with compressed or uncompressed signals were compared, using the interval partial least squares algorithm (iPLS, also identifying which region of the infrared showed better correlation. The results using the compressed data showed similar errors in the determination of the vegetable oil and of the biodiesel in blends. The combination of the regression algorithm iPLS applied to data obtained by FTIR/ATR has shown considerable promise in the development of a simple, rapid and non-destructive method for the determination of adulteration with vegetable oil in biodiesel or biodiesel/diesel blends.

  13. Difusão de Inovações Sustentáveis: o caso do biodiesel de mamona no Estado da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto, Egídio Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension of how an innovation disseminates is a key to understand in which ways companies, as well institutions, may conduct innovative activities. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the diffusion process of a technology that applies castor beans to product biodiesel in the State of Paraíba (Brazil, here assumed as a sustainable innovation. For this purpose, and based on a structure of analysis constructed upon theoretical reference, it has been developed a qualitative, explorative and descriptive research, through interviews along with Embrapa Algodão’s researchers and rural producers from the city of Pocinhos, Paraíba. As a result, the research pointed out that the production process of castor beans was strongly supported by the actions of Embrapa’s researchers, by means of technological transference and technical assistance. However, it still requires more incentives from the government and a more comprehensible regulatory policy, a scenario that has hampered greater diffusion of such innovations among the region’s producers.

  14. Biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters, of vegetable oils, animal fats or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  15. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  16. Metodologia experimental para avaliação de custos de produção e utilização de biodiesel: estudo de caso de quatro ésteres metílicos e óleo diesel comercial Experimental methodology for assessing the cost of biodiesel production and use biodiesel: a case study of four methyl esters and commercial diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fiorese

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o Brasil detém uma vasta gama de matérias-primas para produção de biodiesel, e também que há a possibilidade de produção em pequena escala, prima-se por estudos de cunho econômico a partir de metodologias de fácil execução. O objetivo do trabalho foi demonstrar uma metodologia e sua aplicação para avaliação dos custos inseridos dentro do processo produtivo e de utilização do biodiesel. A metodologia foi aplicada a biodieseis originários de óleo de soja, girassol, frango e sebo bovino, dos quais se avaliaram economicamente os custos fixos e variáveis para conversão química dos óleos e gorduras em ésteres metílicos, em uma planta de produção experimental. Os custos de produção para cada uma das quatro citadas são distintos em função do valor inicial por litro de cada uma. Também fora avaliado o custo específico e o consumo específico de cada um dos biodieseis, a fim de determinar a diferença em relação ao óleo diesel comercial. No estudo de caso, os resultados mostraram vantagens para o óleo diesel, tanto no custo quanto no consumo. Comparando-se os biodieseis, o de sebo bovino apresentou-se com o menor custo de produção e o menor consumo.Considering that Brazil has a wide range of raw materials for biodiesel production, and also the possibility of small scale production, there is a demand for economic methodology studies with easy implementation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate a methodology and its application to assess the costs within the production process and the biodiesel use. The methodology was applied to biodiesels originated from soybean oil, sunflower oil, chicken oil and beef tallow, which assessed the fixed and variable costs for chemical conversion of oils and fats into methyl esters in an experimental production plant. Production costs for each of the four mentioned esters are peculiar due to the initial value of each oil per liter. Also the specific cost

  17. ÓLEO DE DENDÊ NA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL:UM ESTUDO DE CASO DAS VANTAGENS E DESVANTAGENS ECONÔMICA, ECOLÓGICA E SOCIAL DA CULTURA DESTA OLEAGINOSA PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL.

    OpenAIRE

    Henkes, Jairo Afonso; Lebid, Taras

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é analisar as vantagens e desvantagens no campo econômico, social e ecológico da cultura do dendê (Elaeis guineensis) destinada à extração de óleo de palma e óleo de palmiste para produção do biodiesel. Conforme o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel (PNPB), o óleo diesel distribuído nos postos do Brasil possui em sua composição 6% de óleo vegetal e 94% de óleo diesel derivado do petróleo (B6) e esta mistura tende a crescer em percentual de óleo vegetal até...

  18. Síntese de biodiesel: uma proposta contextualizada de experimento para laboratório de química geral Synthesis of biodiesel: a contextualized experiment proposal for the general chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The contextualized understanding of concepts in Chemistry by students from other areas is a challenging task. In this experiment, the synthesis of biodiesel is done by base catalyzed transesterification of refined soy oil with methanol at room temperature and common glassware found in any chemistry laboratory. The proposal permits introducing several concepts, such as that of emulsion, viscosity and catalysis to illustrate an activity based on an actual problem. In this didactic approach, some common problems of biodiesel production, such as soap formation and phase separation, are introduced into the procedure in order to raise questions and motivate the students to participate in the experimental work and stimulate reflections about critical aspects of biodiesel production. This experiment was carried out in the first semester of 2006, in experimental general chemistry taken by physics and agricultural, civil and chemical engineering students of UNICAMP.

  19. Fontes proteicas alternativas oriundas da cadeia produtiva do biodiesel para alimentação de ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a degradação e a produção de gás de diferentes fontes proteicas geradas na cadeia produtiva do biodiesel em substituição à silagem de milho. Os tratamentos foram: coprodutos de Gossyypium hirsutum, Ricinus communis, Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas, Helianthus annus. Os produtos foram analisados mediante a técnica semiautomática de produção de gases in vitro. O coproduto da moringa apresentou maior taxa de degradação, quando comparado aos demais alimentos, porém apresentou baixa produção de gás e se tornou mais eficiente, sendo, portanto, indicado como o melhor nível (27,06% de substituição à silagem de milho. O coproduto da mamona e o do algodão produziram a maior quantidade de gás em 48h de incubação. Todos os coprodutos estudados podem ser utilizados na dieta de ruminantes como alimento proteico até 30% de substituição à silagem de milho.

  20. Minimization of social and environmental risks of biodiesel production companies in Brazil: one step in the search for corporate social responsibility; Minimizacao do risco socioambiental para empresas produtoras de biodiesel no Brasil: um passo na busca da responsabilidade social corporativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffel, Silvia Blajberg; Sousa, Denise da Silva [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA); La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The National Biodiesel Production and Use Program and the Social Fuel Seal were developed to stimulate the family farmer's inclusion in the new productive chain of biodiesel, based on the basic principles of social inclusion promotion, job and income generation and the attenuation of the regional disparities, producing oilseeds suitable to each region of the country. Great challenges are in place for each stakeholder, like government, biodiesel producing companies, family farmers, syndicates and social movements, evidencing that the Seal is important, but not enough to assure the sustainable inclusion of family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel. This paper presents some social and environmental risks that emerge for the producing companies, followed by management proposals. The Corporate Social Responsibility concept is evoked, in a sense that the producing companies not only control its social and environmental risks, but not only minimizing its negative impacts and its negative externalities that results from its operations on the environment, society and stakeholders. But that they create and aggregate value, maximizing its positive impacts in the communities where they actuate, experiencing new business models and creating new institutional shapes. (author)

  1. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  2. Procedimiento para aumentar la velocidad de obtención de biodiesel mediante su incorporación como aditivo

    OpenAIRE

    López Granados, Manuel; Mariscal López, Rafael; Martín Alonso, David; Bretes García, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Procedimiento para aumentar la velocidad de obtención de biodiésel mediante su incorporación como aditivo. La presente invención se refiere al uso de biodiésel como aditivo para aumentar la velocidad de reacción en reacciones de transesterificación catalítica con alcoholes y para proteger a los catalizadores del contacto con el CO{sub,2} y H{sub,2}O atmosféricos. De forma más concreta, en esta invención se describe un procedimiento de obtención de biodiésel a partir de la transesterificación ...

  3. ESTUDO DA VIABILIDADE DA AUTOPRODUÇÃO E USO DE BIODIESEL PARA ABASTECIMENTO DA ESTRADA DE FERRO CARAJÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURÉLIO LAMARE SOARES MURTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great changes brought about by climate change associated with the effects of global warming and oil shortages, new forms of energy have been investigated aiming to mitigate these impacts. Thus, this work addresses the tests made by different companies and universities that demonstrate the technical feasibility of the biodiesel use in heavy vehicles. Therefore, a methodology was developed to allow the tests to be conducted in a secure and reliable way, following the procedures recommended for larger percentage of mixture of diesel and biodiesel. This work also includes a case study of biodiesel production by the Vale Company for the Carajás Railroad, from where was made a cost of deployment and production of biodiesel from soybean and palm. The final conclusions are that the cost of biodiesel produced in this unit was set up well above the final price of diesel acquired by the company at the distribution, similar to what happens in the market. However, with the expectation that with the development of production processes of biofuel, the fixation of limits of emissions control, as well as the high price of oil, make the price of biodiesel competitive regarding to diesel.

  4. Study proposal for the use of biodiesel from 'pinhao manso' (Jatropha curcas L.) in internal combustion engines; Proposta de estudo para uso do biodiesel de pinhao manso em motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Leal da [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail: rlealsilva@hotmail.com; Pimentel, Carlos Alberto Rocha [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Araguaina, TO (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: pimentel@uft.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a preliminary study is proposed as a general glimpse looking into the recent motivation in using biodiesel, from 'pinhao manso'. From that initial revision, a research proposal aims to evaluate the performance parameters in an internal combustion engine or turbines working with oil, mainly produced from plants crops in Tocantins state. Both equipment are used as electrical energy generators in regions were it is not easily available or non-existent. Some parameters to be analyzed in the research proposal are the thermal performance and gases emissions resulting from diesel-biodiesel mixture combustion, as CO, NOx , SO{sub 2} and others. At the ending, some points of view with respect to the potential effects of renewable energy sources usage in Brazil are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Primary energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil for the conditions of Brazil and Colombia; Balanco energetico preliminar da producao do biodiesel de oleo de palma para as condicoes do Brasil e da Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Roselis Ester da; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI/MG), MG (Brazil)], Emails: roseliscosta@yahoo.com.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Yanez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Palma de Aceite (CENIPALMA), Bogota (Colombia)], Email: edgar.yanez@cenipalma.org; Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], Email: ednildo@ufba.br

    2006-07-01

    The increasing related ambient concerns to the emissions of atmospheric pollutants for fuels, alternative sources of energy are having bigger attention, mainly those that contribute in the mitigation of these emissions. Being thus, the use of the biodiesel produced by the etherification of vegetal oils with methanol and ethanol, are seen as present interesting alternative. The energy analysis of the relation of the energy invested in the production of bio diesel can contribute as tool for a posterior formularization of pointers of the technician-economic and ambient viability in the comparison between the different oleaginous, as form to diagnosis one better type of culture for the production of biodiesel. The objectives of this work is to carry the energy analysis in the production of the palm oil biodiesel, for the conditions of Brazil and Colombia, as well as showing the differences between the results found for the two cases. The presented results are shown through comparative graphs for the two cases and with the final energy balance for each company. (author)

  6. Desenvolvimento de um modelo da cinética enzimática da transesterificação de óleos vegetais para produção de biodiesel = Development of the enzymatic kinetics model of vegetable oils transesterification for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a tecnologia de produção enzimática do biodiesel é mais uma alternativa em relação aos métodos químicos que utilizam catalisadores ácidos ou básicos. A enzima lipase utilizada como catalisador desse processo pode ser obtida de microrganismoscomo Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. cepacia, Candida antarctica, dentre outros. Neste trabalho, propomos um mecanismo da transesterificação de triglicerídeos catalisada por enzima lipase. O processo foi formalizado em três reações consecutivas, nas quais são formados osdiglicerídeos e monoglicerídeos. Outras três etapas intermediárias das reações envolvendo a lipase foram consideradas. A identificação dos parâmetros do modelo desenvolvido foi feita para condições reacionais em que a alimentação é feita na proporção estequiométrica dos reagentes. O modelo desenvolvido foi testado com dados experimentais em diversas condições operacionais encontradas na literatura. Os resultados das simulações mostram boa flexibilidade do modelo, ajustando os dados em várias condições de transesterificaçãoenzimática para produção de biodiesel.Currently the technology of enzymatic production of biodiesel is more promising than that based on chemical methods, using acidic orbasic catalysts. The enzyme lipase used as catalyst in this process can be isolated from microorganisms such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. cepacia, Candida antarctica among others. In this work, a mechanism for the transesterification of triglycerides catalyzed by lipase for production of biodiesel is proposed. The process was modeled in three consecutive reactions where diglycerides and monoglycerides were formed. Other three intermediate stages involving lipase were considered. The identification of parameters with the developed model was performed for reaction conditions where stoichiometric amount of reagents were used. The developed modelwas tested for different operational conditions with

  7. Biodiesel and its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It consists mainly of the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks. This chapter provides a background on biodiesel as well as an overview of biodiesel production, analysis, and pr...

  8. Álcool combustível e biodiesel no Brasil: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Paulillo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma análise das cadeias agroenergéticas do álcool combustível e do biodiesel no Brasil, à guisa do referencial neocorporativista. Como resultado, um dos desafios da cadeia brasileira do álcool é apurar as dimensões do mercado externo e interno de álcool que se vislumbram, para viabilizar um planejamento estratégico de expansão da oferta de cana e de álcool. Já a cadeia do biodiesel depende, assim como o Proálcool em seus primórdios, de um paradigma subvencionista em sua fase inicial. Seu futuro está atrelado ao comportamento do preço do petróleo e da direção que irá tomar a orquestração de interesses em torno do biodiesel.The objective of this study is to make an analysis of the agro-energy chains of the alcohol fuel and bio-diesel, based on the neo-corporativism reference. As a result, one of the challenges of the Brazilian alcohol chain is to select the dimensions of the external and internal market of alcohol that comes out, to make possible a strategically planning of expansion of the offer for sugar cane and alcohol. And the chain of bio-diesel depends, as well as the Proalcohol in its genesis, on a subvention paradigm in its initial phase. Its future depends on the behavior of oil price and on the direction that the orchestra of interests around bio-diesel.

  9. Proyecto de desarrollo para evaluar la factibilidad del cultivo de palma africana como materia prima exportable para la producción de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Marcillo Chasy, Lorena Elizabeth; Vargas Campoverde, Maria Fernanda; Veloz Pacheco, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Hay cultivos agrícolas, como el de la Palma Africana, que están sustituyendo a la producción de oleaginosas tradicionales en el Ecuador y los productos provenientes del extranjero, que poco a poco van teniendo un impacto positivo en la vida de las comunidades indígenas y campesinas (generación de empleo). La palma africana también es conocida como palma aceitera, porque de ella se extrae aceite comestible, pero también tiene diversos usos, como por ejemplo; para productos alimenticios, med...

  10. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  11. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R. [Department of Economics, Orbita 3, Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, 050043 (Kazakhstan); McCarl, Bruce A. [Department of Agricultural Economics, 2124 TAMU, Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel number 2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  12. Perspectives of microbial oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2008-10-01

    Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of microbial, oils and it has been found that many microorganisms, such as algae, yeast, bacteria, and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under some special cultivation conditions. Compared to other plant oils, microbial oils have many advantages, such as short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, season and climate, and easier to scale up. With the rapid expansion of biodiesel, microbial oils might become one of potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, though there are many works associated with microorganisms producing oils need to be carried out further. This review is covering the related research about different oleaginous microorganisms producing oils, and the prospects of such microbial oils used for biodiesel production are also discussed.

  13. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  14. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  15. Selection of microorganisms producer of lipase for fat removal from biodiesel purification water Seleção de microrganismos produtores de lipase para remoção de gordura de água de purificação do biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane C. da Rocha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study has been the selection of lipase productor microorganism, for removal of oils and grease, in the pre-treatment of biodiesel wastewater washing. For this, analyses of the physicist-chemistries characteristics had been made with the wastewater of the biodiesel washing, and then it had been isolated and chosen, by means of determinations of the lipase activity. Following, it was made a test of fat biodegradation, in the conditions: pH (5.95, temperature (35 ºC, rotation (180 rpm and ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source (3 g L-1 and establishing as variable the two microorganism preselected and the time (24; 48; 72; 96 and 120 h. The biodiesel purification wastewater had presented high potential of environmental impact, presenting a concentration of O of 6.76 g L-1. From the six isolated microbiological cultures, two microorganisms (A and B had been selected, with enzymatic index of 0.56 and 0.57, respectively. The treatment of the wastewater using the isolated microorganism (Klebsiella oxytoca had 80% of the fatty removal in 48 h.Este trabalho teve por objetivo selecionar cepas de microrganismos com alto potencial de produção de lipase, a fim de remover óleos e graxas, no pré-tratamento da água residuária de purificação do biodiesel. Para tanto, foram feitas análises das características físico-químicas do efluente, e a partir desse resíduo foram isolados e selecionados microrganismos com potencial de produção de lipase. Em seguida, foi feito um ensaio de biodegradação de gordura, nas condições: pH (5,95, temperatura (35 ºC, rotação (180 rpm e sulfato de amônio como fonte de nitrogênio (3 g L-1, e tendo como variáveis os microrganismos pré-selecionados e o tempo (24; 48; 72; 96 e 120 h. A água residuária de purificação do biodiesel apresentou uma concentração de O de 6,76 g L-1. Das seis culturas microbianas isoladas do tanque de decantação deste efluente, dois microrganismos (A e B foram

  16. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  17. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  18. Obtención de Biodiesel utilizando fenómenos catalíticos a partir de la semilla de la Jatropha curcas. Una estrategia para el desarrollo de competencias investigativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Montaña

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En aras de forjar una propuesta cognitiva que promueva en el estudiante y en la comunidad científica la comprensión, construcción y asimilación de conceptos propios de un área de la química como lo es la catálisis, sustentada a través de la obtención de biodiesel a partir de la semilla de la Jatropha Curcas, así como la ejecución de habilidades científicas, se propone la implementación de una estrategia pedagógica y didáctica centrada en las competencias investigativas orientadas desde la resolución problemas, con el fin de brindar a la comunidad científica las herramientas para que definan problemáticas ambientales, sociales y económicas, y propongan posibles soluciones para las mismas, manifestando de este modo la capacidad para comunicar adecuadamente los resultados en el campo investigativo.

  19. ÓXIDOS METÁLICOS DERIVADOS DE MATERIAIS TIPO HIDROTALCITAS CONTENDO Ga3+ COMO CATALISADORES PARA SÍNTESE DE BIODIESEL ETÍLICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mancini

    Full Text Available Summary: The synthesis of like-hydrotalcites materials (layered double hydroxides - LDHs with molecular formula MgxM3+y(CO3(OH16·4H2O in different ratios Mg2+/M3+ where M3+ is Al3+, Ga3+ or both was carried out by the coprecipitation method to be applied in the transesterification reactions for synthesis of ethyl biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reactions were processed for 12 hours at 120 ºC at a molar ratio oil/ethanol (1/20 with 20% (m/m of the catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the products were quantified by GC-FID. With the introduction of Ga3+ in the solid, some physicochemical characteristics of LDHs were kept based in the data from X-ray pattern diffraction (XRD, vibrational spectrometry (ATR-FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, but changes from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, superficial area (BET, and the acidity/basicity properties were observed. Typical hydrotalcite with Mg2+/M3+ = 3 was used as reference material and reach 45.1% of biodiesel conversion. Although the best conversion result (77.6% was reached from the solid without Ga3+ and with Mg2+/M3+ ratio 4/1, there is an interesting correlation between the catalytic activities and the physicochemical properties of the solids with Ga3+ and their respective homologous materials as discussed in this work.

  20. Cor ASTM: um método simples e rápido para determinar a qualidade do biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos residuais de fritura ASTM color: a simple and fast method for determining quality of biodiesel produced from used cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 23 biodiesel samples were produced, 20 from used cooking oil and the remaining 3 from refined soybean oil. The following properties were determined in all of the samples (oil and its respective biodiesel: density; viscosity; total acid number and ASTM color. The results indicated high correlation (R > 0.6 between ASTM color of used cooking oil and total acid number of its resultant biodiesel. This high correlation allows prediction of the quality of the biodiesel produced using a simple and fast procedure such as ASTM color.

  1. Some Technical Aspects for Sustainable Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Paryanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Brundtland Commission (1987, sustainability means the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations’ abilities to meet their own needs. The term of sustainability has multi-dimensional objectives of social, environmental and economic. Without ignoring the importance of social, environmental, and economical aspects of sustainability, this study will only highlight some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production and, of course, the final goal will target the implication of improved social, environmental and economical conditions. Some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production cover the multi-discipline activities at the design stage and at the operation stage of biodiesel production plant. The design stage can be divided into conceptual design, basic engineering design and detailed engineering design. At this stage, the design parameters should consider the selection of the type and availability of raw material, biodiesel plant capacity and location, the efficient production process, the availability of utilities and supporting infrastructures, waste (environmental treatment, and raw material and product handling facilities. And during the operation of biodiesel plant, some important technical issues are the production process activities according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP, awareness of safety and Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP, scheduled maintenance activity, waste management, product quality control, and further, if possible, efficiency improvement in the production line through R&D activities and technological advances.

  2. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Lutz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.

  3. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  4. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  5. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  6. Biodiesel: uma energia alternativa e verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Carvalho Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto busca expor a importância do uso de energias alternativas. O biodiesel é apontado como uma das soluções para o esgotamento do petróleo e seus derivados e para o problema do aquecimento global, e o Brasil, por apresentar biodiversidade e forte economia agrícola, permitiu que o Governo Federal criasse o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB com chances de sucesso. O programa explora várias fontes energéticas, de culturas temporárias e perenes ao uso do óleo residual, além de trazer benefícios ao desenvolvimento do país, gerando emprego e renda, e, principalmente, redução nas emissões de gás carbônico.

  7. Biodiesel from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Aullón Alcaine, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this project we will travel back in time to the nineteenth century to discover the inventor of the diesel engine, Rudolf Diesel, and his renewable fuel vision that is only now being realized. Biodiesel has received considerable attention in recent years as it is biodegradable, renewable and non-toxic fuel. It emits less gaseous pollutants than conventional diesel fuel, and can work directly in diesel engines with no required modifications. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by tra...

  8. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  9. Business management for biodiesel producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpen, Jon Van [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  10. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  11. Contribution of state public policies to participation of family agriculture in the national program for production and use of biodiesel: the case of Bahia (Brazil); A contribuicao da politica estadual para viabilizar a participacao da agricultura familiar no programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel: o caso da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avzaradel, Ana Carolina

    2008-03-15

    The commencement of the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) consolidates the efforts of the Federal Government to stimulate the national production of this biofuel. The program is aimed at the insertion of small family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel, promoting the social inclusion of this part of the population. PNPB stipulates that 2% of biodiesel must be blended with diesel oil (B2) from 2008 on, a percentage that will reach 5% in 2013. However, the demand for biodiesel created by this program may not be met if the blockages in the production chain are not removed. Since the absence of raw material is highlighted as the main obstacle to production, the main difficulties faced by family farmers were focused on. The study dealt specifically with the case of Bahia, since it already has a structured production chain of vegetable oil seeds and because of its leading position in the national production of biodiesel. Impacts resulting from the adoption of state public policies aimed at family farmers who produce vegetable oil for the production of biodiesel were analyzed. Vegetable oil supply scenarios in Bahia show that state government support for family farming benefits biodiesel production, allowing to estimate the percentage of the participation of family agriculture in Bahia to meet the targets set in the PNPB. (author)

  12. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

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    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  14. Evaluación del desempeño de un motor Yuchai trabajando con biodiesel cubano; Performance evaluation of Yuchai Engine working with Biodiesel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Piloto Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una característica exterior de velocidad para un motor trabajando con Biodiesel y sus mezclas, así como se analiza la composición en NOx de los gases contaminantes producto de la combustión. Se comprueba la perdida en prestaciones del motor y aumento del consumo especifico de combustible a medida que aumentamos la cantidad de Biodiesel en la mezcla. Esto se debe al menor poder calórico del Biodiesel. Se observa como la carga contaminante disminuye en mas de un 40% cuando se utiliza Biodiesel y se hace un análisis de la posibles causas de este comportamiento. Finalmente se hace una proposición de la mezcla carburante mas recomendable para su utilización.  At the present work, the authors obtain the engine outer velocity characterization working with Biodiesel and its mixtures, and show the chemical composition of the exhaust gases respect to NOx. Is observed a decrease in the engine performance when the Biodiesel per cent is growing. This behaviour must be due to the lower heat power for Biodiesel respect to Diesel. They obtain a 40% decrease in the NOx formation respect to Diesel and it is developed an analysis of the reasons of that. Finally they propose the optimized mixture for the use in an internal combustion engine, about the 20% of Biodiesel, because this is the equilibrium between contamination and engine performance.

  15. ESTUDO DA VIABILIDADE DO ÓLEO DE VÍSCERAS DE PEIXES MARINHOS (Seriola Dumerlii (ARABAIANA, Thunnus ssp (ATUM, Scomberomorus cavala (CAVALA e Carcharrhinus spp (CAÇÃO COMERCIALIZADOS EM ARACAJU-SE PARA A PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL

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    Carla Crislan Bery

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O pescado e seus produtos são reconhecidamente importantes alternativas alimentares para a população humana, representam fontes de proteínas de alta qualidade e boa digestibilidade, lipídios, minerais, ácidos graxos e vitaminas lipossolúveis. A indústria de pescado representa um vasto potencial quanto ao volume de resíduo gerado, pois seus descartes podem ser transformados em produtos com aproveitamento mercadológico como exemplo disso as silagem, farinhas, óleos de peixe, biodiesel, produtos fermentados entre outros. Óleos provenientes de gordura animal e os usados para cocção de alimentos são utilizados como fonte de matéria prima alternativa para a produção de biocombustíveis, porém os óleos cuja origem vem dos resíduos orgânicos descartados por indústrias beneficiadoras de pescado estão sendo estudados como forma de reaproveitamento destes maximizando a utilização da matéria prima evitando desperdício e caminhando assim, para um desenvolvimento sustentável. Devido a falta de conhecimento sobre o potencial destes resíduos e a busca por matérias primas alternativas para melhorar a produção energética, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a viabilidade do óleo extraído a partir das vísceras de peixes marinho para produção de biodiesel. Analisou-se a caracterização das vísceras de peixes marinhos e análises para determinar os teores de acidez, iodo e umidade, a viscosidade cinemática, o índice de saponificação e a densidade do óleo. Observou-se que as vísceras de peixes marinho apresentaram alto teor lipídico e proteico e o óleo extraído das vísceras de peixe marinho é uma alternativa como matéria prima para a produção de biodiesel.Palavras-chave: vísceras, peixe marinho, óleo, biodiesel.

  16. OTIMIZAÇÃO DO PROCESSO DE TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO EM DUAS ETAPAS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DO PLANEJAMENTO EXPERIMENTAL DOEHLERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. C. Ruschel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Doehlert experimental design was used to optimize the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP method of methyl soybean oil biodiesel production which starts with a basic catalysis followed by an acidic catalysis. The conversion values were calculated from NMR spectra. Response surface was used to show the results of the interactions between the variables. This experimental design evaluated variables like catalyst and alcohol amount for the basic catalysis and time and temperature for the acidic catalysis. According to results obtained after Doehlert design application the alcohol amount was the main factor that influenced on the basic catalysis but for the acidic catalysis both time and temperature are important and their effects are opposite. It resulted on excellent conversions for both steps obtaining for the basic catalysis about 100% when was used like optimal conditions catalyst amount equal to 0.40 g and volume of methanol equal to 60 mL and for the acidic catalysis about 99% when was used like optimal conditions temperature of 65 °C and 90 minutes for reaction time.

  17. Viability of biofuel use in CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) projects; Viabilidade do uso do biodiesel para projetos de MDL (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Julio; Lima, Luciana Santana de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel, renewable energy source, has been adopted by several countries as a possible substitute for fossil fuels. Brazil, by its own, included oil and fat derived biofuel in its energetic matrix through National Politics for Biofuel Use and Production (NPBUP), issue in Law n. 11.097 of 01/13/2005. Many studies demonstrate the contribution of biofuel for Greenhouse Gases reduction, what turns projects using it into possible candidates for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), instrument described in Kyoto Protocol. With purpose of studying the Brazilian potentiality of the insertion of biofuel into CDM projects, this report approaches many aspects related to CDM, as well the terms for being accepted as so. Through bibliographic review were listed the possibilities and the restraints for including biofuel in carbon market resulted, principally, by the obligation of its use; what goes against the principle of voluntary, for seen in the Protocol. I concluded analyzing the advantages of biofuel comparatively to environmental issues, emphasizing the necessity of making viable its entrance into carbon credits market. (author)

  18. Development of a biodiesel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids. The circumstances that led to the significant French biodiesel activity will be examined: the oilseed producers and transformers actions, the partnership with the oil refiners, the government support - regulation and detaxation... The French production units will be described, followed by update scientific results highlighting the advantages of biodiesel: functionality and friendly environmentally impact. The current usage of biodiesel by oil refiners will be described and its future in the oncoming context (fuel specifications, HDI engines and post-treatment discussed.

  19. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  20. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L.; McCormick, Robert L.; Christensen, Earl D.; Fioroni, Gina; Moriarty, Kristi; Yanowitz, Janet

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  1. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  2. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  3. Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Steven; Teong, Lee Keat [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    Energy supply and its security issues have been the topic of interest lately. With growing environmental awareness about the negative implications brought by excessive usage of fossil fuels, the race for finding alternative energy as their substitutions is getting heated up. For now, renewable energy from biodiesel has been touted as one of the most promising substitutions for petroleum-derived diesel. Combustion of biodiesel as fuel is more environment-friendly while retaining most of the positive engine properties of petroleum-derived diesel. Production of biodiesel is also a proven technology with established commercialization activities. The huge potential of biodiesel coupled with the abundance of palm oil which is one of the most cost-effective feedstocks for biodiesel is responsible for the pledging of Malaysia to become the leading producer of high quality biodiesel in the region. Currently, total approved installed capacity of biodiesel production in Malaysia equals to almost 92% of the world biodiesel production output in 2008. While Malaysia does indeed possessed materials, technologies and marketing superiority to vie for that position, many more challenges are still awaiting. The price restriction, provisions controversy, escalating non-tariff trade barriers and negligible public support need to be addressed appropriately. In this review, Malaysia's previous and current position in global biodiesel market, its future potential towards the prominent leading biodiesel status and major disrupting obstacles are being discussed. The feasibility of utilizing algae as the up-and-coming biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia is also under scrutiny. Lastly, several recommendations on the roles played by three major forces in Malaysia's biodiesel industry are presented to tackle the shortcomings in achieving the coveted status by Malaysia. It is hope that Malaysia's progress in biodiesel industry will not only benefit itself but rather as the role model

  4. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran D. Ristovski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, biodiesel produced from oilseed crops and animal fat is receiving much attention as a renewable and sustainable alternative for automobile engine fuels, and particularly petroleum diesel. However, current biodiesel production is heavily dependent on edible oil feedstocks which are unlikely to be sustainable in the longer term due to the rising food prices and the concerns about automobile engine durability. Therefore, there is an urgent need for researchers to identify and develop sustainable biodiesel feedstocks which overcome the disadvantages of current ones. On the other hand, artificial neural network (ANN modeling has been successfully used in recent years to gain new knowledge in various disciplines. The main goal of this article is to review recent literatures and assess the state of the art on the use of ANN as a modeling tool for future generation biodiesel feedstocks. Biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, chemical compositions, standards, physio-chemical properties and in-use performance are discussed. Limitations of current biodiesel feedstocks over future generation biodiesel feedstock have been identified. The application of ANN in modeling key biodiesel quality parameters and combustion performance in automobile engines is also discussed. This review has determined that ANN modeling has a high potential to contribute to the development of renewable energy systems by accelerating biodiesel research.

  5. Sustentabilidade e gestão ambiental no município de Moju/PA: desafios para a produção do biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Andreza Soares

    2014-01-01

    O conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável e sua operacionalização emergem como uma necessidade de pensar em novas formas de mensurar o crescimento, daí o surgimento dos “Indicadores de Sustentabilidade”, criados para medir a sustentabilidade de um sistema, baseado em índices de diversas variáveis que apontam para a sustentabilidade ou não de uma região. Na Amazônia e no Estado do Pará, pouco se tem aplicado ferramentas de análise de sustentabilidade em suas mais diversas dimensões. Recentemen...

  6. Biodiesel: most recent developments in distribution infra-structure; Recentes desenvolvimentos na infra-estrutura do biodiesel: caso pratico apresentando desde a compra do biodiesel ate a mistura automatizada nas bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauer, Luiz Athayde da Silva; Silberman Luis [Petroleo Ipiranga (Grupo ULTRA), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation will show a practical large scale case of, which involves: the purchase, distribution and storage of 80 million liters of Biodiesel that we have bought in the Brazilian market; the way the distribution is being done and the future perspectives in its infra-structure. Moreover, this presentation will approach and detail the most recent developments in: automation of the mix in the terminals of distribution. Specific analysis of our terminal in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil; identification of the best practice and the results already obtained from it; identification of the tie breaker criteria to produce the mix of the Biodiesel in the Diesel oil; what we are doing to development the modals of transportation of Biodiesel; the Biodiesel storage - Best operational practices; the Biodiesel - aspects for the consumer quality control; acquisition of 5 thousand tons of carbon credits. (author)

  7. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  8. Analysis of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a biogenic alternative to diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced by a transesterification reaction from materials consisting largely of triacylglycerols such as vegetable and other plant oils, animal fats, used cooking oils, and “alternative” feedstocks such as algal oils. T...

  9. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  10. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  11. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  12. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  13. Proyecto de construcción e implantación de una industria para la elaboración de biodiesel a partir de aceites usados

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Casals, Iñaki; Ávalos Tomàs, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad y de una manera creciente, Europa fomenta y promueve la utilización de subproductos y la valorización de los residuos. Por otro lado, la propia industria química de commodities en una constante búsqueda de mejores márgenes de beneficios, cada vez más escasos, intenta ampliar el abanico de materias primas más económicas, siempre garantizando la calidad del producto. Tratando a los residuos como un mercado claramente emergente, se realiza este proyecto para af...

  14. Análisis del etanol y del biodiesel como sustitutos de combustibles fósiles para automoción en España

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La Unión Europea busca fomentar desde hace ya algunos años el uso de biocarburantes como sustitutos del gasóleo o la gasolina a efectos de transporte con los objetivos de cumplir los compromisos asumidos en materia de cambio climático, la seguridad de abastecimiento en condiciones ecológicamente racionales y la promoción de las fuentes de energía renovables. Para conseguir estos objetivos, la Directiva 2003/30/EC establece que antes del fin de 2010 se debe consumir un mínimo del 5,75%de bioca...

  15. Comportamiento ecofisiológico de variedades de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) para la producción sostenible de aceite y biodiesel en diferentes agroecosistemas colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba Gaona, Oscar de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) es una especie cultivada en todas las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, y ha sido recomendada para altitudes no mayores a los 1.500 msnm, ya que se ha pensado que, ambientes fríos afectan el desempeño de la especie, al alterar el crecimiento y desarrollo del vegetal, y al reducir la cantidad y calidad final de aceite. Por lo anterior, a través de la presente investigación, se determinó el comportamiento fisiológico de la higuerilla en dif...

  16. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os atuais elevados preços do barril de petróleo no mercado internacional, a possibilidade de geração de postos de trabalho e renda com a conseqüente fixação do homem no campo, as excelentes e variadas condições climáticas e os tipos de relevo fazem com que o Brasil, com suas extensas áreas agricultáveis, destaque-se no cenário mundial em relação à sua grande potencialidade de geração de combustíveis alternativos. A situação ambiental faz com que o ser humano trabalhe no desenvolvimento de alternativas energéticas, destacando-se aquelas oriundas de fontes renováveis e biodegradáveis de caráter eminentemente sustentável. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de um motor ciclo diesel, funcionando em momentos distintos com diesel mineral e misturas deste com biodiesel nas proporções equivalentes a B2 (98% de diesel mineral e 2% de biodiesel, B5 (95% de diesel mineral e 5% de biodiesel, B20 (80% de diesel mineral e 20% de biodiesel e B100 (100% de biodiesel. Para a realização dos ensaios, foi utilizado um motor ciclo diesel de um trator VALMET 85 id, de 58,2kW (78 cv, de acordo com metodologia estabelecida pela norma NBR 5484 da ABNT (1985 que se refere ao ensaio dinamométrico de motores de ciclo Otto e Diesel. Concluiu-se que a potência do motor ao se utilizar biodiesel foi inferior àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. Observou-se que, em algumas rotações, as misturas B5 e B20 apresentaram potência igual ou até superior, em algumas situações, àquela quando se utilizou diesel mineral. A melhor eficiência térmica do motor foi verificada na rotação de 540 rpm da TDP equivalente a 1720 rpm do motor.It is considered that, in a close future, the petroleum reservations economically viable will tend to the shortage. Besides it, the exacerbated current price levels of the petroleum barrel in the international market, the possibility of employment generation and income with the consequent

  17. Evaluación del proceso de extracción del aceite de Jatropha curcas L. para la producción de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La búsqueda de energías alternativas que reduzcan la dependencia petrolera y los problemas asociados a las materias primas de primera generación empleadas en la obtención de biocombustibles, motivan la investigación de la extracción del aceite de Jatropha curcas L. como materia prima para la producción de biodiésel. En esta tesis de maestría se caracterizó la semilla de Jatropha y se estudió el efecto de algunas variables de los procesos de extracción por solventes y mecánica sobre el rend...

  18. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA SOBRE A UTILIZAÇÃO DE ÓLEO DE COCO PARA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL

    OpenAIRE

    TOMMASI, A. C.; VASCONCELOS NETO, A. G.; CARDOSO, B. T.; PEDRO NETO

    2014-01-01

    A utilização de combustíveis fósseis vem sendo questionada em função de não ser uma fonte renovável de energia. Além disso, é uma das maiores responsáveis pela emissão de monóxido de carbono e gás carbônico, os maiores causadores do efeito estufa. Para mitigar esses efeitos se utilizam combustíveis alternativos, produzidos a partir de óleos vegetais que além de serem fontes renováveis emitem menor quantidade de gases poluentes. Este trabalho prospectivo teve como objetivo demon...

  19. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...... droplets within the reaction media, where continuous stirring operations are applied to improve mass transfer and thus reaction rates. In all other cases, there is a heterogeneous alcohol phase in equilibrium with the ester phase under equilibrium conditions. The immiscibility and/or miscibility drawbacks...

  20. Biodiesel Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    toxic replacement is most often made from soybean oil through a process called transesterfication, whereby it is mixed with methanol to produce both soy...vegeta b le oils or animal fats , for use in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. This specification is For pure (100%) biodiesel prior to use or...field testing, provided no safety concerns or major issues are discovered. The BUSL engines and fuel system will be prepared and modified to ensure

  1. Synthesis of chromatographic standards and establishment of a method for the quantification of the fatty ester composition of biodiesel from babassu oil; Sintese de padroes cromatograficos e estabelecimento de metodo para dosagem da composicao de esteres de acidos graxos presentes no biodiesel a partir do oleo de babacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urioste, Daniele; Castro, Matheus B.A.; Biaggio, Francisco C.; Castro, Heizir F. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: heizir@dequi.eel.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Several alkyl esters were synthesized, purified, characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and employed as standards for establishing chromatographic methods to monitor their formation in the synthesis of biodiesel. The efficiency of the chromatographic methods was confirmed with the products of enzymatic transesterification of babassu oil with different alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 4}), using Lipozyme as catalyst. (author)

  2. Biodiesel de soja: reação de transesterificação para aulas práticas de química orgânica Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Geris

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas.

  3. Biodiesel de soja: reação de transesterificação para aulas práticas de química orgânica Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Geris; Nádia Alessandra Carmo dos Santos; Bruno Andrade Amaral; Isabelle de Souza Maia; Vinicius Dourado Castro; José Roque Mota Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas.

  4. Analysis of the feasibility to integrate the semi-arid family agriculture in the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel: Ceara case, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade para insercao da agricultura familiar do semiarido no Programa Nacional de Producao e Uso de Biodiesel: o caso do Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siniscalchi, Carina Renno

    2010-03-15

    In 2004, it was established the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) which encourages the participation of family farming in the biodiesel production chain, boosting rural development and social inclusion of these workers. From 2008 on, the PNPB decided that it would be mandatory the add 2% of biodiesel into diesel, named B2, and from 2010 on, the obligation of B5 was imposed. However, after two years of mandatory mixing, over 80% of the raw material for biodiesel production comes from large producers of soybeans in the Midwest. Thus, the focus of this study was to identify the main constraints and opportunities for family farming to participate in the program, based on the analysis of design parameters and guiding PNPB and the main stages of the agricultural seeds in the semi-arid. The study focused on Ceara as it is the state that greatly encourages the participation of small farmers through subsidies associated with the adoption of agro-ecological farming practices (author)

  5. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  6. Aproveitamento da glicerina proveniente da produção de biodiesel na obtenção de híbrido de caulinita para adsorção de Cr3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Cândido Leonel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the creation of new ways of treating wastewater contaminated with Cr3+, based on solid-liquid adsorption. An adsorbent material was prepared by functionalization of kaolinite with glycerin biodiesel by-product. This material was tested for adsorption performed using a batch method, and results showed that inclusion of glycerin in the structure of kaolinite led to a significant increase in the capacity of Cr3+ adsorption. This contributes to the allocation of by-product of biodiesel and to the treatment of effluents from tanneries.

  7. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  8. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  9. Biodiesel lubricity and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries worldwide. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location, and other sources such as recycled oils are continuousl...

  10. Desenvolvimento de um modelo da cinética enzimática da transesterificação de óleos vegetais para produção de biodiesel - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i1.79

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a tecnologia de produção enzimática do biodiesel é mais uma alternativa em relação aos métodos químicos que utilizam catalisadores ácidos ou básicos. A enzima lipase utilizada como catalisador desse processo pode ser obtida de microrganismos como Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. cepacia, Candida antarctica, dentre outros. Neste trabalho, propomos um mecanismo da transesterificação de triglicerídeos catalisada por enzima lipase. O processo foi formalizado em três reações consecutivas, nas quais são formados os diglicerídeos e monoglicerídeos. Outras três etapas intermediárias das reações envolvendo a lipase foram consideradas. A identificação dos parâmetros do modelo desenvolvido foi feita para condições reacionais em que a alimentação é feita na proporção estequiométrica dos reagentes. O modelo desenvolvido foi testado com dados experimentais em diversas condições operacionais encontradas na literatura. Os resultados das simulações mostram boa flexibilidade do modelo, ajustando os dados em várias condições de transesterificação enzimática para produção de biodiesel.

  11. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  12. Particle emissions from microalgae biodiesel combustion and their relative oxidative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Stevanovic, S; Islam, M A; Heimann, K; Nabi, M N; Thomas, G; Feng, B; Brown, R J; Ristovski, Z D

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most viable biodiesel feedstocks for the future due to their potential for providing economical, sustainable and cleaner alternatives to petroleum diesel. This study investigated the particle emissions from a commercially cultured microalgae and higher plant biodiesels at different blending ratios. With a high amount of long carbon chain lengths fatty acid methyl esters (C20 to C22), the microalgal biodiesel used had a vastly different average carbon chain length and level of unsaturation to conventional biodiesel, which significantly influenced particle emissions. Smaller blend percentages showed a larger reduction in particle emission than blend percentages of over 20%. This was due to the formation of a significant nucleation mode for the higher blends. In addition measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), showed that the oxidative potential of particles emitted from the microalgal biodiesel combustion were lower than that of regular diesel. Biodiesel oxygen content was less effective in suppressing particle emissions for biodiesels containing a high amount of polyunsaturated C20-C22 fatty acid methyl esters and generated significantly increased nucleation mode particle emissions. The observed increase in nucleation mode particle emission is postulated to be caused by very low volatility, high boiling point and high density, viscosity and surface tension of the microalgal biodiesel tested here. Therefore, in order to achieve similar PM (particulate matter) emission benefits for microalgal biodiesel likewise to conventional biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with high amounts of polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (≥C20) may not be desirable in microalgal biodiesel composition.

  13. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  14. Produccion y caracterizacion de biodiesel a partir de aceite de pollo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montenegro Mier, Manuel Antonio; Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro; Guerrero Fajardo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    .... Se realizaron pruebas de viscosidad y densidad, curva de destilacion y calculo del indice de cetano con el fin de determinar la factibilidad de utilizar biodiesel como combustible en los motores de combustion interna de encendido por compresion MCI-EC. El estudio demostro que el biodiesel obtenido cumple con la normatividad tecnica para biocombustibles liquidos, vigente a nivel internacional, por lo que podria ser utilizado con exito en motores de combustion interna.

  15. Análisis Químico de Mezclas Biodiesel de Aceite de Cocina Usado y Diesel por Espectroscopia Infrarroja Chemical Analysis of Mixtures of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil and Diesel by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Lafont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método eficiente para determinar los porcentajes óptimos de mezclas biodiesel de aceite usado y diesel, para uso automotor. El procedimiento consiste en recolección del aceite usado, limpieza de residuos, y obtención del biodiesel mediante una reacción de transesterificación, con diferentes proporciones molares metanol/aceite . Las muestras fueron analizadas por espectroscopia infrarroja. Se encontró que una proporción metanol/aceite de 1:8 presentó mayor rendimiento en la obtención de biodiesel. Los espectros de infrarrojo mostraron el incremento del máximo de carbonilo de los esteres metílicos al aumentar las concentraciones de biodiesel en las mezcla biodiesel+diesel. Se concluye que la técnica usada cumple con la ley de Beer-Lambert y es adecuada para cuantificar este tipo de mezclas.An efficient method to determine the optimum percentages of blends biodiesel from used oil and diesel for automotive use, is proposed. The procedure consists of recollection of used frying oil, residue cleaning and synthesis of biodiesel by a transesterification reaction with different molar proportions of methanol/oil. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that a ratio methanol/oil of 1:8 showed higher performance in the production of biodiesel. The infrared spectra showed an increase in the carbonyl peak of the methyl esters with the increase of the concentration of biodiesel in the mixtures biodiesel+diesel. It is concluded that proposed technique complies with the Beer-Lambert law and it is a good method to quantify these types of mixtures.

  16. Er biodiesel en god ide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel opfattes som en grøn miljøvenlig teknologi. Men har dette 'grønne' alternativ til konventionel diesel en skjult bagside af medaljen? Og kan det være, at man i stedet for at få et bedre miljø, medvirker til øgede miljøpåvirkninger i form af emissioner og naturødelæggelse, når man skifter...... til biodiesel? I artiklen belyses nogle af de mest sejlivede myter omkring biodiesel. Udgivelsesdato: Januar...

  17. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BIOMASS POTENTIALLY USEFUL FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO CABRERA CIFUENTES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que el biodiesel se está convirtiendo en una solución viable para algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales, la investigación de materias primas para su producción es un tema de creciente interés. Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación dedicada al análisis preliminar de varias especies vegetales (biomasa, potencialmente útiles para producir biodiesel. La zona de bioprospección es una región de la costa pacifica colombiana. Las especies promisorias recolectadas fueron sometidas a diferentes pruebas normalizadas ASTM para definir propiedades que faciliten su evaluación. Algunas de las especies fueron sometidas a un proceso de transesterificación. Adicionalmente, se realiza una comparación entre las propiedades termo-físicas de los biodiesel y las propiedades del diesel comercial. Las pruebas de rendimiento de estos biocombustibles en los motores de encendido por compresión, particularmente la eficiencia, el consumo y la potencia a diferentes RPM del motor, se presentan en este trabajo.

  18. Competencias para el uso de TIC de los futuros maestros ICT Competences of Future Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Prendes Espinosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Las competencias tecnológicas de los maestros son un elemento básico de sus planes de formación en España. En este artículo se presenta un análisis de las competencias para el uso de TIC por parte de estudiantes de último curso de la titulación de Magisterio de la Universidad de Murcia en el curso 2008-09. El objetivo ha sido describir el grado de competencias técnicas que poseen los futuros maestros. El análisis de los datos se ha realizado desde un enfoque tridimensional, pues en primer lugar se han considerado aspectos del dominio técnico; en segundo lugar se ofrece una visión de cómo se encuentra dicha competencia en los estudiantes; y por último –y probablemente lo más relevante–, se considera cuál es el estado de competencia técnica para el uso de las TIC que tienen los docentes de futura incorporación a nuestra aulas. Este análisis permite no sólo evaluarles como estudiantes, profesionales y docentes que usan las TIC, sino que permite tener una idea de si el paso por una institución universitaria supone la garantía de tener unos mínimos conocimientos en esta área que sean de utilidad a la hora de incorporarse como profesionales, docentes y aprendices del nuevo entorno tecno-social, es decir, permite una aproximación a la evaluación de las competencias TIC que son no sólo propias de este título de Grado, sino también son competencias genéricas de la Universidad de Murcia.ICT competences are an essential part of teachers’ curriculums in Spain. This paper presents an analysis of the technical skills in the use of ICT of future primary school teachers in the final year of teacher training at the University of Murcia (period 2008- 2009. This analysis adopts a three dimensional approach. Firstly, it aims to explore students’ mastery of the technical skills in using ICT. Secondly, it analyses how the university is working in terms of developing ICT skills in professionals in general. Finally, but probably

  19. Obtention and characterization of biodiesel; Obtencao e caracterizacao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonidas B.O. dos; Caitano, Moises; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an ester resulting from the transesterification reaction of an alcohol and an oil obtained from biomass. The products of the transesterification are an ester and the glycerol. The biodiesel and the petroleum commercial diesel have similar properties, and they can be mixed and used in diesel motors. The use of biodiesel will allow a better exploration of the energetic potential of our cultures. The biodiesel has some advantages compared to others combustibles, such as adaptability to usual diesel motors and non-generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} compounds. Many experiments with biodiesel have been made in Brazil since the 70's. This work made samples of biodiesel by transesterification batch reactions to many blends of soybean oil and residual fry oil, at room temperature, using mechanical mixture or magnetic agitation by a magnetic stirrer, using as catalysts sodium methoxide and potassium hydroxide. For each obtained sample tests to determine the Acidity Index (ABNT-MB-74), Saponification Index (ABNT-MB-75), Iodine Wijz Index (ABNT-MB- 77), thermal analysis by DTA and TG (TA Instruments SDT 2960, 30 to 800 deg C, 10 deg C/min at nitrogen atmosphere) and rheological test (Haake RS 150 Rheo Stress rheometer) were done. (author)

  20. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Niehus, Xochitl; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.

  1. Fuel Property Determination of Biodiesel-Diesel Blends By Terahertz Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Kun; Bao, Rima

    2012-05-01

    The frequency-dependent absorption characteristics of biodiesel and its blends with conventional diesel fuel have been researched in the spectral range of 0.2-1.5 THz by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption coefficient presented a regular increasing with biodiesel content. A nonlinear multivariate model that correlating cetane number and solidifying point of bio-diesel blends with absorption coefficient has been established, making the quantitative analysis of fuel properties simple. The results made the cetane number and solidifying point prediction possible by THz-TDS technology and indicated a bright future in practical application.

  2. Verf en biodiesel uit algen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.

    2009-01-01

    Met algen kun je niet alleen biodiesel en groene coatings produceren, maar ook iets doen aan het mestoverschot en de uitstoot van kooldioxide. In Delfzijl zijn kweekvijvers geopend om de technologie hiervoor te ontwikkelen

  3. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  4. Experiences in the construction and operation of a biodiesel pilot plant in Tabasco; Experiencias en la construccion y operacion de una planta piloto de biodiesel en Tabasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio Garcia, E; Cordova Gomez, Jose F.; Irineo Mijangos, Jose A.; Montiel Reyes, W.; Gutierrez Leon, Gustavo M. [Universidad Tecnologica de Tabasco, Tecnologia Ambiental (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Initiating the development of a project that has as final goal the construction of a plant at pilot level to produce bio combustible, represent always a challenge. First, for the little experience that we could have in the construction, and another one, related to the selection of the equipment or materials for its construction, since one must have quality standards in the materials and it tends to happen that in occasions they are not in the market because of its specialization. In this work the authors present their experiences in the design and construction of the first pilot plant for production of biodiesel in the state of Tabasco, as well as in the use of the bio-fuel in the buses and emergency generating units where the biodiesel has tried on. The pilot plant for biodiesel is designed to produce 400 liters per hour, each batch, has a storage capacity of 2400 liters and counts with a system of filters and washing tank with water to eliminate water and solid matters that are contaminating the process. For the biodiesel production the methoxide is used, that is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and methanol alcohol so that it reacts with the oil and forms the biodiesel. The plant is working with used vegetal oil as raw material, same that is collected from the hotels and restaurants of the zone. The critics have served to improve the process, because sometimes not everything has been written on the biodiesel. This work is a joint project between the union of the private initiative (DG Group) and the Universidad Tecnologica de Tabasco. [Spanish] El iniciarse en el desarrollo de un proyecto que tenga como final la construccion de una planta a nivel piloto para fabricar biocombustible, siempre representa un reto. Primero, por la poca experiencia que pudieramos tener en la construccion, y otra, en lo que es la seleccion del equipo o material para su construccion, ya que se debe contar con estandares de calidad en los materiales y suele suceder que en ocasiones no se

  5. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.   ABSTRACT The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP. Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur

  6. Analysis of used frying fats for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Used frying fats and oils with highly variable and uncontrolled quality are used for the production of biodiesel . The objective of this study was to define the analytical methods useful to obtaining information on the quality of the used frying oils as raw material for biodiesels as well as for the characterization of the biodiesels obtained from them. Twentyfour used frying oils from restaurants and domestic fryers were analyzed before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. From a detailed analysis of the samples by means of a combination of adsorption and size exclusion chromatography, the quantitative importance of polymeric compounds was deduced both from the direct analysis of the oils and from their FAME. Excellent linear correlation between polar compounds and polar FAME (R=0.9768 was found. The possibilities of interferences from polar fatty acid in the standard method to determine the ester content are defined. Finally, determination of non-polar FAME by silica column is proposed as a good alternative to the gas chromatography method.Los aceites y grasas de fritura, que se caracterizan por tener una calidad muy variable, se utilizan como material prima para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo de este estudio es definir la utilidad de los métodos analíticos desarrollados para los aceites y grasas de fritura para caracterizar el biodiesel obtenido. Veinticuatro aceites de fritura procedentes del sector de restauración y de fritura doméstica fueron analizados antes y después de su transesterificación a ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. A partir de un análisis detallado mediante cromatografías de adsorción y exclusión, se deduce la importancia cuantitativa de los compuestos de polimerización tanto en el análisis directo de los aceites como en el análisis de los ésteres metílicos. Se encontró una excelente correlación lineal entre los compuestos polares y los ésteres metílicos polares

  7. Evaluación del funcionamiento de motores de combustión interna trabajando con biodiesel. // Evaluation of engine performance working with biodiesel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto Rodríguez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad para dos motores de combustión internatrabajando con combustible biodiesel procedente de varias fuentes naturales y se comparó con la característica exterior develocidad de los motores originalmente trabajando con combustible diesel. Los motores fueron evaluados con variacionesde carga y velocidad. En uno de los motores ensayados fue determinada la presión en el interior de la cámara decombustión con el objetivo de evaluar el retardo de ignición. Fue observado que los motores trabajando con combustiblebiodiesel presentaban una disminución de la potencia efectiva y un aumento del consumo especifico de combustible. Seobservó una disminución del retardo de ignición cuando fue empleado el combustible biodiesel. También fue observadoque los gases contaminantes, excepto las emisiones de NOx y CO, disminuyen o permanecen constantes con el uso delbiocombustible.Palabras claves: Motores de combustión interna, biodiesel, emisiones, característica exterior de velocidad,retardo de ignición._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The engine outer velocity characterization for two engines was made working with biodiesel from different natural sources,and its performance was compared with the engine parameters using reference diesel. The engines were used varying loadand velocity. The ignition delay was obtained by measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A decrease in the effective powerand increase in the effective fuel consumption were observed in the engines when biodiesel is used. Biodiesel samplesshown shorter ignition delay than diesel. The pollutants emitted for the engine using biodiesel was lower than diesel, withthe exception of NOx and CO emissions.Key words: engine, biodiesel, emissions, outer velocity characteristic, ignition delay.

  8. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  9. Avaliação da potencialidade de microalgas dulcícolas como fonte de matéria-prima graxa para a produção de biodiesel Evaluation of the potentiality of freshwater microalgae as a source of raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the fatty acid quantity and composition of six freshwater microalgae and soybean grains was determined by direct transesterification and gas chromatography analysis. The results showed that all the freshwater microalgae species presented a higher quantity of fatty acid than soybean grain. Choricystis sp. (A provides 115% more fatty acids per gram of biomass than soybean grain. With regard to the fatty acid composition, Choricystis sp. (A showed an adequate proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with lower quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and, akin to some marine microalgae, constitutes an alternative raw material for biodiesel production.

  10. Cottonseed Oil as Promising Biodiesel in Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With recent increases in petroleum prices,there is renewed interest in vegetable oil and their derivatives as alternative fuels for diesel engines.There are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified,

  11. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  12. Synergetic sustainability enhancement via current biofuel infrastructure: waste-to-energy concept for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-03-19

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, ∼30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  14. Purificación de biodiesel obtenido de aceite de ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    T. del N. J. García-Cota; V. M. de la Cruz-Gonzalez; I. Nájera-Martínez; O. Sanchez-Daza; Y. Reyes-Ortega; T. López-Arenas

    2009-01-01

    El aceite de ricino representa una materia prima viable para la producción de biodiesel. Sin embargo, la presencia de un grupo hidroxilo en la estructura del ácido ricinoleico provee de características especiales al aceite de ricino y a sus derivados. Debido a esto no hay una separación de fases biodiesel-glicerina formadas durante la reacción de transesterificación. El presente trabajo se enfocó en la generación de una metodología experimental para resolver tal problema de purificación. Res...

  15. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  16. Formulação de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Maria Jorge Pratas de Melo

    2012-01-01

    O consumo de energia a nível mundial aumenta a cada dia, de forma inversa aos recursos fósseis que decrescem de dia para dia. O sector dos transportes é o maior consumidor deste recurso. Face ao actual cenário urge encontrar uma solução renovável e sustentável que permita não só, diminuir a nossa dependência de combustíveis fósseis mas fundamentalmente promover a sua substituição por energias de fontes renováveis. O biodiesel apresenta-se na vanguarda das alternativas aos co...

  17. Avaliação da potencialidade de microalgas dulcícolas como fonte de matéria-prima graxa para a produção de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the fatty acid quantity and composition of six freshwater microalgae and soybean grains was determined by direct transesterification and gas chromatography analysis. The results showed that all the freshwater microalgae species presented a higher quantity of fatty acid than soybean grain. Choricystis sp. (A provides 115% more fatty acids per gram of biomass than soybean grain. With regard to the fatty acid composition, Choricystis sp. (A showed an adequate proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with lower quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and, akin to some marine microalgae, constitutes an alternative raw material for biodiesel production.

  18. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate

  19. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  20. Chitosan and Its Derivatives Applied in Harvesting Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: An Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oil-accumulating microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, large-scale biodiesel production is not yet economically feasible. As harvesting accounts for an important part of total production cost, mass production of microalgae biodiesel requires an efficient low-energy harvesting strategy so as to make biodiesel production economically attractive. Chitosan has emerged as a favorable flocculating agent in harvesting of microalgae. The aim of this paper is to review current research on the application of chitosan and chitosan-derived materials for harvesting microalgae. This offers a starting point for future studies able to invalidate, confirm, or complete the actual findings and to improve knowledge in this field.

  1. Ultrasound assisted direct transesterification of algae for biodiesel production : Analysis of emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Manickam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the algae-for-fuel concept has gained renewed interest with energy prices fluctuating widely. Due to some restrictions over the oil extraction from algae, direct transesterification may be considered as a good alternative. In this study, to improve the performance of direct transesterification, ultrasound induction was carried out. A sonicator probe was used to induce the direct transesterification of Cladophora fracta, a freshwater macro alga, which contains 14% lipid on dry biomass basis. Due to ultrasonication about 25% increased biodiesel yields were obtained and the biodiesel thus prepared was analyzed for emission characteristics. The analysis results showed that Cladophora biodiesel emits 18 mg/L of CO whereas petroleum diesel emits 50 mg/L. Similarly, the emission of NOx and particulate matter also were reduced to a considerable level. The Cladophora is a suitable source of biodiesel by ultrasound assisted direct transesterification in industrial level in the future.

  2. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

    2015-01-01

    It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

  3. Recent trends in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article fully discusses the recent trends in the production of one the most attractive types of biofuels, i.e., biodiesel.with a focus on the existing obstacles for its large scale production. Moreover, recent innovations/improvements under three categories of upstream, mainstream, and downstream processes are also presented. Upstream strategies are mainly focused on seeking more sustainable oil feedstocks and/or enhancing the quality of waste-oriented ones. The mainstream strategies section highlights the numerous attempts made to enhance agitation efficiency including chemical and/or mechanical strategies. Finally, the innovative downstream strategies basically dealing with 1 separation of biodiesel and glycerin, 2 purification of biodiesel and glycerin, and 3 improving the characteristics of the produced fuel, are comprehensively reviewed.

  4. Biodiesel production : process and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O biodiesel (ésteres) é um combustível que pode ser produzido a partir de óleos vegetais, gorduras animais e óleo de origem microbiana (algas, fungos e bactérias). As matérias-primas são convertidas em biodiesel por meio de uma reação química envolvendo álcool e catalisador. Esta reação é chamada de transesterificação ou etanólise, caso o álcool for o etanol. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a produção de biodiesel utilizando os seguintes sistemas: reator em batelada, processo de destila...

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE SOLUBILIZAÇÃO PARA DETERMINAÇÃO DE METAIS EM GLICERINA PROVENIENTE DA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL POR TÉCNICAS DE ESPECTROMETRIA ATÔMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D Clasen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evaluation of simple and fast solubilization methods for the determination of Ca, Mg, and K in glycerin samples from biodiesel production by atomic spectrometry. The solubilization in water was compared with two other methods: solubilization in formic acid and solubilization in ethanol. Using solubilization in water, determination of the three analytes was possible; the values of limits of detection for Ca, K, Mg were 0.31, 0.06, and 0.16 mg kg−1, respectively. Because no adequate reference material was available, the accuracy was evaluated by assessing the recoveries tests with both solubilization methods; the evaluation ranged from 90% to 115%, with values of relative standard deviation >8%, indicating good accuracy of the measure. Four crude glycerin samples obtained from biodiesel plants of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed after treatment with the different methods of solubilization, and the obtained results of Ca, Mg, and K concentration were in agreement with the values obtained from both solubilization methods. Therefore, solubilization in water is concluded to be a simpler, faster, and viable method for sample preparation of glycerin.

  6. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  7. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  8. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Jiang, Mulan

    2011-07-01

    Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum-derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel. Microalgae have numerous advantages for biodiesel production over many terrestrial plants. There are a series of consecutive processes for biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock, including selection of adequate microalgal strains, mass culture, cell harvesting, oil extraction and transesterification. To reduce the overall production cost, technology development and process optimization are necessary. Genetic engineering also plays an important role in manipulating lipid biosynthesis in microalgae. Many approaches, such as sequestering carbon dioxide from industrial plants for the carbon source, using wastewater for the nutrient supply, and maximizing the values of by-products, have shown a potential for cost reduction. This review provides a brief overview of the process of biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock. The methods associated with this process (e.g. lipid determination, mass culture, oil extraction) are also compared and discussed.

  9. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  10. Conhecimento: gargalos para um Brasil no futuro Knowledge: future challenges for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E. Steiner

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O CONHECIMENTO (educação, ciência, tecnologia e inovação é fundamental para o desenvolvimento econômico e o bem-estar da sociedade. No Brasil, os indicadores quantitativos de escolaridade, produção científica e de pós-graduação têm evoluído de forma muito positiva na última década. Apesar disso, os indicadores econômicos e sociais têm tido um desempenho pífio. Neste ensaio, são examinados alguns gargalos para que o conhecimento possa vir a ser promotor mais eficaz do desenvolvimento econômico e social. São examinados resultados prospectivos, em especial no que diz respeito à dimensão do conhecimento. Fazem-se projeções para o Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH até o ano de 2022 e mostra-se que o seu desenvolvimento do IDH está essencialmente associado ao crescimento econômico. A continuarem as tendências verificadas no país nas últimas décadas, o cenário mais provável para o futuro próximo é de baixa qualidade de educação básica, associada à grande desigualdade social e violência crescente. O cenário desejável, contudo, é de crescimento econômico associado à redução de desigualdades. Para isso, é condição necessária, mas não suficiente, um melhor desempenho no quesito conhecimento para superar os gargalos identificados, como perseguir a melhoria da qualidade da educação básica, a ampliação do ensino superior nas regiões Norte/Nordeste, uma significativa ampliação do ensino tecnológico pós-secundário e a implantação de uma política de demanda por ciência, tecnologia e inovação.KNOWLEDGE (education, science, technology and innovation is essential for a society's economic development and well-being. In Brazil, quantitative indicators of scholastic achievement, scientific production and graduate studies have all risen significantly over the last decade. Economic and social indicators, however, have been mediocre at best. This article examines the bottlenecks that prevent

  11. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruina Li; Zhong Wang; Guangju Xu

    2017-01-01

      Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions...

  12. [Progress and prospect of biodiesel industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2015-06-01

    The development of biodiesel and production feedstock in China was introduced, and the biodiesel production technologies as well as corresponding representative enterprises were reviewed. In addition, the development prospect of biodiesel industry in China was addressed.

  13. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  14. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  15. Biodiesel de mamona no diesel interior e metropolitano em trator agrícola Mamona biodiesel in interior and metropolitan diesel in agricultural tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. Tabile

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A demanda de recursos energéticos pelos sistemas de produção, aliada à escassez dos combustíveis fósseis, tem motivado a produção do Biodiesel, que é um combustível obtido de fontes renováveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar dois ensaios: o primeiro dinâmico, para avaliar o desempenho operacional utilizando como parâmetro o consumo de combustível, e o segundo, estático, para mensurar a opacidade da fumaça (material particulado do motor de um trator agrícola, operando com diesel metropolitano e interior misturados ao Biodiesel de mamona, em sete proporções. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. Os resultados mostraram que o tipo de diesel influenciou no consumo de combustível e na opacidade da fumaça, sendo o diesel metropolitano de melhor qualidade; observou-se, também, que à medida que a proporção de Biodiesel aumentou, o mesmo ocorreu para o consumo de combustível; entretanto, a opacidade da fumaça reduziu com o acréscimo de Biodiesel até B75.The demand for energy resources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has driven the production of Biodiesel, a fuel produced from renewable sources. The purpose of this study was realize two tests, the first dynamics to assess the operational performance as a parameter of consumption of fuel, the second static to measure the smoke opacity (particulate material from an engine of a farm tractor, operating with interior and metropolitan diesel mixed with castor beans Biodiesel in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Rural Engineering Department of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the kind of diesel influenced the consumption of fuel and smoke opacity, and the metropolitan diesel showed better quality, it was observed as well that as biodiesel proportion increased, consumption of fuel increased too, however, the opacity of smoke decreased with an increase of Biodiesel by B75.

  16. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the

  17. Metal content determination in biodiesel samples by microwave mineralization and ICP-AES

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Mayo, Carlos; Garcia Salgado, Sara; Garcia Casillas, David; Brito Alayón, Andrea; Garcia Rodriguez, Teresa; Jimenez Moreno, Francisco; Quijano Nieto, M. Angeles; Bonilla Simon, M. Milagros

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo comprende la puesta a punto de un método de digestión, mediante calentamiento de microondas, de muestras de biodiesel obtenidas mediante catálisis homogénea de aceites vegetales, para la determinación de 20 elementos mediante ICP-AES.

  18. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  19. Characterization of particle size distribution from diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Chia-Fon; Fang, Tiegang

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels and their applications in diesel engines have been investigated by many researchers. However, the particle size distribution emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blended with premium diesel fuel and paraffinic fuel blended with palm-biodiesel has seldom been addressed. Thus, five test fuels were used in this work to study the particle size distribution: D100 (premium diesel fuel), B100 (100% palm-biodiesel), B20 (20 vol% palm-biodiesel+80 vol% D100), BP9505 (95 vol% paraffinic fuel+5 vol% palm-biodiesel) and BP8020 (80 vol% paraffinic fuel+20 vol% palm-biodiesel). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) equipped with aluminum filters was used to collect size-resolved samples. Experimental results indicated that palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends could improve combustion efficiency in diesel engines, but pure palm-biodiesel could cause incomplete combustion. Adding palm-biodiesel to diesel fuel would slightly increase particles with diameter matter of BP9505 and BP8020 existed in coarse particles (diameter: 2.5-10 μm). Energy efficiency also increases significantly by 12.3-15.1% with the introduction of paraffinic fuel blends into the engine. Nevertheless, paraffinic fuel blends also reduce the emission of particulate matters by 36.0-38.4%. Carbon monoxide was decreased by 36.8-48.5%. Total hydrocarbon is 39.6-41.7% less than diesel fuel combustion. Nitrogen oxides emission is about 5% lower for paraffinic fuel. These results show that paraffinic fuel can be very competitive and replaced diesel fuels in the future.

  20. Roraima State: energy and alternatives to the future; Roraima: energia e alternativas para o futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    Report made by the Conselho Indigena de Roraima by and large with the Comissao Pro-Indio of Sao Paulo, addressed to the indigenous populations who lives near from the hydroelectric power plant on the state of Roraima, giving information about damns construction, energy electric uses, description of Hydroelectric and thermoelectric functioning, the energy program, electric energy landscape now and in the future, are presented. The work, was developed as support to meetings with the indigenous leaders. 7 figs.

  1. Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Marta M.; Fernandes, Valter J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Combustiveis, Natal, RN, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970 (Brazil); Candeia, Roberlucia A.; Bezerra, Aline F.; Souza, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento Quimica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    The castor oil seed has 47-49% of oil. Biodiesel obtained from castor oil has a lower cost compared to the ones obtained from other oils, as due its solvability in alcohol transesterification occurs without heating. The use of biodiesel will allow a reduction on the consumption of petroleum-derived fuels minimizing the harmful effects on the environment. This work wants to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of castor oil and biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil. Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (author)

  2. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  3. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  4. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  5. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  6. Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes oxidation and thermal stability and hazardous possibility of biodiesel by auto-oxidation. As it can be distributed using today’s infrastructure biodisel production has increased especially in the European Union. Biodiesel has many surpassing properties as an automotive fuel. Biodiesel is considered safer than diesel fuel because of the high flash point, but it has oxygen and double bond(s. Fatty acid methyl esters are more sensitive to oxidative degradation than fossil diesel fuel. The ability of producing peroxides is rather high, therefore we should care of handling of biodiesel.

  7. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  8. A Rede Paraense de Agricultura Familiar e Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Corrêa Diniz Peixoto

    Full Text Available A produção de biodiesel na lógica da agricultura familiar demanda empenhos institucionais diversos. São necessárias pesquisas agronômicas e tecnológicas e é preciso desenvolver a produção por meio do associativismo e do cooperativismo. O zoneamento agrícola e o crédito, assim como a assistência técnica, são também aspectos importantes para a atividade, cujo propósito é garantir uma nova alternativa de mercado aos agricultores, sem agressões ambientais e sem que isso signifique prejuízo à produção de alimentos. Significa dizer que o biodiesel, na lógica da agricultura familiar, exige a integração de muitas abordagens, o que pode ser alcançado mediante uma ação sistêmica, capaz de articular competências institucionais diversas aos interesses de agricultores familiares e assentados da reforma agrária. Esse é o objetivo da Rede Paraense de Agricultura Familiar e Biodiesel. Mais que constituir um fórum de discussão, a rede busca a articulação de competências institucionais em função de projetos definidos conforme contextos territoriais. Nessa direção, a rede integrou-se ao projeto Araguaiana Biodiesel, cujo escopo é desenvolver, com o apoio da Petrobras, uma alentada ação no sul do Pará. A esse conjunto institucional soma-se, decisivamente, a Secretaria de Agricultura do Estado do Pará.

  9. Análisis Químico de Mezclas Biodiesel de Aceite de Cocina Usado y Diesel por Espectroscopia Infrarroja Chemical Analysis of Mixtures of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil and Diesel by Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer J Lafont; Manuel S Páez; Yudi C Torres

    2011-01-01

    Se propone un método eficiente para determinar los porcentajes óptimos de mezclas biodiesel de aceite usado y diesel, para uso automotor. El procedimiento consiste en recolección del aceite usado, limpieza de residuos, y obtención del biodiesel mediante una reacción de transesterificación, con diferentes proporciones molares metanol/aceite . Las muestras fueron analizadas por espectroscopia infrarroja. Se encontró que una proporción metanol/aceite de 1:8 presentó mayor rendimiento en la obten...

  10. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  11. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    nitrile rubber , natural rubber ) that are commonly used for hoses, seals and gaskets, and may degrade them to the point where they fail. Failure can...cloud point (33.5°F for the test fuel). Gelling can be prevented through fuel management (e.g., fuel additives, shifting to a diesel/biodiesel blend ...Engineering CG Coast Guard CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide COG Course over ground CRADA Cooperative Research and

  12. Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Medina-Valtierra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la producción de biodiesel usando un reactor intermitente, se utilizó la metacaolinita como un catalizador sólido ácido que presentó una alta actividad para la pro­ducción de biodiesel a partir de aceite de maíz usado en freidora. El área superficial de la metacaolinita, diámetro de poro y volumen de poro fueron 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm y 30 mm3/g, respectivamente. Las condiciones óptimas para la reacción de transesterificación fueron: una relación molar aceite/metanol 1:31, temperatura de 160 ºC, presión manométrica de 1.65 MPa y una cantidad de catalizador de 3 (% peso. El rendimiento de ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos (biodiesel fue de 92.4 % para 2 h de reacción. Este método de preparación de biodiesel puede ser una buena alternativa para la utilización de aceite de maíz usado en freidora como una fuente muy barata para la producción de biodiesel combinado con un catalizador barato y además amigable con el medio ambiente.Biodiesel production with used frying corn oil by transesterification reaction, with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and volume of pore of metakaolinite were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determinate to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC, manometer pressure of 1.65 MPa and catalyst concentration of 3 % (w/w. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel was 92.4 % after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the cited inexpensive, “green” catalyst.

  13. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  14. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  15. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  16. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  17. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock.

  18. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  19. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota.

  20. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisic, Biljana [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency; Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Chania - MAICh, CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (Greece); Loizou, Efstratios [Technological Education Institute (TEI) of Western Macedonia (Greece). Department of Agricultural Products Marketing and Quality Control; Rozakis, Stelios [Agricultural University of Athens (Greece). Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development; Segon, Velimir [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia). Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing. (author)

  1. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of mixed nanoferrites submitted to transesterification and esterification reaction using methyl and ethyl route for biodiesel production; Sintese, caracterizacao e performance catalitica de nanoferritas mistas submetidas a reacao de transesterificacao e esterificacao via rota metilica e etilica para biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Leal, Elvia; Mapossa, Antonio Benjamim; Silva, Adriano Sant' Ana; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo, E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elvialeal@gmail.com, E-mail: mapossabenjox@gmail.com, E-mail: adriano_santana@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ana.cristina@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos

    2016-10-15

    The mixed nanoferrites of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by combustion reaction using urea as fuel and a conical reactor as heating source in batches of 10 g, and then tested as heterogeneous nanocatalysts in the transesterification and esterification reaction of soya bean oil using the methyl and ethyl routes to biodiesel production. During the synthesis the time and temperature of the reactions were measured, and the evolved gases and the color of the emitted flames were observed. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET and gas chromatography. The reaction tests were carried out with 10 g of oil for 1 h, oil:alcohol molar ratio of 1:12, 2 % (w/w) of catalyst, and conducted at 180 °C. The XRD patterns and the FTIR spectra revealed the presence of the inverse spinel phase type B(AB){sub 2}O{sub 4}. The morphology showed the formation of agglomerates with fragile morphology and high surface area. The chromatographic analysis produced excellent results in the esterification reactions for both samples in the tested conditions, with special emphasis on Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, whose conversions were of 91.4 % in methyl esters and of 77.8 % in ethyl esters, while the Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample showed conversion of 75.1 and 65.1 %, respectively. The conversions in the methyl and ethyl transesterification were of 14 and 2 % of the Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample, and of 11 and 3 % for the Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. (author)

  2. Análise físico-química de diesel interior em mistura com biodiesel = Physical-chemical analysis of diesel blended with biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Borsato

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de combustíveis alternativos para diminuir a emissão de poluentes na atmosfera é uma tendência cada dia mais frequente, assim, faz-se necessária a investigação da eficiência destas misturas em proporções e condições diferentes. Ao diesel de petróleo, por forçade legislação, estão sendo adicionados 3% de biodiesel. Os valores da massa específica e do ponto de fulgor das amostras de diesel comercial analisadas, contendo 2 e 3% de biodiesel, mostraramsedentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Os valores do índice de peróxido do biodiesel B100 aumentaram com o tempo de estocagem e com a presença de luz. Apesar disso, pela análise do perfil cromatográfico, não se verificaram alterações profundas na composição química do diesel B100 nas diferentes condições de armazenamento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os combustíveis fósseis em misturas com biodiesel paraverificar a sua estabilidade e algumas propriedades físico-químicas.The use of alternative fuels to reduce pollutant emissions in the atmosphere is an increasingly frequent trend. Thus, it becomes necessary to research the efficiency of theses mixtures in various proportions and different conditions. To diesel oil, under the legislation, are being added 3% of biodiesel. The values of specific weight and the flashpoint of the samples of commercial diesel tested, containing 2 and 3% of biodiesel, were within the establishedparameters set by Brazilian legislation. The values of the peroxide index for B100 biodiesel increased with light and storage time. Nevertheless, analyzing the chromatographic profile, there were no considerable changes in the chemical composition of B100 diesel underdifferent conditions of storage. The aim of this work was examine fossil fuels in blends with biodiesel to determine their stability as well as some physical-chemical properties.

  3. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, M.M.; Lee, K.T.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-11-15

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (author)

  4. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy,biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world.Concerned with the national food security,China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels,including forest-based biodiesel,since 2007.Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks.However,there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas.The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China.Based on remote sensing data on land use,data on meteorological,soil and land slope,and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation,this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China’s major Jatropha curcas production region,Southwest China.The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas,amount of these lands will hardly meet the government’s target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future.China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.

  5. Review of the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil using Solid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Said

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for fossil fuels and the emissions generated from these fuels are increasing daily. Researchers are concerned with global warming as well as climate change; and energy sustainability and material usages are important issues today. Waste cooking oil (WCO can be processed into biodiesel as an alternative fuel to replace diesel. Production of biodiesel using WCO as the feedstock has been of growing interest for the last two decades. A number of research papers related to the improvements in production, raw materials and catalyst selection have been published. This paper reviews the various types of heterogeneous solid catalyst in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification of WCO. The catalysts used can be classified according to their state presence in the transesterification reaction as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts act in the same liquid phase as the reaction mixture, whereas heterogeneous catalysts act in a solid phase with the reaction mixture. Heterogeneous catalysts are non-corrosive, a green process and environmentally friendly. They can be recycled and used several times, thus offering a more economic pathway for biodiesel production. The advantages and drawbacks of these heterogeneous catalysts are presented. Future work focuses on the application of economically and environmentally friendly solid catalysts in the production of biodiesel using WCO as the raw material.

  6. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  7. Characterization of beef tallow biodiesel and their mixtures with soybean biodiesel and mineral diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Couto, Marcelo B.; Filho, Miguel Andrade; Assis, Julio C.R.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Souza, Giancarlos S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA, Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Tallow is a raw material for biodiesel production that, due to their highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energy, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. However beef tallow biodiesel have unfavorable properties due the presence of high concentration of saturated fatty esters. One way to overcome these inconveniences is using blending procedures. In this way, blends of beef tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel and with conventional mineral diesel fuel were prepared and the quality of the mixtures was monitored with the purpose to study ideal proportions of the fuels. By measurement of the viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point, and flash point, it was demonstrated that tallow biodiesel can be blended with both mineral diesel and soybean biodiesel to improve the characteristics of the blend fuels, over that of the tallow. (author)

  8. Determination of the biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marisa D; Oliveira, Samuel L; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Caires, Anderson R L

    2011-05-01

    Blends of biodiesel and diesel are being used increasingly worldwide because of environmental, economic, and social considerations. Several countries use biodiesel blends with different blending limits. Therefore, it is necessary to develop or improve methods to quantify the biodiesel level in a diesel/biodiesel blend, to ensure compliance with legislation. The optical technique based on the absorption of light in the mid-infrared has been successful for this application. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blend, which allows in loco measurements by using portable systems. The results showed that this method is both practical and more sensitive than the standard optical method. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  9. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    OpenAIRE

    Buchori Luqman; Budi Sasongko Setia

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA)(CB)3–k2(CC)(CD)3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist). It found tha...

  10. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  11. Comprehensive study of biodiesel fuel for HSDI engines in conventional and low temperature combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormos, Bernardo; Novella, Ricardo; Garcia, Antonio; Gargar, Kevin [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, ES, Campus de Vera, s/n, Edificio 6D. Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    In this research, an experimental investigation has been performed to give insight into the potential of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The scope of this work has been broadened by comparing the combustion characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels in a wide range of engine loads and EGR conditions, including the high EGR rates expected for future diesel engines operating in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. The experimental work has been carried out in a single-cylinder engine running alternatively with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Conventional diesel fuel and neat biodiesel have been compared in terms of their combustion performance through a new methodology designed for isolating the actual effects of each fuel on diesel combustion, aside from their intrinsic differences in chemical composition. The analysis of the results has been sequentially divided into two progressive and complementary steps. Initially, the overall combustion performance of each fuel has been critically evaluated based on a set of parameters used as tracers of the combustion quality, such as the combustion duration or the indicated efficiency. With the knowledge obtained from this previous overview, the analysis focuses on the detailed influence of biodiesel on the different diesel combustion stages known ignition delay, premixed combustion and mixing controlled combustion, considering also the impact on CO and UHC (unburn-hydrocarbons) pollutant emissions. The results of this research explain why the biodiesel fuel accelerates the diesel combustion process in all engine loads and EGR rates, even in those corresponding with LTC conditions, increasing its possibilities as alternative fuel for future DI diesel engines. (author)

  12. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  13. Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel; Elementbelastungen von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen durch Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hendrik; Wilharm, Thomas [ASG Analytik-Service Gesellschaft mbH, Neusaess (Germany); Winkler, Markus [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany); Knuth, Hans-Walter

    2012-06-15

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements. These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. (orig.)

  14. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  15. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  16. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  17. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  18. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  19. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  20. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  1. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  2. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND FOSSIL DIESEL BLENDING: PROPERTIES AND CORROSION CHARACTERISTICS. ... resulting coconut oil ethyl ester (COEE) was blended with fossil diesel (B0). ... Article Metrics.

  3. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  4. Biodiesel. Una revisión del desempeño mecánico y ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de investigaciones relevantes relacionadas con el desempeño mecánico y ambiental de motores diesel, utilizando diversos combustibles, entre ellos el diesel convencional y alquilésteres obtenidos de aceites vegetales (biodiesel. Aunque las tendencias observadas dependen fuertemente del tipo de aceite del que provienen los alquilésteres, se puede concluir que a medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de biodiesel en las mezclas biodiesel–diesel disminuye la potencia y aumenta el consumo de combustible. También disminuyen el CO, Hc, material particulado, hollín y la opacidad de humos. De otro lado, los Nox aumentan o disminuyen dependiendo de la afinación del motor. La potencia disminuye entre 2 y 10% para B30 y B100 respectivamente. El consumo de combustible aumenta entre 10 y 24%, para el biodiesel y sus mezclas, debido al menor poder calorífico del biocombustible comparado con el del diesel convencional. Las emisiones de CO diminuyen de 10 a 50%, hc 12 a 55%, con B30 y B100 respectivamente. La opacidad de humos disminuye entre 0 y 30% y los Sox entre 20 y 100%, debido al escaso contenido de azufre del biodiesel. La reducción «global» de CO2 es de 16 a 78,4% para B20 y B100 respectivamente. La ventaja medioambiental de tipo global del biodiesel es el cierre del ciclo de vida del CO2 (emisión nula, pues las plantas oleaginosas por medio del proceso de fotosíntesis toman este gas y lo transforman en oxígeno.

  5. Production of Biodiesel by Enzymatic Transesterification: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The research on the production of biodiesel has increased significantly in recent years because of the need for an alternative fuel which endows with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Plant oils, animal fats, microalgal oils and waste products such as animal rendering, fish processing waste and cooking oils have been employed as feedstocks for biodiesel production. In order to design an economically and environmentally sustainable biodiesel production process, a proper understanding of the factors affecting the process and their relative importance is necessary. Approach: A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of biodiesel production was carried out. Traditionally biodiesel has been produced using either acid or base catalysts. The multi-step purification of end products, wastewater treatment and energy demand of the conventional process has lead to search for alternative option for production of biodiesel. The use the enzyme lipase as a biocatalyst for the transesterification reaction step in biodiesel production has been extensively investigated. Lipase is produced by all living organisms and can be used intracellularly or extracellularly. Conclusion: To date, the most popular microbes used for their lipases have been filamentous fungi and recombinant bacteria. A summary of lipases used in transesterification and their optimum operating conditions is provided. In addition to the choice of lipase employed, factors which make the transesterification process feasible and ready for commercialization are: enzyme modification, the selection of feedstock and alcohol, use of common solvents, pretreatment of the lipase, alcohol to oil molar ratio, water activity/content and reaction temperature. Optimization of these parameters is necessary in order to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Use of no/low cost waste materials as feedstocks will have double environmental benefits by reducing the

  6. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Lutz; Max Chavarría; María Laura Arias; Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biod...

  7. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  8. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  9. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  10. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel an

  11. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part I. A study of the biodiesel purity and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from sunflower oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were temperature, initial catalyst concentration by weight of sunflower oil and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio, while the responses were biodiesel purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on biodiesel purity, but a negative one on biodiesel yield. Temperature has a significant positive effect on biodiesel purity and a significant negative influence on biodiesel yield. The methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio is only significant for the biodiesel purity, having a positive influence. Second-order models were obtained to predict biodiesel purity and yield as a function of these variables. The best conditions are 25 degrees C, a 1.3%wt for the catalyst concentration and a 6:1 methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio.

  12. Uma Análise sobre o Mercado Mundial do Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Oliveira Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O combustível fóssil, base da matriz energética mundial, dá sinais de esgotamento das suas reservas e saturação ambiental por causa do aquecimento global. Surgiu assim um novo desafio para a Academia: encontrar um combustível substituto que seja renovável e não emita Dióxido de Carbono. O biodiesel surgiu como potencial substituto do combustível fóssil que se esgotará dentro de 50 anos. O mercado mundial de biodiesel está em expansão e demanda por informações econômicas referentes ao bicombustível. Este trabalho se propõe a realizar um levantamento sobre as informações de mercado do biodiesel e seu desenvolvimento no mundo. Traz informações relativas à produção, à capacidade produtiva e aos incentivos fiscais do biodiesel em diversos países do mundo.

  13. Tratamento de águas contaminadas por diesel/biodiesel utilizando processo Fenton Treatment of water contaminated by diesel/biodiesel using Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofani Koslides Mitre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação de águas por misturas diesel/biodiesel pode causar grandes impactos ambientais, relacionados à presença de compostos orgânicos recalcitrantes e tóxicos, inviabilizando o uso de processos biológicos de tratamento. A avaliação da biodegradabilidade, nas proporções B0, B25, B50, B75 e B100 (os números especificam o percentual em massa de biodiesel na mistura, indicou que a adição de biodiesel em teores acima de 50% aumenta a biodegradabilidade, alcançando 60 e 80% para B50 e B75, respectivamente. Na aplicação do processo Fenton, a remoção da matéria orgânica foi superior a 80% em todas as misturas, exceto para B0, que apresentou remoção máxima de 50%. A oxidação por Fenton se ajustou a um modelo cinético de pseudo-segunda ordem em relação à concentração de matéria orgânica, e resultou em aumento da biodegradabilidade de até 150%.Waters contaminated with diesel/biodiesel and their blends can cause major environmental impacts, due to the presence of toxic and recalcitrant organic compounds, which invalidate the use of biological treatment processes. Evaluation of biodegradability of the blends B0, B25, B50, B75 and B100 (the numbers specify the mass percentage of biodiesel in the blend indicated that the addition of biodiesel at concentrations above 50% increased biodegradation, reaching 60 and 80% for B50 and B75, respectively. When the Fenton process was used, removal of organic matter was greater than 80 % in all blends, except for B0, which showed maximum removal of 60%. Oxidation by Fenton was fitted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model in relation to the concentration of organic matter and resulted in increased biodegradation of up to 150%.

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  15. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel.

  16. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAZOU Mouaïmine

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Bio-fuel or biodiesel is ... 1998), the European standard EN14214 (FAME, 2003) and the ... biodiesel and industrial detergent industries (Alonso et al., 2005). ...... product, alkaline wastewater requires treatment, and free.

  17. THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL AND BIOETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    G. Venkata Subbaiah; Dr. K. Raja Gopal; Syed Altaf Hussain

    2010-01-01

    History has seen fuel innovations being driven majorly by transportation needs rather than the overall need to revolutionize the energy needs of the society. Biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol are now receiving the impetus required for becoming a fuel source for the future. One of the ways to reduce the dependence on fossil diesel is the blending of bioethanol with conventional diesel. However, an emulsifier or a co-solvent is required to stabilize the blend. The ricebran oil biodiesel...

  18. Evaluación del funcionamiento de motores de combustión interna trabajando con biodiesel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto Rodríguez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad para dos motores de combustión interna trabajando con combustible biodiesel procedente de varias fuentes naturales y se comparó con la característica exterior de velocidad de los motores originalmente trabajando con combustible diesel. Los motores fueron evaluados con variaciones de carga y velocidad. En uno de los motores ensayados fue determinada la presión en el interior de la cámara de combustión con el objetivo de evaluar el retardo de ignición. Fue observado que los motores trabajando con combustible biodiesel presentaban una disminución de la potencia efectiva y un aumento del consumo especifico de combustible. Se observó una disminución del retardo de ignición cuando fue empleado el combustible biodiesel. También fue observado que los gases contaminantes, excepto las emisiones de NOx y CO, disminuyen o permanecen constantes con el uso del biocombustible. The engine outer velocity characterization for two engines was made working with biodiesel from different natural sources, and its performance was compared with the engine parameters using reference diesel. The engines were used varying load and velocity. The ignition delay was obtained by measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A decrease in the effective power and increase in the effective fuel consumption were observed in the engines when biodiesel is used. Biodiesel samples shown shorter ignition delay than diesel. The pollutants emitted for the engine using biodiesel was lower than diesel, with the exception of NOx and CO emissions.

  19. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  20. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    The acid value of 2.620 mg KOH/g obtained for the crude oil is suitable for biodiesel .... Khalil, A.; Shaikh S.N., and Nudrat Z.R. (2014). Reinforcement of natural ... transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel: Effects of biodiesel on engine ...

  1. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  2. Producción de un polímero tipo polihidroxialcanoato (PHA) empleando residuos de la producción de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Jiménez, Mónica Liliana

    2013-01-01

    El aumento en la producción de biodiesel ha generado un exceso de glicerol y otros residuos disponibles para el desarrollo de la industria biotecnológica; estos constituyen materias primas útiles para la producción de polihidroxialcanoatos (PHAs). En este trabajo se evaluó el crecimiento de seis cepas acumuladoras de PHAs sobre glicerol USP y tres residuos provenientes de diferentes plantas de producción de biodiesel, lo cuál permitió concluir que Burkholderia cenocepacia 2G-57 es la que mejo...

  3. Research status and prospects for algae biodiesel:a review%藻类生物柴油研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 陈章和

    2011-01-01

    With the aggravation of energy crisis and environmental pollution worldwide, biodiesel fuel has received more and more attention in recent years. At present, biodiesel is mainly derived from oil crops and animal fats, it can not meet environmental and economic sustainability. Lots of studies have shown algae are the most promising source for biodiesel production, so algae-based biodiesel has become more attractive. Because of its environmental benefits, algae-based biodiesel is considered as the most potential fuel alternative. As technologies for biodiesel production are sophisticated and costy, biodiesel production from algae is limited. This paper reviews the current status of microalgae used for biodiesel production, including its advantages and production process. Furthermore, production challenges and future perspectives for algae-based biodiesel production are also discussed.%随着世界能源危机和环境恶化的加剧,新型绿色燃料--生物柴油备受关注.目前,世界范围内主要以油料作物和动物脂肪为原料生产生物柴油,但存在很多局限性.藻类本身具有很多优点,以藻类为原料生产的生物柴油是真正的环保可再生能源,但是藻类生物柴油的生产工艺费用较高,生产技术还不成熟,仍需要进一步的研究.该文主要介绍藻类生物柴油的优越性、生产工艺以及研究现状,分析了生产过程中存在的问题,展望了未来藻类生物柴油生产工艺研究的重点和发展趋势.

  4. Enzymatisk omestring til produktion af biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2007-01-01

      Biodiesel er i dag sammen med bioethanol et bud på, hvordan transportsektoren kan nedbringe sin netto CO2-emission til atmosfæren og lagrene af fossilt brændstof kan strækkes. På verdensplan forventes der en produktion af biodiesel på 7,9 mio. tons i 2007. Ved den industrielle fremstilling af...... biodiesel benyttes i dag kemiske katalysatorer såsom H2SO4, NaOH, MeONa eller KOH, der efterfølgende fjernes fra den producerede biodiesel med store mængder vand og derved produceres store mængder spildevand. Ved at benytte enzymer i processen kan man reducere mængden af spildevand, der skal renses. Enzymer...... benyttes ikke i de eksisterende processer, men det forventes, at udviklingen af processerne vil øge deres anvendelse i biodieselproduktion. I artiklen præsenteres fordele og ulemper ved anvendelse af enzymer til biodiesel produktion....

  5. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  6. Environmental accounting of biodiesel from soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, T.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    As nonrenewable energy sources are depleted globally new sources of energy are becoming necessary. One option that has been explored in recent years is biodiesel production using agricultural products such as soybeans. The emergy accounting method gives value to environmental flows of energy and it quantifies the total amount of energy that has gone in to a product. Also, it provides an inventory of inputs and outputs that can be used to analyze what, if any, types of changes can be made to specific processes within the production as well as improvements in the efficiency of the system as a whole in order to increase the viability of biodiesel as a fuel source. This evaluation uses the concept of emergy to quantify the costs and returns of biodiesel production. This study showed that, currently in the typical production system in the US, biodiesel is not competitive to fossil fuel sources regarding energy providing. But, considering the depletion of the latter source it may become part of source for society. For biodiesel from soybean oil to become more energetically competitive the agricultural production has to be improved since it demands more than 80% of the used resources. Within the soybean production, topsoil loss was responsible for more than 40% which also negatively affects the renewability of this energy source. (author)

  7. Processing Coconut Fiber and Shell to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Aulia Novita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on research conducted, liquid smoke coming from the husk and coconut shell containing 58-70% Methyl Ester as biodiesel-forming compounds. Then conducted research for the manufacture of methyl esters of liquid smoke based on differences in their boiling points. The purpose of this research is the development of tools producing liquid smoke, liquid smoke processing into biodiesel, biodiesel testing with the diesel engine and the determination of the proper blending between biodiesel. The method used in this study is a phase of making tools, raw material preparation, testing tools  for liquid smoke production, purification, separation of methyl esters and methyl esters testing by blending in diesel engines. Obtained from research conducted work capacity device of liquid smoke 1:22 kg / hour with a yield of 32.17%. Performance test  by blending biodiesel B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100 with a 6.5 HP engine capable of running a diesel engine with performance that is not much different, more smoke clear, odorless and lighter engine speed.

  8. Producción de biodiesel a partir de cultivos alternativos: experiencia con Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Huerga, Ignacio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Fil: Huerga, Ignacio Roberto. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Ingeniería Química; Argentina. En la búsqueda de nuevos cultivos para producción de biodiesel, Jatropha Curcas surge como una alternativa a aquellos que se utilizan actualmente. Para evaluar su factibilidad del cultivo, se utilizaron muestras de semillas provenientes de la localidad de Yuto (Jujuy, Argentina), clasificadas en función del período de cosecha y estado de maduración del fruto. La extracción d...

  9. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel-like compounds by biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel-like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally 'green' fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost-intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by-products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t-butanol have been developed, which enhance by-product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole-cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as 'microdiesel', by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Comparative characterization of Jatropha, soybean and commercial biodiesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvain-Didier B. Kouame

    2011-01-01

    Oil was extracted from seeds of Jatropha Curcas, in high yields (up to 40% by weight). The extracted Jatropha oil was converted in a laboratory reactor to biodiesel by transesterification. Analysis of Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel by GC/MS and GC/SIMDIS showed that Jatropha oil could be readily converted to a biodiesel product through NaOH catalyzed transesterification.The resulting biodiesel has desirable properties such as high cetane number and low flash point, which are major improvements over the properties of commercial biodiesel fuels.

  11. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  12. Perspectives for biotechnological production of biodiesel and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Wei; Li Wei; Sun Ting; Chen Xin; Liu Dehua [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, biological ways for biodiesel production have drawn an increasing attention and compared to chemical approaches, lipase-mediated alcoholysis for biodiesel production has many advantages. Currently, there are extensive reports about enzyme-mediated alcoholysis for biodiesel production, and based on the application forms of biocatalyst, the related research can be classified into immobilized lipase, whole cell catalyst, and liquid lipase-mediated alcoholysis for biodiesel production, respectively. This mini-review is focusing on the study of the aforementioned three forms of biocatalyst for biodiesel production, as well as its impacts and prospects. (orig.)

  13. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  14. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: Current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J S S V; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F M; Anandarao, B G

    2016-01-01

    PARAS is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 A, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching ~1 m/s over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of ~10 cm/s in the optical and <1 m/s in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the dat...

  15. Process for biodiesel production from Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiru, Meikandhan; Sankh, Santosh; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield of up to 69 g/L and 48% (w/w), respectively. The process was scaled up easily to 26 L. The oil extraction process was also optimized using environmentally safe solvents. The oil profile indicated a high oleic acid content followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid. The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel and thoroughly characterized. This is the first end to end report on production of biodiesel from the C. curvatus oil.

  16. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    -product. Current literature indicates that enzymatic processing of oils and fats to produce biodiesel is technically feasible and developments in immobilization technology indicate that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology...... is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process designs, which do not use the full potential of the catalysts in a cost-efficient way. Furthermore is it unclear what process variables need to be monitored and controlled to ensure optimal economics...... an enzymatic route, batch operation is a straightforward and efficient means for producing BD with its main disadvantage being the downtime between batches. For large-scale production of biodiesel, continuous operation is an attractive alternative as it enables efficient use of manpower and capital assets...

  17. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  18. Synthesis And Characterization of Biodiesel From Nigerian Palm Kernel oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGBOKWE, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced from Nigerian Palm kernel oil through direct base- catalyzed transesterification process using methanol and sodium hydroxide as alcohol and catalyst respectively. The transesterification process involved 1 liter of Palm kernel oil, 200ml of methanol, 1.0% NaOH, reaction temperature of 65 degree Celsius and reaction time of 90mins and an average biodiesel yield of 87.67% was obtained. The produced biodiesel was blended with diesel fuel at a ratio of 20% biodiesel to 80% diesel fuel (by volume. The neat biodiesel and its blend were characterized using the ASTM methods. The results showed that the properties of the neat palm kernel oil biodiesel and its blend fall within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for Biodiesel fuels hence confirming their suitability as alternative fuels for modern diesel engines.

  19. Caracterización de biodiesel obtenido de aceite residual de cocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betselene Murcia Ordoñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: Biodiesel de aceite residual de cocina Título en ingles: "Characterization of Biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil" Resumen Se realizó un análisis físico y químico a cada uno de los siguientes tipos de aceite: desechado proveniente de asaderos de pollo, usado de hogares y fresco adquirido en el mercado local de la ciudad de Florencia, Caquetá (Colombia. Se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: Peso específico, índice de yodo, índice de saponificación, índice de refracción, humedad y materia volátil, punto de fusión, impurezas insolubles, índice de acidez, coeficiente específico de extinción valores K232 y K270, color y prueba de Kreiss. Igualmente se evaluaron los espectros UV-VIS de los tres tipos de aceite estudiados. Se ensayaron siete diferentes tipos de catalizadores para la reacción de transesterificación manteniendo en todos los casos la proporción de catalizador: aceite 38:190 (v/v, tiempo de reacción (2h y temperatura de reacción (60°C. Se lograron rendimientos de biodiesel de 75.8% de aceite desechado usando KOH 1,269%p/v/MeOH 99%; 87.50% de aceite usado con KOH 0,537%p/v/MeOH 99% y 86.60% de aceite fresco usando KOH 0,457%p/v/MeOH 99%. Al biodiesel obtenido en cada caso se le determinó peso específico, índice de refracción, humedad y materia volátil, cenizas sulfatadas, carbón residual, corrosión a la lámina de cobre y perfil de ácidos grasos. En todos los casos hubo predominio de ácido  palmítico, ácido  oléico y ácido  esteárico en los aceites usados y desechados. Del análisis por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se pudo establecer que el contenido total de ésteres metílicos de ácidos  grasos es del 98,38% para el biodiesel de aceite desechado; 99,53% para el biodiesel de aceite usado y 97, 69% para el biodiesel de aceite fresco. Palabras clave: aceite residual de cocina; biodiesel; ácidos grasos; transesterificación Abstract Aphysical and

  20. Improvement of biodiesel methanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Datta Bharadwaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to improve the performance of biodiesel–methanol blends in a VCR engine by using optimized engine parameters. For optimization of the engine, operational parameters such as compression ratio, fuel blend, and load are taken as factors, whereas performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (Bth and brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC, Nitric oxides (NOx and smoke are taken as responses. Experimentation is carried out as per the design of experiments of the response surface methodology. Optimization of engine operational parameters is carried out using Derringers Desirability approach. From the results obtained it is inferred that the VCR engine has maximum performance and minimum emissions at 18 compression ratio, 5% fuel blend and at 9.03 kg of load. At this optimized operating conditions of the engine the responses such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and smoke are found to be 31.95%, 0.37 kg/kW h, 0.036%, 5 ppm, 531.23 ppm and 15.35% respectively. It is finally observed from the mathematical models and experimental data that biodiesel methanol blends have maximum efficiency and minimum emissions at optimized engine parameters.

  1. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMER ACEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel es promocionado como combustible alternativo para sustituir combustibles de origen fósil y reducir emisiones de carbono. Algunos estudios han sido llevados a cabo para estudiar las emisiones de vehículos diesel de baja potencia. Sin embargo, las emisiones sólidas y gaseosas emitidas por vehículos de trabajo operados con biodiesel de palma africana y diesel de bajo contenido de azufre (~ 15 ppm han sido poco estudiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el desempeño y emisiones de un motor Diesel Cummins, 4 tiempos, 9.5 litros, 6 cilindros con sistema de inyección "common rail", y sistema de recirculación de gases. El motor desarrolló una menor potencia (10 % cuando fue operado con biodiesel de palma africana. El motor cumplió con la norma ambiental 2004 cuando fue operado con combustible diesel, sin embargo, con biodiesel de palma africana las emisiones de material particulado y los óxidos de nitrógeno estuvieron fuera de norma.

  2. Optimización del proceso de obtención de biodiesel a partir de colza silvestre (Brassica Campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron , optimizar el rendimiento de biodiesel a partir del aceite de colza silvestre en función de la relación molar metanol/aceite, la concentración de catalizadores homogéneos NaOH y KOH, te mperatura y tiempo de transesterificación a través de la metodología de superficie respuesta, y determinar las características fisicoquímicas del biodiesel obtenido en condiciones optimizadas. Fue aplic ado un diseño de Plackett y Burman (PB12 para la etap a d e screening y un diseño compuesto central rotacional (DCCR para la optimización final. Las condiciones que maximizan el r endimiento de biodiesel (77.8 % se obtuvieron a concentraciones de 0 – 0.2 % de NaOH y de 0.4 a 0.6 % de KOH , con tiempos de 77 a 81 minutos, manteniendo constante la relación molar metanol/aceite en 6/1 y una temperatura de 60ºC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas del biodiesel obtenido en condiciones optimizadas cumplen con las especificaciones técnicas dadas por la ASTM D6751 – 07 y EN14214.

  3. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  4. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...... and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40°C for the two systems has been determined to -9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and - 9.3 ± 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol is used....

  5. Cetane Number of Biodiesel from Karaya Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wasfi, Bayan

    2017-04-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel alternative to petroleum Diesel, biodiesel has similar characteristic but with lesser exhaust emission. In this study, transesterification of Karaya oil is examined experimentally using a batch reactor at 100-140°C and 5 bar in subcritical methanol conditions, residence time from 10 to 20 minutes, using a mass ratio 6 methanol-to-vegetable oil. Methanol is used for alcoholysis and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Experiments varied the temperature and pressure, observing the effect on the yield and reaction time. In addition, biodiesel from corn oil was created and compared to biodiesel from karaya oil. Kinetic model proposed. The model estimates the concentration of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and methyl esters during the reaction. The experiments are carried out at temperatures of 100°C and above. The conversion rate and composition of methyl esters produced from vegetable oils are determined by Gas Chromatography Analysis. It was found that the higher the temperature, the higher reaction rate. Highest yield is 97% at T=140°C achieved in 13 minutes, whereas at T=100°C yield is 68% in the same time interval. Ignition Quality Test (IQT) was utilized for determination of the ignition delay time (IDT) inside a combustion chamber. From the IDT cetane number CN inferred. In case of corn oil biodiesel, the IDT = 3.5 mS, leading to a CN = 58. Whereas karaya oil biodiesel showed IDT = 2.4 mS, leading to a CN = 97. The produced methyl esters were also characterized by measurements of viscosity (υ), density (ρ), flash point (FP) and heat of combustion (HC). The following properties observed: For corn biodiesel, υ = 8.8 mPa-s, ρ = 0.863 g/cm3, FP = 168.8 °C, and HC = 38 MJ/kg. For karaya biodiesel, υ = 10 mPa-s, ρ = 0.877 g/cm3, FP = 158.2 °C, and HC = 39 MJ/kg.

  6. Motor gerador ciclo diesel sob cinco proporções de biodiesel com óleo diesel Engine-generator diesel cycle under five proportions of biodiesel and diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de fontes alternativas de energia ao óleo diesel mineral, como o biodiesel, com origem renovável, é importante para o meio-ambiente e diversificação da matriz energética. Neste estudo foram levantados o consumo específico de combustível, o valor calórico do combustível e a eficiência do conjunto motor gerador da marca BRANCO em função de cargas resistivas, sob as seguintes proporções volumétricas entre o óleo diesel mineral com biodiesel: 0% (B0, 20% (B20, 40% (B40, 60% (B60 e 100% de biodiesel (B100. Para o ensaio utilizou-se motor de 7,36 kW, com gerador elétrico acoplado de 5,5 kW. As cargas utilizadas, 0,5 kW; 1,0 kW; 1,5 kW e 2,0 kW foram elevadas até 5,0 kW, oriundas de um dinamômetro de cargas resistentes. Assim, o desempenho do conjunto para cargas abaixo de 1,5 kW mostrou-se menor, pelo maior consumo específico de combustível (CEC, e redução na eficiência do conjunto motor gerador para a faixa de potência. Para as proporções de biodiesel B40, B60 e B100 os resultados descreveram redução no valor calórico e aumento do CEC. Portanto, realizando comparação das proporções de biodiesel com o óleo diesel, a proporção B20 substitui parcialmente o óleo diesel, sem perdas significativas do desempenho do motor gerador.The study of mineral diesel alternatives, such as biodiesel, a renewable fuel, is important for the environment and to diversify energy sources. This study evaluated an engine-generator BRANCO brand. Specific fuel consumption, calorific value and the overall efficiency as a function of the system load was measured, using diesel oil and biodiesel blends. The biodiesel proportions in the composition were 0% (B0, 20% (B20, 40% (B40, 60% (B60, and 100% (B100. The engine that was used during the test has a power of 7.36 kW, and the electric generator was 5.5 kW. The group was submitted to resistive loading, in the range: 0.5 kW, 1.0 kW, 1.5 kW; growing up to 5.0 kW. The results have shown

  7. MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION MODELS USING INTERVAL SELECTION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF THE BIODIESEL IN BIODIESEL/DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Flôres Ferrão

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work multivariate regression models using interval partial least square (iPLS and backward interval partial least square (biPLS had been analyzed and compared. iPLS and biPLS models had been developed to determine the concentration of biodiesel in blends of biodiesel/diesel using infrared spectroscopy signals. 45 samples with concentrations in range 8-30% of biodiesel, and two distinct spectrophotometers were used. Both the techniques (iPLS and biPLS using the data obtained by HATR-FTIR if had shown promising to develop simpler, faster and non-destructive methodologies for the biodiesel determination in commercial blends.

  8. Determinação de coeficiente de expansão térmica do biodiesel e seus impactos no sistema de medição volumétrico

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Douglas Queiroz; Vieira,Daniela Franco

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o coeficiente de expansão térmica do biodiesel a partir de dados experimentais de densidade em função da temperatura. Para tanto, foram utilizados alguns fundamentos da termodinâmica. O valor obtido para o coeficiente de expansão térmica após regressão linear para o biodiesel foi de 8,49 × 10-4 ºC-1, com um coeficiente de correlação igual a 0,9978.

  9. Mont-Tremblant biodiesel project : feasibility study; Projet biodiesel Mont-Tremblant : etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagace, C. [Groupe Sine Nomine, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lamy, V.; Lapointe, L.; Pilon, B. [CEGEP de Saint-Jerome, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada). Inst. du transport avance du Quebec, ITAQ

    2008-08-15

    The growing interest in biodiesel can be attributed to concerns regarding climate change, environmental protection and sustainable development. Biodiesel produced from biomass is a renewable energy source that can replace fossil fuels and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The City of Mont-Tremblant commissioned a pilot study to determine the feasibility of integrating 20 per cent biodiesel (B20) in city fleet vehicles and school buses. The study focused on the use of biodiesel fuel under winter conditions. The fleet vehicles were analyzed and various strategies for integrating biodiesel mixtures by type and concentration were proposed. The feasibility study also investigated different types of petrodiesel such as Nordic type, seasonal type and kerosene. The effects of an electrical thermal management system were also investigated along with the use of additives. Various laboratory tests were performed in a controlled climate chamber to validate potential solutions. Finally, the study measured the impacts of likely solutions, and proposed 4 different scenarios for the use of biodiesel for the region of Mont-Tremblant. The study showed that it is possible to use B20 year-round, provided that certain conditions are met. The pilot project will also evaluate changes to storage infrastructure that may be needed for storing B20 in winter. 5 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  10. Thermodegradation of biodiesel: thermoanalytical and rheological characterization; Degradacao termica de biodiesel: caracterizacao termoanalitica e reologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everson L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Gilmar T.; Gadelha, Tatiana S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is a country of extensive agricultural land and great oil consumption and these factors favor biodiesel production in this country. In order for diesel/biodiesel mixtures to be effectively employed in diesel engines, a rigid quality control of these mixtures is needed. Biodiesel and mixtures must have their quality monitored with respect to oxidative resistance, thermal stability, fluidity and volatility, properties which can be modified by the adverse transport and stock conditions prior to consumption. Oxidation is the main degradation mechanism of products under transport and stock conditions, which can lead to significant economical losses. In this work sought the thermal degradation of neat biodiesel, synthesized in our laboratories was monitored. Thermal aging was conducted at 210 deg C for up to 1000 h. Virgin and thermally degraded samples were characterized by rheological measurements (in different shear conditions); FTIR; density and by color changes. We concluded that the soy biodiesel was successfully synthesized and that thermal exposure caused thermal-oxidative degradation of the biodiesel sample, significantly changing its properties as a function of thermal exposure times. (author)

  11. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  12. Thermodegradation of biodiesel: thermoanalytical and rheological characterization; Degradacao termica de biodiesel: caracterizacao termoanalitica e reologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everson L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Gilmar T.; Gadelha, Tatiana S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is a country of extensive agricultural land and great oil consumption and these factors favor biodiesel production in this country. In order for diesel/biodiesel mixtures to be effectively employed in diesel engines, a rigid quality control of these mixtures is needed. Biodiesel and mixtures must have their quality monitored with respect to oxidative resistance, thermal stability, fluidity and volatility, properties which can be modified by the adverse transport and stock conditions prior to consumption. Oxidation is the main degradation mechanism of products under transport and stock conditions, which can lead to significant economical losses. In this work sought the thermal degradation of neat biodiesel, synthesized in our laboratories was monitored. Thermal aging was conducted at 210 deg C for up to 1000 h. Virgin and thermally degraded samples were characterized by rheological measurements (in different shear conditions); FTIR; density and by color changes. We concluded that the soy biodiesel was successfully synthesized and that thermal exposure caused thermal-oxidative degradation of the biodiesel sample, significantly changing its properties as a function of thermal exposure times. (author)

  13. Desempenho de diferentes lipases imobilizadas na síntese de biodiesel de óleo de palma = Performance of different immobilized lipases in palm oil biodiesel synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Grazielle dos Santos Silva; Dayana Yuri Inoue; Gisanara Dors; Agenor Furigo Junior; Heizir Ferreira de Castro

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as condicoes otimizadas da sintese enzimatica de biodiesel, a partir do oleo de palma e etanol, empregando diferentes lipases imobilizadas (lipase de Pseudomonas fluorescens imobilizada em SiO2-PVA e lipase de Candida antartica imobilizada em resina acrilica - Novozym„µ 435) em meio isento de solvente. Uma matriz de planejamento fatorial foi utilizada para avaliar a influencia da temperatura (42 ¡V 58„aC) e a razao molar entre etanol e oleo de...

  14. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchori Luqman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA(CB3–k2(CC(CD3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist. It found that SNI 01-3555-1998 method was the easier and the acurate measurement. The classification of alcohol used was methanol andethanol to compare the action both of them. Methanol produces the higher conversion than ethanol. The reactionin a batch reactor with temperature 40, 50, and 60°C in atmospheric pressure as the operation condition tolooking for kinetics parameter of trans-etherification. Coefficient reaction rate and activation energy were lookinto kinetics study. Reaction rate was a mathematics model as a function of concentration and time which solvedby Runge-Kutta, multivariable optimization and SSE (some square error method using Matlab. The activationenergy (Ea and impact factor (A obtained by linier regression method. The result of study obtained the kineticsparameter of trans-etherification with methanol k1=1.9313x1031exp (-41.940/RT average error 0.0010 andk2=2.7678x1025exp(-37.362/ RT average error 0.0003. While kinetics parameter of trans-etherification withethanol obtained k1=1.168x1019exp(-24.588/ RT average error 0.0306 and k2=4.9966x106exp(-10.328/RTaverage error 0.1589. It means, more reactive alcohol then bigger the value of kinetics parameter.

  15. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Biodiesel: o ônus e o bônus de produzir combustível Biodiesel: the charge and the bond of the fuel producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A dependência do petróleo e a poluição gerada pelo óleo diesel são as grandes desvantagens do uso deste combustível, o que vem estimulando a busca por fontes energéticas alternativas. Biodiesel é o combustível derivado de óleos vegetais ou de gordura animal que pode substituir total ou parcialmente o óleo diesel derivado de petróleo. Pode ser obtido por diferentes processos, como craqueamento, transesterificação ou esterificação, tendo glicerina como subproduto. A transesterificação é o método estimulado pelo Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel no Brasil, consistindo na reação química de triglicerídios com álcoois (metanol ou etanol na presença de um catalisador (NaOH. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir as vantagens e as desvantagens que a produção de biodiesel traz para a agricultura e o ambiente e a competição que pode ocorrer por recursos naturais entre a produção de alimentos e a de combustível. O biodiesel, além de ser obtido de fontes renováveis, tem como vantagens a menor emissão de gases poluentes e a menor persistência no solo. Entretanto, o custo de produção atualmente é maior e o balanço energético, apesar de variar com o sistema de produção utilizado, é menos favorável em relação ao óleo diesel. A maior demanda por grãos oleaginosos promoverá a utilização de mais espécies nos sistemas de produção em todo o país. Na Região Sul, tem sido dado maior enfoque às culturas da soja, girassol, canola e mamona. Esta última, incentivada em regiões de baixa disponibilidade hídrica, está sendo melhorada geneticamente para produção de biocombustível. Tem como desvantagem a presença de ricina, substância tóxica ao homem e que pode contaminar o ambiente. O girassol e a canola produzem óleos "nobres" para alimentação humana, com altos teores de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados. O biodiesel constitui-se em uma boa alternativa para a substituição parcial ou total

  17. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  18. The Current Status of Biodiesel Production Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alamsyah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is addressed to the name of fuel which consist of mono-alkyl ester that made from renewable and biodegradable resources, such as oils from plants (vegetable oils, waste or used cooking oil, and animal fats. Such oils or fats are chemically reacted with alcohols or methanol In producing chernical compounds called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and these reactions are called transesterification and esterification. Glycerol, used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry is produced from biodiesel production as a by-product. Researches on biodiesel as an alternative petroleum diesel have been done for more than 20 years. Transesterification reaction can be acid-catalyzed, alkali-catatyzed, or enzyme-catalyzed. Commercially biodiesel is processed by transesterification with alkali catalyst. This process, however, requires refining of products and recovery of catalysts, Such biodiesel production accelerates researches on biodiesel to obtain simpler methods, better quality. and minimum production cost. Besides the catalytic production for biodiesel, there is a method for biodiesel production namely non-catalytic production. Non-catalytic transesterification method was developed since catalytic tranestertfification still has two main problems assoclated With long reaction time and complicated purification. The first problem occurres because of the two phase nature of vegetable oil/methanol mixture, and the last problem is due to purification of catalyst and glycerol. The application of catalytic tranestertfication method leads to condition of high biodiesel production cost and high energy consumption. This paper provides information of biodiesel production progress namely catalytic tranestertfification (acid, alkali, and enzymatic tranesterfification, and non-catalytic tranesterification (at sub-critical­-supercritical temperature under pressurized conditions. It was found that every method of biodiesel production still has advantages and

  19. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  20. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...

  1. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...

  2. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  3. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  4. Uncertainties in the Bidirectional Biodiesel Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Pieter; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Pennink, Bartjan; Simatupang, Togar M.

    2015-01-01

    For remote areas, small-scale local biodiesel production is particularly attractive if producers and consumers are the same. Such supply chains are labeled as bidirectional. However, little is known on how raw material supply, transportation, logistics, production and operations uncertainties impact

  5. Lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications: synthesis of fine chemicals, therapeutics, agrochemicals, cosmetics, flavors, biopolymers and biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short chain alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The usage of lipases has several advantages over the conventional chemical methods. It is considered as less energy intensive and environmentally friendly. However, there are two main obstacles associated with the effective utilization of lipases in the production of biodiesel. The main one is the cost of the enzyme and its poor stability in the presence of excess alcohol. Several strategies are proposed to overcome these drawbacks: immobilization of lipases, stepwise addition of alcohol, and the usage of novel acyl acceptors and the usage of whole cell biocatalysts.

  6. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  7. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  8. A transação como fator estruturante da cadeia de suprimento do biodiesel no Rio Grande do Sul [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20121102002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Silveira Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a influência das transações que ocorrem entre os membros de cadeias de suprimento de biodiesel no Rio Grande do Sul sobre as estruturas destas. Foi realizado um estudo de casos múltiplos em duas das sete cadeias de suprimento de biodiesel localizadas no estado. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizadas diferentes fontes de evidência: revisão bibliográfica, conversas informais com os atores das cadeias, participação em reuniões juntamente com alguns representantes dos elos das cadeias; relatórios do governo; entrevistas não-estruturadas com representantes dos grupos de fornecimento, de consumo e alguns membros de suporte da cadeia e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com representantes das usinas produtores de biodiesel. Observou-se que os atributos da transação e os pressupostos comportamentais impactaram na estrutura da Cadeia de Suprimento do Biodiesel localizadas no Rio Grande do Sul, algumas das descobertas relevantes são: a presença de oportunismo e incertezas nas transações entre os produtores familiares e usinas, a falta de fidelidade nas relações entre produtores familiares/cooperativas, produtores familiares/usinas e cooperativas/usinas faz com que as usinas tenham muitas trocas de fornecedores de grãos, e a redução do oportunismo e incerteza a partir de uma maior frequência das transações e dos contratos assinados sob o Selo Combustível Social.   Palavras-chave Biodiesel, Cadeia de Suprimento, Rio Grande do Sul, Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel (PNPB, Transação.     TRANSACTION AS A STRUCTURING FACTOR OF BIODIESEL SUPPLY CHAIN IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL   ABSTRACT The present article intend to analyze the transaction influence that occur between members of biodiesel supply chain in Rio Grande do Sul on these structure. A multiple cases study was performed in two of the six biodiesel supply chain localized in Rio Grande do Sul, for date collection were used different

  9. The future of coal: strategy of the 90s. El futuro del carbon: estrategias para for 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    The article concerns coal production in the European Community and the re-industrialisation of the coalfields in the 1990s. Attempts to clarify the position of Community coal with the emphasis on plans for the future. Discusses European ideas for and experiences in re-industrialising coalfields which might be applicable in Asturias.

  10. BIODIESELS AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As of July 1st 2013. the Republic of Croatia will be a member of the European Union, which will primarily bring necessary harmonisation of ecological standards and requirements. Biodiesel, as a renewable source of energy, can be produced from algae, vegetable oil, and animal fats, and thus it is biodegradable. Biodiesel in Croatia is mainly produced from oilseed rape which, as an agricultural plant, has an increasing share in the past three years and records positive trends. This paper analyses the trend of production in the Republic of Croatia, and compares it with the production and consumption of fossil fuels. On the grounds of Croatia’s favourable agriculture-related climatic characteristics, in particular in the region of Slavonija and Baranja, more intense exploitation of farm land under the cultures intended for biodiesel production can be organised aiming at bumper yield and production. Croatia has already harmonised its standards of production of biodiesel, and by 2020 the consumption of biodiesel is bound to reach 20%. The data used in this paper are obtained from the sources available by Croatian Institute of Statistics, Market Information System in Agriculture, as well as Eurostat, and the rest used here are translated from the sources in the English language. The reviewed are the surfaces planted with oilseed rape in the period between 2007. and 2011., an average yield, and overall production. On the grounds of available information, the calculations of the quantity of bio fuel to be consumed in Croatia by 2020. and the percentage of the land surfaces planted with oilseed rape have been made.

  11. Nuclear energy, energy for the present and the future; Energia nuclear, una energia para el presente y el futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo S, C. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this work we will try to show that nuclear energy can contribute to the generation energy in the present and the future, considering that its effect on the climatic change is relatively low and that the fuels that uses are available a large scale. At the moment it is had already commercial thermal fission reactors , there are also them of fast fission that allow the fuel rearing, although these last ones in much smaller number, with both types of fission nuclear reactors can be obtained a very important contribution to the generation of energy at world-wide level during the time that is necessary so that it is developed, constructs and operates the first commercial fusion reactor. The energy that is generated in the present and future must come from different sources, which require to be reliable, to have little effect on the environment, to have wide reserves of fuels and to be viable from an economic and social point of view, they must be viable and safe. Between possible alternative energies it is counted on the lot, the wind one, the geothermal one, originating of the tides and some others. An energy that must be considered so that it has arrived at his maturity and he is already able to contribute widely to cover the present needs and future it is nuclear energy, as much the originating one of the fission of a heavy centre like obtained when fusing two light centers. On base in the nuclear fuel reserves at world-wide level a simple calculation takes control of the lapse in which energy by means of the nuclear fission in rearing can be generated reactors expresses demonstrating that the time sufficient to finish to the investigation and development of fusion reactors which they generate energy in economic, safe and reliable form. Combining these two options the nuclear energy can be considered the future like for the present and the future with practically null effects in the climatic change. (Author)

  12. Study on the lubrication properties of biodiesel as fuel lubricity enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianbo Hu; Zexue Du; Changxiu Li; Enze Min [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, Beijing (China)

    2005-09-01

    Unrefined biodiesels containing small quantities of monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, and refined biodiesels not containing these glycerides were added to diesel fuel and the resulting lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The unrefined biodiesels showed higher lubricity properties than refined biodiesels. The chemical factors influencing the lubricity properties of biodiesels were investigated. Methyl esters and monoglycerides are the main compositions that determine the lubricity of biodiesels that meet international standards. Free fatty acids and diglycerides can also affect the lubricity of biodiesel, but not so much as monoglycerides. Triglycerides almost have no effects on the lubricity of biodiesel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Silva e Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as

  14. Obtención de biodiesel con aceite de maíz usado en frituras y metacaolinita como catalizador

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz; Jorge Medina-Valtierra; José Merced Martínez Rosales

    2011-01-01

    Se investigó la producción de biodiesel usando un reactor intermitente, se utilizó la metacaolinita como un catalizador sólido ácido que presentó una alta actividad para la producción de biodiesel a partir de aceite de maíz usado en freidora. El área superficial de la metacaolinita, diámetro de poro y volumen de poro fueron 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm y 30 mm3/g, respectivamente. Las condiciones óptimas para la reacción de transesterificación fueron: una relación molar aceite/metanol 1:31, temperatura d...

  15. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: the role of biodiesel's autoxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Mohamad H; Wu, Shuyun; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2012-12-01

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10-C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  17. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  18. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  19. Desempenho e emissões de um motor-gerador ciclo diesel sob diferentes concentrações de biodiesel de soja Performance and emissions of a diesel engine-generator cycle under different concentrations of soybean biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No cenário atual brasileiro de constantes quedas de energia e iminência de uma crise no setor elétrico, a utilização de grupos geradores tem sido bastante comum no meio rural e os bicombustíveis, como o biodiesel, representam uma opção para diversificação da matriz energética. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso do biodiesel de soja em diferentes concentrações em um motor de ciclo diesel sob diferentes demandas de cargas do motor. Foram utilizadas as concentrações: 5% (B5, 10% (B10, 20% (B20, 50% (B50, 75% (B75 e 100% de biodiesel (B100 em um grupo gerador a diesel, com motor de 5 Hp de quatro tempos, em diferentes condições de operação do motor, por meio de demandas de cargas elétricas: 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 W e desligadas conectadas ao grupo gerador. Foram realizados ensaios para quantificação do consumo horário de combustível e da emissão de gases. As variáveis sofreram influência significativa conforme foram alteradas as cargas elétricas e as misturas de combustível. O uso do biodiesel em concentrações maiores reduz consideravelmente a emissão da maioria dos gases poluentes e se tem praticamente anulada a emissão de enxofre para concentrações acima de 65% de biodiesel.In the current scenario of constant power drops in Brazil and an imminent crisis in the electricity sector, the use of generators and biofuels such as biodiesel has been quite common in rural areas represents an option for diversification of the energy matrix. This study evaluated the use of soybean biodiesel in different concentrations in a diesel engine cycle under different demands of engine loads. Concentrations used were: 5% (B5, 10% (B10, 20% (B20, 50% (B50, 75% (B75 and 100% biodiesel (B100 in a diesel generator with engine of 5 Hp of four-stroke under different operating conditions of the engine, through the demands of electrical loads: 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 W and off connected to the generator. Tests were conducted to quantify

  20. Residual Glycerol from Biodiesel Manufacturing, Waste or Potential Source of Bioenergy: A Review Glicerol Residual de la Producción de Biodiesel, Residuo o Potencial Fuente de Energía: Una Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santibáñez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of the research conducted on the use of crude glycerol, the major byproduct of the biodiesel industry, as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion and production of biogas. In general, for every 100 kg biodiesel produced, approximately 10 kg crude glycerol is generated. Because this glycerol is expensive to purify for use in food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic industries, biodiesel producers must seek alternative methods for its disposal. Several studies have demonstrated that the use of crude glycerol as a C source for fermentation and biogas generation is a promising alternative use for this waste material. The high C content of glycerol increases the C:N ratio in the mixture, avoiding the inhibition of the process by the excess of N increasing methane production of digesters by 50 to 200%. Anaerobic co-digestion of glycerol and a variety of residual biomasses may be a good integrated solution for managing these wastes and simultaneously producing a source of bioenergy in an environmentally friendly way. On the other hand, after anaerobic treatment of glycerol, an organic matter-rich solid waste is generated (digestate. The incorporation of digestates from glycerol co-digestion to soils constitutes an important source of organic matter and nutrients for plants. However, the potential of digestates as an organic soil amendment has not been sufficiently studied. The utilization of glycerol as a potential source of energy, rather than as a waste, seems to be a convenient way of lowering the costs of biodiesel production and making this emerging industry more competitive.Esta revisión proporciona un resumen de la investigación realizada sobre el uso de glicerol crudo, principal subproducto de la industria del biodiesel, como sustrato para la co-digestión anaerobia y producción de biogas. En general, por cada 100 kg de biodiesel producido, se generan aproximadamente 10 kg de glicerol. Debido al alto costo de purificaci

  1. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Mohite; Sudhir Kumar; Sagar Maji

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some...

  2. Combustion and Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Running with Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfa, Belachew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types, biodiesel fraction and physical properties on the combustion and performance characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four -stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharg...

  3. Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet Verma; Mahendra Pal Sharma; Gaurav Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    The increased population has resulted in extra use of conventional sources of fuels due to which there is risk of extinction of fossil fuels’ resources especially petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is emerging as an excellent alternative choice across the world as a direct replacement for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel offers a great choice. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. Hence in this paper effort has been made to find out feasibility of biodiesel obtain...

  4. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Nyamplung Menggunakan Pemanasan Gelombang Mikro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ridho Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Energi fosil yang selama ini menjadi tumpuan penduduk seluruh dunia, jumlahnya semakin menipis dari waktu ke waktu. Peran minyak bumi dalam penyediaan energi nasional pun masih dominan. Sekitar 53% kebutuhan energi nasional dipenuhi dari minyak bumi. Oleh karena itu, pencarian energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi harus dikembangkan, salah satunya biodiesel. Penggunaan microwave sebagai sumber energi pembuatan biodiesel dapat mempercepat waktu reaksi. Sehingga microwave dipandang lebih efisien. Biji nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum memiliki kandungan minyak sebesar 60,1% berat. Dengan kandungan minyak sebesar ini maka biji nyamplung memiliki potensi yang besar bila digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Nyamplung tersebar luas di pantai-pantai Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mensintesa biodiesel dari minyak mentah nyamplung (Callophyluminophyllum dengan proses trans-esterifikasi dengan menggunakan microwave, mempelajari daya optimal dalam pembuatan biodiesel, mempelajari jumlah katalis yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biodiesel yang paling baik, mempelajari yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan serta mempelajari pengaruh penambahan ratio mol minyak-metanol terhadap kualitas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Langkah awal pembuatan biodiesel nyamplung adalah proses degumming atau penghilangan impurities seperti getah, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan esterifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengubah free fatty acid (FFA menjadi metil ester. Setelah esterifikasi, larutan dititrasi dengan NaOH dan indicator pp hingga konsentrasi FFA menjadi < 2%. Kemudian masuk proses trans-esterifikasi yang merubah trigliserida dalam minyak menjadi metil ester dan gliserol. Proses selanjutnya adalah pemisahan biodiesel dan gliserol dan terakhir proses pencucian. Variabel percobaan adalah kadar katalis CaO 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6% berat minyak. Ratio mol minyak-metanol 1:9 dan 1:12. Variabel terakhir adalah daya microwave sebesar 100W, 264W dan 400W. Dari hasil

  5. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 428 by Steven R...Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ADDITIVES FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS...17-2010 – 06-30-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-09-C-0100

  6. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  7. Biodiesel Production Using Wet and Dry Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIR, Veli Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Inbiodiesel production via transesterification, after removing glycerol fromcrude biodiesel, purification process must be performed before using biodieselas a fuel that meets the EN 14214 standard. In the literature, variousprocesses are presented for purification of biodiesel however; dry and wetwashing methods are mostly recommended because of their higher efficiencies andeasier applicabilities. In this study, methyl esters (biodiesel) derived fromwaste frying oil (WFO) and sunflower oil we...

  8. Producción de biodiesel asistida por ultrasonidos

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Bastante, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The continuous increase of fossil fuel prices has raised interest in searching for new forms of energy to power internal combustion engines. Among the most promising options is biodiesel. According to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials Standard) specifications, biodiesel is described as monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipids such as vegetable oils or animal fats used in ignition engines. The process leading to biodiesel is called ...

  9. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  10. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  11. The Effects of Climate Change on the Development of Tree Plantations for Biodiesel Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from woody oil plants is a promising form of renewable energy but a combination of tree plantations’ long cultivation time and rapid climate change may put large-scale production at risk. If plantations are located in future-unsuitable places, plantations may fail or yield may be poor, then significant financial, labor, and land resources invested in planting programs will be wasted. Incorporating climate change information into the planning and management of forest-based biodiesel production therefore can increase its chances of success. However, species distribution models, the main tool used to predict the influence of future climate–species distribution modeling, often contain considerable uncertainties. In this study we evaluated how these uncertainties could affect the assessment of climate suitability of the long-term development plans for forest-based biodiesel in China by using Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn as an example. The results showed that only between 59% and 75% of the planned growing areas were projected suitable habitats for the species, depending on the set-up of simulation. Our results showed the necessity for explicitly addressing the uncertainty of species distribution modeling when using it to inform forest-based bioenergy planning. We also recommend the growing area specified in China’s national development plan be modified to lower the risk associated with climate change.

  12. BIODIESEL A PARTIR DE BIOETANOL Y ACEITE DE PALMA. ESTUDIO TECNOECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNYFER RAMOS-ABRIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El biodiesel representa una alternativa tecnológica para disminuir el consumo de combustibles fósiles. La transesterificación de aceites vegetales con metanol es la ruta más utilizada industrialmente por presentar alta conversión de triglicéridos y por la disponibilidad y precio de este alcohol. El metanol proviene fundamentalmente de metano, un insumo fósil, mientras que el bioetanol es renovable por lo que su uso representaría una mejor opción ambiental. Se analizó la prefactibilidad técnicoeconómica de la producción de biodiesel utilizando bioetanol y aceite de palma como materias primas. Se analizaron dos procesos (catálisis básica y ácida con ayuda del simulador Aspen Plus TM . Se simuló el biodiesel tomando como molécula representativa el oleato de etilo y se establecieron las propiedades de la mezcla ajustando el modelo NRTL a partir de datos experimentales del equilibrio líquidolíquido. El proceso resultaría rentable implementando la ruta catalítica ácida homogénea (H2SO4 siempre que la conversión sea superior a 95%.

  13. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Rohit, M V; Chiranjeevi, P; Chandra, Rashmi; Navaneeth, B

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future.

  14. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...... rather than petrochemical diesel. Given that it is the production of the substitute for the poultry fat which mainly eliminates the benefit from using poultry fat for biodiesel, it is argued that whenever assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel made from by-products (such as rendered animal...

  15. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  16. Spectroscopic Analysis of Structural Transformation in Biodiesel Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jiang; Chen Boshui; Fang Jianhua; Wang Jiu

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of three biodiesels of different origins, viz. rapesee d oil derived biodiesel, soybean oil derived biodiesel and waste oil based biodiesel, were tested on an oxidation tester. The chemical compositions of the biodie-sels were characterized by gas chromatography. Thereafter, the structural transformation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of the biodiesels was analyzed by an infrared spectrometer and an ultraviolet absorption spectrometer. The results demon-strated that the oxidation behavior of biodiesels of different origins was closely related to the composition and distribution of FAMEs. Higher concentration of unsaturated FAME with multi-double bonds exhibited poorer oxidation resistance. Fur-thermore, cis-trans isomerization transformation occurred in the unsaturated FAME molecules and conjugated double-bond produced during the oxidation process of biodiesel. Greater cis-trans variations corresponded to deeper oxidation degree. The higher the content of unsaturated FAME with multi-double bonds in a biodiesel, the more the conjugated double bonds was formed.

  17. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  18. Biodiesel from soybean promotes cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D

    2016-08-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100μgmL(-1). In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel's organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses.

  19. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  20. Purification of biodiesel by choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niawanti, Helda; Zullaikah, Siti; Rachimoellah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Purification is a crucial step in biodiesel production to meet the biodiesel standard. This study purified biodiesel using choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent (DES). DES was used to reduce unreacted oil and unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil based biodiesel. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction time using DES on the content and yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Rice bran used in this work contains 16.49 % of oil with initial free fatty acids (FFA) of 44.75 %. Acid catalyzed methanolysis was employed to convert rice bran oil (RBO) into biodiesel under following operation conditions: T = 60 °C, t = 8 h, molar ratio of oil to methanol = 1/10, H2SO4 = 1% w/w of oil. Rice bran oil based biodiesel obtained contain 89.05 % of FAME with very low FFA content (0.05 %). DES was made from a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol with molar ratio of 1/2. Molar ratio of crude biodiesel to DES were 1/2 and 1/4. Extraction time was varied from 15 minutes to 240 minutes at 30 °C. The highest FAME content was obtained after purification for 240 min. at molar ratio crude biodiesel to DES 1/4 was 96.60 %. This work shows that DES has potential to purify biodiesel from non-edible raw material, such as RBO.

  1. Utilization of biodiesel alcohol blends in a compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Sanchez, Tomas M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (United States)], e-mail: nadir@nmt.edu, email: tsanchez@omicron.net

    2011-07-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the use of ethanol-diesel and methanol-diesel fuel blends in vehicles as a way to reduce vehicle emissions. This article presents combustion tests and comparisons of standard diesel, neat biodiesel, biodiesel (85%)-methanol (15%), and biodiesel (85%)-ethanol (15%) fuels in a diesel engine. Experiments were carried out using a two-cylinder, 4-cycle, direct injected, water-cooled diesel engine as a function of five loads between no-load and full-load operating conditions at constant engine speed. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine fuelled with biodiesel-ethanol and biodiesel-methanol blends are compared to those of obtained using neat biodiesel and standard diesel fuel as the baseline fuels. The ethanol-biodiesel blends were found to be more effective than methanol-biodiesel for emission reduction and overall engine performance. It was also found that while biodiesel-alcohols reduce nitrogen monoxide emissions, they also increase carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions at below 70% loads unless additional treatments are used, such as preheating intake air. Exhaust temperatures showed similar behavior for all of the fuels, with no significant difference being found.

  2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  3. Study about the particularities of biodiesel in Brazil; Estudo sobre as particularidades do biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia Franca Ribeiro Fernandes dos [Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao; Souza, Cristina Gomes de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern associated with the impending shortage of oil, which is pressing to raise the price of the barrel, has forced governments and society to seek alternatives that will replace the use of fossil fuels. The biodiesel, in particular, has been set up as an alternative energy by it of fuel come from renewable sources, and less polluting the environment. In this context, the objective of this article is to present some features of the production of biodiesel in Brazil, identifying the characteristics of the main oil used, as well as regional motivations for the use of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology adopted in this study was exploratory in nature based on a literature search and documentary from a survey of information available in literature. The main results, the article points out that: unlike alcohol, which is in sugar cane their ideal raw material, biodiesel is still in a stage of intensive research and development in order to identify the most appropriate its oil production - with emphasis on soybean and castor bean, and the motivations for regional use of biodiesel are different for the Brazilian regions. The study aims to contribute to the discussion on the subject, emphasizing that technological research should be directed taking into consideration the conditions and needs of Brazil. (author)

  4. Avaliação da sustentabilidade do biodiesel de soja no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano, Magaly Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Na atualidade a produção atual do biodiesel no Brasil está sendo sustentada principalmente pela cultura da soja via metanol. Existe uma polêmica sobre si esta produção baseada nessa cultura contribuirá para desenvolver o país de maneira sustentável, tomando em consideração aspectos sociais, econômicos, ambientais e estratégicos. Por outro lado, os envolvidos no setor industrial agroenergético e os definidores de políticas públicas, estão interessados em substituir o metanol por etanol proveni...

  5. Continuous catalyst free production of biodiesel from agro industrial waste with green solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Carmen Alicia Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Química e Bioquímica The aim of this thesis consists in the study of the production of biodiesel via catalyst free direct transesterification of spent coffee ground oil with supercritical methanol in a continuous process. Supercritical methanol is passed through a packed bed reactor with the spent coffee grounds. Inside the reactor supercritical methanol extracts the triacylglycerols, which are immediately transesterified i...

  6. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glycerol separation was able to compensate for the decreased use of the reactant methanol from 6:1 to 5:1 molar ratio, and changed the mass balance in the product, including: (i the increase of biodiesel productionfrom 42.37% to 49.34%, and (ii the reduction of methanol in excess from 42.37% to 32.89%. The results suggested that the efficiency of biodiesel production could be increased with the glycerol separation engineering.

  7. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  8. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  9. Landfill gas, canola, and biodiesel. Working towards a sustainable system [Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  10. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaad T. Bakir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  11. Le développement européen du biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garofalo Raffaello

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available L’intérêt à l’égard de la production de biodiesel n’a cessé de croître ces dernières années. Cependant, l’industrie européenne du biodiesel n’est pas une industrie nouvelle et les nombreux avantages liés au développement de ce produit sont connus depuis plusieurs années. Ces avantages sont entre autres d’ordre environnemental (réduction des émissions de CO2, agricole (développement rural, énergétique (plus d’indépendance dans l’approvisionnement. Au fil des années, l’Union Européenne et les États membres ont mis en place plusieurs instruments de soutien à l’industrie du biodiesel ainsi qu’à la culture des oléagineux non alimentaires. Aujourd’hui le secteur européen du biodiesel est en pleine expansion mais nécessite un cadre réglementaire clair et stable afin de favoriser les investissements et garantir son développement futur. Les nouvelles propositions de directive de la Commission sur les biocarburants vont dans le bon sens mais leur approbation ne se fera très probablement qu’en 2003 au plus tôt. Une fois mises en œuvre, ces nouvelles législations auront sans nul doute un très fort impact sur la production de biodiesel dans l’UE. Cela dit, l’industrie européenne du biodiesel devra compter avant tout sur ses propres ressources et sur sa capacité incontestée à créer un consensus de la part des autorités politiques, des consommateurs et des industries du pétrole et de l’automobile autour d’un produit de très haute qualité.

  12. Fremtidens Biodiesel: Kom fedtaffald i tanken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    Mange tror måske, at det er svært for menigmand at lave biobrændstof. Det er faktisk forkert, fordi biodiesel nemt kan laves af kemikalier, der er ret almindelige i laboratorier og hos købmanden og materialisten. Det kræver blot en såkaldt om-estring af planteolie eller fedt med methanol, samt...

  13. Biodiesel Projects Helpful to Ease Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nearly 7,000 hectares of biodiesel forest will take shape in the northern province of Hebei in 2008, part of a national campaign to fuel the fast growing economy in a green way. In no more than five years, the Pistacia chinensis Bunge, whose seeds have an oil content of up to 40 percent, will yield five tons of fruit and contribute about two tons of high-quality biological diesel oil,according to the provincial forestry administration.

  14. Fremtidens Biodiesel: Kom fedtaffald i tanken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    Mange tror måske, at det er svært for menigmand at lave biobrændstof. Det er faktisk forkert, fordi biodiesel nemt kan laves af kemikalier, der er ret almindelige i laboratorier og hos købmanden og materialisten. Det kræver blot en såkaldt om-estring af planteolie eller fedt med methanol, samt...

  15. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  16. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  17. Designing a new MSA biodiesel technology MBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingendoh, Axel [Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The new MBT Technology was developed at Lanxess and eliminates all these constraints of the alkaline transesterification technology. The acidic transesterification uses Methane sulfonic acid catalysis. Due to the acidic nature of the MBT process formation of soaps is made impossible, sterylglycosides are completely cleaved into soluble product, free fatty acids up to 10% are tolerated, higher alcohols like ethanol and butanol do react equally well and waxes are completely converted into biodiesel. Phase separation of biodiesel and glycerol is dramatically enhanced due to the lack of methanol in this stage. Surprisingly, even water up to 5% does not affect the overall yield and product quality of the MBT Process. Cost savings in biodiesel production may be achieved by using low quality oils with high free fatty acids, use of algae oil, and cost savings at oil raffination due to no need of drying. The Technology is lean and requires less apparatus and less operational steps. The catalyst may be completely recycled by recovering it from the glycerol phase using Lewatit ion exchange technology of Lanxess. (orig.)

  18. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  19. Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Processing Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Susilo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is predicted to be able to accelerate the chemical reaction, to increase the conversion of plant oil into biodiesel, and to decrease the need of catalyst and energy input. The application of ultrasound for processing of biodiesel and the mathematical model were conducted in this research. The result of the experiments showed that the ultrasound increased reaction rate and the conversion of palm oil into biodiesel up to 100%. It was better than the process with mechanical stirrer that the conversion was just 96%. The duration to complete the process using ultrasound was 1 minute. It was 30 to 120 times faster than that with mechanical stirrer. Ultrasound transforms mechanical energy into inner energy of the fluids and causes an increasing of temperature. Simultaneously, natural mixing process undergo because of acoustic circulation. Simulation with experiment data showed that the acceleration of transesterification with ultrasound was affected not only by natural mixing and increasing temperature. The cavitation, surface tension of micro bubble, and hot spot accelerate chemical reaction. In fact, transesterification of palm oil with ultrasound still needs catalyst. It needs only about 20% of catalyst compared to the process with mechanical stirrer.

  20. Desempenho de diferentes lipases imobilizadas na síntese de biodiesel de óleo de palma = Performance of different immobilized lipases in palm oil biodiesel synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle dos Santos Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as condicoes otimizadas da sintese enzimatica de biodiesel, a partir do oleo de palma e etanol, empregando diferentes lipases imobilizadas (lipase de Pseudomonas fluorescens imobilizada em SiO2-PVA e lipase de Candida antartica imobilizada em resina acrilica - Novozym„µ 435 em meio isento de solvente. Uma matriz de planejamento fatorial foi utilizada para avaliar a influencia da temperatura (42 ¡V 58„aC e a razao molar entre etanol e oleo de palma (6:1 ¡V 18:1 no rendimento detransesterificacao alcancado para cada preparacao de lipase. Os efeitos principais foram ajustados por analise de regressao multipla a modelos lineares e o rendimento maximo foi obtido quando o sistema operacional foi operado a 42„aC com substratos contendo etanol eoleo de palma na razao molar de 18:1. Os modelos matematicos que representam o rendimento global da reacao para cada lipase imobilizada foram considerados adequados para descrever os resultados experimentais.Optimized conditions for palm oil and ethanol enzymatic biodiesel synthesis were determined with different immobilized lipases SiO2-PVA-immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and acrylic resin-immobilized lipase, NovozymR435, from Candida antartica, in solvent-free medium. A full factorial design assessed the influence oftemperature (42 ¡V 58¢XC and ethanol: palm oil (6:1 ¡V 18:1 molar ratio on the transesterification yield. Main effects were adjusted by multiple regression analysis to linear models and the maximum transesterification yield was obtained at 42¢XC and 18:1 ethanol:palm oil molar ratio. Mathematical models featuring total yield for each immobilized lipase were suitable to describe the experimental results.

  1. 10 CFR 490.707 - Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.707 Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component. DOE may increase the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component of fuel for purposes...

  2. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. (a) DOE may, by rule, lower the 20 percent biodiesel volume requirement of this subpart...

  3. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  4. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  5. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  6. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  7. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Pachyrhizus erosus seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for additional or alternative feedstocks is one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, the fuel properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (commonly known as yam bean or Mexican potato or jicama) seed oil methyl esters were investigated by methods prescribed in biodiesel...

  8. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel from African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil was transesterified using alkali hydrolysis to biodiesel. ... point (96 oC), cloud point (+9oC), sulphur content (0.03 wt %), and free glycerol (0.54%). ... followed by sieving to get fine kernel-rich powder and ... require 0.30-1.5% of the oil weight as base catalyst. ... for treating triglycerides to produce (biodiesel) fatty acid.

  9. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  10. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  11. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  12. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different

  13. Spectroscopic Analysis of Structural Transformation in Biodiesel Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil, fats and their biodiesel suffer with the drawback of deterioration of its quality during long term storage unlike petroleum diesel. The oxidation and thermal stability of two biodiesels of different origins, viz. palm oil derived biodiesel and used cooking oil based biodiesel were analyzed. The structural transformation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME of the biodiesels was analyzed by an infrared spectrometer and an ultraviolet absorption spectrometer. The infrared spectra of the samples were recorded by FTIR spectroscopy. The absorbance values of the spectrum bands were observed and it was determined that some of the chemical groups of oxidized oils caused changes in absorbance. The spectroscopic data of degraded biodiesel suggested oxidative polymerization. The results demonstrated that the oxidation behavior of biodiesels of different origins was closely related to the composition and distribution of FAMEs. Higher concentration of unsaturated FAME with multi-double bonds exhibited poorer oxidation resistance. In this study, in order to increase the stability of biodiesel, against oxidation process during the storage and distribution, different percentages (0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/v, respectively of caffeic acid, were added as natural antioxidants. The antioxidant effect increased with concentration up to an optimal level. Above the optimal level, the increase in antioxidant effect with its concentration was relatively small.

  14. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant, and a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. The properties of biodiesel are largely compet...

  15. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  16. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  17. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  18. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  19. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  20. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruina Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions. The result shows that carbonyl pollutants of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend are mainly aldehyde and ketone compounds with 1–3 carbon atoms, and formaldehyde concentration is higher than 80% of the total carbonyl pollutants for biodiesel. The formaldehyde concentration peak is reduced with the increase of intake temperature (T, intake pressure (P, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR ratio and increased with the increase of compression ratio (ε. When excess air coefficient (λ is lower than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is increased with the increase of excess air ratio. When λ is higher than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is reduced with the increase of excess air ratio. The dilution of air can reduce formaldehyde concentration in the premixed flame of diesel effectively; however, it has less effect on biodiesel. Among the fuel pretreatment measures of adding hydrogen, CO, and methane, the addition of hydrogen shows the best effect on reducing formaldehyde of biodiesel.

  1. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling the Crystallization Behavior of Biodiesel at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common form of biodiesel is made by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat fatty acids with methanol (FAME). Biodiesel from feedstocks such as palm oil (PME), rapeseed oil (RME), soybean oil (SME) or used cooking oil (UCOME) is susceptible to performance issues during cold weat...

  3. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  4. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  5. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kamarudin, S.K., E-mail: ctie@eng.ukm.m [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaakub, Z. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. {yields} Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. {yields} The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. {yields} Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  6. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  7. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50-60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5-10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less number

  8. Multi-loop Control System Design for Biodiesel Process using Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Dipesh S.; Z, Ahmad; Rangaiah, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Biodiesel is one of the promising liquid fuels for future due to its advantages such as renewability and eco-friendliness. This manuscript describes the development of a multi-loop control system design for a comprehensive biodiesel process using waste cooking oil. Method for controlled variable-manipulated variable (CV-MV) pairings are vital for the stable, effective and economical operation of the process. Liquid recycles, product quality requirements and effective inventory control pose tough challenges to the safe operation of the biodiesel process. A simple and easy to apply effective RGA method [Xiong Q, Cai W J and He M J 2005 A practical loop pairing criterion for multivariable processes Journal of Process Control vol. 15 pp 741-747.] is applied to determine CV-MV pairings i.e. control configuration design for the bioprocess. This method uses steady state gain as well as bandwidth information of the process open loop transfer function to determine input-output pairings.

  9. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.

  10. Uso da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC×GC na caracterização de misturas biodiesel/diesel: aplicação ao biodiesel de sebo bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvana A Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of biodiesel market and the implementation of regulations related to biodiesel production and biodiesel/diesel blending has encouraged the development of appropriate analytical methods to control the composition of this type of mixture. In this study, an evaluation of the potential of GC×GC for the characterization of samples of beef tallow biodiesel and the composition of blends of biodiesel/diesel is presented. The methodology was applied to beef tallow biodiesel and its mixtures with petrodiesel, ranging from B2 to B50. Results allowed not only the identification and quantification of the biodiesel esters, but also the biodiesel percentage in biodiesel/diesel blends.

  11. Thermal behavior of diesel/biodiesel blends of biodiesel obtained from buriti oil=Comportamento térmico de blendas de diesel/biodiesel de biodiesel obtido a partir do óleo de buriti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gustavo Soares do Prado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been obtained from methanolysis of buriti oil. This biodiesel was added in fossil diesel in order to obtain diesel/biodiesel blends. Thermal analysis of blends were carried on 30-600oC range at rate of 10oC min.-1. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy (Ea, pre-exponential factor (A, Gibbs energy (≠G, enthalpy (≠H and entropy (≠S of activation were determined by using Coats–Redfern equation. The Ea, ≠H and ≠G values presented a linear increase with biodiesel amount added in blends. The heat of combustion of diesel/biodiesel blends was determined, and it was observed that the heat of combustion decreased with the addition of biodiesel in diesel/biodiesel blends.O biodiesel foi obtido a partir de metanólise de óleo de buriti. O biodiesel foi adicionado ao diesel fóssil a fim de obter misturas de biodiesel/diesel. Análises térmica das misturas foram realizadas entre 30-600°C com uma taxa de aquecimento de 10ºC min.-1. Parâmetros cinéticos como a energia de ativação (Ea, fator pré-exponencial (A, energia livre de Gibbs (≠G, entalpia (≠H e entropia de ativação (≠S foram determinadas usando equação de Coats-Redfern. Os valores de Ea, ≠H and ≠G apresentaram aumento linear com a quantidade de biodiesel adicionado na mistura. O calor de combustão de misturas de biodiesel/diesel foi determinada, e foi observado que o calor de combustão diminuiu com a adição de biodiesel no diesel e nas misturas de biodiesel.

  12. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  13. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  14. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  15. The feasibility of converting Cannabis sativa L. oil into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Stuart, James D; Li, Yi; Parnas, Richard S

    2010-11-01

    Cannabis sativa Linn, known as industrial hemp, was utilized for biodiesel production in this study. Oil from hemp seed was converted to biodiesel through base-catalyzed transesterification. The conversion is greater than 99.5% while the product yield is 97%. Several ASTM tests for biodiesel quality were implemented on the biodiesel product, including acid number, sulfur content, flash point, kinematic viscosity, and free and total glycerin content. In addition, the biodiesel has a low cloud point (-5 degrees C) and kinematic viscosity (3.48mm(2)/s). This may be attributed to the high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acid of hemp seed oil and its unique 3:1 ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid.

  16. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  17. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  18. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  19. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required.

  20. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  1. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  2. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  3. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. S.; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Zhen

    Experiments were carried out on a diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol. The blended fuels contain 5%, 10% and 15% by volume of methanol. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev min -1 to assess the performance and the emissions of the engine associated with the application of the different fuels. The results indicate an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the diesel engine was operated with biodiesel and the blended fuels, compared with the diesel fuel. The blended fuels could lead to higher CO and HC emissions than biodiesel, higher CO emission but lower HC emission than the diesel fuel. There are simultaneous reductions of NO x and PM to a level below those of the diesel fuel. Regarding the unregulated emissions, compared with the diesel fuel, the blended fuels generate higher formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions, lower 1,3-butadiene and benzene emissions, while the toluene and xylene emissions not significantly different.

  4. Emissions characteristics of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel and biodiesel blended with ethanol and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Cheung, C S; Zhang, W G; Huang, Zhen

    2010-01-15

    Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of ethanol or methanol were tested on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 r/min. The study aims to investigate the effects of the blended fuels on reducing NO(x) and particulate. On the whole, compared with Euro V diesel fuel, the blended fuels could lead to reduction of both NO(x) and PM of a diesel engine, with the biodiesel-methanol blends being more effective than the biodiesel-ethanol blends. The effectiveness of NO(x) and particulate reductions is more effective with increase of alcohol in the blends. With high percentage of alcohol in the blends, the HC, CO emissions could increase and the brake thermal efficiency might be slightly reduced but the use of 5% blends could reduce the HC and CO emissions as well. With the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the HC, CO and particulate emissions can be further reduced.

  5. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...... in raw material prices, process designs and enzyme cost and performance....

  6. Digestibilidade intestinal in vitro da proteína de coprodutos da indústria do biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Couto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a digestibilidade intestinal (DI da proteína de vários coprodutos do biodiesel nas formas de farelo e torta. Foram avaliados oito coprodutos: tortas e farelos de pinhão manso, nabo forrageiro, tremoço, algodão. Os coprodutos foram incubados no rúmen por 16 horas, e os resíduos não degradados no rúmen submetidos à digestão enzimática com solução de pepsina e pancreatina para a determinação da DI. Ainda, nos resíduos da incubação ruminal, foram determinadas: degradabilidade da matéria seca (DR, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína para os coprodutos do biodiesel variou de 2,4 a 48,6%. Todos os coprodutos avaliados caracterizaram-se como alimentos de alto teor proteico, sendo considerados de alta PDR, e apresentaram baixa digestibilidade intestinal da proteína. A DI da proteína dos coprodutos do biodiesel na forma de torta foi maior em comparação com a dos farelos. A torta e o farelo de algodão apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de DI.

  7. Desempenho e características de carcaças de cordeiros suplementados com diferentes níveis de resíduo de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a suplementação de dietas de cordeiros confinados com resíduo de biodiesel, utilizando-se 25 ovinos, SRD, machos, castrados, com média de peso de 20kg. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições por tratamento e esquema de parcelas subdivididas para os dados de biometria. O experimento teve a duração de 70 dias. As dietas eram compostas de 34% de volumoso e 61% de concentrado, à base de milho, soja, minerais e 5% de óleo de dendê ou resíduo de biodiesel, em percentagens crescentes - zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. Os animais foram abatidos ao final do experimento para avaliação da carcaça. Foram observados efeitos significativos (P<0,05 de percentagem de inclusão do resíduo, para as variáveis de desempenho e biometria demonstrados nos efeitos lineares crescentes das equações de regressão, assim como para peso da carcaça quente (PCQ -, com médias de 14; 15,92; 16,14; 16,42 e 18,02% - e peso da carcaça fria (PCF -, com médias de 13,12; 14,78; 15,06; 15,70 e 17,25% -, para dietas com, respectivamente, 0, 25, 50, 100% de resíduo de biodiesel de dendê. A utilização de resíduo de biodiesel de dendê na alimentação de cordeiros em crescimento é alternativa para aumentar a densidade energética de suas dietas.

  8. Síntese de biodiesel a partir do farelo de arroz via catálise enzimática

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Avanços tecnológicos que possibilitem reduzir os custos do processo de produção de biodiesel praticados hoje em dia são necessários, para torná-lo mais competitivo frente aos combustíveis fósseis. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho estudou a síntese de biodiesel via catálise enzimática utilizando o farelo de arroz e o óleo bruto extraído deste através da biotransformação do óleo no farelo de arroz e utilizando a lipase presente nesta matéria-prima como biocatalisador. Ao se usar as razões mo...

  9. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  10. Emisiones gaseosas y opacidad del humo de un motor operando con bajas concentraciones de biodiesel de palma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de las prestaciones mecánicas y ambientales de un motor diesel de automoción de 2.5 litros de cilindrada, turboalimentado, montado en banco de ensayos, que utiliza diesel corriente y biodiesel de aceite de palma mezclado al 5, 10 y 20% en volumen. Los ensayos se realizaron a igualdad de energía en el cigüeñal para cada combustible, en cinco grados de carga estacionarios, representativos de las condiciones de operación del vehículo en ciudad. Se obtuvo un incremento en el consumo específico de combustible respecto al diesel corriente en torno a 0.5, 1 y 1.7% al usar B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. El rendimiento efectivo no sufrió cambios estadísticamente significativos, con lo cual se comprobó que la relación energía suministrada a energía obtenida en el cigüeñal se mantuvo constante independientemente de la mezcla de biodiesel. Las emisiones específicas de THC (gTHC/kWh disminuyeron aproximadamente en la misma proporción que el contenido de biodiesel en la mezcla (5, 10 y 20%, para B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. Las de CO y la opacidad de humos (% disminuyeron en la misma proporción, correspondiente con la mitad del contenido de biodiesel en la mezcla (2.5, 5 y 10%, para B5, B10 y B20 respectivamente. Las emisiones específicas de NOx incrementaron ligeramente, y alcanzaron un máximo para la mezcla B20 en torno al 3% respecto al diesel corriente. Se presentan los índices de emisión en términos de masa de contaminante por unidad de masa de combustible quemado. Los resultados permiten concluir que el uso del biodiesel de aceite de palma mezclado en concentraciones inferiores al 20% con diesel convencional tiene ventajas ambientales significativas. Desde el punto de vista mecánico, el consumo adicional de combustible se ve apenas ligeramente incrementado sin afectar el rendimiento efectivo del motor.

  11. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  12. As controvérsias sociotécnicas sobre as esécificações do biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vinicius de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Legislação do Biodiesel é um tipo de Política Pública Regulatória que visa normatizar e padronizar este combustível. Objetiva-se neste artigo apresentar resultados referentes à análise dos documentos que embasaram a Política Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel, no âmbito de sua especificação para a introdução na matriz energética brasileira. No presente estudo analisamos principalmente: 1 o DECRETO 5.448, de 20/05/2005 que dispõe sobre a introdução do biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira; 2 a LEI 13.033 de 24/9/2014 (DOU de 25/9/2014, que dispõe sobre a adição obrigatória de biodiesel ao óleo diesel comercializado para o consumidor final na proporção de 7% a partir de novembro de 2014; 3 o White Paper on Internationally Compatible Biofuel Standards, produto de um grupo força tarefa internacional (União Europeia, Estados Unidos e Brasil, cujo objetivo foi padronizar as especificações técnicas. Mostramos que a produção e o desenvolvimento de uma política pública envolvendo a adoção de uma tecnologia é formada pela associação de elementos de origens heterogêneas (técnica, política, científica, econômica e ambiental atuando em um campo de forças simultaneamente nacional e global.

  13. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...... and potential of the technique used for investigations of complex and heterogeneous substrates are presented and discussed in the presentation. Reference List 1 Bianconi,M.L. (2007) Calorimetry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.  Biophysical Chemistry, 126, 59-64. 2 Todd,M.J. and Gomez,J. (2001) Enzyme Kinetics...... Determined Using Calorimetry: A General Assay for Enzyme Activity?  Analytical Biochemistry, 296, 179-187....

  14. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  15. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  16. Prospects of biodiesel production from microalgae in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shakeel A.; Hussain, Mir Z.; Prasad, S. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rashmi; Banerjee, U.C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Biotechnology), National Institute of Pharmaceutical and Education Research (NIPER), Sector 67, Phase X, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali 160062, Punjab (India)

    2009-12-15

    Energy is essential and vital for development, and the global economy literally runs on energy. The use of fossil fuels as energy is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and also due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment. Renewable and carbon neutral biodiesel are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel demand is constantly increasing as the reservoir of fossil fuel are depleting. Unfortunately biodiesel produced from oil crop, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace fossil fuel. The viability of the first generation biofuels production is however questionable because of the conflict with food supply. Production of biodiesel using microalgae biomass appears to be a viable alternative. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms which convert sunlight, water and CO{sub 2} to sugars, from which macromolecules, such as lipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be obtained. These TAGs are the promising and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgal biorefinery approach can be used to reduce the cost of making microalgal biodiesel. Microalgal-based carbon sequestration technologies cover the cost of carbon capture and sequestration. The present paper is an attempt to review the potential of microalgal biodiesel in comparison to the agricultural crops and its prospects in India. (author)

  17. Spontaneous ignition of biodiesel: A potential fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous ignition of biodiesel was for the first time suspected to be the cause of a recent fire in Japan. We herein present experimental evidence implying this potential risk of biodiesel. Thus, three independent biodiesel samples were subjected to a series of experiments, including a thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry analysis and a modified wire basket test. The results were comparatively evaluated with reference to vegetable oils, of which spontaneous ignition has been well reported as a cause of fires. The heat onset temperature of biodiesel samples was determined to be ~100 °C, which was ~45 °C lower than those of vegetable oils. Furthermore, under the isothermal condition at 100 °C, the inner temperature of biodiesel samples rose rapidly with the generation of smoke after short induction periods owing to their exothermal decomposition, whereas for vegetable oils neither change in the inside temperature nor generation of smoke was observed even after 10 hours. It was therefore concluded that biodiesel possesses the higher risk of spontaneous ignition than vegetable oils. This is very important information to minimize the fire risk in biodiesel production facilities and so on. .

  18. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  19. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Husnawan, M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala, Jl. S. Abd. Rauf No. 7, Darussalam - Banda Aceh (Indonesia)

    2011-01-15

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  20. Development of Brazilian Biodiesel Sector from the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Françoise Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP. It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, this paper aims to analyse the perspective of biodiesel sector stakeholders in Brazil to understand whether NPBP directives are in consonance with the reality of the sector for its development. A questionnaire was created with 48 questions in order to understand the importance of 13 variables for the stakeholders, and the responses were treated by factor analysis (FA. The results showed the existence of a trade-off related to technological advances in biodiesel production that confronts NPBP directives, that is, the biodiesel sector tends not to evolve in terms of the use of advanced technologies. If policies change so as to develop the biodiesel sector using advanced technologies, NPBP should change its directives in order to involve family farmers in another way in the Brazilian economy.

  1. Tareas para la comunicación del futuro profesional: una experiencia pedagógica//Communication activities for the future engineer: a pedagogical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Caridad Cabrera-González

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación de los futuros profesionales acapara la atención de los docentes, por las insuficiencias que se presentan en el uso del lenguaje. Para hacer efectivo el proceso de comunicación se han utilizado alternativas metodológicas; entre ellas, el enfoque por tareas cuyo objetivo fundamental, es el aprendizaje a través de la acción donde se vinculan los procesos cognitivos con la interacción en un determinado contexto. El artículo destaca la importancia de este enfoque y presenta un sistema de tareas que contribuyeron al desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa de los futuros profesionales de ciencias técnicas. Estas se utilizaron específicamente, con estudiantes de ingeniería mecánica como parte de un pre-experimento. Al comparar los resultados obtenidos en el diagnóstico inicial con los de las pruebas pedagógicas, se pudo constatar un desarrollo en el nivel de competencia comunicativa de los estudiantes, por lo que quedó demostrada la efectividad de este enfoque. Palabras claves: tareas, competencia comunicativa, futuro profesional. Abstract Communication of the future professionals today has become a problem that professors care about due to the deficiencies that the students have in the correct use of the language. Methodological alternatives have been used in order to make the process of communication effective, among them the methodology based on tasks and whose fundamental objective is learning through action. Here, the cognitive process is related with interaction in a given context. This paper makes emphasis on the importance of this methodology and presents a system based on tasks that contributed to the development of communicative competence in the future professionals of science and technology. These tasks were used specifically with students from the mechanical engineering faculty as part of the experiment. A development concerning the level of communicative competence could be confirmed with the results

  2. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  3. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family

  4. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmer

  5. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  6. BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY BIODIESEL AND DIESEL/BIODIESEL BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, G I; Junior, C S; Oliva, T C; Subtil, D F; Matsushita, L Y; Chaves, A L; Lutterbach, M T; Sérvulo, E F; Agathos, S N; Stenuit, B

    2015-01-01

    The gradual introduction of biodiesel in the Brazilian energy landscape has primarily occurred through its blending with conventional petroleum diesel (e.g., B20 (20% biodiesel) and B5 (5% biodiesel) formulations). Because B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications, their use as transportation fuel is increasing in the Brazilian distribution networks. However, the environmental fate of low-level biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel (B100) is poorly understood and the ecotoxicological-safety endpoints of biodiesel-contaminated environments are unknown. Using laboratory microcosms consisting of closed reactor columns filled with clay loam soil contaminated with pure biodiesel (EXPB100) and a low-level blend (EXPB5) (10% w/v), this study presents soil ecotoxicity assessement and dynamics of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) procedures for enumeration of bacteria, dehydrogenase assays and soil ecotoxicological tests using Eisenia fetida have been performed at different column depths over the course of incubation. After 60 days of incubation, the ecotoxicity of EXPB100-derived samples showed a decrease from 63% of mortality to 0% while EXPB5-derived samples exhibited a reduction from 100% to 53% and 90% on the top and at the bottom of the reactor column, respectively. The dehydrogenase activity of samples from EXPB100 and EXPB5 increased significantly compared to pristine soil after 60 days of incubation. Growth of aerobic bacterial biomass was only observed on the top of the reactor column while the anaerobic bacteria exhibited significant growth at different column depths in EXPB100 and EXPB5. These preliminary results suggest the involvement of soil indigenous microbiota in the biodegradation of biodiesel and blends. However, GC-FID analyses for quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons and targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA tags using illumina platforms will provide important

  7. Extended exergy accounting applied to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E- 08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Sciubba, E. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Roma 1 ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana 18, I-00184 Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    When evaluating the production of renewable energies such as biofuels, it is necessary to include in the assessment the resource inputs, capital, labor investment and environmental remediation costs. Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) is a system analysis method that calculates, on the basis of detailed mass and exergy balances, the total amount of primary exergy resources necessary to obtain a product or service. The conceptual novelty of EEA is represented by the fact that it also includes externalities (capital, labor and environmental impact) measured in homogeneous units (Joules). As an illustration of EEA, we assess and compare the production of 1 ton of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCOME) and rapeseed crops (RME). The extended exergy ''content'' of UCOME and RME are 51.90 GJ and 77.05 GJ respectively. The production of UCOME uses 25.15 GJ less resources (materials and energy) and requires lower total investments and environmental remediation costs than that of RME. On the other hand, UCOME requires 35% more workhours. In summary, the extended exergy of UCOME is about 1.5 the extended exergy content of RME. Thus, we can conclude that biodiesel production from UCO is less resource use intensive than the production from RME. (author)

  8. Digital image-based classification of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Almeida, Valber Elias; Araújo, Thomas Souto Policarpo; Melo, Jessica Priscila; Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Véras, Germano

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive methodology based on digital images and pattern recognition techniques for classification of biodiesel according to oil type (cottonseed, sunflower, corn, or soybean). For this, differing color histograms in RGB (extracted from digital images), HSI, Grayscale channels, and their combinations were used as analytical information, which was then statistically evaluated using Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and variable selection using the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA). Despite good performances by the SIMCA and PLS-DA classification models, SPA-LDA provided better results (up to 95% for all approaches) in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. The variables selected Successive Projections Algorithm clearly contained the information necessary for biodiesel type classification. This is important since a product may exhibit different properties, depending on the feedstock used. Such variations directly influence the quality, and consequently the price. Moreover, intrinsic advantages such as quick analysis, requiring no reagents, and a noteworthy reduction (the avoidance of chemical characterization) of waste generation, all contribute towards the primary objective of green chemistry.

  9. Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ronald; Gladman, Brendan; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) extraction and hexane extraction of lipids from marine Chlorococcum sp. for lab-scale biodiesel production. Even though the strain of Chlorococcum sp. used in this study had a low maximum lipid yield (7.1 wt% to dry biomass), the extracted lipid displayed a suitable fatty acid profile for biodiesel [C18:1 (∼63 wt%), C16:0 (∼19 wt%), C18:2 (∼4 wt%), C16:1 (∼4 wt%), and C18:0 (∼3 wt%)]. For SCCO(2) extraction, decreasing temperature and increasing pressure resulted in increased lipid yields. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction under supercritical conditions was found to increase with fluid dielectric constant as well as fluid density. For hexane extraction, continuous operation with a Soxhlet apparatus and inclusion of isopropanol as a co-solvent enhanced lipid yields. Hexane extraction from either dried microalgal powder or wet microalgal paste obtained comparable lipid yields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Odour Prevention at Biodiesel Fuel Producing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Montrimaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous, unpleasant, pungent and even harmful odour frequently leads to complaints and appeals to the authorities. For this reason an environmental review was carried out in a certain biodiesel fuel production enterprise, odour pollution sources were identified, their quantities estimated and their impact on the environment assessed. Following the initial environmental review, significant environmental aspects of biodiesel fuel production processes were evaluated. It was found that in technological processes of heating and pressing oil, triglycerides disintegrated in aromas causing discomfort. In order to reduce this impact, the appropriate economic management method and odour removal equipment are to be chosen. When solving this problem it is suggested to install biofilters - activated carbon adsorbers with a stationary adsorber layer and probiotics. In order to choose the adsorber, a calculation method of adsorber technical parameters has been developed in accordance with literature data. The proposed preventive odour reduction means and feasibility of their technical and economical application have been analysed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.676

  11. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  12. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DE MICROALGAS: PARÁMETROS DEL CULTIVO QUE AFECTAN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE LÍPIDOS

    OpenAIRE

    MARTHA TRINIDAD ARIAS PEÑARANDA; ALFREDO DE JESÚS MARTÍNEZ ROLDÁN; ROSA OLIVIA CAÑIZARES VILLANUEVA

    2013-01-01

    Las microalgas poseen la capacidad para mitigar las emisiones de CO2 y producir lípidos, por lo que se consideran con potencial para la obtención de biocombustibles de tercera generación. La presente revisión proporciona información actualizada de la influencia de las condiciones de cultivo, sobre la obtención de lípidos con una produc- tividad elevada y perfil adecuado para la producción de biodiesel, se proporciona una síntesis de resultados de investigaciones realizadas en los últimos 13 a...

  13. Producción de biodiesel de aceite crudo de palma mediante catálisis heterogénea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cardeño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la producción de biodiesel de aceite crudo de palma mediante el uso de catalizadores heterogéneos ácidos y básicos para las etapas de preesterificación y transesterificación respectivamente. La pre-esterificación es necesaria para aceites con una acidez superior al 4% de ácidos grasos libres, ya que se evitan los problemas asociados con la formación de jabones. En ambas reacciones las variables analizadas fueron el tipo de catalizador, la temperatura y el tiempo. Se analizó la conversión del aceite a metilésteres usando cromatografía gaseosa y la estabilidad de los catalizadores mediante su reutilización. En la etapa de pre-esterificación se encontró que catalizadores ácidos del tipo resinas de poliestireno sulfonadas presentan conversiones superiores al 87% estabilidad para la esterificación de los ácidos grasos libres. Para la transesterificación se estudiaron como catalizadores heterogéneos, el carbonato de potasio libre y soportado en una matriz polimérica, obteniéndose con ambos conversiones superiores a 95 % de biodiesel; con el uso del soporte polimérico se disminuyó la velocidad de disolución de carbonato de potasio, permitiendo su reutilización hasta 10 reutilizaciones.

  14. Application of thermal lens technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of biodiesel blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Mehdipour, Lotf Ali; Noura, Amin; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2015-04-01

    Thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel blends was measured using a thermal lens double beam setup. Palm biodiesel blends were prepared from a mixture of normal palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel with the percentage of the mixture set in the range of 10-90 %. The thermal diffusivity of the palm biodiesel blends consistently increased by increasing the concentration of palm biodiesel from 0.784 × 10-7 to 1.056 × 10-7 m2/s and average of measurement limitation was 0.629 × 10-7 m2/s. Hence, thermal lens technique is suitable and accurate to assess the thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel.

  15. Obtaining biodiesel from spanish used frying oil: Issues in meeting the EN 14214 biodiesel standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrios, M.; Gutierrez, M.C.; Martin, M.A.; Martin, A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The biodiesel production from Spanish used frying oils has been studied using two operation flow charts: two-step alkaline transesterification and sequential esterification-transesterification, followed by washing in water in both cases, in order to set out the most suitable operational conditions to achieve the highest FAME percentage in the shortest time. Sequential esterification-transesterification reached slightly better results than two-step alkaline transesterification. The resulting product cannot be called biodiesel as the specifications of EN 14214 Standards have not been met. Specifically, FAME content and kinematic viscosity were outside the requirements because of the chemical modifications which took place in the oil during cooking (presence of polar compounds). The influence of polar compounds on the processes has been studied by means of their analysis in the oil and the product. (author)

  16. Connecticut Biodiesel Power Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grannis, Lee [Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition, Bethany, CT (United States); York, Carla R. [Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition, Bethany, CT (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Sabre will continue support of the emissions equipment and VARS issues to ensure all are resolved and the system is functioning as expected. The remote data collection to become more automated. Final project reports for data collection and system performance to be generated. Sabre continued to support the emissions equipment and VARS issues to ensure all are resolved and the system is functioning as expected. The remote data collection became more automated. Final project reports for data collection and system performance were generated and are part of this final report. Some Systems Sensors were replaced due to a lightning strike. Sample data charts are shown at the end of the report. During the project, Sabre Engineering provided support to the project team with regarding to troubleshooting technical issues and system integration with the local power utility company. The resulting lessons learned through Sabre’s participation in the project have been valuable to the integrity of the data collected as well as in providing BioPur Light & Power valuable insights into future operations and planning for possible expansion. The system monitoring and data collection system has been operating as designed and continues to provide relevant information to the system operators. The information routinely gathered automatically by the system also contributes to the REN and REC validations which are required to secure credit for these items. During the quarter, the remaining work on the operations and safety manual were completed and released for publication after screen shots were verified. The goal of this effort to provide an accurate set of precautions and procedures for the technology system that can be replicated to other similar system.

  17. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DE MICROALGAS: PARÁMETROS DEL CULTIVO QUE AFECTAN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE LÍPIDOS Biodiesel Production from Microalgae: Cultivation Parameters that Affect Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA TRINIDAD ARIAS PEÑARANDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las microalgas poseen la capacidad para mitigar las emisiones de CO2 y producir lípidos, por lo que se consideran con potencial para la obtención de biocombustibles de tercera generación. La presente revisión proporciona información actualizada de la influencia de las condiciones de cultivo, sobre la obtención de lípidos con una productividad elevada y perfil adecuado para la producción de biodiesel, se proporciona una síntesis de resultados de investigaciones realizadas en los últimos 13 años en diversas partes del mundo. En la literatura consultada, los autores concluyen que aunque el comportamiento de las microalgas ante condiciones de estrés fisiológico es variable entre especies; la limitación de nutrientes especialmente nitrógeno y fósforo, asociado al crecimiento heterotrófico o a altas intensidades luminosas en fototrofía se consideran como las estrategias más eficientes para incrementar el contenido de lípidos en las microalgas, en particular de triglicéridos constituidos por ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados, ideales para la producción de biodiesel. De igual forma, señalan que la presencia de pequeñas cantidades de CO2 y la cosecha de la biomasa en la fase estacionaria de crecimiento, incrementan el contenido de lípidos y disminuyen el número de insaturaciones de los ácidos grasos que lo conforman.The microalgae have the capacity to mitigate CO2 emissions and to produce lipids, which are considered with potential to obtain third-generation biofuel. This review provides updated information of the influence of culture conditions on the lipids production with high productivity and profile suitable for the biodiesel production. This document presents a compilation of research conclusions over the last 13 years around the world. In the literature consulted, the authors conclude that although the behavior of microalgae at physiological stress conditions, varies between species; the nutrients limitation

  18. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  19. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  20. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  1. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafrallah, Touria; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation...... of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having...... on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal....

  2. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  3. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  4. Prospective of biodiesel production utilizing microalgae as the cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... light intensity, CO2 concentration, nutritional balance, etc, in closed reactors remain controlled. On the .... High photosynthesis yields, that is, about 3 – 8% of ... transesterification reaction to obtain biodiesel (Figure 3).

  5. Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango Seed Oil. ... cetane number, kinematic viscosity, Iodine value, density and saponification value ... oil methyl ester could be used as an alternative to/or blended with petrodiesel.

  6. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  7. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... reaction conditions for biodiesel production via transesterification between Jatropha curcas (physic nut) oil and ... to be a potential feedstock for enzyme produced bio- .... The growth rate of A. pullulans var. melanogenum SRY.

  8. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Exposed to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malarvizhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns over worsening air pollution problems caused by emissions from vehicles and depletion of fossil fuels have forced us to seek fuels such as biodiesel which can supplement petrofuels. Biodiesels have the ability to retain water and provide a conducive environment for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC which may cause difficulties during transportation, storage, and their use. This paper analyses the influence of bacteria on the corrosivity of biodiesel obtained from Jatropha curcas on carbon steel using mass loss method. Carbon steel showed the highest corrosion rates in B100 (100% biodiesel both in the presence and in absence of bacteria. The surface analysis of the metal was carried out using SEM.

  9. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  10. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  11. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  12. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  13. Using wet microalgae for direct biodiesel production via microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-03-01

    To address the large energy consumption of microalgae dewatering and to simplify the conventional two-step method (cellular lipid extraction and lipid transesterification) for biodiesel production, a novel process for the direct conversion of wet microalgae biomass into biodiesel by microwave irradiation is proposed. The influences of conventional thermal heating and microwave irradiation on biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass were investigated. The effects of using the one-step (simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification) and two-step methods were also studied. Approximately 77.5% of the wet microalgal cell walls were disrupted under microwave irradiation. The biodiesel production rate and yield from wet microalgae biomass obtained through the one-step process using microwave irradiation were 6-fold and 1.3-fold higher than those from wet microalgae obtained through the two-step process using conventional heating.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  15. Microreactors - a marvel of modern manufacturing technology: biodiesel case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buddoo, SR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Microreactors are miniature reactors for carrying out chemical reactions. CSIR Biosciences has been investigating the production of biodiesel using various sources of vegetable oils, for example, soya, sunflower, canada, Jatropha, palm and peanuts...

  16. An evaluation of marine based biodiesel using GHGenius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-25

    A project was conducted to add the commercial harvesting of fish and its reduction to proteins and oils to GHGenius, a model developed to analyze the emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of traditional and alternative transportation fuels. The project also added the generic production of biodiesel from marine oils to GHGenius to compare results to a specific Canadian operation, Ocean Nutrition, which produces marine oil biodiesel. A biodiesel pathway was added to the model, utilizing marine oils as feedstock. The GHGenius was modified and expanded to allow the use of ethanol rather than methanol in the biodiesel production system. Another objective of the project was to address allocation issues raised by the co-production of biodiesel and the high value Omega-3 oils produced in the Ocean Nutrition process. A new pathway was fully integrated and used to analyze a number of cases including: a generic marine biodiesel case; the ocean nutrition case with system boundary conditions; and a more narrow interpretation of the Ocean Nutrition situation, treating oil from Omega 3 production as a by-product. Results indicated that emission benefits from the specific Ocean Nutrition case were about 65 per cent of the benefits of soy biodiesel because of the reduced co-product credit and the use of ethanol rather than methanol. The narrower view of the system boundary for the Ocean Nutrition process resulted in GHG emission reductions similar to soy biodiesel. Challenges to the development of marine biodiesel include the wide variations in harvesting practices and efficiencies of fisheries; different oil yields; and difficulties in arriving at a case that models the global fishery. It was concluded that governments should be careful about encouraging the development of marine based biodiesel. There was little net gain in the availability of diesel fuel as a result of the production and use of marine based biodiesel. Other considerations were that

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabia M.; Correa, Paulo C.; Martins, Marcio A.; Santos, Silmara B.; Damian, Amanda D. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: copace@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, syllmara@vicosa.ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP). Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol. The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. (author)

  18. Process intensification technologies for biodiesel production reactive separation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, A A

    2014-01-01

    This book is among the first to address the novel process intensification technologies for biodiesel production, in particular the integrated reactive separations. It provides a comprehensive overview illustrated with many industrially relevant examples of novel reactive separation processes used in the production of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters): reactive distillation, reactive absorption, reactive extraction, membrane reactors, and centrifugal contact separators. Readers will also learn about the working principles, design and control of integrated processes, while also getting a

  19. Biodiesel de microalgas: avanços e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Custódio Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the procedures used to obtain biomass.

  20. Global sale of green air travel supported using biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, D.A. [Auckland (New Zealand)

    2003-02-01

    The technical feasibility of operating commercial aircraft on low concentration biodiesel in kerosene blends is reviewed. Although the analysis is preliminary, it seems plausible that a biodiesel component could be introduced without significant modification to aircraft, airport infrastructure, and flight operations. The use of a biodiesel component, even for only a subset of flight operations, would open the possibility of giving all passengers, the world over, regardless of route, the option to pay a premium to make their journey on 'green' fuel (actually biodiesel). In this way, the airline industry could recover the additional cost of biodiesel in comparison to kerosene. The costs associated with such a scheme are estimated, as is consumer demand. Although the analysis is preliminary, the scheme appears commercially viable. From a humanitarian and/or environmental perspective, marketing flight on biodiesel as 'green air travel' is problematic. On the one hand, the use of biodiesel in aviation would reduce addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and foster development of sustainable technology. On the other hand, it would require that agricultural resources be dedicated to air travel, nominally a luxury, in a world where agricultural resources appear destined to come under increasing strain merely to satisfy humanity's basic food and energy needs. A preliminary discussion of these issues is presented. It is hoped that this can serve as the starting point for further discussion, at an international level, to reach consensus on whether marketing of flight on biodiesel as 'green air travel' should be allowed to proceed, or whether it should be declared unethical. (author)

  1. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  2. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  3. Calcium oxide based catalysts for biodiesel production: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kesić Željka; Lukić Ivana; Zdujić Miodrag; Mojović Ljiljana; Skala Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are mainly esters of fatty acids and glycerol, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), also known as biodiesel, by the transesterification reaction with methanol. In order to attain environmental benignity, a large attention has been focused in the last decades on utilizing heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production instead the homogenously catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil. The pure CaO or CaO mixed with...

  4. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  5. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  6. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure.

  7. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  8. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  9. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  10. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  12. Supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration: technical and economic feasibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Anitescu, G; Rice, P A; Tavlarides, L L

    2010-03-01

    An integrated supercritical fluid technology with power cogeneration to produce biodiesel fuels, with no need for the costly separations involved with the conventional technology, is proposed, documented for technical and economic feasibility, and preliminarily designed. The core of the integrated system consists of the transesterification of various triglyceride sources (e.g., vegetable oils and animal fats) with supercritical methanol/ethanol. Part of the reaction products can be combusted by a diesel power generator integrated in the system which, in turn, provides the power needed to pressurize the system and the heat of the exhaust gases necessary in the transesterification step. The latter energy demand can also be satisfied by a fired heater, especially for higher plant capacities. Different versions of this system can be implemented based on the main target of the technology: biodiesel production or diesel engine applications, including power generation. The process options considered for biodiesel fuel production estimate break-even processing costs of biodiesel as low as $0.26/gal ($0.07/L) with a diesel power generator and $0.35/gal ($0.09/L) with a fired heater for a plant capacity of 15,000 gal/day (56,775 L/day). Both are significantly lower than the current processing costs of approximately $0.51/gal ($0.13/L) of biodiesel produced by conventional catalytic methods. A retail cost of biodiesel produced by the proposed method is likely to be competitive with the prices of diesel fuels.

  13. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  14. Biodiesel and vegetable oil cogeneration systems: No boom in sight; Biodiesel- und Pflanzenoel-BHKW: Es plaetschert so dahin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, K.P. [SenerTec, Schweinfurt (Germany); Wedekind, E. [Technologie fuer die Umwelt, Sachsen (Germany); Kramer, M. [Menag Energie GmbH, Engen (Germany)

    2003-09-29

    The market situation of biodiesel and vegetable oil fuelled cogeneration systems is outlined. There is a tabular survey and producers' statements which provide interesting information on this ecologically favourable but hardly profitable niche market. (orig.) [German] Nicht leicht zu deuten ist die derzeitige Marktsituation der mit Biodiesel bzw. Pflanzenoel betriebenen Blockheizkraftwerke. Die tabellarische Uebersicht auf Seite 84/85 liefert einen guten Ueberblick, die Stellungnahmen der Hersteller einen interessanten Einblick in diesen oekologischen, aber finanziell kaum rentablen Nischenmarkt. (orig.)

  15. Producción de biodiesel a partir de microorganismos oleaginosos. Una fuente de energía renovable. Parte I. Levaduras y bacterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Faife-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales del siglo XX aparece un creciente interés en la producción de biodiesel microbiano como una fuente de energía alternativa para la sustitución de los combustibles hidrocarbonados empleados en el transporte, debido a la posibilidad real del agotamiento de los combustibles fósiles en el futuro, así como una vía para reducir el calentamiento global debido a las emisiones de gases con efecto invernadero. En la naturaleza se encuentra un amplio rango de microorganismos capaces de incorporar en su biomasa cantidades significativas de lípidos bajo ciertas condiciones de propagación: microalgas, levaduras, hongos y bacterias. Estos lípidos en algunos casos presentan un perfil de ácidos grasos adecuados para la producción de biodiesel. Se ha demostrado que la producción de aceites microbianos presenta varias ventajas con relación a su producción a partir de las plantas: poseen un tiempo de reproducción más corto, requieren operaciones menos complejas, no se afectan por los cambios climáticos o estacionales y su producción es mucho más fácil de escalar. El presente trabajo se relaciona con el estado del arte de la producción de aceites microbianos y su conversión en biodiesel renovable.

  16. Exergy analysis applied to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talens, Laura; Villalba, Gara [SosteniPra UAB-IRTA. Environmental Science and Technology Institute (ICTA), Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPra UAB-IRTA. Environmental Science and Technology Institute ICTA, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    In our aim to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources, such as biofuels, rises the need to measure materials and energy fluxes. This paper suggests the use of Exergy Flow Analysis (ExFA) as an environmental assessment tool to account wastes and emissions, determine the exergetic efficiency, compare substitutes and other types of energy sources: all useful in defining environmental and economical policies for resource use. In order to illustrate how ExFA is used, it is applied to the process of biodiesel production. The results show that the production process has a low exergy loss (492 MJ). The exergy loss is reduced by using potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid as process catalysts and it can be further minimised by improving the quality of the used cooking oil. (author)

  17. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  18. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota.

  19. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  20. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  1. Aproveitamento do Óleo das Amêndoas de Tucumã do Amazonas na Produção de Biodiesel The use of tucumã of amazonas kernel oil in the biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Banny Silva Barbosa; Hector Henrique Ferreira Koolen; Andreza Cruz Barreto; João Domingos da Silva; Roberto Figliuolo; Sergio Massayoshi Nunomura

    2009-01-01

    A falta de disponibilidade de energia elétrica é um dos principais motivos pelo baixo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano das comunidades isoladas localizadas na Amazônia. O biodiesel produzido a partir de óleos vegetais extraídos de espécies oleaginosas nativas de forma sustentada é uma das melhores alternativas energéticas para a região. O tucumã do amazonas, Astrocaryum aculeatum, é uma espécie de palmeira que produz um fruto muito apreciado na região, a partir do qual se obtém uma amêndoa co...

  2. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  3. Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on Fuel properties of Biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biodiesel standards are exhaust emissions, lubricity ... oils are usually associated with low free fatty acid .... ensure good cold start properties and minimize the .... Blending effects of biodiesels on oxidation stability and low temperature flow ...

  4. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  5. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  6. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monford Paul Abishek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  7. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some specific regions for different types of oil availability. It is therefore required to produce biodiesel from the mixture of oils to fulfill the requirements of energy demand in a particular country according to its suitability and availability of feedstock. Karanja and Linseed crops  are abundantly available in India. Biodiesel was produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils by alkaline transesterification. In this experimental study, biodiesel blends of 10%, 20% and 30% were used with diesel in a diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with varying brake powers (loads from 0.5 kW to 3.5kW to evaluate brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption,  brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio and smoke opacity. They were compared with diesel and found satisfactory. BTE was found to be  28.76% for B10 at 3.5kW load.  Smoke opacity was also found to be reduced with all blends. Smoke opacity was found to be reduced up to 10.23% for B10 biodiesel blend as compared to that of diesel at 3.5kW. Experimental investigation  has revealed that  biodiesel produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils can be successfully used in diesel engines without any engine modification  and B10 was found to be an optimum biodiesel blend in terms of brake thermal efficiency. Article History: Received April 14th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted

  8. A Decision Support System (DSS) for Project Management in the Bio-diesel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2011-01-01

    The European biodiesel industry is currently facing several challenges affecting the profitability of investment projects in the industry. Among these challenges are higher prices for oilseeds, which are the main input for biodiesel production, lower fiscal support by national governments for biodiesel producers and high price volatility of oil markets. Thus identifying all opportunities for optimizing the value chain and lower the production cost of biodiesel is a main requirement for an eff...

  9. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called “China wood oil” is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  10. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kwangdinata; Indah Raya; Muhammad Zakir

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extracti...

  11. Dynamics of Peroxy and Alkenyl Radicals Undergoing Competing Rearrangements in Biodiesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, Theodore S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Biodiesel fuel is increasingly being used worldwide. Although we have a fair understanding of the molecular details of the chemistry of peroxy radicals derived from alkanes, biodiesel fuels contain ester and olefin groups which significantly impact the thermodynamics and kinetics of biodiesel ignition. The broader goal of this research is to carry out systematic computational studies of the elementary kinetics of the chemistry of ROO•, QOOH and •OOQOOH compounds that are models for biodiesel ignition.

  12. MERCADO INTERNACIONAL DE ENERGÍAS RENOVABLES: PRODUCCIÓN Y EXPORTACIÓN DE BIODIESEL EN MICHOACÁN

    OpenAIRE

    ABURTO MARTÍNEZ, JANNETE ANDREA

    2012-01-01

    A escala internacional el cambio climático y el agotamiento de las reservas de combustibles fósiles, han provocado la necesidad de recurrir a fuentes de energía renovable como los biocombustibles: etanol y biodiesel. Lo anterior proyecta una tendencia a largo plazo para la sustitución de combustibles fósiles por energías renovables. En este sentido los países que se incorporen a esta reconversión, tienen la posibilidad de acceder a oportunidades económicas de magnitudes conside...

  13. Simulación en Aspen de la combustión de mezclas diesel-biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Pérez-Sánchez; Gisela Montero-Alpírez; Ramón Ayala-Bautista; Marcos Alberto Coronado-Ortega; Conrado García-González; Héctor Enrique Campbell- Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    El biodiesel es un combustible producido mediante la transesterificación de aceites vegetales o grasas animales, que en la actualidad está adquiriendo mayor atención como sustituto del diesel. Representa una oportunidad para disminuir las emisiones de CO2, SO2, CO, HC, HAP y MP, además de contribuir a la diversificación de combustibles en la matriz energética de México. En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados de la simulación de un proceso de combustión, tomando como referencia las ...

  14. MERCADO INTERNACIONAL DE ENERGÍAS RENOVABLES: PRODUCCIÓN Y EXPORTACIÓN DE BIODIESEL EN MICHOACÁN

    OpenAIRE

    ABURTO MARTÍNEZ, JANNETE ANDREA

    2012-01-01

    A escala internacional el cambio climático y el agotamiento de las reservas de combustibles fósiles, han provocado la necesidad de recurrir a fuentes de energía renovable como los biocombustibles: etanol y biodiesel. Lo anterior proyecta una tendencia a largo plazo para la sustitución de combustibles fósiles por energías renovables. En este sentido los países que se incorporen a esta reconversión, tienen la posibilidad de acceder a oportunidades económicas de magnitudes conside...

  15. Biodiesel production by direct esterification of fatty acids with propyl and butyl alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial A. Zaher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected depletion of natural petroleum resources in the near future and pollution of the environment due to excessive carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuel and its adverse effect on global warming constitute two major problems facing the whole world. In view of these problems, much research work is now directed worldwide to find fuels alternative to those derived from petroleum which should be renewable and more environmentally friendly fuels. Biodiesel fuel which is a blend of fatty acid esters with alcohols is considered the most suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this scope of research work, a previous study (Soliman et al., 2013 has been made to explore the opportunity of utilizing the fatty acids that can be obtained from the waste of edible oil industry in Egypt to produce biodiesel fuel by direct esterification with methanol as well as ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. This paper is a continuation of that work where two other alcohols of a chain length longer than ethanol have been used being propanol and butanol. The performance of a diesel engine running using a 50% blend of regular diesel fuel and each of the two biodiesels prepared was compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and the brake thermal efficiency at full engine loading were almost the same in all cases. This indicates that the produced fuel could be used as an efficient fuel substitute for diesel engines. By comparing the results of the present work to those reported in our previous work, it appeared that methanol which has the shortest carbon chain length is the most recommended in view of the brake thermal efficiency of a diesel engine at full loading.

  16. Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased population has resulted in extra use of conventional sources of fuels due to which there is risk of extinction of fossil fuels’ resources especially petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is emerging as an excellent alternative choice across the world as a direct replacement for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel offers a great choice. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. Hence in this paper effort has been made to find out feasibility of biodiesel obtained from eucalyptus oil and its impact on diesel engine. Higher viscosity is a major issue while using vegetable oil directly in engine which can be removed by converting it into biodiesel by the process of transesterification. Various fuel properties like calorific value, flash point and cetane value of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends of different proportions were evaluated and found to be comparable with petroleum diesel. The result of investigation shows that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC for two different samples of B10 blend of eucalyptus biodiesel is 2.34% and 2.93% lower than that for diesel. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE for B10 blends was found to be 0.52% and 0.94% lower than that for diesel. Emission characteristics show that Smoke Opacity improves for both samples, smoke is found to be 64.5% and 62.5% cleaner than that of diesel. Out of all blends B10 was found to be a suitable alternative to conventional diesel fuel to control air pollution without much significant effect on engine performance. On comparing both samples, biodiesel prepared from sample A of eucalyptus oil was found to be superior in all aspects of performance and emission.

  17. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  18. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  19. Prediction of class membership of biodiesels using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zylia; Milina, Rumyana; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, serious scientific and technological attention is paid to creation of alternative energy sources, including biofuels. The assessment of the quality of the biofuels produced and of the raw materials needed for the production technology is an important scientific challenge. One of the major sources for biodiesel production is plant oils material (sunflower, rapeseed, palm, soya etc.). Since plants are complex system from the biota it is not easy to find specific chemical components responsible for their ability to serve as biodiesels. The characterization and classification of plant sources as biofuel material could be reliably estimated only by the use of multivariate statistical approaches (chemometrics). The chemometric expertise makes it possible not only to classify different biofuel sources into similarity classes but also to predict the membership of unknown by origin chemically analyzed samples to already existing classes. The present study deals with the prediction of the class membership of several unknown by origin samples, which are included in a large data set with FAME profiles of biodiesel plant sources. Using a data set from chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profiles (FAME) of different plant biodiesel sources and applying the chemometric technique know as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS - DA) a pattern recognition procedure is developed to: I. Model classes of similarity of biodiesel plant sources using their FAME profiles not taking into account the samples with unknown origin; II. Classify correctly the samples with unknown origin to the previously defined classes of biodiesel sources (palm oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and maize oil). The prediction is successfully achieved for all samples with previously unknown origin. This pattern recognition approach is applied for the first time in the field of biodiesel classification and modeling tasks.

  20. Biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass--prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. But the biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. So, pretreatment is required before they can be converted into fermentable sugar. This article compares and scrutinizes the extent to which various microbes can accumulate high levels of lipids as functions of the starting materials and the fermentation conditions. Also, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the

  1. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-02-15

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  2. Engineering an Escherichia coli platform to synthesize designer biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michael; Niraula, Narayan; Yarrabothula, Akshitha; Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-04-20

    Biodiesels, fatty acid esters (FAEs), can be synthesized by condensation of fatty acid acyl CoAs and alcohols via a wax ester synthase in living cells. Biodiesels have advantageous characteristics over petrodiesels such as biodegradability, a higher flash point, and less emission. Controlling fatty acid and alcohol moieties are critical to produce designer biodiesels with desirable physiochemical properties (e.g., high cetane number, low kinematic viscosity, high oxidative stability, and low cloud point). Here, we developed a flexible framework to engineer Escherichia coli cell factories to synthesize designer biodiesels directly from fermentable sugars. In this framework, we designed each FAE pathway as a biodiesel exchangeable production module consisting of acyl CoA, alcohol, and wax ester synthase submodules. By inserting the FAE modules in an engineered E. coli modular chassis cell, we generated E. coli cell factories to produce targeted biodiesels (e.g., fatty acid ethyl (FAEE) and isobutyl (FAIbE) esters) with tunable and controllable short-chain alcohol moieties. The engineered E. coli chassis carrying the FAIbE production module produced 54mg/L FAIbEs with high specificity, accounting for>90% of the total synthesized FAEs and ∼4.7 fold increase in FAIbE production compared to the wildtype. Fed-batch cultures further improved FAIbE production up to 165mg/L. By mixing ethanol and isobutanol submodules, we demonstrated controllable production of mixed FAEEs and FAIbEs. We envision the developed framework offers a flexible, alternative route to engineer designer biodiesels with tunable and controllable properties using biomass-derived fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cold flow properties of biodiesel: A guide to getting an accurate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel has several advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Nevertheless, biodiesel has poor cold flow properties that may restrict its use in moderate climates. It is essential that the cold flow properties of biodiesel and its blends with petrodiesel be measured as accurat...

  4. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  5. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  6. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  7. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  8. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends in... notice (investigating the use of biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard engines) must reach the...

  9. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  10. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  11. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  12. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Soybean Biodiesel and Diesel Blends under Methanogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and the inhibitory effect of petrodiesel were studied under methanogenic conditions. Biodiesel removal efficiency of more than 95% was achieved in a chemostat with influent biodiesel concentrations up to 2.45 g/L. The kinetics of anaerobic...

  13. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  14. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  15. Estado da arte da aplicação do processo de hidroesterificação na produção de biodiesel a partir de matérias-primas de baixa qualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Karen dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O maior problema encontrado na produção de biodiesel pelos processos convencionais de transesterificação está na aquisição de matérias-primas, que devem ser de acidez e teor de umidade reduzidos, característica atendida pelos óleos vegetais refinados, o qual gera um custo elevado e inviabiliza o uso de diversas oleaginosas. O processo de hidroesterificação é a mais moderna alternativa na produção de biodiesel, pois permite o uso de qualquer matéria-prima graxa com teores elevados de acidez (ácidos graxos e umidade (água; esse processo envolve uma etapa de hidrólise seguida de esterificação. A hidrólise consiste em uma reação química entre a gordura (ou óleo com a água, gerando glicerina e ácidos graxos. Após a hidrólise, os ácidos graxos gerados são esterificados com metanol/etanol, obtendo-se o metil/etiléster com elevada pureza (biodiesel. Esse artigo traz um estudo da aplicação do processo de hidroesterificação para a produção de biodiesel utilizando óleos brutos, óleo de microalga, óleos residuais e gordura animal. Atuando em uma nova estratégia na cadeia produtiva do biodiesel, visando à solução de obstáculos técnicos, e consequentemente, contribuindo para o aumento do biodiesel na matriz energética e o desenvolvimento econômico e social deste mercado.

  16. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  17. Biodiesel etílico filtrado de óleo residual de soja: desempenho de um trator agrícola na operação de gradagem = Filtered ethyl ester biodiesel from residual soybean oil: performance of an agricultural tractor in the disk harrow operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Naves Dos Reis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este teste foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho de um trator agrícola utilizando mistura de biodiesel com diesel de petróleo como combustível. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, e utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA de 73,6 kW (100 cv @ 2.300 rpm de potência no motor e grade aradora. O biodiesel utilizadofoi do tipo etílico, filtrado, produzido à base de óleo residual. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial (4x5, com quatro repetições, em que foram combinadas cinco proporções de mistura biodiesel e diesel de petróleo (0 e 100%, 25 e 75%, 50 e 50%, 75 e 25% e 100 e 0% com quatro marchas de deslocamento. As variáveis analisadas foram potência na barra de tração, rotação do motor e velocidade de deslocamento. Os resultados evidenciaram que a proporção de mistura (biodiesel e diesel depetróleo não comprometeu o desempenho do trator até o limite de 50%.This test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an agricultural tractor using a mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel. The experiment was conducted at FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, using a 4x2 AFWD tractor with 73.6 kW (100 hp @ 2,300 rpm of power in the motor, pulling a disk harrow. The biodiesel used was of the ethyl type, filtered, and produced from residual soybean oil. The experimental design was completed randomized in factorial scheme (4x5, with 20 treatments and 4 repetitions, in which 5 ratios of biodiesel and petroleum diesel mixtures were combined (0 and 100%, 25 and 75%, 50 and 50%, 75 and 25% and 100 and 0%, with 4 displacement runs. The analyzed variables were traction bar power, enginerotation and displacement speed. The results evidenced that the mixture ratio (biodiesel and petroleum diesel did not compromise tractor performance until the limit of 50%.

  18. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  19. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm

  20. An experimental study on thermal stability of biodiesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiying

    Biodiesel fuel, as renewable energy, has been used in conventional diesel engines in pure form or as biodiesel/diesel blends for many years. However, thermal stability of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends has been minimally explored. Aimed to shorten this gap, thermal stability of biodiesel is investigated at high temperatures. In this study, batch thermal stressing experiments of biodiesel fuel were performed in stainless steel coils at specific temperature and residence time range from 250 to 425 °C and 3 to 63 minutes, respectively. Evidence of different pathways of biodiesel fuel degradation is demonstrated chromatographically. It was found that biodiesel was stable at 275 °C for a residence time of 8 minutes or below, but the cis-trans isomerization reaction was observed at 28 minutes. Along with isomerization, polymerization also took place at 300 °C at 63 minutes. Small molecular weight products were detected at 350 °C at 33 minutes resulting from pyrolysis reactions and at 360 °C for 33 minutes or above, gaseous products were produced. The formed isomers and dimers were not stable, further decomposition of these compounds was observed at high temperatures. These three main reactions and the temperature ranges in which they occurred are: isomerization, 275--400 °C; polymerization (Diels-Alder reaction), 300--425 °C; pyrolysis reaction, ≥350 °C. The longer residence time and higher temperature resulted in greater decomposition. As the temperature increased to 425 °C, the colorless biodiesel became brownish. After 8 minutes, almost 84% of the original fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) disappeared, indicating significant fuel decomposition. A kinetic study was also carried out subsequently to gain better insight into the biodiesel thermal decomposition. A three-lump model was proposed to describe the decomposition mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a reversible first-order reaction kinetic model for the global biodiesel decomposition was shown to