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Sample records for fusion yearbook association

  1. FUSION Yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes. Annual Report 2004

    Karttunen, S.; Rantamaeki, K.

    2005-05-01

    This report summarises the results of the Tekes FUSION technology programme and the fusion research activities by the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2004. The research areas are fusion physics, plasma engineering, fusion technology and a smaller effort to socioeconomic studies. Fusion technology research is carried out in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The emphasis in fusion physics and plasma engineering is in theoretical and computational studies on turbulent transport and modelling of radio-frequency heating experiments and the real time control of transport barriers in JET plasmas, predictive integrated modelling of tokamak plasmas, and studies on material transport in the edge plasmas supported by surface analysis of the JET divertor and limiter tiles. The work in fusion technology for the EFDA Technology Programme and ITER is strongly focused into vessel/in-vessel materials covering research and characterisation of first wall materials, mechanical testing of reactor materials under neutron irradiation, characterisation of irradiated Ti-alloys, simulations of carbon and tungsten sputtering, joining and welding methods and surface physics studies on plasma facing materials. A second domain of fusion technology consists of remote handling systems including water hydraulic manipulators for the ITER divertor maintenance as well as prototyping of intersector welding and cutting robot. Virtual modelling is an essential element in the remote handling engineering. Preparations to host the ITER divertor test platform (DTP2) were completed in 2004 and the DTP2 facility will be hosted by VTT. Some effort was also devoted to neutronics, socio-economic and power plant studies. Several EFDA technology tasks were successfully completed in 2004. (orig.)

  2. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant

  3. Fusion yearbook. Association Euratom-Tekes Annual report 2011

    Airila, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2011. The emphasis of EFDA is in exploiting JET and co-ordinating physics research in the Associations. In addition, emerging technology and goal oriented training (GOT) activities are under EFDA. R and D Grants for the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' on remote handling for ITER divertor maintenance and MEMS magnetometer development constituted a significant fraction of the total research volume. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and EFDA. The physics work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University (AU), University of Helsinki and University of Tartu. The research areas of the EFDA Workprogramme within Association Euratom-Tekes are (i) Heat and particle transport and fast particle studies, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2011, including C28 experiments with the ITER-like wall, diagnostics development and code integration. Two persons were seconded to the JET operating team, one physicist (codes and modelling) and one engineer (remote handling) in preparation of the ITER-like wall. The Association participated also in the 2011 experimental programmes of ASDEX Upgrade at IPP, DIII-D at GA and C-Mod at MIT. The technology work is carried out at VTT, Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. Industrial participation is co-ordinated by Tekes. The technology research and development includes the DTP2 facility at VTT Tampere, materials and joining techniques, vessel/in-vessel components, magnetic diagnostics by micromechanical magnetometers for ITER, upgrading of the JET NPA diagnostics, Power Plant Physics

  4. Fusion Yearbook. 2008 Annual report Association Euratom-Tekes

    Nora, M.; Karttunen, S.

    2009-05-01

    This Annual Report summarises the fusion research activities of the Finnish and Estonian Research Units of the Association Euratom-Tekes in 2008. The activities of the Research Unit are divided in the fusion physics under the Contract of Association and new EFDA. A few EFDA Technology Tasks and Contracts were still running in 2008 and are now completed. New R and D Grant work on remote handling for ITER launched by the Joint Undertaking 'Fusion for Energy' started in 2008. The Physics Programme is carried out at VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and University of Helsinki (UH). The research areas of the Physics Programme are: (i) Heat and particle transport, MHD physics and plasma edge phenomena, (ii) Plasma-wall interactions and material transport in SOL region, and (iii) Code development and diagnostics. Association Euratom-Tekes participated actively in the EFDA JET Workprogramme 2008 and exploitation of JET facilities in experimental campaigns C20-C25. Three persons were seconded to the UKAEA operating team, two physicists in codes and modelling and one engineer in remote handling. One person was a Task Force Leader in TF T (transport). One engineer from VTT was seconded to the ITER IO at Cadarache in 2008 (Assembly). Practically all physics activities of the Research Unit are carried out in co-operation with other Associations with the focus on EFDA JET work. In addition to EFDA JET activities, the Tekes Association participated in the 2008 experimental programme of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Several staff mobility visits of total 530 days took place in 2008. The Technology work is carried out at VTT, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in close collaboration with Finnish industry. The technology research and development is focused on the remote handling, vessel/in-vessel materials and components plus some activities in

  5. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  6. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  7. Mentoring Literacy Professionals: Continuing the Spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 Years. The Thirty-First Yearbook: A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is a milestone year for the Yearbook, the conference, and the College Reading Association (CRA). At this conference, CRA celebrated its 50th year. The title of this thirty-first yearbook mirrors the theme of the 2008 conference--"Mentoring Literacy Professionals for 50 Years." The title "Mentoring Literacy Professionals:…

  8. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  9. FFUSION yearbook 1995. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-03-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling

  10. The Joy of Teaching Literacy. The Thirty-Fourth Yearbook: A Double Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Marin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrision, Timothy, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER) Yearbook, Volume 34, includes papers presented at the annual conference, which have gone through a double peer review process. It also includes the Presidential Address and the keynote addresses given at the conference. For ALER's 55th annual meeting, the Association of Literacy…

  11. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  12. Literacy Is Transformative. The Thirty-Fifth Yearbook A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Haas, Leslie, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    For their 56th annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers (ALER) met in Grand Rapids, Michigan at the Amway Grand Hotel. This year's conference theme was Literacy Is Transformative, which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 35. Included are double-peer reviewed papers, the presidential address,…

  13. Fusion Power Associates annual meeting

    Nickerson, S.B.

    1985-03-01

    The Fusion Power Associates symposium, 'The Search for Attractive Fusion Concepts', was held January 31 - February 1 1985 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together industry, university and government managers of the US fusion program to discuss the state of fusion development and the direction in which the program should be heading, given the cutbacks in the US fusion budget. There was a strong, minority opinion that until the best concept could be identified, the program should be broadly based. But there was also widespread criticism, aimed mainly at the largest segment of the magnetic fusion program, the tokamak. It was felt by many that the tokamak would not develop into a reactor that would be attractive to a utility and therefore should be phased out of the program. If the tokamak will indeed not lead to a commercial product then this meeting shows the US fusion program to be in a healthy state, despite the declining budgets

  14. IAEA yearbook 1991

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Yearbook 1991 contains the following 6 chapters: Transfer of Nuclear Technology; Applications of Nuclear Techniques and Research (Also published separately as Part B of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management (Also published separately as Part C of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); Nuclear Safety Review (Also published separately as Part D of the IAEA Yearbook 1991); IAEA Safeguards; The IAEA (operating framework and functions). A separate abstract and indexing was provided for each chapter. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Navigating the Literacy Waters: Research, Praxis, and Advocacy. The Twenty-Ninth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 2006

    Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the research and papers presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the College Reading Association in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in October, 2006. This Yearbook begins with Karen Bromley's presidential address, which explored the future of writing by discussing four predictions: the notion that pens and pencils will be…

  16. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  17. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2006

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The 87th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2006 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and Committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2004-5 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by M. Gore is on the last five years of Monckton Coke and Chemical Company. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Seven transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  18. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2008

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 89th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2008 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and Committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2006-7 and of the annual general meeting 2007 are included. The Presidential address by A. Moore is about his experiences at Redcar Coke Ovens. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Six transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  19. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2007

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 88th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2007 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2005-6 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by R.G.W. Sargent looks at the situation faced by coke oven managers through the decades with some predictions for the future. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Nine transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  20. IAEA yearbook 1996

    1996-09-01

    Part A of the Yearbook describes the role played by the IAEA in helping to advance sustainable development by the transfer of nuclear and radiation technology. The introduction to this section this year discusses the application of quality assurance practices to this important work. The main article describes new planning procedures that are being adopted to ensure that these technical co-operation activities are of significant and practical benefit to the States concerned. The work routinely carried out by the IAEA on the development and dissemination of nuclear and radiation techniques covers a wide range of subjects - the practical aspects of physics and chemistry, hydrology, industrial applications, human health, and food and agriculture. Part B of the Yearbook concentrates on food irradiation and the use of nuclear monitoring techniques in programmes for improving human nutrition. Part C of the Yearbook deals with nuclear power and its fuel cycle and waste management technology. The section on nuclear power describes developments during 1995 in a wide range of countries. It also details the IAEA's work on the comparative health and environmental impacts of different types of energy systems. Of particular interest this year in the fuel cycle area is the report of the downturn in world uranium activities that has lasted for more than 15 years may be coming to an end. In the waste management section, emphasis is given to the technology of environmental restoration of sites after contamination resulting from past nuclear activities. A discussion of different aspects of the safety of nuclear power and of the uses of radiation is to be found in Part D, The Nuclear Safety Review. As in previous years, Part E of the IAEA Yearbook 1996 deals with the IAEA's major contribution to the non-proliferation regime - international safeguards. Part E also contains a description of IAEA activities designed to assist Member States in preventing trafficking in nuclear materials

  1. Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2012

    Bus, J; Hildebrandt, M

    2012-01-01

    There have been many inevitable transformations in society due to digitization - the introduction of digital technology, including communication technology, through the Internet and its use via the Web.This book is the first Yearbook of the Digital Enlightenment Forum. Whilst it cannot cover all the many aspects which the forum encompasses, the book gives an impression of the broad spectrum of the forum and a clear picture of the multi-disciplinary nature of the issues at stake.The first paper in the book is a contribution from the father of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, and Harry Halpin. They

  2. 1997 statistical yearbook

    1998-01-01

    The international office of energy information and studies (Enerdata), has published the second edition of its 1997 statistical yearbook which includes consolidated 1996 data with respect to the previous version from June 1997. The CD-Rom comprises the annual worldwide petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity statistics from 1991 to 1996 with information about production, external trade, consumption, market shares, sectoral distribution of consumption and energy balance sheets. The world is divided into 12 zones (52 countries available). It contains also energy indicators: production and consumption tendencies, supply and production structures, safety of supplies, energy efficiency, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  3. Energy statistics yearbook 2002

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2002 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-sixth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  4. Energy statistics yearbook 2001

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2001 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-fifth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  5. Energy statistics yearbook 2000

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2000 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-third in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  6. Coal yearbook 1993

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  7. 1992 Energy statistics Yearbook

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from annual questionnaires distributed by the United Nations Statistical Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistical Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

  8. Data fusion using dynamic associative memory

    Lo, Titus K. Y.; Leung, Henry; Chan, Keith C. C.

    1997-07-01

    An associative memory, unlike an addressed memory used in conventional computers, is content addressable. That is, storing and retrieving information are not based on the location of the memory cell but on the content of the information. There are a number of approaches to implement an associative memory, one of which is to use a neural dynamical system where objects being memorized or recognized correspond to its basic attractors. The work presented in this paper is the investigation of applying a particular type of neural dynamical associative memory, namely the projection network, to pattern recognition and data fusion. Three types of attractors, which are fixed-point, limit- cycle, and chaotic, have been studied, evaluated and compared.

  9. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    1990-01-01

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  10. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario

  11. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario.

  12. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  13. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  14. Materials problems associated with fusion reactor technology

    Dutton, R.

    This paper outlines the principles of design and operation of conceptual fusion reactors, indicates the level of research funding and activity being proposed at major centres and reviews the major materials problems which have been identified, together with an outline of the experimental techniques which have been suggested for investigating these problems. (author)

  15. Database for fusion devices and associated fuel systems

    Woolgar, P.W.

    1983-03-01

    A computerized database storage and retrieval system has been set up for fusion devices and the associated fusion fuel systems which should be a useful tool for the CFFTP program and other users. The features of the Wang 'Alliance' system are discussed for this application, as well as some of the limitations of the system. Recommendations are made on the operation, upkeep and further development that should take place to implement and maintain the system

  16. Fusion

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  17. Uncertainties associated with inertial-fusion ignition

    McCall, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate is made of a worst case driving energy which is derived from analytic and computer calculations. It will be shown that the uncertainty can be reduced by a factor of 10 to 100 if certain physical effects are understood. That is not to say that the energy requirement can necessarily be reduced below that of the worst case, but it is possible to reduce the uncertainty associated with ignition energy. With laser costs in the $0.5 to 1 billion per MJ range, it can be seen that such an exercise is worthwhile

  18. ACHEMA yearbook '88. Vol. 1

    Behrens, D.

    1987-01-01

    Volume 1 entitled 'Chemical Engineering Research and Education' covers the research activities of some 381 scientific institutes from 25 countries. The compact summaries and reports provide a quick reference guide to the activities of the individual institutes in the fields of research and education together with a list of the major publications of these institutes over the last three years. Volume 1 also serves as a guide to help users locate the appropriate scientific institutes in Europe which might be possible partners with regard to the solution of technical problems or the practical application of research results. Innovation also depends on information channels which contribute towards transposing research findings into practice. The ACHEMA yearbook is an excellent channel of information which is conceived for active and intense use. For the first time the information contained in Volume 1 is also worldwide accessible online through the data bank DERES (Dechema Research Institutes Data Bank), which has been set up by DECHEMA. (orig./HK) [de

  19. Constructing an Archive Yearbook 2015/2016

    Skafte Andersen, Mathias; Axelson, Hlyrnur; Benniche, Khedidja

    2016-01-01

    Constructing an Archive—Yearbook 2015/2016 contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 and the Spring semester of 2016 at the Aarhus School of Architecture. The publication has been designed and edited by the students and teachers of the studio Constructing a...

  20. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Hawaii

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaii edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  1. The Yearbook of Education Law, 2001.

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    This yearbook presents legal precedents for a broad spectrum of education-related issues. Drawing on 25 experts' research in education and law, the book opens with legalities concerning school employees. It examines discrimination, constitutional rights, due process, dismissal, nonrenewal, demotion, and discipline; duty; involuntary leaves;…

  2. Free Speech Yearbook 1983. Volume 22.

    Ewbank, Henry L., Ed.

    A collection of nine articles, this yearbook focuses on freedom of speech and censorship. The topics covered include (1) judicial invention in First Amendment governmental regulation cases, (2) the impact of the Moral Majority on book censorship; (3) Justice William Brennan's championship of the First Amendment, (4) the legal tactics that public…

  3. Annual progress report 1993. Work in controlled thermonuclear fusion research performed in the fusion research unit under the contract of association between Euratom and Risoe National Laboratory

    1994-09-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom-Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics group has activities within (a) studies of nonlinear dynamical processes in magnetized plasmas, (b) development of pellet injectors for fusion experiments, and (c) development of diagnostics for fusion plasmas. The activities in technology cover radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. A summary of the activities in 1993 is presented. (au) (4 tabs., 21 ills., 64 refs.)

  4. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016

    Poeschk, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [de

  5. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015

    Brandt, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [de

  6. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  7. The State of Preschool 2012: State Preschool Yearbook. Executive Summary

    Barnett, W. Steven; Carolan, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, Jen; Squires, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "State Preschool Yearbook" profiles state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. The "Yearbook" compares each state program's standards against a checklist of 10 research-based quality standards benchmarks. Although the benchmarks against which the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER)…

  8. Detection of association and fusion of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    Sunami, Takeshi; Caschera, Filippo; Morita, Yuuki; Toyota, Taro; Nishimura, Kazuya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hanczyc, Martin M; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2010-10-05

    We have developed a method to evaluate the fusion process of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Three fluorescent markers and FACS technology were used to evaluate the extent of association and fusion of giant vesicles. Two fluorescent markers encapsulated in different vesicle populations were used as association markers; when these vesicles associate, the two independent markers should be observed simultaneously in a single detection event. The quenched fluorescent marker and the dequencher, which were encapsulated in separate vesicle populations, were used as the fusion marker. When the internal aqueous solutions mix, the quenched marker is liberated by the dequencher and emits the third fluorescent signal. Although populations of pure POPC vesicles showed no detectable association or fusion, the same populations, oppositely charged by the exogenous addition of charged amphiphiles, showed up to 50% association and 30% fusion upon population analysis of 100,000 giant vesicles. Although a substantial fraction of the vesicles associated in response to a small amount of the charged amphiphiles (5% mole fraction compared to POPC alone), a larger amount of the charged amphiphiles (25%) was needed to induce vesicle fusion. The present methodology also revealed that the association and fusion of giant vesicles was dependent on size, with larger giant vesicles associating and fusing more frequently.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Gene Fusions Associated with Recurrent Amplicons Represent a Class of Passenger Aberrations in Breast Cancer

    Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing has spurred highly sensitive detection and discovery of gene fusions in cancer, but distinguishing potentially oncogenic fusions from random, “passenger” aberrations has proven challenging. Here we examine a distinctive group of gene fusions that involve genes present in the loci of chromosomal amplifications—a class of oncogenic aberrations that are widely prevalent in breast cancers. Integrative analysis of a panel of 14 breast cancer cell lines comparing gene fusions discovered by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and genome-wide copy number aberrations assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization, led to the identification of 77 gene fusions, of which more than 60% were localized to amplicons including 17q12, 17q23, 20q13, chr8q, and others. Many of these fusions appeared to be recurrent or involved highly expressed oncogenic drivers, frequently fused with multiple different partners, but sometimes displaying loss of functional domains. As illustrative examples of the “amplicon-associated” gene fusions, we examined here a recurrent gene fusion involving the mediator of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, RPS6KB1 kinase in BT-474, and the therapeutically important receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. These gene fusions comprise a minor allelic fraction relative to the highly expressed full-length transcripts and encode chimera lacking the kinase domains, which do not impart dependence on the respective cells. Our study suggests that amplicon-associated gene fusions in breast cancer primarily represent a by-product of chromosomal amplifications, which constitutes a subset of passenger aberrations and should be factored accordingly during prioritization of gene fusion candidates.

  11. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  12. SIPRI yearbook 1987: World armaments and disarmament

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the Yearbook is to provide the general public with an objective picture of what has happened in world political-military affairs in the past year (1986). It is divided into four parts. Part one has five chapters on weapons and technology including nuclear, conventional and chemical and biological warfare. One chapter looks at the military uses of outer space. Part 2 covers military expenditure, the arms trade and armed conflicts. There are tables giving facts and figures with these two chapters. Part 3 looks at developments in arms control: US-Soviet nuclear arms control, conventional arms control and the biological warfare convention. Part four has two chapters, one on the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and its consequences which is indexed separately and the other on arms control verification technology which has many facts and figures. (U.K.)

  13. Canadian minerals yearbook : 2004 review and outlook

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of the CMY publication is the non-fuel mineral industry, together with uranium, although all mineral fuels are normally included when the total value of Canada's mineral production is reported. The Yearbook includes chapters devoted to each major mineral commodity produced in Canada: aluminum, coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, magnesium, nickel, potash, salt, silica, and uranium. The subject matter spans all stages of mineral industry activity from geoscience and exploration, through mining and processing, to markets and use. Although domestic issues receive the greatest attention in each chapter, international developments may also be reviewed because of the global nature of the mineral industry and the significant impact that such developments could have on the Canadian industry

  14. Yearbook of environmental and engineering law 1990

    Marburger, P.

    1990-01-01

    The yearbook 1990 again contains individual contributions on German, foreign, and international environmental and engineering law. Beginning with this volume, there will always be a detailed report on previous year developments in environmental and engineering law in order to master the continuously increasing legal material. Some contributions - there are others - deal with the following subjects: Legislative need to act in matters of genetic engineering; ethics commissions and constitutional law; nature's own rights; legal protection of local government against brown coal plans; mining laws; sports and air-traffic noise; questions of nuclear waste management; removal of long-standing multi-party liability in environmental law; waste and restoration of abandoned industrial sites; technological development and liability insurance; problems of legislation coming into effect in pollution abatement procedures; Dutch air pollution abatement fund; environmental absolute liability in Austria; EC environmental legislation and solo actions by individual member states. (HSCH) [de

  15. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  17. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  18. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  19. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  20. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  1. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear fusion is one of the main activities of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK). It is organized as a project under the Directorate of Reactor Development and Safety. The work of KfK concentrates on technology aspects of nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement. It is part of the European Fusion Programme where KfK participates as an association to EURATOM. Close links have been established to the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP). In the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Kernfusion KfK and IPP cooperate for the development of future fusion experiments joining the experience gained in plasma physics (IPP) and materials, safety, and nuclear technology (KfK), respectively. As in the present strategy of the European Fusion Programme the Next European Tokamak (NET) is foreseen as the major next step, most of the activities of KfK address this subject. In addition to the contributions to NET, studies are carried out to innovate INTOR, the worldwide cooperation for an experimental reactor under the auspices of IAEA. Furthermore, the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Kernfusion has evaluated the feasibility of a fusion reactor with a stellarator confinement. (orig./GG)

  2. Electrical engineering yearbook 95. Data, facts, trends. 14. ed.

    Gruetz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Electrical Engineering Yearbook' in its 14th edition, contains eight chapters with current contributions from reputable expert authors, which give information from practice on the following main subjects: - Communication; -Data networks; - Micro-electronics; - Electromagnetic compatibility; -Overvoltage protection; - VDE guide; - The electrical industry in the German Federal Republic in 1993; - The electricity economy in the German Federal Republic; - Calendar, special dates for electrical engineering, dates of events in 1995. Practical experts again inform their colleagues and interested laymen in the 'Electrical Engineering Yearbook 95' on current data, important circumstances and significant developments . (orig.) [de

  3. Toward a formalization of the process to select IMIA Yearbook best papers.

    Lamy, J-B; Séroussi, B; Griffon, N; Kerdelhué, G; Jaulent, M-C; Bouaud, J

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the International Medical Informatics Association Yearbook recognizes significant scientific papers, labelled as "best papers", published the previous year in the subfields of biomedical informatics that correspond to the different section topics of the journal. For each section, about fifteen pre-selected "candidate" best papers are externally peer-reviewed to select the actual best papers. Although based on the available literature, little is known about the pre-selection process. To move toward an explicit formalization of the candidate best papers selection process to reduce variability in the literature search across sections and over years. A methodological framework is proposed to build for each section topic specific queries tailored to PubMed and Web of Science citation databases. The two sets of returned papers are merged and reviewed by two independent section editors and citations are tagged as "discarded", "pending", and "kept". A protocolized consolidation step is then jointly conducted to resolve conflicts. A bibliographic software tool, BibReview, was developed to support the whole process. The proposed search strategy was fully applied to the Decision Support section of the 2013 edition of the Yearbook. For this section, 1124 references were returned (689 PubMed-specific, 254 WoS-specific, 181 common to both databases) among which the 15 candidate best papers were selected. The search strategy for determining candidate best papers for an IMIA Yearbook's section is now explicitly specified and allows for reproducibility. However, some aspects of the whole process remain reviewer-dependent, mostly because there is no characterization of a "best paper".

  4. Association between insurance status and patient safety in the lumbar spine fusion population.

    Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alentado, Vincent J; Miller, Jacob A; Lubelski, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar fusion is a common and costly procedure in the United States. Reimbursement for surgical procedures is increasingly tied to care quality and patient safety as part of value-based reimbursement programs. The incidence of adverse quality events among lumbar fusion patients is unknown using the definition of care quality (patient safety indicators [PSI]) used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The association between insurance status and the incidence of PSI is similarly unknown in lumbar fusion patients. This study sought to determine the incidence of PSI in patients undergoing inpatient lumbar fusion and to quantify the association between primary payer status and PSI in this population. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. The sample comprised all adult patients aged 18 years and older who were included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) that underwent lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of one or more PSI, a validated and widely used metric of inpatient health-care quality and patient safety, was the primary outcome variable. The NIS data were examined for all cases of inpatient lumbar fusion from 1998 to 2011. The incidence of adverse patient safety events (PSI) was determined using publicly available lists of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between primary payer status (Medicaid and self-pay relative to private insurance) and the incidence of PSI. A total of 539,172 adult lumbar fusion procedures were recorded in the NIS from 1998 to 2011. Patients were excluded from the secondary analysis if "other" or "missing" was listed for primary insurance status. The national incidence of PSI was calculated to be 2,445 per 100,000 patient years of observation, or approximately 2.5%. In a secondary analysis, after adjusting for patient demographics and hospital characteristics, Medicaid

  5. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Decreton, M

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  6. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  7. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Decreton, M.

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  8. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Decreton, M.

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  9. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events.

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain-domain interactions, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist's mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop 'novel' therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 19: 1994

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament taking place each year, together with a brief history of the major issues. The series began with the 1976 edition. The Yearbook makes no claim to present fully the views of Member States of the Organization. For further information on the official positions of States, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly and other sources. General Assembly resolutions and decisions are quoted in The Yearbook in the form in which they were adopted by the General Assembly. For the edited texts of these documents for 1994, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/49/49). For an overview of the work of the United Nations in the field of disarmament, one should consult The United Nations and Disarmament: A short History (UN, 1988). A more detailed account is included in The United Nations and Disarmament: 1945-1970; United Nations and Disarmament: 1970-1975, and previous volumes of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook

  11. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  12. Stories of Smartness and Whiteness in School Pictures and Yearbooks

    Bybee, Eric Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the way that discourses of smartness and whiteness are produced and reproduced in schooling. Using an approach grounded in narrative research, I explore the convergences and contradictions between my own educational autobiography and the representations of schooling found in my school pictures and yearbooks. In my analysis, I…

  13. EURATOM/UKAEA Association fusion research. 1998/99 progress report

    1999-11-01

    This annual progress report describes the fusion energy research carried out under the Contract of Association between UKAEA and the European atomic energy community, EURATOM: the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association. It covers the period from April 1998 to March 1999, which has been a very active time, and has included contributions to the European Fusion Programme in several important areas. A main objective of the EURATOM/UKAEA Association is to provide support for JET, which is presently operated as a Joint Undertaking, but this will end in December 1999. It is proposed that the facilities will then pass to the UKAEA which will operate them for a programme of work by all the European Associations in support of ITER; UKAEA has been heavily involved in drafting the Implementing Agreement and operating contract with its European partners. There has also been a strong involvement in the JET scientific and technology programme which, following operation with tritium, includes activation studies and the impact of tritium retention. Highlights in the scientific programme included the first measurements of the plasma current density distribution in configurations with the potential for steady state operation. A second key objective is to contribute to the design of ITER, and in particular the RTO-ITER with its focus on a burning plasma of reduced size. ITER is the tokamak proposed to demonstrate the physics and many of the technology requirements for fusion power production, designed by Europe, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States. Experiments on our COMPASS-D tokamak, which has the same geometry as JET and ITER, are supported by a strong theory programme to develop our understanding of key issues for ITER. One such issue is the study of instabilities which arise in the approach to a steady state configuration at high normalised plasma pressure, β, using micro-wave heating and current drive schemes. Data from our 'spherical' tokamak START, which ceased

  14. Fusion technology. Annual report of the. Association Cea/EURATOM

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1996, the French EURATOM-CEA Association made significant contributions to the European technology programme. This work is compiled in this report as follows: the ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section; blankets and material developments for DEMO, long term safety studies are summarised in the second part; the Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report. In each section, the tasks are sorted out to respect the European presentation. For an easy reading, appendix 4 gives the list of tasks in alphabetical order with a page reference list. The CEA is in charge of the French Technology programme. Three specific organizational directions of the CEA, located on four sites (see appendix 5) are involves in this programme: Advanced Technologies Direction (DTA), for Material task; Nuclear Reactors Direction (DRN), for Blanket design, Neutronic problems, Safety tasks; Physical Sciences Direction (DSM) uses the competence of the Tore Supra team in the Magnet design and plasma Facing Component field. The CEA programme is completed by collaborations with Technicatome, COMEX-Nucleaire and Ecole Polytechnique. The breakdown of the programme by Directions is presented in figure 1. The allocation of tasks is given in appendix 2 and in appendix 3, the related publications. (author)

  15. Nuclear localization and transactivating capacities of the papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated TFE3 and PRCC (fusion) proteins

    Weterman, M. A. J.; van Groningen, J. J.; Jansen, A.; van Kessel, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    The papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1)(p11;q21) leads to fusion of the transcription factor TFE3 gene on the X-chromosome to a novel gene, PRCC, on chromosome 1. As a result, two putative fusion proteins are formed: PRCCTFE3, which contains all known domains for DNA binding,

  16. Review of heat transfer problems associated with magnetically-confined fusion reactor concepts

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Carlson, G.A.; Cornish, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of possible fusion reactor configurations have revealed a host of interesting and sometimes extremely difficult heat transfer problems. The general requirements imposed on the coolant system for heat removal of the thermonuclear power from the reactor are discussed. In particular, the constraints imposed by the fusion plasma, neutronics, structure and magnetic field environment are described with emphasis on those aspects which are unusual or unique to fusion reactors. Then the particular heat transfer characteristics of various possible coolants including lithium, flibe, boiling alkali metals, and helium are discussed in the context of these general fusion reactor requirements. Some specific areas where further experimental and/or theoretical work is necessary are listed for each coolant along with references to the pertinent research already accomplished. Specialized heat transfer problems of the plasma injection and removal systems are also described. Finally, the challenging heat transfer problems associated with the superconducting magnets are reviewed, and once again some of the key unsolved heat transfer problems are enumerated

  17. Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1998.

    Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.; von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    This yearbook compiles information on research findings on children and youth and media violence, as seen from the perspective of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child. The thematic focus of the yearbook is on the influence of children's exposure to media violence. Section 1 of the yearbook, "Children and Media on the…

  18. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 22: 1997

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament and arms regulation each year. The Centre for Disarmament Affairs has endeavoured to make the publication as concise as possible without diminishing its usefulness as a reference work. Background information is greatly condensed; thus readers may wish to consult previous editions of The Yearbook. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices. The status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements is presented in appendix 1. With regard to resolutions on disarmament adopted by the General Assembly, texts are consolidated in appendix IV, information on sponsorship and voting is presented in appendix V and voting patterns are reproduced in appendix VI. Appendices II and Ill contain the texts of the Ottawa Convention on anti-personnel mines and the Inter-American Convention on trafficking in firearms, respectively

  19. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 26: 2001

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices, and website addresses of other UN departments and services, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs takes this opportunity to remind you that you can access current information on disarmament issues throughout the year by clicking onto the Department's home page on the Internet: www.un.org/Depts/dda. Among the many electronic resources, you will find updated on a daily basis, the status of multilateral treaties, containing the full texts of the treaties covered in appendix I of The Yearbook

  20. Fusion technology. Annual report of the Association CEA/EURATOM 1997

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development work performed by the French EURATOM-CEA Association for fusion technology is part of the Fusion Programme of the European Community. This report compiles the work carried out during the year 1997 as follows: The ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); The second part is dedicated to the Long Term activities as Blankets and material developments, long term safety, socio-economic problem; The Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); And the fourth part describes the inertial confinement studies. (K.A.)

  1. Fusion technology. Annual report of the Association CEA/EURATOM 1997

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F

    1998-12-31

    The research and development work performed by the French EURATOM-CEA Association for fusion technology is part of the Fusion Programme of the European Community. This report compiles the work carried out during the year 1997 as follows: The ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); The second part is dedicated to the Long Term activities as Blankets and material developments, long term safety, socio-economic problem; The Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); And the fourth part describes the inertial confinement studies. (K.A.)

  2. Fusion technology. Annual report of the Association CEA/EURATOM 1997

    Magaud, P; Le Vagueres, F

    1999-12-31

    The research and development work performed by the French EURATOM-CEA Association for fusion technology is part of the Fusion Programme of the European Community. This report compiles the work carried out during the year 1997 as follows: The ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); The second part is dedicated to the Long Term activities as Blankets and material developments, long term safety, socio-economic problem; The Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report (plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety); And the fourth part describes the inertial confinement studies. (K.A.)

  3. Blueprint for Change in New Mexico: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook"…

  4. Mathematics for the Class of 2000. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1988 Yearbook.

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1988 yearbook contains 27 articles which…

  5. The Mathematics Curriculum: Issues and Perspectives. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1987 Yearbook.

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1987 yearbook contains 14 articles which…

  6. Disentangling association patterns in fission-fusion societies using African buffalo as an example

    Cross, P.C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Getz, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the social network of a population aids us in understanding dispersal, the spread of disease, and genetic structure in that population. Many animal populations can be classified as fission–fusion societies, whereby groups form and separate over time. Examples discussed in the literature include ungulates, primates and cetaceans (Lott and Minta, 1983, Whitehead et al., 1991, Henzi et al., 1997, Christal et al., 1998 and Chilvers and Corkeron, 2002). In this study, we use a heuristic simulation model to illustrate potential problems in applying traditional techniques of association analysis to fission–fusion societies and propose a new index of association: the fission decision index (FDI). We compare the conclusions resulting from traditional methods with those of the FDI using data from African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park. The traditional approach suggested that the buffalo population was spatially and temporally structured into four different ‘herds’ with adult males only peripherally associated with mixed herds. Our FDI method indicated that association decisions of adult males appeared random, but those of other sex and age categories were nonrandom, particularly when we included the fission events associated with adult males. Furthermore, the amount of time that individuals spent together was only weakly correlated with their propensity to remain together during fission events. We conclude with a discussion of the applicability of the FDI to other studies.

  7. Phenomenological analysis of Higgs boson production through gluon fusion in association with jets

    Greiner, Nicolas; Luisoni, Gionata; Winter, Jan-Christopher; Yundin, Valery; Schoenherr, Marek

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed phenomenological analysis of the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with up to three jets. We consider the gluon fusion channel using an effective theory in the large top-quark mass limit. Higgs boson production in gluon fusion constitutes an irreducible background to the vector boson fusion (VBF) process; hence the precise knowledge of its characteristics is a prerequisite for any measurement in the VBF channel. The calculation is carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD in a fully automated way by combining the two programs GoSam and Sherpa. We present numerical results for a large variety of observables for both standard cuts and VBF selection cuts. We find that for all jet multiplicities the NLO corrections are sizeable. This is particularly true in the presence of kinematic selections enhancing the VBF topology, which are based on vetoing additional jet activity. In this case, precise predictions for the background can be made using our calculation by taking the difference between the inclusive H+2 jets and the inclusive H+3 jets result.

  8. Higgs boson production in association with a photon via weak boson fusion

    Arnold, Ken; Jäger, Barbara; Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    We present next-to-leading order QCD corrections to Higgs production in association with a photon via weak boson fusion at a hadron collider. Utilizing the fully flexible parton level Monte-Carlo program VBFNLO, we find small overall corrections, while the shape of some distributions is sensitive to radiative contributions in certain regions of phase-space. Residual scale uncertainties at next-to-leading order are at the few-percent level. Being perturbatively well under control and exhibiting kinematic features that allow to distinguish it from potential backgrounds, this process can serve as a valuable source of information on the $Hb\\bar{b}$ Yukawa coupling.

  9. Fusion Implementation

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  10. Functional and morphological imaging of thyroid associated eye disease. Data evaluation by means of image fusion

    Kainz, H.

    2002-08-01

    Aim: to recognize the structures that show an uptake of a 99mTc-labeled octreotide tracer within the orbit and head in patients with thyroid associated eye disease relying on image fusion. Methods: A series of 18 patients presenting the signs and symptoms of thyroid associated eye disease were studied. Functional imaging was done with 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC, a newly in-house developed tracer. Both whole body as well as single photon emission tomographies (SPECT) of the head were obtained in each patient. Parallel to nuclear medicine imaging, morphological imaging was done using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Results: By means of image fusion farther more information on the functional status of the patients was obtained. All areas showing an uptake could be anatomically identified, revealing a series of organs that had not yet been consideren in this disease. The organs presenting tracer uptake showed characteristic forms as described below: - eye glass sign: lacrimal gland and lacrimal ducts - scissors sign: eye muscles, rectus sup. and inf. - arch on CT: muscle displacement - Omega sign: tonsils and salivary glands - W- sign: tonsils and salivary glands Conclusions: By means of image fusion it was possible to recognize that a series of organs of the neck and head express somatostatin receptors. We interpret these results as a sign of inflammation of the lacrimal glands, the lacrimal ducts, the cervical lymphatics, the anterior portions of the extra ocular eye muscles and muscles of the posterior cervical region. Somatostatin uptake in these sturctures reflects the prescence of specific receptors which reflect the immuno regulating function of the peptide. (author)

  11. Fusion technology annual report of the association EURATOM/CEA 1998; Technologie de la fusion Rapport annuel 1998 Association EURATOM/CEA 1998

    Magaud, P; Le vagueres, F

    1998-07-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works carried out in the frame of the european program of fusion technology, during 1998. The presented activities are: plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety (short and long term), european blanket project (long term) with water cooled lithium lead and helium cooled pebble bed blanket, materials for fusion power plant, socio-economic research on fusion, plasma facing components, fuel cycle, inertial confinement. (A.L.B.)

  12. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for the prediction of lncRNA-disease associations.

    Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Domeniconi, Carlotta; Yu, Guoxian

    2018-05-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in complex disease diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and treatment, but only a small portion of lncRNA-disease associations have been experimentally verified. Various computational models have been proposed to identify lncRNA-disease associations by integrating heterogeneous data sources. However, existing models generally ignore the intrinsic structure of data sources or treat them as equally relevant, while they may not be. To accurately identify lncRNA-disease associations, we propose a Matrix Factorization based LncRNA-Disease Association prediction model (MFLDA in short). MFLDA decomposes data matrices of heterogeneous data sources into low-rank matrices via matrix tri-factorization to explore and exploit their intrinsic and shared structure. MFLDA can select and integrate the data sources by assigning different weights to them. An iterative solution is further introduced to simultaneously optimize the weights and low-rank matrices. Next, MFLDA uses the optimized low-rank matrices to reconstruct the lncRNA-disease association matrix and thus to identify potential associations. In 5-fold cross validation experiments to identify verified lncRNA-disease associations, MFLDA achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.7408, at least 3% higher than those given by state-of-the-art data fusion based computational models. An empirical study on identifying masked lncRNA-disease associations again shows that MFLDA can identify potential associations more accurately than competing models. A case study on identifying lncRNAs associated with breast, lung and stomach cancers show that 38 out of 45 (84%) associations predicted by MFLDA are supported by recent biomedical literature and further proves the capability of MFLDA in identifying novel lncRNA-disease associations. MFLDA is a general data fusion framework, and as such it can be adopted to predict associations between other biological

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    Kast, G.

    1987-05-01

    This semi-annual report gives 36 short descriptions of the work done in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project and outlines studies for NET/INTOR and for ECRH power sources at 150 GHz. Tables of fusion technology contracts, of NET contracts, of KfK departments contributing to the Fusion Project, and of the Fusion Project management staff complete this report. (GG)

  16. Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles

    Yanara Marincevic-Zuniga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts. Methods We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes. Results We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations. Conclusion Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  17. Thermonuclear fusion

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  18. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 18. IAEA fusion energy conference

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The 9 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association to the fusion energy conference hold at Sorrento are gathered in this document with 7 additional papers. The different titles are: 1) Ergodic divertor experiments on the route to steady state operation of Tore-Supra, 2) High power lower hybrid current drive experiments in Tore-Supra tokamak, 3) Electron transport and improved confinement on Tore-Supra, 4) ECRH experiments and developments for long pulse in Tore-Supra, 5) Impurity penetration and contamination in Tore-Supra ergodic divertor experiments, 6) Real time plasma feed-back control: an overview of Tore-Supra achievements, 7) Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws, 8) Design of next step tokamak: consistent analysis of plasma flux consumption and poloidal, 9) Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: from conceptual design to test at full size scale, 10) Burst-prone transport in tokamaks with internal transport barriers, 11) Electrostatic turbulence with finite parallel correlation length and radial electric field generation, 12) Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: internal-edge transport barriers and runaway avalanche confinement, 13) Core and edge confinement studies with different heating methods in JET, 14) Confinement and transport studies of conventional scenarios in ASDEX upgrade, 15) First test results for the ITER central solenoid model coil, and 16) Progress of the ITER central solenoid model coil program.

  19. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 18. IAEA fusion energy conference

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.

    2000-12-01

    The 9 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association to the fusion energy conference hold at Sorrento are gathered in this document with 7 additional papers. The different titles are: 1) Ergodic divertor experiments on the route to steady state operation of Tore-Supra, 2) High power lower hybrid current drive experiments in Tore-Supra tokamak, 3) Electron transport and improved confinement on Tore-Supra, 4) ECRH experiments and developments for long pulse in Tore-Supra, 5) Impurity penetration and contamination in Tore-Supra ergodic divertor experiments, 6) Real time plasma feed-back control: an overview of Tore-Supra achievements, 7) Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws, 8) Design of next step tokamak: consistent analysis of plasma flux consumption and poloidal, 9) Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: from conceptual design to test at full size scale, 10) Burst-prone transport in tokamaks with internal transport barriers, 11) Electrostatic turbulence with finite parallel correlation length and radial electric field generation, 12) Theoretical issues in tokamak confinement: internal-edge transport barriers and runaway avalanche confinement, 13) Core and edge confinement studies with different heating methods in JET, 14) Confinement and transport studies of conventional scenarios in ASDEX upgrade, 15) First test results for the ITER central solenoid model coil, and 16) Progress of the ITER central solenoid model coil program

  20. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  1. The challenge of ubiquitous computing in health care: technology, concepts and solutions. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2005.

    Bott, O J; Ammenwerth, E; Brigl, B; Knaup, P; Lang, E; Pilgram, R; Pfeifer, B; Ruderich, F; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2005-01-01

    To review recent research efforts in the field of ubiquitous computing in health care. To identify current research trends and further challenges for medical informatics. Analysis of the contents of the Yearbook on Medical Informatics 2005 of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2005 includes 34 original papers selected from 22 peer-reviewed scientific journals related to several distinct research areas: health and clinical management, patient records, health information systems, medical signal processing and biomedical imaging, decision support, knowledge representation and management, education and consumer informatics as well as bioinformatics. A special section on ubiquitous health care systems is devoted to recent developments in the application of ubiquitous computing in health care. Besides additional synoptical reviews of each of the sections the Yearbook includes invited reviews concerning E-Health strategies, primary care informatics and wearable healthcare. Several publications demonstrate the potential of ubiquitous computing to enhance effectiveness of health services delivery and organization. But ubiquitous computing is also a societal challenge, caused by the surrounding but unobtrusive character of this technology. Contributions from nearly all of the established sub-disciplines of medical informatics are demanded to turn the visions of this promising new research field into reality.

  2. Statistical yearbook. 1995 Data available as of 30 June 1997. 42. ed.

    1997-01-01

    This is the forty-second issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1985-1994 or 1986-1995, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 June 1997. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  3. Statistical yearbook 1993. Data available as of 31 December 1994. 40 ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the fortieth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistical Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1983-1992 or 1984-1993, using statistics available to the Statistical Division up to 31 December 1994. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistical Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  4. Statistical yearbook. 1996. Data available as of 30 September 1988. 43 ed.

    1999-01-01

    This is the forty-third issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1986-1995 or 1987-1996, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 September 1998. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  5. Statistical yearbook 1994. Data available as of 31 March 1996. 41 ed.

    1996-01-01

    This is the forty-first issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1984-1993 or 1985-1994, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 31 December 1995. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources

  6. Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    . The patients were divided into 4 groups according to fusion in the cervical vertebrae: group I, no fusions (42 subjects); group II, fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 and 3 (15 subjects); group III, occipitalization (10 subjects); and group IV, block fusion (11 subjects). Mean differences of craniofacial...... dimensions between the groups were assessed by unpaired t tests. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between groups I and III. Between groups I and II, significant differences were seen in jaw relationship (P face height and mandibular length deviated...... significantly. No significant differences were seen in head posture. CONCLUSIONS: OSA patients with block fusions in the cervical vertebrae and fusion of 2 vertebrae differed significantly in craniofacial profile from other OSA patients....

  7. Nuclear Fusion Project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    Kast, G.

    1987-12-01

    Short communications give a survey of 38 technology tasks, the development of ECRH power sources at 150 GHz, and 8 NET study contracts. The fusion technology contracts and the NET contracts are listed in the appendices I and II, respectively, while the KfK departments contributing to the Fusion Project and the Fusion Project Management Staff are listed in appendices III and IV, respectively. (GG)

  8. Thought-Action Fusion in Childhood: Measurement, Development, and Association with Anxiety, Rituals and Other Compulsive-Like Behaviors

    Evans, David W.; Hersperger, Chelsea; Capaldi, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    A new inventory assessing thought-action fusion (TAF) in children is presented. We explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and examine the associations between TAF, ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior (CLB) and anxiety. Three hundred thirteen children ages 7-14 (M = 10.16, SD = 1.92) representing six grades (grouped into three…

  9. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  10. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  11. Broad target cell selectivity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and virion entry

    Kaleeba, Johnan A.R.; Berger, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) entry is poorly understood. We tested a broad variety of cell types of diverse species and tissue origin for their ability to function as targets in a quantitative reporter gene assay for KSHV-glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several human, non-human primate, and rabbit cell lines were efficient targets, whereas rodent and all human lymphoblastoid cell lines were weak targets. Parallel findings were obtained with a virion entry assay using a recombinant KSHV encoding a reporter gene. No correlation was observed between target cell activity and surface expression of α3β1 integrin, a proposed KSHV receptor. We hypothesize that target cell permissiveness in both the cell fusion and virion entry assays reflects the presence of a putative KSHV fusion-entry receptor

  12. Nuclear fusion project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    Kast, G.

    1988-07-01

    Short communications give a survey of 38 technology tasks, the development of ECRH power sources at 150 GHz, and 9 NET study are listed in the appendices I and II, respectively, while the KfK departments contributing to the Fusion Project and the Fusion Project Management Staff are listed in appendices III and IV, respectively. (GG)

  13. Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer

    FitzGerald, Liesel M; Cox, Michael E; Ostrander, Elaine A; Stanford, Janet L; Huntsman, David G; Agalliu, Ilir; Johnson, Karynn; Miller, Melinda A; Kwon, Erika M; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Fazli, Ladan; Rajput, Ashish B; Gleave, Martin E

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation) and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple). Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127). Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93), nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12) or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34). However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05) and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03). If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer

  14. Fusion power by magnetic confinement: plans and the associated need for nuclear engineers

    Hirsch, R.L.; Beard, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    An essential ingredient in the fusion development plan will be the training of appropriate scientific and technical manpower. In examining the need for fusion-trained nuclear engineers, it is projected that an additional 120 to 250 engineers at the MS and PhD levels will be needed between now and 1980. To be most effective, these graduates must not only be trained in the ''classic'' physical, nuclear, mechanical, and electrical sciences, but they will need specialized training in fusion plasma physics and fusion materials science. To help develop the appropriate educational programs, close cooperation between U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) headquarters, ERDA laboratories, private industry, and the universities will be essential. An emerging need for a carefully structured ''fusion technology'' option in nuclear engineering departments is plainly evident and is already beginning to be developed at leading institutions

  15. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2015

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2015 beschaeftigen sich die Fachbeitraege mit den Abstandsempfehlungen der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft der Vogelschutzwarten, mit Aesthetik als oeffentlichem Belang im Planungs- und Genehmigungsregime fuer Windenergieanlagen, dem Entwurf zum Buerger- und Gemeindenbeteiligungsgesetz Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, dem Konflikt zwischen Windenergieanlagen und Wetterradaren und mit der obergerichtlichen Rechtsprechung zum Einspeisemanagement.

  16. Yearbook of wind energy law 2014; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2014

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the yearbook 2014, the technical contributions surround mainly the position and shape of the wind energy, small wind turbines, the compatibility of the EEG with higher-ranking law, as well as to the implementation of recent instrumental requirements. In other contributions the central lines of development of the jurisdiction are identified and (legal) political developments, judical decisions and literature are documented. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2014 ranken sich die Fachbeitraege schwerpunktmaessig um die Stellung und Ausformung der Windenergie, um Kleinwindanlagen, um die Vereinbarkeit des EEG mit hoeherrangigem Recht sowie um die Umsetzung neuerer instrumenteller Anforderungen. In weiteren Beitraegen werden die zentralen Entwicklungslinien der Rechtsprechung herausgearbeitet und (rechts-)politische Entwicklungen, Gerichtsentscheidungen und Literatur dokumentiert.

  17. 1992 yearbook of environmental and technology-related law

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 and sixth edition of this yearbook contains papers on environmental and technology-related law in the European Communities and the Federal Republic of Germany including among other things information on the latest jurisdiction by the European Court of Justice; insurability of environmental damage; scientific aspects of limit values. There are also treatises on non-German and comparative as well as international environmental and technology- related law which deal among other things with atomic and immission protection law and on harmonization and codification from a general point of view. Finally, some papers report on developments of national and European environmental and technology-related law. Three of the fifteen contributions have been abstracted separately. (HSCH) [de

  18. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  19. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is not associated with outcome in patients treated by prostatectomy

    Gopalan, Anuradha; Leversha, Margaret A.; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Zhou, Qin; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Scher, Howard I.; Tickoo, Satish K.; Reuter, Victor E.; Gerald, William L.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of prostate cancers have been shown to have recurrent chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the fusion of the androgen regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to a member of the ETS transcription factor family, most commonly ERG. This results in ERG overexpression which may have a direct causal role in prostate tumorigenesis or progression. However, the clinical significance of the rearrangement is unclear and, in particular, relationship to outcome has been inconsistent in recent reports. We analyzed TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangement status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 521 cases of clinically localized surgically treated prostate cancer with 95 months median follow-up and also in 40 unmatched metastases. 42% of primary tumors and 40% of metastases had rearrangements. 11% had copy number increase (CNI) of the TMPRRS2-ERG region. Rearrangement alone was associated with lower grade, but not with stage, biochemical recurrence, metastases or death. CNI with and without rearrangement was associated with high grade and advanced stage. Further, a subgroup of cancers with CNI and rearrangement by deletion, with two or more copies of the deleted locus, tended to be more clinically aggressive. DNA index assessment revealed that the majority of tumors with CNI of TMPRSS2-ERG had generalized aneuploidy/ tetraploidy in contrast to tumors without TMPRSS2-ERG CNI, which were predominantly diploid. We therefore conclude that translocation of TMPRSS2-ERG is not associated with outcome and the aggressive clinical features associated with CNI of chromosome 21 reflect generalized aneuploidy and are not due to CNI specifically of rearranged TMPRSS2-ERG. PMID:19190343

  20. Statistical yearbook 2002-2004. Data available as of February 2005. 49 ed

    2005-09-01

    This is the forty-ninth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The data included generally cover the years between 1993 and 2003 and are, for the most part, those statistics which were available to the Statistics Division as of February 2005. The 81 tables of the Yearbook are based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 35 international and national sources. These sources include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade, the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics, and over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields. The Yearbook is organized in four parts. The first part, World and Region Summary, presents key world and regional aggregates and totals. In the other three parts, the subject matter is generally presented by countries or areas, with world and regional aggregates shown in some cases only. Parts two, three and four cover, respectively, population and social topics, national economic activity, and international economic relations. Each chapter ends with brief technical notes on statistical sources and methods for the tables it includes. References to sources and related methodological publications are provided at the end of the Yearbook in the section 'Statistical sources and references'. Annex I provides complete information on country and area nomenclature, and regional and other groupings used in the Yearbook. Annex II lists conversion coefficients and factors used in various tables. A list of tables added to or omitted from the last issue of the Yearbook is given in annex III. Symbols and conventions used in the Yearbook are shown in the section 'Explanatory notes, preceding the Introduction

  1. Fusion technology annual report of the association EURATOM/CEA 1998

    Magaud, P.; Le vagueres, F.

    1998-01-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works carried out in the frame of the european program of fusion technology, during 1998. The presented activities are: plasma facing components, vacuum vessel and shield, magnets, remote handling, safety (short and long term), european blanket project (long term) with water cooled lithium lead and helium cooled pebble bed blanket, materials for fusion power plant, socio-economic research on fusion, plasma facing components, fuel cycle, inertial confinement. (A.L.B.)

  2. EURATOM-CEA Association Contributions to the 16. European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    1989-01-01

    The contributions to the 16th European Conference on controlled fusion and Plasma Physics are presented. The following subjects, concerning Tore Supra, are discussed: runaway electrons dynamics and confinement; spectroscopic studies of plasma surface interactions; ergodic divertor experiments; magnetic field structure and transport induced by the ergodic divertor; fast ions losses during neutral beam injection; current profile control by electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid waves; and electromagnetic analysis of the lower hybrid system. The report also includes studies on: a possible explanation for the runaway energy limit (resonant interaction with the ripple field); thermal equilibrium of the edge plasma with an ergodic divertor; neutral confinement in pump limiter with a throat; microtearing turbulence and heat transport; toroidal coupling and frequency spectrum of tearing modes; collisionless fast ion dynamics in tokamaks; variational description of lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in tokamaks; magnetodrift turbulence and disruptions; specific turbulence associated with sawtooth relaxations in TFR plasmas; detailed structure of the q profile around q = 1 in JET; turbulence propagation during pellet injection; tokamak reactor concept with 100% bootstrap current; optimization of a steady state tokamak driven by lower hybrid waves; and thermodesorption of graphite exposed to a deuterium plasma

  3. The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook. V. 16

    1992-01-01

    Throughout 1991 the end of the cold war continued to have a positive impact on international relations. In the Minsk Declaration, proclaiming the establishment of the CIS, the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine undertook to discharge the international obligations incumbent on them under treaties and agreements entered into by the USSR and in the Alma Ata Declaration, this undertaking was accepted by all the eleven republics constituting the Commonwealth. In the course of 1991 several steps were taken which helped enhance the status of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. France and China had decided to accede. On 10 July, South Africa signed a safeguards agreement with IAEA. By the end of 1991, almost all the front-line States in southern Africa had also acceded to the Treaty. Argentina and Brazil concluded a joint safeguards agreement with IAEA and stated that they were taking measures to permit the full entry into force for them of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (treaty of Tlatelolco). The European Council adopted a Declaration on non-proliferation and arms exports with a view to strengthening the regime of nuclear non-proliferation and, in the light of the Persian Gulf War, further enhancing the effectiveness of ''regimes of non-proliferation''. The heads of State and Government of the seven major industrialized countries reaffirmed their readiness to work in favour of an equitable and stable non-proliferation regime based on balance between nuclear non-proliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to achieve a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system. The work carried out in Iraq by the Special Commission, established by the Security Council broke new ground for the United Nations in several respects, in particular, those of intrusive on-site inspection and destruction of weapons and mass destruction and associated facilities under

  4. Dempster Shafer Sensor Fusion for Autonomously Driving Vehicles : Association Free Tracking of Dynamic Objects

    Högger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving vehicles introduce challenging research areas combining differ-ent disciplines. One challenge is the detection of obstacles with different sensors and the combination of information to generate a comprehensive representation of the environment, which can be used for path planning and decision making.The sensor fusion is demonstrated using two Velodyne multi beam laser scanners, but it is possible to extend the proposed sensor fusion framework for different sensor types. Sensor...

  5. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 25: 2000

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 edition of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook provides a descriptive narrative of events at the United Nations in the field of disarmament during the year of the historic Millennium Assembly. Though The Yearbook is now in its 25th edition, its more distant roots date back to the Armaments Year-Books issued by the League of Nations. Then, as now, nation-States and members of the concerned public have found it useful to have in one place a handy shelf reference documenting the triumphs and setbacks of the world community's efforts to reduce and eliminate the deadliest of weapons. The year 2000 marked a crucial juncture in the history of disarmament. During the Millennium Summit, 22 States responded to the Secretary-General's invitation to ratify six key legal instruments in the field of disarmament. Over the course of the year, 86 States chose to advance their security interests by ratifying or acceding to a wide range of disarmament treaties. The solemn 'ends' of disarmament also guided the deliberation of roughly 50 resolutions in the General Assembly as well as the work of many institutions throughout the United Nations disarmament machinery, including the Disarmament Commission, the Department for Disarmament Affairs and its three regional centres, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, and the Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Even the Conference on Disarmament, which has been deadlocked for so many years, has persisted in its efforts to forge a new consensus on a multilateral agenda for this difficult field. The Security Council also devoted attention to aspects of disarmament pertaining to peace-keeping and peace-building.With respect to the 'means' of disarmament, the world community reaffirmed its determination to implement agreed disarmament commitments and to work out arrangements in new areas. The States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) after four weeks of

  6. Association EURATOM-FZJ. Annual progress report 2010. Nuclear fusion project. SC-FZJ 86(11)/4.1.2

    Schorn, Ralph P.

    2011-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) as a EURATOM Association coordinates its fusion research activities within the Nuclear Fusion Project (KFS). The programme is based on several institutes and is well embedded into the European fusion research structure, where FZJ is now focussing on the two topics ''plasma-wall interactions'' and ''ITER technology''. The major part of the Juelich research activities is located within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK). The former Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, now IEK-4 Plasma Physics) has by far the largest share of scientific staff in physics and technology for fusion, operates the TEXTOR tokamak, performs scientific work on JET and DIII-D, supports the Wendelstein 7-X construc-tion and takes up significant projects related to the ITER development. IEK-2 (Microstructure and Properties of Materials) operates the high heat flux test facilities JUDITH 1 and 2 which are installed inside a hot cell and in a controlled area which is licensed to operate with toxic and radiating materials; this group represents the materials science expertise within the Juelich fusion programme. The Central Technology Division (ZAT) provides engineering expertise and specialised workshop capacities. The Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) operates various types of supercomputer systems, among which one device (HPC-FF) is dedicated exclusively to fusion research within EFDA. The Association EURATOM-FZJ has very close contacts to the neighbouring EURATOM associations in Belgium and The Netherlands. In 1996 they together have founded the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC) which provides a clustering of resources in order to perform a co-ordinated R and D programme, to operate or construct large facilities (TEXTOR, MAGNUM-PSI), to combine different kinds of expertise and to allow for the forming of a strong partner-ship as a consortium within the ITER construction phase. An updated TEC agreement with a

  7. Statistical yearbook. 2000. Data available as of 31 January 2003. 47 ed

    2003-01-01

    This is the forty-seventh issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1989-1998 or 1990-1999, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2000. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources. These include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade; the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics; and data provided by over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields.United Nations agencies and other international organizations which furnished data are listed under 'Statistical sources and references' at the end of the Yearbook. Acknowledgement is gratefully made for their generous cooperation in providing data. The Statistics Division also publishes the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, which provides a valuable complement to the Yearbook covering current international economic statistics for most countries and areas of the world and quarterly world and regional aggregates. Subscribers to the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics may also access the Bulletin on-line via the World Wide Web on Internet. MBS On-line allows time-sensitive statistics to reach users much faster than the traditional print publication. For further information see . The present issue of the Yearbook reflects a phased programme of major changes in its organization and presentation undertaken in 1990 which until then was relatively unchanged since the first issue was released in 1948. The Yearbook has also been published on CD-ROM for IBM-compatible microcomputers, since the thirty-eighth issue

  8. Enerdata statistical yearbook. ''the key-data of energy worldwide''. 1999 data

    2000-01-01

    The new edition of the Enerdata statistical yearbook provides the most recent statistical data on energy (oil, gas, coal and power production) and CO 2 emissions worldwide for the 1994-1999 period of time. These data cover 52 countries and 12 geographic areas and are presented in the form of tables and graphs (production, foreign exchanges, consumptions, market shares, sectoral consumption, 1999 energy status, long-term tendencies). More data for a longer period (1970-1999) and for all countries worldwide are available on the CD-Rom version of the yearbook. (J.S.)

  9. SIHTI 2. Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1995. Project presentations

    Korhonen, M.; Thun, R.

    1997-01-01

    Detrimental impacts of various energy production forms, their prevention and costs to enterprises and to the society are studied in the National Research Programme on Energy and Environmental Technology - SIHTI 2. For this evaluation work databases on Finland's energy production, fuels and boilers and emissions of various production forms are needed. This is one of the main subtasks of the SIHTI Programme. Development of methods and tools required for environmental decision making and for the assessment of environmental costs and testing of their usability and reliability are equally important. Emission measurements are a problem field that continuously sets new challenges. In addition to energy production and its environmental impacts, environmental issues of the woodprocessing industries form another important research field of SIHTI 2 programme. A common aim of both fields is to reduce emissions of detrimental substances, to recycle raw materials, and to minimise and reuse wastes. Research and development projects are being carried out by a number of universities of different fields of science and technology, by research organisations and enterprises, and many projects are realised in close co-operation. In 1995, the programme comprised 28 R and D projects by universities and 22 enterprise-led projects. Results of these projects are presented in this yearbook. Part of the research projects continued from the preceding year and part were new projects continuing in 1996

  10. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1999-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  11. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  12. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  13. Is more lordosis associated with improved outcomes in cervical laminectomy and fusion when baseline alignment is lordotic?

    Sielatycki, John A; Armaghani, Sheyan; Silverberg, Arnold; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J; O'Neill, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    In cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), cervical sagittal alignment (CSA) is associated with disease severity. Increased kyphosis and C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) correlate with worse myelopathy and poor outcomes. However, when alignment is lordotic, it is unknown whether these associations persist. The study aimed to investigate the associations between CSA parameters and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following posterior decompression and fusion for CSM when baseline lordosis is maintained. This is an analysis of a prospective surgical cohort at a single academic institution. The sample includes adult patients undergoing primary cervical laminectomy and fusion for CSM over a 3-year period. The PROs included EuroQol-5D, Short-Form-12 (SF-12) physical composite (PCS) and mental composite scales (MCS), Neck Disability Index, and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores. Radiographic CSA parameters measured included C1-C2 Cobb, C2-C7 Cobb, C1-C7 Cobb, C2-C7 SVA, C1-C7 SVA, and T1 slope. The PROs were recorded at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The CSA parameters were measured on standing radiographs in the neutral position at baseline and 3 months. Wilcoxon rank test was used to test for changes in PROs and CSA parameters, and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for CSA parameters and PROs preoperatively and at 12 months. No external sources of funding were used for this work. There were 45 patients included with an average age of 63 years who underwent posterior decompression and fusion of 3.7±1.3 levels. Significant improvements were found in all PROs except SF-12 MCS (p=.06). Small but statistically significant changes were found in C2-C7 Cobb (mean change: +3.6°; p=.03) and C2-C7 SVA (mean change: +3 mm; p=.01). At baseline, only C2-C7 SVA associated with worse SF-12 PCS scores (r=-0.34, p=.02). Postoperatively, there were no associations found between PROs and any CSA parameters. Similarly, no CSA

  14. Fusion energy

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  15. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Coal ash fusion temperatures -- New characterization techniques, and associations with phase equilibria

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Creelman, R.A. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, New South Wales (Australia); Coin, C. [ACIRL Ipswich, Booval, Queensland (Australia); Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The well-documented shortcomings of the standard technique for estimating the fusion temperature of coal ash are its subjective nature and poor accuracy. Alternative measurements based on the shrinkage and electrical conductivity of heating samples are therefore examined with laboratory ash prepared at about 800 C in crucibles, as well as combustion ash sampled from power stations. Sensitive shrinkage measurements indicate temperatures of rapid change which correspond to the formation of liquid phases that can be identified on ternary phase diagrams. The existence and extent of formation of these phases, as quantified by the magnitude of peaks in the test, provide alternative ash fusion temperatures. The peaks from laboratory ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evaporation of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash.

  17. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1994

    Moons, F.

    1994-09-01

    The work performed in 1994 at SCK/CEN in the field of technology for thermonuclear fusion is reported. It mainly embraces: (1) neutron irradiation effects on beryllium, (2) corrosion experiments on copper and molybdenum, (3) radiation hardening of opto-electronic components, (4) environmental tolerance and testing optical fibres assessment, (5) electrolytic recovery of elemental tritium from highly tritiated water, (6) in pile AISI 316L low cycle fatigue

  18. The future of fusion

    Sheffield, John

    2001-01-01

    The population of the world is increasing, mainly in the developing world, and is projected to saturate within about 100 years at up to twice the present population of 6 billion people (Bos et al., World Population Projections: 1994-95 Edition, Published for the World Bank). Studies (Goldemberg and Johansson (Eds.), Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development United Nations Development Programme, New York, 1995, p. 9; United Nations Statistical Yearbooks, 10th issue; 1965; 20th issue; 1975, 22nd issue, 1977; 32nd issue, 1987; and 39th issue 1994, United Nations Publications; Sheffield, J. Technol. Forecasting Social Change 59 (1998) 55.) show that, historically, the population growth rate has varied inversely as the annual per capita energy use in most parts of the developing world, where per capita energy use is typically less than 1 t of oil equivalent energy per year. However, in areas with more than 2-3 t of oil equivalent of energy use per year per person, the growth rate is around zero. If this trend continues, a stable world population will require, allowing for energy efficiency improvements, some 2-3 times the present annual energy use. There is an abundance of energy in the world both exploited and potential to meet this need - fossil, fission, and renewables - but it is not evenly distributed, some are costly, and there are issues of environmental pollution in present use, that may limit use. Fusion energy is a potential longer-term source with attractive environmental features. It is the least-developed energy option and still faces a challenging development path, but there are many areas of the world that would benefit hugely from its deployment from the later part of the 21st century onward, and it is important to consider how it might be deployed. Most fusion power plant options considered today show an economy of scale, owing to the fixed distance needed for shielding fusion neutrons, tritium breeding and handling the heat loads. One

  19. Yearbook and Magazine Layout, English, Journalism. Language Arts: 5113.200.

    Adams, Marlene E.

    Developed as a quinmester unit for the high school on yearbook and magazine layout, this guide provides the teacher with suggested teaching strategies for a study of the theory and practice of page layout, photo cropping and editing, use of color and special effects, copy fitting and headline writing and fitting, and principles of typography.…

  20. Issues in Literacy: A Research Perspective. Thirty-Fourth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Lalik, Rosary V., Ed.

    Reflecting current themes that scholars in reading/language research, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of literacy and learning in natural settings, this yearbook presents a collection of 62 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1984. Included are the following articles, listed…

  1. A Source Book of Mathematical Applications. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Yearbook 17 [1942].

    Olds, Edwin G., Comp; And Others

    This yearbook is a reference source of direct applications of mathematics for use in grades 7-12. Topics are listed alphabetically in each of four sections: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. An explanation is given as to the plan of the book, making the location of desired material easier, and an index is included. In many cases the…

  2. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  3. Nuclear fusion project. Annual report of the Association Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe/EURATOM. October 1994 - September 1995

    Kast, G.

    1996-01-01

    Today about fifty percent of FZK's fusion programme is contracted to ITER via the contribution of the European home team. With the recent selection of blanket concepts in the European frame, a concentration process has been initiated which will result in some restructuring of the blanket programme. The results are documented. Closely related to blanket development is the long term materials programme. FZK has concentrated on reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels. Important project resources for irradiation and hot cell work are devoted to characterize and improve the performance of suitable structural materials. ITER references are given in the nomenclature. The annexes provide with some information on departments and project management. (DG)

  4. Viral membrane fusion

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  6. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within ±10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the 92 Mo(n, 2n) 91g Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the 138 Ba(n, 2n) 137m Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  7. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within {+-}10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the {sup 92}Mo(n, 2n){sup 91g}Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the {sup 138}Ba(n, 2n){sup 137m}Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  8. Ash fusion temperatures and their association with the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Creelman, R.A. [Creelman (R.A.) and Associates, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ash deposition on furnace walls in PF (pulverized fuel) furnaces is called slagging when it occurs in the high temperature areas of furnaces directly exposed to flame radiation and fouling in other regions such as tubes in the convection section of the boiler. There are well documented shortcomings of certain approaches relating to their uncertainties as predictive tools for plant performance such as poor repeatability and re-producibility of ash fusion measurements. The nature of physical and chemical changes occurring during melting of coal ash has been investigated in the current study to provide an alternative procedure to the ash fusion test. Shrinkage measurements are frequently used in metallurgy and ceramic science to study the physical properties of materials at high temperatures. The output of this experiment provides three to four `peaks` (maximum rate of shrinkage with temperature) of different intensity and at different temperatures which are related to melting characteristics of the sample. It was concluded that shrinkage extents exceeding 50 percent indicated that the effect of the ash particle size is of secondary importance compared to ash chemistry in determining shrinkage levels, with fine particles giving rapid shrinkage events 10 degrees C lower in temperature. (author). 7 figs., refs.

  9. Report on research and development work 1985 on the nuclear fusion project. Annual report of the Association KfK-Euratom

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe and the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics together form the Nuclear Fusion Development Association. The partners collaborate with the aim of creating the physical and technical preconditions for the use of the energy released by nuclear fusion and to plan and carry out future large-scale experiments. The work of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe on fusion with magnetic containment is included in the nuclear fusion project and is part of the European fusion technology programme. The work is supported by an association contract between KfK and Euratom by the European Commission. Connections are built up between areas of work and new projects are prepared by supplementary KfK contributions, mostly studies. This is done with regard to the expansion of the technology programme to be expected for future years and the planning activities for NET. The reports collected here are contributions of the KfK institutes in 1985. The appendix contains a list of the tasks which KfK has taken over from the fusion technology programme of the EEC. References to the institutes' contributions make the assignment of textual contributions easier. (orig.) [de

  10. Fusion technology. Annual report of the. Association Cea/EURATOM; Technologie de fusion.Rapport annuel de l`association CEA/Euratom

    Magaud, P; Le Vagueres, F

    1997-12-31

    In 1996, the French EURATOM-CEA Association made significant contributions to the European technology programme. This work is compiled in this report as follows: the ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section; blankets and material developments for DEMO, long term safety studies are summarised in the second part; the Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report. In each section, the tasks are sorted out to respect the European presentation. For an easy reading, appendix 4 gives the list of tasks in alphabetical order with a page reference list. The CEA is in charge of the French Technology programme. Three specific organizational directions of the CEA, located on four sites (see appendix 5) are involves in this programme: Advanced Technologies Direction (DTA), for Material task; Nuclear Reactors Direction (DRN), for Blanket design, Neutronic problems, Safety tasks; Physical Sciences Direction (DSM) uses the competence of the Tore Supra team in the Magnet design and plasma Facing Component field. The CEA programme is completed by collaborations with Technicatome, COMEX-Nucleaire and Ecole Polytechnique. The breakdown of the programme by Directions is presented in figure 1. The allocation of tasks is given in appendix 2 and in appendix 3, the related publications. (author).

  11. Fusion technology. Annual report of the. Association Cea/EURATOM; Technologie de fusion.Rapport annuel de l`association CEA/Euratom

    Magaud, P.; Le Vagueres, F.

    1996-12-31

    In 1996, the French EURATOM-CEA Association made significant contributions to the European technology programme. This work is compiled in this report as follows: the ITER CEA activities and related developments are described in the first section; blankets and material developments for DEMO, long term safety studies are summarised in the second part; the Underlying Technology activities are compiled in the third part of this report. In each section, the tasks are sorted out to respect the European presentation. For an easy reading, appendix 4 gives the list of tasks in alphabetical order with a page reference list. The CEA is in charge of the French Technology programme. Three specific organizational directions of the CEA, located on four sites (see appendix 5) are involves in this programme: Advanced Technologies Direction (DTA), for Material task; Nuclear Reactors Direction (DRN), for Blanket design, Neutronic problems, Safety tasks; Physical Sciences Direction (DSM) uses the competence of the Tore Supra team in the Magnet design and plasma Facing Component field. The CEA programme is completed by collaborations with Technicatome, COMEX-Nucleaire and Ecole Polytechnique. The breakdown of the programme by Directions is presented in figure 1. The allocation of tasks is given in appendix 2 and in appendix 3, the related publications. (author).

  12. Fusion research principles

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  13. Fusion of EML4 and ALK is associated with development of lung adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR and KRAS mutations and is correlated with ALK expression

    Zhang Xuchao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene is frequently involved in translocations that lead to gene fusions in a variety of human malignancies, including lymphoma and lung cancer. Fusion partners of ALK include NPM, EML4, TPM3, ATIC, TFG, CARS, and CLTC. Characterization of ALK fusion patterns and their resulting clinicopathological profiles could be of great benefit in better understanding the biology of lung cancer. Results RACE-coupled PCR sequencing was used to assess ALK fusions in a cohort of 103 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC patients. Within this cohort, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was identified in 12 tumors (11.6%. Further analysis revealed that EML4-ALK was present at a frequency of 16.13% (10/62 in patients with adenocarcinomas, 19.23% (10/52 in never-smokers, and 42.80% (9/21 in patients with adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR and KRAS mutations. The EML4-ALK fusion was associated with non-smokers (P = 0.03, younger age of onset (P = 0.03, and adenocarcinomas without EGFR/KRAS mutations (P = 0.04. A trend towards improved survival was observed for patients with the EML4-ALK fusion, although it was not statistically significant (P = 0.20. Concurrent deletion in EGFR exon 19 and fusion of EML4-ALK was identified for the first time in a Chinese female patient with an adenocarcinoma. Analysis of ALK expression revealed that ALK mRNA levels were higher in tumors positive for the EML-ALK fusion than in negative tumors (normalized intensity of 21.99 vs. 0.45, respectively; P = 0.0018. However, expression of EML4 did not differ between the groups. Conclusions The EML4-ALK fusion gene was present at a high frequency in Chinese NSCLC patients, particularly in those with adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR/KRAS mutations. The EML4-ALK fusion appears to be tightly associated with ALK mRNA expression levels. RACE-coupled PCR sequencing is a highly sensitive method that could be used clinically for the identification of EML4-ALK

  14. Search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons in the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes.

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Heracleous, N; Kalogeropoulos, A; Keaveney, J; Kim, T J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Dildick, S; Garcia, G; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins Junior, M; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Malek, M; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; 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Lazic, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sperka, D; St John, J; Sulak, L; Alimena, J; Bhattacharya, S; Christopher, G; Cutts, D; Demiragli, Z; Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Heintz, U; Jabeen, S; Kukartsev, G; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Luk, M; Narain, M; Segala, M; Sinthuprasith, T; Speer, T; Swanson, J; Breedon, R; Breto, G; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Miceli, T; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Rutherford, B; Searle, M; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Andreev, V; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Felcini, M; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Rakness, G; Takasugi, E; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Babb, J; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Lacroix, F; Liu, H; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Nguyen, H; Shrinivas, A; Sturdy, J; Sumowidagdo, S; Wimpenny, S; Andrews, W; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Evans, D; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Kovalskyi, D; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Sudano, E; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yoo, J; Barge, D; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Danielson, T; Dishaw, A; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Magaña Villalba, R; Mccoll, N; Pavlunin, V; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; West, C; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Di Marco, E; Duarte, J; Kcira, D; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Rogan, C; Spiropulu, M; Timciuc, V; Wilkinson, R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Jang, D W; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chu, J; Eggert, N; Gibbons, L K; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Ryd, A; Salvati, E; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Kaadze, K; Klima, B; Kwan, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Ratnikova, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitbeck, A; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Cheng, T; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Hugon, J; Kim, B; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Low, J F; Matchev, K; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Rinkevicius, A; Shchutska, L; Skhirtladze, N; Snowball, M; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Gaultney, V; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Veeraraghavan, V; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Dorney, B; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatyan, S; Kurt, P; Moon, D H; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Duru, F; Haytmyradov, M; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Rahmat, R; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Gray, J; Kenny, R P; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R; Oliveros, S; Perera, L; Sanders, D A; Summers, D; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Meier, F; Snow, G R; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Massironi, A; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wang, R J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Lusito, L; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Velasco, M; Won, S; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Drozdetskiy, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Kolb, J; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Vuosalo, C; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Alagoz, E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Lopes Pegna, D; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Bouhali, O; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Woods, N

    A search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons is performed using the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes. In the ZH mode, the Z boson is required to decay to a pair of charged leptons or a [Formula: see text] quark pair. The searches use the 8 [Formula: see text] pp collision dataset collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 19.7 [Formula: see text]. Certain channels include data from 7 [Formula: see text] collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 [Formula: see text]. The searches are sensitive to non-standard-model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. In all channels, the observed data are consistent with the expected standard model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross section times invisible branching fraction, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, for the vector boson fusion and ZH production modes. By combining all channels, and assuming standard model Higgs boson cross sections and acceptances, the observed (expected) upper limit on the invisible branching fraction at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is found to be 0.58 (0.44) at 95 % confidence level. We interpret this limit in terms of a Higgs-portal model of dark matter interactions.

  15. Statistical yearbook 2001. Data available as of 15 December 2003. 48 ed

    2004-01-01

    This is the forty-eight issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It contains series covering, in general, 1990-1999 or 1991-2000, based on statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 15 December 2003. The major purpose of the Statistical Yearbook is to provide in a single volume a comprehensive compilation of internationally available statistics on social and economic conditions and activities, at world, regional and national levels, covering roughly a ten-year period. Most of the statistics presented in the Yearbook are extracted from more detailed, specialized publications prepared by the Statistics Division and by many other international statistical services. Thus, while the specialized publications concentrate on monitoring topics and trends in particular social and economic fields, the Statistical Yearbook tables provide data for a more comprehensive, overall description of social and economic structures, conditions, changes and activities. The objective has been to collect, systematize and coordinate the most essential components of comparable statistical information which can give a broad and, to the extent feasible, a consistent picture of social and economic processes at world, regional and national levels. More specifically, the Statistical Yearbook provides systematic information on a wide range of social and economic issues which are of concern in the United Nations system and among the governments and peoples of the world. A particular value of the Yearbook, but also its greatest challenge, is that these issues are extensively interrelated. Meaningful analysis of these issues requires systematization and coordination of the data across many fields. These issues include: General economic growth and related economic conditions; economic situation in developing countries and progress towards the objectives adopted for the

  16. Statistical yearbook. 1998. Data available as of 30 November 2000. 45 ed

    2001-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, since 1948. The present issue contains series covering, in general, 1989-1998 or 1990-1999, using statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2000. The Yearbook is based on data compiled by the Statistics Division from over 40 different international and national sources. These include the United Nations Statistics Division in the fields of national accounts, industry, energy, transport and international trade; the United Nations Statistics Division and Population Division in the field of demographic statistics; and data provided by over 20 offices of the United Nations system and international organizations in other specialized fields.United Nations agencies and other international organizations which furnished data are listed under 'Statistical sources and references' at the end of the Yearbook. Acknowledgement is gratefully made for their generous cooperation in providing data. The Statistics Division also publishes the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, which provides a valuable complement to the Yearbook covering current international economic statistics for most countries and areas of the world and quarterly world and regional aggregates. Subscribers to the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics may also access the Bulletin on-line via the World Wide Web on Internet. MBS On-line allows time-sensitive statistics to reach users much faster than the traditional print publication. For further information see . The present issue of the Yearbook reflects a phased programme of major changes in its organization and presentation undertaken in 1990 which until then was relatively unchanged since the first issue was released in 1948. One result of this process has been to reduce the total number of tables from 140 in the 37th issue to 80 in the present issue and to include

  17. ER-associated SNAREs and Sey1p mediate nuclear fusion at two distinct steps during yeast mating.

    Rogers, Jason V; Arlow, Tim; Inkellis, Elizabeth R; Koo, Timothy S; Rose, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    During yeast mating, two haploid nuclei fuse membranes to form a single diploid nucleus. However, the known proteins required for nuclear fusion are unlikely to function as direct fusogens (i.e., they are unlikely to directly catalyze lipid bilayer fusion) based on their predicted structure and localization. Therefore we screened known fusogens from vesicle trafficking (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors [SNAREs]) and homotypic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fusion (Sey1p) for additional roles in nuclear fusion. Here we demonstrate that the ER-localized SNAREs Sec20p, Ufe1p, Use1p, and Bos1p are required for efficient nuclear fusion. In contrast, Sey1p is required indirectly for nuclear fusion; sey1Δ zygotes accumulate ER at the zone of cell fusion, causing a block in nuclear congression. However, double mutants of Sey1p and Sec20p, Ufe1p, or Use1p, but not Bos1p, display extreme ER morphology defects, worse than either single mutant, suggesting that retrograde SNAREs fuse ER in the absence of Sey1p. Together these data demonstrate that SNAREs mediate nuclear fusion, ER fusion after cell fusion is necessary to complete nuclear congression, and there exists a SNARE-mediated, Sey1p-independent ER fusion pathway.

  18. EMP Fusion

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  19. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  20. Associated production of a KK-graviton with a Higgs boson via gluon fusion at the LHC

    Shivaji, Ambresh; Mitra, Subhadip; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the hierarchy problem, several extra-dimensional models have received considerable attention. We have considered a process where a Higgs boson is produced in association with a KK-graviton (G KK ) at the LHC. At the leading order, this process occurs through the gluon fusion mechanism gg→hG KK via a quark loop. We compute the cross section and examine some features of this process in the ADD model. We find that the quark in the loop does not decouple in the large quark-mass limit just as in the case of gg→h process. We compute the cross section of this process for the case of the RS model also. We examine the feasibility of this process being observed at the LHC. (orig.)

  1. Osteoclast Fusion

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  2. Nuclear Fusion Project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    Kast, G.

    1988-10-01

    Report on technology tasks: Blanket designs studies; Computational tools for neutronics; Corrosion and fatigue of structural materials in Pb-17Li; Tritium extraction from liquid Pb-17Li by the use of solid getters; Development of ceramic breeder materials; The large coil task; Development of high field composite conductors; Superconducting poloidal field coil development; Poloidal field coil for TORE SUPRA as NET-Prototype Coil; Structural materials Fatigue characterization at 4 K; Low electrical conductivity structures development; MANET 1; Pre- and post-irradiation fatigue properties and fracture toughness of 1.4914 martensitic steel; In-pile creep-fatigue testing of type 316 and 1.4914 steels; Ceramics for first-wall protection and for RF windows; Development of low activation ferritic-martensitic steels; Design study of plasma facing components and shield; Procedures and tools for structural design evaluation; Theory and tools for evaluation of magnetic field effects on liquid-metal breeder blankets; Studies of pebble beds of ceramic compounds; Background studies on remote maintenance; Handling equipment for in-vessel components; Safety aspects of the cryosystem and superconducting magnets; Overall plant accident scenarios and safety guidelines for NET; Generic environmental impact assessment for a fusion facility; Industrial development of large components for plasma exhaust pumping; Optimization of cryogenic vacuum pumping of helium; Plasma exhaust purification by means of cryosorption on molecular-sieves or alternative absorbents and use of hot-metal getters; Adsorption of DT on heated metal beds other than uranium; Catalyst development for the exhaust purification process; Development of ECRH power sources. NET study contracts: Availability of the LCT plant; Investigation of the vacuum and exhaust performation of NET; Study about the NET TF pancake test; Evaluation of crack growth delay in multilayer sheets. (orig./AH)

  3. Nuclear Fusion Project. Semi-annual report of the Association KfK/EURATOM

    Kast, G.

    1989-04-01

    Report on technology tasks: Blanket design studies; development of computational tools for neutronics; corrosion and fatigue of structural materials in flowing Pb-17Li; tritium extraction from liquid Pb-17Li by the use of solid getters; ceramic breeder materials; high field composite conductors; superconducting poloidal field coil development; design and construction of a poloidal field coil for TORE SUPRA as NET-prototype coil; structural materials fatigue characterization at 4 K; low electrical conductivity structural development; MANET 1; pre- and post-irradiation fatigue properties of 1.4914 martensitic steel; in-pile creep-fatigue testing of type 316 and 1.4914 steel; ceramics for first-wall protection and for RF windows; fatigue under dual beam irradiation; low activation ferritic-martensitic steels; plasma facing components; procedures and tools for structural design evaluation; remote maintenance; mechanical component assembly; handling equipment for in-vessel components; safety aspects of the cryosystem and of superconducting magnets; safety guidelines for the design of NET; generic environmental impact assessment for a fusion facility; large components for plasma exhaust pumping; optimization of cryogenic vacuum pumping of He; solid particle separators for plasma exhaust; plasma exhaust purification; adsorption of DT on heated metal beds other than U; catalyst development for the exhaust purification process; ECRH power sources; vacuum and exhaust performance of NET; NET TF pancake tests; CAD DATA exchange between NET and KfK; catalytic plasma exhaust gas clean-up facility for NET; NET blanket handling device; electrical connectors for remote handling. (orig./HP)

  4. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms

    European Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner…

  5. Fusion power

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  6. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  7. Fusion: introduction

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  8. Membrane fusion

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  9. Fusion Canada

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  10. Incomplete fusion studies

    Singh, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energies ≅ 4-7 MeV/nucleon, several experiments have been carried out using accelerator facilities available in India. The measurements presented here cover a wide range of projectile-target combinations and enhance significantly our knowledge about incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Here, the three sets of measurements have been presented; (i) excitation functions, (ii) forward recoil range distributions and (iii) the spin distributions. The first evidence of these reactions has been obtained from the measurement and analysis of excitation functions for xn/αxn/2αxn-channels. The measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus model. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of fusion incompleteness at low beam energies. However, in order to determine the relative contribution of complete and incomplete fusion reaction processes, the recoil range distributions of the heavy residues have also been measured and analyzed within the framework of breakup fusion model which confirmed the fusion incompleteness in several heavy ion reactions involving α-emitting reaction channels. Further, in order to study the role of l-values in these reactions the spin distributions of the residues populated in case of complete and incomplete channels have been measured and are found to be distinctly different. The analysis of the data on spin distribution measurements indicate that the mean values of driving input angular momenta associated with direct-α-emitting (incomplete fusion) channels are higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn or α-emitting (complete fusion) channels, and is found to increase with direct α-multiplicity in the forward cone. One of the important conclusions drawn in the present work is that, there is significant incomplete fusion contribution even at energies slightly above the barrier. Further, the projectile structure has been found to

  11. Towards fusion power

    Venkataraman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present general but broad review of the recent developments in the field of plasma physics and its application to fusion power. The first chapter describes the fusion reactions and fusion power systems. The second chapter deals in detail with production and behaviour of plasma, screening, oscillations, instability, energy losses, temperature effects, etc. Magnetic confinements, including pinch systems, toroidal systems such as Tokamac and stellarator, minor machine, etc. are discussed in detail in chapter III. Laser produced plasma, laser implosion and problems associated with it and future prospects are explained in chapter IV. Chapter V is devoted entirely to the various aspects of hybrid systems. The last chapter throws light on problems of fusion technology, such as plasma heating, vacuum requirements, radiation damage, choice of materials, blanket problems, hazards of fusion reactions, etc. (K.B.)

  12. Fusion neutronics

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  13. Fusion Power Deployment

    Schmidt, J.A.; Ogden, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment

  14. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 21st symposium on fusion technology

    Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Beaumont, B.

    2000-11-01

    The 27 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association have been gathered with 6 additional papers and 1 invited paper in this document. Most papers concern Tore-Supra and deal with the ergodic divertor, particle injection, impedance concept for ICRF antennas, low hybrid current drive, RF systems, the 118 GHz ECRH experiment, the inner first wall, improved vacuum vessel protection, pellet injection, material activation, and the CIEL project. 3 of the additional papers concern the model coil of ITER

  15. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 21st symposium on fusion technology

    Garin, P; Grosman, A; Beaumont, B [and others

    2000-11-01

    The 27 contributions of EURATOM-Cea association have been gathered with 6 additional papers and 1 invited paper in this document. Most papers concern Tore-Supra and deal with the ergodic divertor, particle injection, impedance concept for ICRF antennas, low hybrid current drive, RF systems, the 118 GHz ECRH experiment, the inner first wall, improved vacuum vessel protection, pellet injection, material activation, and the CIEL project. 3 of the additional papers concern the model coil of ITER.

  16. Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al 2 O 3 )-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study

  17. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of C1 Laminectomy Without Fusion in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy That Is Associated With a Retro-odontoid Pseudotumor.

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Ota, Masato; Otsuki, Bungo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Umebayashi, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A retro-odontoid pseudotumor that is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis or hemodialysis is clinically rare. The majority of surgeons select transoral resection as the surgical treatment, often followed by posterior fusion or posterior decompression and fusion. In contrast, some authors have reported success with simple decompression without posterior stabilization in cases where atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is either absent or minor. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of C1 laminectomy without fusion as the surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy that is associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 10 patients who underwent C1 laminectomy without fusion for cervical myelopathy associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. The average follow-up time was 29 months. All cases were graded as Ranawat grade 3a or 3b. After surgery, myelopathy improved in all of the patients. In 2 patients, the atlas-dens interval increased in the flexed position; however, this did not result in any clinical problems. The size of the retro-odontoid mass (measured on magnetic resonance images at least 12 mo after surgery) decreased in 4 of the 10 cases. AAI progression and mass enlargement were our primary concerns for this surgical option; however, C1 laminectomy did not cause severe AAI progression, no patients showed serious mass enlargement, and all patients demonstrated neurological improvement. This surgical strategy is beneficial especially for elderly patients given the risks of other surgical options that use an anterior transoral approach or posterior fusion.

  18. The fusion of mental imagery and sensation in the temporal association cortex.

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-10-08

    It is well understood that the brain integrates information that is provided to our different senses to generate a coherent multisensory percept of the world around us (Stein and Stanford, 2008), but how does the brain handle concurrent sensory information from our mind and the external world? Recent behavioral experiments have found that mental imagery--the internal representation of sensory stimuli in one's mind--can also lead to integrated multisensory perception (Berger and Ehrsson, 2013); however, the neural mechanisms of this process have not yet been explored. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an adapted version of a well known multisensory illusion (i.e., the ventriloquist illusion; Howard and Templeton, 1966), we investigated the neural basis of mental imagery-induced multisensory perception in humans. We found that simultaneous visual mental imagery and auditory stimulation led to an illusory translocation of auditory stimuli and was associated with increased activity in the left superior temporal sulcus (L. STS), a key site for the integration of real audiovisual stimuli (Beauchamp et al., 2004a, 2010; Driver and Noesselt, 2008; Ghazanfar et al., 2008; Dahl et al., 2009). This imagery-induced ventriloquist illusion was also associated with increased effective connectivity between the L. STS and the auditory cortex. These findings suggest an important role of the temporal association cortex in integrating imagined visual stimuli with real auditory stimuli, and further suggest that connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex plays a modulatory role in spatially localizing auditory stimuli in the presence of imagined visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3313684-09$15.00/0.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion: imaging findings in 21 patients

    Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Hao; Duan, Na; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Zhongqiu [Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Zhu, Qingqiang [Medical School of Yangzhou University, Department of Medical Imaging, Subei People' s Hospital, Yangzhou (China); Li, Baoxin [Gulou Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Cui, Wenjing [Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing (China); Kundra, Vikas [The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To characterize imaging features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion. Twenty-one patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumour location, size, density, cystic or solid appearance, calcification, capsule sign, enhancement pattern and metastases were assessed. Fourteen women and seven men were identified with 12 being 25 years old or younger. Tumours were solitary and cystic-solid (76.2 %) masses with a capsule (76.2 %); 90.5 % were located in the medulla. Calcifications and lymph node metastases were each observed in 24 %. On unenhanced CT, tumour attenuation was greater than in normal renal parenchyma (85.7 %). Tumour enhancement was less than in normal renal cortex on all enhanced phases, greater than in normal renal medulla on cortical and medullary phases, but less than in normal renal medulla on delayed phase. On MR, the tumours were isointense on T1WI, heterogeneously hypointense on T2WI and slightly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging. Xp11.2/TFE RCC usually occurs in young women. It is a cystic-solid, hyperdense mass with a capsule. It arises from the renal medulla with enhancement less than in the cortex but greater than in the medulla in all phases except the delayed phase, when it is lower than in the medulla. (orig.)

  20. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, Maastricht

    1999-10-01

    This report references the EURATOM-CEA association contributions presented at the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, in Maastricht (Netherlands) the 14-18 June 1999. Two invited papers and 24 contributed papers are proposed. They deal with: tokamak devices; particle recirculation in ergodic divertor; current profile control and MHD stability in Tore Supra discharges; edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor; electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer; bolometry and radiated power; particle collection by ergodic divertor; study and simulation of plasma impurities; line shape modelling for plasma edge conditions; dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra; up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations; Halo currents in a circular tokamak; real time measurement of the position, density, profile and current profile at Tore Supra; poloidal rotation measurement by reflectometry; interpretation of q-profile dependence of the LH power deposition profile during LHCD experiments; ICFR plasma production and optimization; improved core electron confinement; measurement of hard X-ray emission profile; modelling of shear effects on thermal and particles transport; ion turbulence; current drive generation based on autoresonance and intermittent trapping mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  1. EURATOM-CEA association contributions to the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, Maastricht

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report references the EURATOM-CEA association contributions presented at the 26. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics, in Maastricht (Netherlands) the 14-18 June 1999. Two invited papers and 24 contributed papers are proposed. They deal with: tokamak devices; particle recirculation in ergodic divertor; current profile control and MHD stability in Tore Supra discharges; edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor; electron heat transport in stochastic magnetic layer; bolometry and radiated power; particle collection by ergodic divertor; study and simulation of pa impurities; line shape modelling for plasma edge conditions; dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra; up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations; Halo currents in a circular tokamak; real time measurement of the position, density, profile and current profile at Tore Supra; poloidal rotation measurement by reflectometry; interpretation of q-profile dependence of the LH power deposition profile during LHCD experiments; ICFR plasma production and optimization; improved core electron confinement; measurement of hard X-ray emission profile; modelling of shear effects on thermal and particles transport; ion turbulence; current drive generation based on autoresonance and intermittent trapping mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  2. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  3. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation.

    Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between HydH5 and lysostaphin has been assessed. The lytic activity of the five proteins (HydH5, HydH5Lyso, HydH5SH3b, CHAPSH3b and lysostaphin was confirmed using commercial whole extended shelf-life milk (ESL in challenge assays with 10(4 CFU/mL of the strain S. aureus Sa9. HydH5, HydH5Lyso and HydH5SH3b (3.5 µM kept the staphylococcal viable counts below the control cultures for 6 h at 37°C. The effect is apparent just 15 minutes after the addition of the lytic enzyme. Of note, lysostaphin and CHAPSH3b showed the highest staphylolytic protection as they were able to eradicate the initial staphylococcal challenge immediately or 15 min after addition, respectively, at lower concentration (1 µM at 37°C. CHAPSH3b showed the same antistaphyloccal effect at room temperature (1.65 µM. No re-growth was observed for the remainder of the experiment (up to 6 h. CHAPSH3b activity (1.65 µM was also assayed in raw (whole and skim and pasteurized (whole and skim milk. Pasteurization of milk clearly enhanced CHAPSH3b staphylolytic activity in both whole and skim milk at both temperatures. This effect was most dramatic at room temperature as this protein was able to reduce S. aureus viable counts to undetectable levels immediately after addition with no re-growth detected for the duration of the experiment (360 min. Furthermore, CHAPSH3b protein is known to be heat tolerant and retained some lytic activity after pasteurization treatment and after storage at 4°C for 3 days. These results might facilitate the use of the peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusions, particularly CHAPSH3b, as

  4. Potential of the Virion-Associated Peptidoglycan Hydrolase HydH5 and Its Derivative Fusion Proteins in Milk Biopreservation

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Donovan, David M.; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between HydH5 and lysostaphin has been assessed. The lytic activity of the five proteins (HydH5, HydH5Lyso, HydH5SH3b, CHAPSH3b and lysostaphin) was confirmed using commercial whole extended shelf-life milk (ESL) in challenge assays with 104 CFU/mL of the strain S. aureus Sa9. HydH5, HydH5Lyso and HydH5SH3b (3.5 µM) kept the staphylococcal viable counts below the control cultures for 6 h at 37°C. The effect is apparent just 15 minutes after the addition of the lytic enzyme. Of note, lysostaphin and CHAPSH3b showed the highest staphylolytic protection as they were able to eradicate the initial staphylococcal challenge immediately or 15 min after addition, respectively, at lower concentration (1 µM) at 37°C. CHAPSH3b showed the same antistaphyloccal effect at room temperature (1.65 µM). No re-growth was observed for the remainder of the experiment (up to 6 h). CHAPSH3b activity (1.65 µM) was also assayed in raw (whole and skim) and pasteurized (whole and skim) milk. Pasteurization of milk clearly enhanced CHAPSH3b staphylolytic activity in both whole and skim milk at both temperatures. This effect was most dramatic at room temperature as this protein was able to reduce S. aureus viable counts to undetectable levels immediately after addition with no re-growth detected for the duration of the experiment (360 min). Furthermore, CHAPSH3b protein is known to be heat tolerant and retained some lytic activity after pasteurization treatment and after storage at 4°C for 3 days. These results might facilitate the use of the peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusions, particularly CHAPSH3b, as biocontrol agents

  5. Fusion Physics

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  6. Fusion breeder

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  7. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  8. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  11. Statistical yearbook 2005. Data available as of March 2006. 50 ed

    2006-08-01

    The Statistical Yearbook is an annual compilation of a wide range of international economic, social and environmental statistics on over 200 countries and areas, compiled from sources including UN agencies and other international, national and specialized organizations. The 50th issue contains data available to the Statistics Division as of March 2006 and presents them in 76 tables. The number of years of data shown in the tables varies from one to ten, with the ten-year tables covering 1994 to 2003 or 1995 to 2004. Accompanying the tables are technical notes providing brief descriptions of major statistical concepts, definitions and classifications

  12. Yearbook on European Energy and Raw-Materials Industry 2013. 120. ed.; Jahrbuch der europaeischen Energie- und Rohstoffwirtschaft 2013

    Hall, Marc; Meller, Eberhard; Milojcic, George; Mueller, Hildegard; Rappuhn, Thomas; Schmidt, Michael; Vahrenholt, Fritz; Wodopia, Franz-Josef (eds.)

    2013-04-01

    The yearbook contains information on mining, oil and gas, electricity, energy distribution, renewable energy sources, power supply industry, environmental protection and natural resources management, trade, authorities, and training and research in Germany and Europe. Organizations are listed, a statistics section contains current data, and a purchasing guide informs on industrial equipment and services.

  13. Changing Perspectives on Research in Reading/Language Processing and Instruction. Thirty-Third Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Harris, Larry A., Ed.

    Reflecting current themes that researchers, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of reading/language processing and instruction, this yearbook presents a collection of 51 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1983. Included are the following articles, listed with their authors: (1)…

  14. Fusion devices

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  15. Fusion research in Hungary

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  16. Fusion safety program plan

    Crocker, J.G.; Holland, D.F.; Herring, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The program plan consists of research that has been divided into 13 different areas. These areas focus on the radioactive inventories that are expected in fusion reactors, the energy sources potentially available to release a portion of these inventories, and analysis and design techniques to assess and ensure that the safety risks associated with operation of magnetic fusion facilities are acceptably low. The document presents both long-term program requirements that must be fulfilled as part of the commercialization of fusion power and a five-year plan for each of the 13 different program areas. Also presented is a general discussion of magnetic fusion reactor safety, a method for establishing priorities in the program, and specific priority ratings for each task in the five-year plan

  17. Pragmatic data fusion uncertainty concerns: Tribute to Dave L. Hall

    Blasch, E

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of Dave Hall's career, he highlighted various concerns associated with the implementation of data fusion methods. Many of the issues included the role of uncertainty in data fusion, practical implementation of sensor fusion systems...

  18. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016; Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden. Jahrbuch 2016

    Poeschk, Juergen (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [German] Standpunkte, Konzepte und Projekte aus Politik und Praxis bilden auch in 2016 die Schwerpunkte des Jahrbuchs, das sich zum Standardwerk der Wohnungs- und Immobilienwirtschaft in Deutschland entwickelt hat. Die Energiewende war lange Zeit ausschliesslich eine Stromwende. Nun aber rueckt das Themenfeld ''Gebaeude'' immer staerker in den Fokus der politischen wie oeffentlichen Diskussion - und zwar durchaus kontrovers. In vorliegenden Jahrbuch wird der Versuch unternommen, das Themenfeld Energieeffizienz in Gebaeuden in seiner Vielschichtigkeit zu beleuchten. Die ueber 30 Beitraege renommierter Fachautoren gliedern sich in folgende Kapitel: Politische Strategien und Positionen, Studien und Konzepte, Energieforschung fuer Gebaeude und Quartiere; Vorbilder aus der Praxis, Mieterstrom: Konzepte und Projekte; Faktor Mensch: Information - Motivation - Verhaltensaenderung.

  19. China Dimensions Data Collection: China County-Level Data from Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed to 1:1M GIS Map

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China County-Level Data on Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed To 1:1M GIS Map consists of socioeconomic and boundary data for the administrative regions of China...

  20. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  1. Peaceful fusion

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  2. Fusion Simulation Program

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  3. Cold fusion

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  4. Cold fusion

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  5. Laser fusion

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  6. Fusion technology programme

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  7. Fusion energy

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  8. Laser fusion

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  9. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  10. Nuclear fusion

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  11. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the lymphoma-associated ITK-SYK fusion-protein

    Hussain, Alamdar; Faryal, Rani; Nore, Beston F.; Mohamed, Abdalla J.; Smith, C.I. Edvard

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent chromosomal translocations have long been implicated in various types of lymphomas and other malignancies. Novel recurrent t(5;9)(q33;q22) has been recently discovered in un-specified peripheral T-cell lymphoma. To elucidate the role of this translocation, the corresponding fusion construct encoding the N-terminal portion of the ITK kinase and the C-terminal catalytic region of the SYK kinase was generated. We herein show that the ITK-SYK fusion-protein is constitutively active. Moreover, we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is phosphorylated on key tyrosine residues and is capable of potently phosphorylating the related adapter proteins BLNK and SLP-76. In transiently transfected cells, SYK was phosphorylated at Y352 but not detectably at the activation-loop tyrosines Y525/Y526. In contrast, ITK-SYK was phosphorylated both at Y212 and the activation-loop tyrosines Y385/Y386, corresponding to Y352 and Y525/Y526 in SYK, respectively. In resting primary lymphocytes, ITK-SYK predominantly localizes to the cell surface. In addition, we demonstrate that following stimulation, the ITK-SYK fusion-protein in cell lines translocates to the cell membrane and, moreover, that this phenomenon as well as SLP-76 phosphorylation are blocked upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibition.

  12. Potential off-normal events and associated radiological source terms for the compact ignition tokamak: Fusion Safety Program

    Holland, D.F.; Lyon, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the latest step in the United States program to develop the commercial application of fusion power, is designed as the first fusion device to achieve ignition conditions. It is to be constructed near Princeton, New Jersey on the site of the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). To address the environmental impact and public safety concerns, a preliminary analysis was performed of potential off-normal radiological releases. Operational occurrences, natural phenomena, accidents with external origins, and accidents external to the PPPL site were considered as potential sources for off-normal events. Based on an initial screening, events were selected for preliminary analysis. Included in these events were tritium releases from the tritium delivery and recovery system, tritium releases from the torus, releases of activated nitrogen from the test cell or cryostat, seismic events, and shipping accidents. In each case, the design considerations related to the event were reviewed and the release scenarios discussed. Because of the complexity of some of the proposed safety systems, in some cases event trees were used to describe the accident scenarios. For each scenario, the probability was estimated as well as the release magnitude, isotope, chemical form, and release mode. 10 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Fusion technology programme

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  14. Kempe's engineers year-book for 1977. Volume II

    Prockter, C.E. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The second volume of this two-volume yearbook contains data on: electrical and electronic engineering; aerodynamics and aircraft propulsion; gas turbines; internal combustion engines; motor vehicles; fuels; fluidics; nuclear energy; gas and gas engineering; steam engineering and steam turbines; marine diesel engines; naval architecture; mining engineering; industrial explosives; air compression, pneumatic equipment, etc.; refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning; lighting; industrial safety and protection; fire protection; highway engineering; surveying; foundation and earthwork; cements, mortars and clay products; buildings; public health engineering; concretes; design of steel structures; bridges and bridgework; paints and coatings; patents, designs and trade marks; depreciation; legal notes for engineers; factory planning and layout; and agricultural engineering. (1325p.) A subject index is provided. (LCL)

  15. Cold fusion

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  16. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  17. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Hakulin, H [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  18. SULA 2 - Energy-efficient steel and metal production. Yearbook 1996; SULA 2 - Perusmetallien energiataloudellinen valmistus. Vuosikirja 1996

    Hakulin, H. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of SULA 2 programme are (1) reduction of specific energy consumption, (2) reduction of harmful emissions and impact on the environment, (3) promoting technology export. Participants in the programme are the steel and base metal producers; Fundia wire, Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy, as well as universities with laboratories for research on metal producing processes and their control such as Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, Aabo Akademi and Tampere University of Technology. The programme consists of 32 research projects, of which 14 are applied technology. The total funding for 1995-1996 is 52,5 mill. FIM. Information on the research results is exchanged at the SULA-seminars arranged in 1994, 1996 and at the beginning of 1999. In connection with the seminars a yearbook will be published. The yearbook contains the reports of all the programme projects

  19. A Review of Data Fusion Techniques

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion. PMID:24288502

  20. Fusion events

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  1. Canadian fusion program

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  2. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  3. Nuclear fusion

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  4. Short fusion

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  5. Magnetic fusion

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  6. Cold fusion

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  7. The management of fusion waste

    Hancox, R.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fusion reactors based on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle will generate radioactive waste as a result of neutron irradiation of the structural materials and absorption of the tritium fuel. An important issue is whether the volume of this waste and the risks associated with it can be reduced to a sufficiently low level that the environmental advantage of fusion can be maintained without incurring unacceptable additional costs. Information is presented on the radioactive waste expected from the decommissioning of three generations of fusion devices - the JET experiment, NET, and power reactors. The characteristics and probable volumes of this waste are considered, together with the risks associated with its disposal. (author)

  8. The management of fusion waste

    Hancox, R.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion reactors based on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle will generate radioactive waste as a result of neutron irradiation of the structural materials and absorption of the tritium fuel. An important issue is whether the volume of this waste and the risks associated with it can be reduced to a sufficiently low level that the environmental advantage of fusion can be maintained without incurring unacceptable additional costs. Information is presented on the radioactive waste expected from the decommissioning of three generations of fusion devices - the JET experiment, NET, and power reactors. The characteristics and probable volumes of this waste are considered, together with the risks associated with its disposal. (orig.)

  9. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  10. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan

  11. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. We have found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser fusion studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  12. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  13. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  14. Search for Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion and decaying to $b \\bar b$ in association with a high-energy photon in the ATLAS detector

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search has been conducted for the $b\\bar b$ decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion in association with a photon and two jets. The search in this $b\\bar b \\gamma jj$ signature benefits from a large reduction of QCD jet background relative to the inclusive $b\\bar b j j$ signature and from the presence of a high-tranverse-momentum photon for triggering. Results are reported from the analysis of 12.6 fb$^{-1}$ of LHC proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector. The observed 95\\% confidence level upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio for a Higgs mass of 125 GeV is $4.0$ times the Standard Model expectation, and the expected upper limit is $6.0^{+2.3}_{-1.7}$. The measured signal strength is $\\mu=-3.9^{+2.8}_{-2.7}$ times the Standard Model value. The analysis methods are also used to search for $Z+\\gamma$ vector boson fusion production in the same $b\\bar b \\gamma j j$ signature. The observed upper limit on...

  15. Splenogonadal Fusion

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion (SGF is a rare congenital non-malignant anomaly characterized by fusion of splenic tissue to the gonad, and can be continuous or discontinuous. Very few cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, and many patients who present with testicular swelling undergo unnecessary orchiectomy under the suspicion of testicular neoplasm. A 16-year-old boy presented with a left scrotal mass and underwent total excision of a 1.6-cm tumor without damaging the testis, epididymis or its accompanying vessels. Pathologic examination revealed SFG (discontinuous type. If clinically suspected before surgery, the diagnosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging, which shows uptake in both the spleen and accessory splenic tissue within the scrotum. Frozen section should be considered if there remains any doubt regarding the diagnosis during operation.

  16. Laser fusion

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  17. Fusion spectroscopy

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  18. Search for Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion and decaying to bb¯in association with a high-energy photon using the ATLAS detector

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for the bb¯ decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion in association with a high transverse energy (ET) photon has been conducted with the ATLAS detector. The high-ET photon provides a distinct signature for both triggering and reducing the large QCD jet background present in the inclusive bb¯jj signature. The talk will focus on new trigger strategy implemented in 2016 data taking to target the specific final state as well as the implementation of the multivariate strategy for the signal extraction. This analysis has been combined with a complementary analysis in the more inclusive bb¯jj final state, which results in a significant improvement in the sensitivity. Results with pp collision data collected in 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented.

  19. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology.

  20. Canadian contributions to the safety and environmental aspects of fusion

    Stasko, R.; Wong, K.

    1987-05-01

    Since next-step fusion devices will be fuelled with mixtures of tritium and deuterium, the knowledge base and tritium handling experience associated with the operation of CANDU reactors is viewed as relevant to the development of safe fusion technology. Fusion safety issues will be compared with fission safety experience, after which specific Canadian activities in support of fusion safety will be overviewed. In addition, recommendations for appropriate fusion safety criteria will be summarized. 18 refs

  1. SIHTI 2. Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1994 of the research programme. Project reports

    Korhonen, M.; Saviharju, K.

    1995-01-01

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilisation of wastes. In additions, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other national research programmes. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The area of research also covers environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. The programme will be carried out in 1993 - 1998. As of 1 January 1995 the Technology development Centre TEKES took over the responsibility for energy technology research and development activities, which were previously administered by the Energy Department of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. This yearbook 1994 contains project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions. (orig.)

  2. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme. Project reports

    Korhonen, M.; Saviharju, K.

    1994-01-01

    The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering research. The promotion of product development within the environmental technology industry produces solutions for reducing the emissions of the energy sector. It is also a way of boosting Finland's share of the world market for such technology. The objectives of the programme are to cut down harmful emissions, recycle raw materials, reduce the amount of byproducts and wastes and achieve a greater utilization of wastes. In addition, an objective is to create basic information about the effects of environmental protection technology for the other research programmes financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The development of internationally comparable research, monitoring and measurement methods creates a basis for wide-ranging international cooperation. The programme, to be carried out in 1993 - 1998, is in part a continuation of the previous SIHTI programme. New areas of research are environmental problems connected with energy in the forest and base metal industries as well as the systematic development of life-cycle analyses. This publication is yearbook 1993 of the programme. It contains the project reports of the research and joint development projects and information about the participating institutions

  3. Writers' & artists' yearbook 2014 the essential guide to the media and publishing industries

    2013-01-01

    The annual edition of the best-selling guide to all aspects of the media and how to write and get published, the Writers' & Artists' Yearbook is now in its 107th edition. Acknowledged by the publishing industry, authors and would-be writers as the indispensable companion to navigating the world of publishing, it appears for the first time as an e-book and in print. The 80 articles are reviewed and updated each year to provide inspirational and how-to guidance on writing for newspapers, magazines, scripts for film, radio and TV; advice on writing and submitting plays, poetry, non-fiction and fiction of all genres - from fantasy to thrillers to romance; how to contact publishers and agents; managing finances as a writer; negotiating legal issues, such as copyright; understanding the editing process; self-publishing and conventional routes; digital and print. Every single one of over 4,500 listings of who to contact, where and for which disciplines across the whole media, are reviewed and most updated, wit...

  4. Perioperative surgical complications and learning curve associated with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a single-institute experience.

    Park, Yung; Lee, Soo Bin; Seok, Sang Ok; Jo, Byung Woo; Ha, Joong Won

    2015-03-01

    As surgical complications tend to occur more frequently in the beginning stages of a surgeon's career, knowledge of perioperative complications is important to perform a safe procedure, especially if the surgeon is a novice. We sought to identify and describe perioperative complications and their management in connection with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). We performed a retrospective chart review of our first 124 patients who underwent minimally invasive TLIF. The primary outcome measure was adverse events during the perioperative period, including neurovascular injury, implant-related complications, and wound infection. Pseudarthroses and adjacent segment pathologies were not included in this review. Adverse events that were not specifically related to spinal surgery and did not affect recovery were also excluded. Perioperative complications occurred in 9% of patients (11/124); including three cases of temporary postoperative neuralgia, two deep wound infections, two pedicle screw misplacements, two cage migrations, one dural tear, and one grafted bone extrusion. No neurologic deficits were reported. Eight complications occurred in the first one-third of the series and only 3 complications occurred in the last two-thirds of the series. Additional surgeries were performed in 6% of patients (7/124); including four reoperations (two for cage migrations, one for a misplaced screw, and one for an extruded graft bone fragment) and three hardware removals (one for a misplaced screw and two for infected cages). We found perioperative complications occurred more often in the early period of a surgeon's experience with minimally invasive TLIF. Implant-related complications were common and successfully managed by additional surgeries in this series. We suggest greater caution should be exercised to avoid the potential complications, especially when surgeon is a novice to this procedure.

  5. Fusion Machines

    Weynants, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    A concise overview is given of the principles of inertial and magnetic fusion, with an emphasis on the latter in view of the aim of this summer school. The basis of magnetic confinement in mirror and toroidal geometry is discussed and applied to the tokamak concept. A brief discussion of the reactor prospects of this configuration identifies which future developments are crucial and where alternative concepts might help in optimising the reactor design. The text also aims at introducing the main concepts encountered in tokamak research that will be studied and used in the subsequent lectures

  6. Fusion research at Imperial College

    Haines, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The historical roots of fusion research at Imperial College can be traced back to 1946 with the pioneering work of G.P. Thomson. At present research in fusion is carried out in several research groups with interdisciplinary work managed by the Centre for Fusion Studies. The principal research activity will be centred on a newly funded 5 TW pulsed power facility allowing an experimental and theoretical study of radiation collapse and fusion conditions in the dense Z-pinch. Laser-plasma studies relevant to inertial confinement are carried out using the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory's Central Laser Facility and the new ultra-short pulse (300 fs) laser facility at Imperial College. There is a significant collaboration on the Joint European Torus and the Next European Torus together with a continuation of a long association with Culham Laboratory. Several European collaborations funded by the Comission of the European Communities and other world-wide collaborations form an integral part of this university programme, which is by far the largest in the UK. After a sketch of the historical development of fusion activities, the current and future programme of fusion research at Imperial College is presented in each of the three broad areas: the Z-pinch, laser-driven inertial confinement fusion and tokamak and other conventional magnetic confinement schemes. A summary of the funding and collaborations is outlined. (author)

  7. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented

  8. Civilian applications of laser fusion

    Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.

    1977-11-17

    The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented.

  9. Bridge-Induced Translocation between NUP145 and TOP2 Yeast Genes Models the Genetic Fusion between the Human Orthologs Associated With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Valentina Tosato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation. In this work, thanks to a complex pop-out methodology of the marker used for the selection of translocants, we succeeded by BIT technology to precisely reproduce in yeast the peculiar chromosome translocation that has been associated with AML, characterized by the fusion between the human genes NUP98 and TOP2B. To shed light on the origin of the DNA fragility within NUP98, an extensive analysis of the curvature, bending, thermostability, and B-Z transition aptitude of the breakpoint region of NUP98 and of its yeast ortholog NUP145 has been performed. On this basis, a DNA cassette carrying homologous tails to the two genes was amplified by PCR and allowed the targeted fusion between NUP145 and TOP2, leading to reproduce the chimeric transcript in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. The resulting translocated yeast obtained through BIT appears characterized by abnormal spherical bodies of nearly 500 nm of diameter, absence of external membrane and defined cytoplasmic localization. Since Nup98 is a well-known regulator of the post-transcriptional modification of P53 target genes, and P53 mutations are occasionally reported in AML, this translocant yeast strain can be used as a model to test the constitutive expression of human P53. Although the abnormal phenotype of the translocant yeast was never rescued by its expression, an exogenous P53 was recognized to confer increased vitality to the translocants, in

  10. Fusion Canada issue 10

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  11. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    Kainz, Hartmann; Donnemiller, Eveline; Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Moncayo, Roy; Bale, Reto; Kovacs, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC ( 99m Tc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99m Tc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99m Tc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  12. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  13. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  14. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power

  15. Fusion technology programme

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  16. Experimental observation and combined investigation of high-performance fusion of iron-region isotopes in optimal growing microbiological associations

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Kornilova, Alla A.; Tashirev, Alexandr B.; Kornilova, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The report represents the results of combined (Moessbauer and mass-spectroscopy) examinations of isotopes transmutation process in growing microbiological associations in the iron-region of atomic mass (50 < A < 60). It was shown that the effectiveness of isotopes transmutation during the process of growth of microbiological associations at optimal conditions is by 10-20 times more than the effectiveness of the same transmutation in one-line' (clean) microbiological cultures. (author)

  17. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  18. Catalysed fusion

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  19. Fusion cuisine

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze to the out......JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze...... to the outside for conceptual inspiration and methodological tools lends itself to a journalism studies that is a fusion cuisine of media, communication, and related scholarship. However, what happens when this object becomes as fragmented and multifaceted as the ways we study it? This essay addresses...

  20. Reading in the 80's: Where Are We Going? Volume 5. Fifth Yearbook of the Arizona State University Reading Conference, 1982.

    Tice, Joan, Ed.

    Contained in this yearbook are the proceedings of the fifth annual Arizona State University Reading Conference. This edition reflects an emphasis on a wide range of topics, including study skills, oral language, and teaching strategies. Following a foreword, the conference articles discuss the following: (1) study skills across the curriculum, (2)…

  1. Inertial Fusion Energy

    Mima, K

    2012-09-15

    In 1917, Albert Einstein suggested the theory of stimulated emission of light that led to the development of the laser. The first laser, based on Einstein's theory, was demonstrated by the Maiman experiment in 1960. In association with the invention and developments of the laser, N.G. Basov, A. Prokorov and C.H. Towns received the Nobel prize for physics in 1963. On the other hand, it had been recognized that nuclear fusion energy is the energy source of our universe. It is the origin of the energy in our sun and in the stars. Right after the laser oscillation experiment, it was suggested by J. Nuckolls, E. Teller and S. Colgate in the USA and A. Sakharov in the USSR that nuclear fusion induced by lasers be used to solve the energy problem. Following the suggestion, the pioneering works for heating plasmas to a thermonuclear temperature with a laser were published by N. Basov, O.N. Krohin, J.M. Dawson, C.R. Kastler, H. Hora, F. Flux and S. Eliezer. The new concept of fusion ignition and burn by laser 'implosion' was proposed by J. Nuckolls, which extended the spherically imploding shock concept discovered by G. Guderley to the laser fusion concept. Since then, laser fusion research has started all over the world. For example, many inertial fusion energy (IFE) facilities have been constructed for investigating implosion physics: Lasers: GEKKO I, GEKKO II, GEKKO IV, GEKKO MII and GEKKO xII at ILE, Osaka University, Japan; JANUS, CYCLOPS, ARUGUS, SHIVA and NOVA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA; OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester, USA; PHEBUS at Limeil, Paris, France; the ASTERIx iodine laser at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, Germany; MPI, GLECO at the Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), ecole Polytecnique, France; HELIOS at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Shengan II at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China; VULCAN at the Rutherford

  2. FUSION BASED MULTIMODAL AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRICS USING CONTEXT-SENSITIVE EXPONENT ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY MODEL : A NOVEL APPROACH

    P. E. S. N. Krishna Prasad; Pavan Kumar K; M. V. Ramakrishna; B. D. C. N. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics is one of the primary key concepts of real application domains such as aadhar card, passport, pan card, etc. In such applications user can provide two to three biometrics patterns like face, finger, palm, signature, iris data, and so on. We considered face and finger patterns for encoding and then also for verification. Using this data we proposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometrics often called Context-Sensitive Exponent Associative Memory Mode...

  3. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  4. Fusion Canada issue 28

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  5. Fusion systems engineering

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  6. Fusion systems engineering

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  7. Fusion fuel and renewables

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  8. The road to sustainable fusion power

    Meade, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Fusion energy has the potential to provide a vital, environmentally attractive energy option for a growing world population in the next century and beyond. While the development of a new energy source is not a critical near term need for the US, there is a need to develop long-term energy options that alleviate the environmental problems associated with fossil fuels. Presently, a world-wide fusion energy R and D program is working toward the goal of establishing the scientific and technological foundations for fusion energy. This paper will concentrate on issues related to determining the scientific feasibility of fusion using magnetic confinement

  9. Salnamelere Göre XIX. Yüzyılda Kırşehir Sancağı Hakkında Bilgiler (1873-1910) (Coğrafyası, Tarihi, Nüfusu, Nahiye ve Kazaları)
    According Yearbooks XIX. Information about Century Ensign Kırşehir (1873-1910) (Geography, History, Population, Canton and Accidents)

    Ahmet GÜNDÜZ

    2012-01-01

    In this study, first at the entrance of what is yearbook? Yearbooks features, among them information about the different names they are issued for different purposes. Looking at the contents of Yearbooks on the date of issue of the Ottoman Empire, administrative organization, institutions, personal biographies, scientific, economic, political, military, cultural and other fields comprise the important information. Even the tombs of the hoist, lodges, mosques, public buildings, shops, places t...

  10. Cold fusion

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  11. Fusion energy

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  12. Institut de recherche sur la fusion par confinement magnetique. Association EURATOM-CEA. Annual report 2008 (executive summary)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 experimental campaign on Tore-Supra has been especially fruitful with the completion of multi-annual programmes bringing important answers, notably on operational aspects of long duration discharges. Concerning JET, particular effort have been devoted to: -) hydrogen isotopes retention studies, -) advanced scenarios studies such as JT60-JET physics identity experiments in ITB regimes, -) the commissioning of the ITER-like ICRH antenna, and -) high power level commissioning of the LHCD antenna and long distance coupling studies. Concerning integrated modelling, the development of the CRONOS code suite has been carried on, with particular emphasis on increasing its reliability and international coverage. CRONOS has been extensively used to investigate steady-state scenarios for ITER and DEMO. Most of the technological developments carried out by the Association concentrates on key domains that apply to ITER: superconducting conductors, actively cooled PFC (plasma facing components), or diagnostics. This document is an executive summary

  13. A medical informatics perspective on health informatics 3.0. Findings from the Yearbook 2011 section on health informatics 3.0.

    Ruch, P

    2011-01-01

    To summarize current advances of the so-called Web 3.0 and emerging trends of the semantic web. We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2011, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of the today's and future activities in the field. while the state of the research in the field is illustrated by a set of fairly heterogeneous studies, it is possible to identify significant clusters. While the most salient challenge and obsessional target of the semantic web remains its ambition to simply interconnect all available information, it is interesting to observe the developments of complementary research fields such as information sciences and text analytics. The combined expression power and virtually unlimited data aggregation skills of Web 3.0 technologies make it a disruptive instrument to discover new biomedical knowledge. In parallel, such an unprecedented situation creates new threats for patients participating in large-scale genetic studies as Wjst demonstrate how various data set can be coupled to re-identify anonymous genetic information. The best paper selection of articles on decision support shows examples of excellent research on methods concerning original development of core semantic web techniques as well as transdisciplinary achievements as exemplified with literature-based analytics. This selected set of scientific investigations also demonstrates the needs for computerized applications to transform the biomedical data overflow into more operational clinical knowledge with potential threats for confidentiality directly associated with such advances. Altogether these papers support the idea that more elaborated computer tools, likely to combine heterogeneous text and data contents should soon emerge for the benefit of both experimentalists and hopefully clinicians.

  14. Radiological and environmental aspects of fusion power

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.; Shoup, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Fusion-reactor technology is presently in conceptual and early developmental stages. Concomitant with hardware development, potential health and environmental impacts must be evaluated to ensure that technologists have pertinent information available so that adequate consideration may be given to health and environmental problems. This article discusses problem areas attendant to tritium, activation products, and magnetic fields associated with fusion-reactor systems

  15. Institut de recherche sur la fusion par confinement magnetique. Association EURATOM-CEA. Annual report 2008 (Full Report)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 experimental campaign on Tore-Supra has been especially fruitful with the completion of multi-annual programmes bringing important answers, notably on operational aspects of long duration discharges. Concerning JET, particular effort have been devoted to: -) hydrogen isotopes retention studies, -) advanced scenarios studies such as JT60-JET physics identity experiments in ITB regimes, -) the commissioning of the ITER-like ICRH antenna, and -) high power level commissioning of the LHCD antenna and long distance coupling studies. Concerning integrated modelling, the development of the CRONOS code suite has been carried on, with particular emphasis on increasing its reliability and international coverage. CRONOS has been extensively used to investigate steady-state scenarios for ITER and DEMO. Most of the technological developments carried out by the Association concentrates on key domains that apply to ITER: superconducting conductors, actively cooled PFC (plasma facing components), or diagnostics. This document is divided into 5 main section: 1) Tore-Supra status, 2) theory and modeling, 3) Experimental physics, 4) technological developments, and 5) participation to W7X construction

  16. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  17. Fusion technology: The Iter fusion experiment

    Dietz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the Iter international fusion experiment, in which the European Union, Japan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA cooperate, were begun in 1985, and construction work started in early 1994. These activities serve for the preparation of the design and construction documents for a research reactor in which a stable fusion plasma is to be generated. This is to be the basis for the construction of a fusion reactor for electricity generation. Preparatory work was performed in the Tokamak experiments with JET and TFTR. The fusion power of 1.5 GW will be attained, thus enabling Iter to keep a deuterium-tritium plasma burning. (orig.) [de

  18. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis associated low-back and leg pain over two years.

    Parker, Scott L; Adogwa, Owoicho; Bydon, Ali; Cheng, Joseph; McGirt, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for lumbar spondylolisthesis allows for surgical treatment of back and leg pain while theoretically minimizing tissue injury and accelerating overall recovery. Although the authors of previous studies have demonstrated shorter length of hospital stay and reduced blood loss with MIS versus open-TLIF, short- and long-term outcomes have been similar. No studies to date have evaluated the comprehensive health care costs associated with TLIF procedures or assessed the cost-utility of MIS- versus open-TLIF. As such, we set out to assess previously unstudied end points of health care cost and cost-utility associated with MIS- versus open-TLIF. Thirty patients undergoing MIS-TLIF (n=15) or open-TLIF (n=15) for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis associated back and leg pain were prospectively studied. Total back-related medical resource use, missed work, and health-state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from EQ-5D with U.S. valuation) were assessed after two-year follow-up. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs on the basis of Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and work-day losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Difference in mean total cost per QALY gained for MIS- versus open-TLIF was assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: COSTmis-COSTopen/QALYmis-QALYopen). MIS versus open-TLIF cohorts were similar at baseline. By two years postoperatively, patients undergoing MIS- versus open-TLIF reported similar mean QALYs gained (0.50 vs. 0.41, P=0.17). Mean total two-year cost of MIS- and open-TLIF was $35,996 and $44,727, respectively. The $8,731 two-year cost savings of MIS- versus open-TLIF did not reach statistical significance (P=0.18) for this sample size. Although our limited sample size prevented statistical significance, MIS- versus open-TLIF was associated with reduced costs over

  19. Review of fusion synfuels

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  20. Barriers to fusion

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  1. Statistical yearbook. 1999. Data available as of 30 November 2001. 46 ed. Annuaire statistique. 1999. Donnees disponibles au 30 novembre 2001

    2002-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth issue of the United Nations Statistical Yearbook, prepared by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It contains series covering, in general, 1990-1999 or 1991-2000, based on statistics available to the Statistics Division up to 30 November 2001. The major purpose of the Statistical Yearbook is to provide in a single volume a comprehensive compilation of internationally available statistics on social and economic conditions and activities, at world, regional and national levels, covering roughly a ten-year period. Most of the statistics presented in the Yearbook are extracted from more detailed, specialized publications prepared by the Statistics Division and by many other international statistical services. Thus, while the specialized publications concentrate on monitoring topics and trends in particular social and economic fields, the Statistical Yearbook tables provide data for a more comprehensive, overall description of social and economic structures, conditions, changes and activities. The objective has been to collect, systematize and coordinate the most essential components of comparable statistical information which can give a broad and, to the extent feasible, a consistent picture of social and economic processes at world, regional and national levels. More specifically, the Statistical Yearbook provides systematic information on a wide range of social and economic issues which are of concern in the United Nations system and among the governments and peoples of the world. A particular value of the Yearbook, but also its greatest challenge, is that these issues are extensively interrelated. Meaningful analysis of these issues requires systematization and coordination of the data across many fields. These issues include: General economic growth and related economic conditions; economic situation in developing countries and progress towards the objectives adopted for the

  2. FUSION technology programme 2003-2006

    Karttunen, S.; Rantamaeki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarises the results of the FUSION technology programme during the period between 2003-2006. FUSION is a continuation of the previous FFusion and FFusion2 technology programmes that took place from 1993 to 2002. The FUSION technology programme was fully integrated into the European Fusion Programme in the sixth Framework Programme (Euratom), through the bilateral Contract of Association between Euratom and Tekes and the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). The Association Euratom-Tekes was established in 1995. At the moment, there are 26 Euratom Fusion associations working together as an European Research Area. There are four research areas in the FUSION technology programme: (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) vessel/in-vessel materials, joints and components, (3) in-vessel remote handling systems, and (4) system studies. The FUSION team consists of research groups from the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), the Helsinki, Tampere and Lappeenranta Universities of Technology and the University of Helsinki. The co-ordinating unit is VTT. A key element of the FUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT, the universities and the industry, which has resulted in dynamic and sufficiently large research teams to tackle challenging research and development projects. The distribution of work between research institutes and industry has also been clear. Industrial activities related to the FUSION programme are co-ordinated through the 'Big Science' Project by Finpro and Prizztech. The total expenditure of the FUSION technology programme for 2003-2006 amounted to euro 14,9 million in research work at VTT and the universities with an additional euro 3,5 million for projects by the Finnish companies including the industry co-ordination. The funding of the FUSION programme and related industrial projects was mainly provided by Tekes (37%), Euratom (38%) and the participating institutes and industry (24%). The

  3. The multislice CT findings of renal carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion and collecting duct carcinoma

    Zhu Qingqiang; Zhu Wenrong; Chen Wenxin; Wu Jingtao [Subei People' s Hospital, Clinical School of Medical Coll., Yangzhou (China)], e-mail: wujingtaodoctor@163.com; Wang Zhongqiu [Dept. of Radiology, East Hospital, Tongji Univ. School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE gene fusion (Xp11.2/TFE RCC), and collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) are uncommon subtypes of renal cell carcinomas. Purpose: To investigate the multislice CT (MSCT) characteristics of these two tumor types. Material and Methods Nine patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC and 10 patients with CDC were studied retrospectively. MSCT was undertaken to investigate differences in tumor characteristics and enhancement patterns. Results: All patients had single tumors centered in the renal medulla. Two patients with each tumor type had lymph node involvement and there was a single case of hepatic metastasis (Xp11.2/TFE RCC). The mean tumor diameter of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was significantly larger than for CDC tumors. Two patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC had cystic components as did eight patients with CDC (P < 0.05). Calcifications were present in six patients, each with CDC. Clear tumor boundaries were visible in two patients with CDC and in nine with Xp11.2/TFE RCC (P < 0.05). The density of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was greater than that of CDC tumors, normal renal cortex, or medulla on unenhanced CT. Enhancement was higher with Xp11.2/TFE RCC than with CDC tumors during all phases. Xp11.2/TFE RCC enhancement was higher than in the renal medulla during cortical and medullary phase but lower than in normal renal medulla during the delayed phase. CDC tumor enhancement was lower than that for normal renal medulla during all enhanced phases. Conclusion: Both tumor types originated from the renal medulla. Distinguishing features included density on unenhanced CT, enhancement patterns, and capsule signs. Identifying these differences may aid diagnosis.

  4. Fusion algebras of logarithmic minimal models

    Rasmussen, Joergen; Pearce, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    We present explicit conjectures for the chiral fusion algebras of the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p') considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The generators of fusion are countably infinite in number but the ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sl(2) structure but require so-called Kac representations which are typically reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fundamental fusion algebra p ≠ 1 is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the results of Gaberdiel and Kausch for p = 1 and with Eberle and Flohr for (p, p') = (2, 5) corresponding to the logarithmic Yang-Lee model. In the latter case, we confirm the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. We also find that closure of a fundamental fusion algebra is achieved without the introduction of indecomposable representations of rank higher than 3. The conjectured fusion rules are supported, within our lattice approach, by extensive numerical studies of the associated integrable lattice models. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere. The agreement of our fusion rules with the previous fusion rules lends considerable support for the identification of the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p') with the augmented c p,p' (minimal) models defined algebraically

  5. Thermonuclear fusion: Current status and future prospects

    Bruhns, H.; Maisonnier, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    Thermonuclear Fusion holds great promises for becoming an important energy source for the future. Fusion research and development is undertaken in al major countries of the world. The European Community pursues fusion in a large programme which embraces all R and D in the field of magnetic confinement fusion in the Member States, and to which Sweden and Switzerland are fully associated. The long-term objective of the programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. The main R and D line of the Community Fusion Programme is fusion by toroidal magnetic confinement on the basis of the Tokamak concept. Some related concepts are also studied which possibly could offer advantages for a reactor, and keep-in-touch activities exist for other approaches. Several small and medium sized specialised devices in Associated Laboratories have been built by the Community Fusion Programme as well as the Joint European Torus (JET Joint Undertaking) which is the largest and the most successful fusion device in the world. Recently, fusion power in the megawatt range has been achieved in JET. The long timescale and the large effort needed for the development of fusion as an energy source have been important elements to foster international collaboration. Engineering Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are undertaken, under the auspices of the IAEA, by the European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The objective of ITER is to achieve self-sustained thermonuclear burn and its control under long-pulse operation and to provide basic data for the engineering of a demonstration fusion reactor. (author)

  6. Development scenario for laser fusion

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power

  7. EBFA: pulsed power for fusion

    Martin, T.H.; VanDevender, J.P.; Barr, G.W.; Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper will describe the EBFA I accelerator under construction for inertial confinement fusion studies with particle beams and will update previous publications concerning particle beam fusion accelerators. Previous information included Proto I, a triggered oil insulated 1 TW accelerator; Proto II, a water insulated 10 TW accelerator; and EBFA I, a 30 TW, 1 MJ accelerator. Some modifications to the original design have occurred. A new pulse-forming-line concept has been developed which increases the flexibility of the accelerator. The major problem of vacuum interface flashover has been solved by the use of long, magnetically-insulated, transmission lines. The first production module of EBFA I has been received, assembled, and is now undergoing extensive testing. The technology is extendable to at least a factor of ten above the projected EBFA capabilities of 30 TW and 1 MJ output. Progress on facilities associated with the Sandia Particle Beam fusion program is reported

  8. Association in Level 2 Fusion

    Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Matheus, Christopher J; Letkowski, Jerzy A; Baclawski, Kenneth; Kogut, Paul

    2004-01-01

    ... system, this cannot be said about the number of possible relations, which can grow exponentially. To alleviate the problems of computational complexity in Level 2 processing, the authors of this paper have suggested the use of ontologies...

  9. Fusion reactor design studies

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  10. Laser fusion: an overview

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  11. Fusion Canada issue 23

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 27

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  13. Fusion Canada issue 20

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 23

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  15. Canada's Fusion Program

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  16. Fusion systems engineering

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques

  17. Fusion Canada issue 6

    1989-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  18. Fusion Canada issue 18

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs.

  19. User's perspective on fusion

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  20. Fusion Canada issue 17

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 18

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  2. CO2-laser fusion

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  3. Fusion Canada issue 9

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  4. Heavy ion fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  5. Fusion Canada issue 17

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  6. Fusion Canada issue 25

    1994-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue an economic impact study of the Canadian site for ITER, Harvey Skarsgard: fusion pioneer retires, NFP: Phillips and Holtslander exchange roles, Europe's fusion funding proposals and an update of CCFM/TdeV. 1 fig

  7. Fusion reactors - types - problems

    Schmitter, K.H.

    1979-07-01

    A short account is given of the principles of fusion reactions and of the expected advantages of fusion reactors. Descriptions are presented of various Tokamak experimental devices being developed in a number of countries and of some mirror machines. The technical obstacles to be overcome before a fusion reactor could be self-supporting are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Cold fusion research

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  9. Fusion Canada issue 9

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  10. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  11. Socio-Economic research on fusion SERF 3(2001-2003) External Costs of Fusion

    Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.; Cabal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Based on SEAFP project (Raeder et al, 1995) findings a preliminary assessment of environmental external costs associated to fusion power was performed under the framework of the first phase of the SERF (Socioeconomic Research on Fusion) project (Saez et al, 1999). This study showed very low external costs of fusion power compared with other traditional and new energy generating technologies. In order to update the assessment of externalities of fusion power, SERF2 project a new plant was included and an analysis of the key variables influencing the external cost was carried out. In the new phase of the SERF project, SERF3, three new additional plant models have been introduced with the aim of assessing the possibilities of silicon carbide to be used as structural material for fusion power plants. Furthermore, comparison of fusion external costs with those of other generation technologies in the state of technology development expected for 2050 has been also performed. (Author)

  12. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of dynamic plates, through increased load sharing across the graft and decreased stress shielding, may improve fusion rates, particularly in long fusions. Nevertheless, adjuvant posterior fixation is recommended for fusions of more than three vertebral levels. Anterior plate fixation may be of particular benefit in the management of traumatic injuries, in revision settings, and in the treatment of smokers. Complications unique to plate fixation include hardware breakage and migration as well as ossification of the adjacent disk levels.

  13. Current status of cold fusion

    Tsarev, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the term cold fusion (CF) was known up to March 1989 as the synonym of muon-catalyzed fusion, suggested by A.D. Sakharov more than 40 years ago. Broad use of this term for the last two years is associated with other kind of phenomena: fusion at ambient room temperature of nuclei of hydrogen isotopes embedded into crystal lattice. Nowadays only few remember the unbelievable resonance in the whole world, caused by the first claims of CF from Utah and associated with hopes of a simple and ecologically safe solution to the energy problems confronting humanity. The range of the interest reflected also the receptivity of our society for scientific ideas and wide development of telecommunication media. Extraordinary simplicity of CF experiments (in sharp contrast with hug complexity and high cost of thermonuclear researches) stimulated fast involvement of a large number of specialists of various profiles. Participation of small groups and even individual enthusiasts disposing of only simplest physical and chemical equipment became possible. Figuratively speaking, everybody with a pair of strong hands and a spade had a chance to find his nugget of gold in this Klondike. As a result: passion, rush and a very nonuniform composition of participants in this race for cold fusion, far from being all property prepared and having sense of responsibility

  14. Fusion technology 1992

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  15. Advanced spheromak fusion reactor

    Fowler, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    The spheromak has no toroidal magnetic field coils or other structure along its geometric axis, and is thus more attractive than the leading magnetic fusion reactor concept, the tokamak. As a consequence of this and other attributes, the spheromak reactor may be compact and produce a power density sufficiently high to warrant consideration of a liquid 'blanket' that breeds tritium, converts neutron kinetic energy to heat, and protects the reactor vessel from severe neutron damage. However, the physics is more complex, so that considerable research is required to learn how to achieve the reactor potential. Critical physics problems and possible ways of solving them are described. The opportunities and issues associated with a possible liquid wall are considered to direct future research

  16. Economics of fusion research

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  17. Economics of fusion research

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  18. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  19. EURATOM-CEA association. Controlled fusion. Management committee nr 79. Activity report. National collaborations (Universities and CNRS). November 2007 - October 2005

    Garbet, X.; Benkadda, S.; Ottaviani, M.; Escande, D.; Blum, J.; Brenier, Y.; Lutjens, H.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Lima, R.; Bertrand, P.; Firpo, M.C.

    2005-12-01

    This publication presents several research projects on controlled fusion lead in collaboration by CNRS and academic teams. The general framework of these projects concerns theoretical developments in gyro-kinetics, transport and equilibrium to develop the required tools for the modelling of fusing plasmas. It comprises a study of characterisation and control of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas, a study on the magnetic self-organisation of fusing plasmas, a gyro-kinetic modelling of tokamak plasmas, a study of identification and optimal control of plasma equilibrium in a tokamak, a gyrokinetic approach to the Vlasov equation, a study of the linear and non linear dynamics of instability modes in a tokamak plasma by using the model of extended magnetohydrodynamics, a study of the control of turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas, and a study of the non linear regime of the n=1, m=1 mode

  20. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    Bilski, P.; Blomgren, J.; d´Errico, F.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Fuchs, A.; Golnik, N.; Lacoste, V.; Leuschner, A.; Sandri, S.; Silari, M.; Spurný, František; Wiegel, B.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 491-496 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:ES(XE) Contract no FI6R-012684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation fields * european high-energy accelerators * thermonuclear fusion facilities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  1. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Mandibular unilateral fusion in primary dentition

    Neena Eregowda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly which occurs due to a union of one or more adjacent teeth during morphodifferentiation of the dental germs. The prevalence of tooth fusion is estimated at 0.5%–2.5% in the primary dentition. These anomalies may be unilateral or bilateral and may affect either dentition although the deciduous teeth are more commonly affected. Early diagnosis of such condition is important because it may cause clinical problems, such as esthetic concerns, and caries. This report describes a case of unilateral fusion of the primary mandibular lateral incisor and canine and aims to evaluate any associated pathology.

  3. Prospects for commercial fusion power

    Dean, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of issues associated with whether or not, and when, fusion will become commercial. One of the largest factors is cost of development. Development is being delayed by the need to work with other countries to share these costs. Other aspects have to do with the capital costs of the reactors themselves. The ITER reactor may cost 6-7 billion dollars, which is a sizeable investment for a test reactor. The safety and environmental aspects of fusion are other factors which have delayed commercialization. Public acceptance of this form of nuclear power and the licensing and regulatory procedures must be resolved before electric utilities are willing to invest heavily in fusion. The Department of Energy has developed a plan as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, wherein a first demonstration power plant will be operating around the year 2025. Much of the ongoing effort is directed toward reducing the size and cost of Tokamak reactors. While Tokamaks are not the only game in town, it is the primary thrust of the world effort and it is the technology which is expected to lead into the first generation of commercial fusion reactors

  4. Recycling fusion materials

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  5. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  6. Laser fusion overview

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages

  7. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  8. Magnetic-fusion program

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  9. Magnetic fusion technology

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  10. Status of fusion maintenance

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  11. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  12. Fusion facility siting considerations

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  13. Nuclear fusion power

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  14. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  15. Inertial fusion energy

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Deutsch, C.; Migus, A.

    2005-01-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  16. Laser fusion program overview

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  17. Frontiers in fusion research

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  18. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  19. Fusion reactor safety

    1987-12-01

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Fusion - the programme in the UK - and other thoughts

    Carruthers, R

    1978-01-01

    The Fusion Programme in the Euratom--UKAEA Fusion Association is mainly one of plasma confinement studies in four major experimental areas. Conceptual studies of fusion reactors have been based upon the tokamak and the reversed field pinch. Particular attention has been given to the potential operating problems of toroidal fusion reactors in order to establish design principles which take note of the high availability essential in a power plant. Future plans for fusion power programmes are discussed and it is suggested that they are not obviously the quickest or most cost effective ways to establishing the credibility of fusion. It is proposed that a more aggressive programme which involved taking calculated risks could be quicker and cheaper. An additional, important advantage would be to attract into the fusion programme good engineers who feel the need to be motivated by action on a time scale less than the 30 to 50 years of much present planning

  1. Nuclear fusion - Inexhaustible source of energy for tomorrow

    Leiser, M.; Demchenko, V.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of nuclear fusion as an energy option for the future and to clarify to some extent the various issues - scientific, technological, economic and environmental - which are likely to be relevant to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Section 1 describes the world energy problem and some advantages of nuclear fusion compared to other energy options. Sections 2 and 3 describe the fundamentals of fusion energy, plasma confinement, heating and technological aspects of fusion researches. Some plasma confinement schemes (tokamak, stellarator, inertial confinement fusion) are described. The main experimental results and parameter devices are cited to illustrate the state of the art as of 1989. Various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, environment, economics and safety are discussed. A description of both bilateral and multilateral efforts in fusion research under the auspices of the IAEA is presented in Section 4. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Fusion reactors and the environment

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of a study group set up in 1971 by the Director of the UKAEA Culham Laboratory to investigate environmental and safety aspects of future commercial fusion reactors (1975, Carruthers, R., Dunster, H.J., Smith, R.D., Watson, C.J.H., and Mitchell, J.T.D., Culham Study Group Report on Fusion Reactors and the Environment, CLM-R148, HMSO, London). This report was originally issued in 1973 under limited distribution, but has only recently been made available for open circulation. Deuterium/tritium fusion is thought to be the most likely reaction to be used in the first generation of reactors. Estimates were made of the local and world-wide population hazards from the release of tritium, both under normal operating conditions and in the event of an accident. One serious type of accident would be a lithium metal fire in the blanket region of the reactor. The use of a fusible lithium salt (FLIBE), eliminating the lithium fire risk, is considered but the report concentrates on lithium metal in the blanket region. The main hazards to operating staff arise both from tritium and from neutron activation of the construction materials. Remote servicing of the reactor structure will be essential, but radioactive waste management seems less onerous than for fission reactors. Meaningful comparison of the overall hazards associated with fusion and fission power programmes is not yet possible. The study group emphasized the need for more data to aid the safety assessments, and the need for such assessments to keep pace with fusion power station design. (U.K.)

  3. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  4. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The fusion reactor

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  6. Fusion Canada issue 8

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  7. Fusion Canada issue 15

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  8. Energy by nuclear fusion

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  9. Fusion helps diversification

    Liang, S.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    A popular strategy for search result diversification is to first retrieve a set of documents utilizing a standard retrieval method and then rerank the results. We adopt a different perspective on the problem, based on data fusion. Starting from the hypothesis that data fusion can improve performance

  10. Fusion Canada issue 22

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  11. International fusion research council

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  12. Fusion Canada issue 15

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it`s role. 1 fig.

  13. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  14. Fusion Canada issue 8

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  15. Sensor Data Fusion

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  16. Coatings for laser fusion

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  18. The IGNITEX fusion project

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  19. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  20. Fusion Canada issue 4

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  1. Fusion Canada issue 12

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington`s Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs.

  2. Fusion Canada issue 22

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  3. Fusion Canada issue 4

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 19

    1992-12-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the IAEA Plasma Biasing Meeting, the new IEA program -Nuclear Technology of Fusion reactors, TFTR tritium purification system, an update by CCFM on machine additions and modifications, and news of a new compact Toroid injector at the University of Saskatchewan. 1 fig

  5. Fusion Canada issue 14

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 12

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  8. Industry's role in inertial fusion

    Glass, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an address to the Tenth Symposium on Fusion Engineering. The speaker first addressed the subject of industry's role in inertial fusion three years earlier in 1980, outlining programs that included participation in the Shiva construction project, and the industrial participants' program set up in the laser fusion program to bring industrial scientists and engineers into the laboratory to work on laser fusion. The speaker is now the president of KMS Fusion, Inc., the primary industrial participant in the inertial fusion program. The outlook for fusion energy and the attitude of the federal government toward the fusion program is discussed

  9. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  10. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28 Si+ 100 Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  12. Fusion safety data base

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  13. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  14. Some fusion perspectives

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  15. Yearbook facility engineering 2009. Facility engineering for electric power grids; Jahrbuch Anlagentechnik 2009. Anlagentechnik fuer elektrische Verteilungsnetze

    Cichowski, Rolf Ruediger (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    The strong changes in the energy market - e.g. deregulation, the influence of the Bundesnetzagentur, globalisation of new technologies, constant issueing and adaptation of standards, require more and deeper knowledge than ever before. Issues like energy efficiency and utilisation of renewable energy sources not only govern public discussions but have also created new, variable professions which challenge experts of energy engineering. The yearbook provides an insight into specific issues, e.g. a calendar of events, trade fairs, product recommendations, services, and further hints for practicians. (orig.) [German] Durch die starken Veraenderungen im Energiemarkt, wie die Liberalisierung, die Einflussnahme auf die Gestaltung der Energieversorgung durch die Bundesnetzagentur, die Globalisierung, die neuen Techniken und damit staendige Anpassungen der Normen bzw. Bewaeltigung neuer Normen durch die Fachleute, nimmt die Vielfalt und der Umfang an notwendigen Kenntnissen staendig zu. Themen wie Energieeffizienz und Nutzung regenerativer Energien bestimmen nicht nur die oeffentliche Diskussion, sondern schlagen sich auch in neuen und sich aendernden beruflichen Taetigkeiten nieder. Dadurch sind die Fachleute der Energietechnik ausserordentlich herausgefordert. Zusaetzlich bietet das Jahrbuch spezifische Themen zu den jeweiligen Jahren, wie Kalendarium, Veranstaltungshinweise, Messen, Produktempfehlungen, Dienstleistungen und weitere Tipps fuer Praktiker. (orig.)

  16. The handling and disposal of fusion wastes

    Broden, K.; Hultgren, Aa.; Olsson, G.

    1985-02-01

    The radioactive wastes from fusion reactor operation will include spent components, wastes from repair operations, and decontamination waste. Various disposal routes may be considered depending on i.a. the contents of tritium and of long-lived nuclides, and on national regulations. The management philosophy and disposal technology developed in Sweden for light water reactor wastes has been studied at STUDSVIK during 1983--84 and found to be applicable also to fusion wastes, provided a detritiation stage is included. These studies will continue during 1985 and include experimental work on selected fusion activation nuclides. The work presented is associated to the CEC fusion research programme. Valuable discussions and contacts with people working in this programme at Saclay, Ispra and Garching are deeply appreciated. (author)

  17. Visualization of graphical information fusion results

    Blasch, Erik; Levchuk, Georgiy; Staskevich, Gennady; Burke, Dustin; Aved, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Graphical fusion methods are popular to describe distributed sensor applications such as target tracking and pattern recognition. Additional graphical methods include network analysis for social, communications, and sensor management. With the growing availability of various data modalities, graphical fusion methods are widely used to combine data from multiple sensors and modalities. To better understand the usefulness of graph fusion approaches, we address visualization to increase user comprehension of multi-modal data. The paper demonstrates a use case that combines graphs from text reports and target tracks to associate events and activities of interest visualization for testing Measures of Performance (MOP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE). The analysis includes the presentation of the separate graphs and then graph-fusion visualization for linking network graphs for tracking and classification.

  18. The growth of European fusion research

    Palumbo, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Euratom initial research programme with fusion as a modest element was constituted in 1958. Progress in fusion research mainly in the USA, USSR and UK was reported at the Geneva Conference held in September 1958. A network of national laboratories cooperating in fusion research was constituted under Association Contracts rather than founding a single Euratom laboratory. Emergence of the Tokamak became evident in 1968, and in 1969 a team from Culham travelled to Moscow to measure the electron plasma temperature and confirmed the previous Russian results. Collaboration between Culham and the European Fusion programme developed before the entrance of the UK into the European Community. The JET design team began its work in 1973. The site selected was at Culham and construction of JET commenced in 1978. Subsequent international discussions including the USA and USSR resulted in detailed design studies for a large device known as the INTOR Tokamak which will probably lead to further international cooperation. (U.K.)

  19. Investigations of image fusion

    Zhang, Zhong

    1999-12-01

    The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D

  20. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  1. Tritium management for fusion reactors

    Rouyer, J.L.; Djerassi, H.

    1985-01-01

    To determine a waste management strategy, one has to identify first the wastes (quantities, activities, etc.), then to define options, and to compare these options by appropriate criteria and evaluations. Two European Associations are working together, i.e., Studsvik and CEA, on waste treatment and tritium problems. A contribution to fusion specific tritiated waste management strategy is presented. It is demonstrated that the best strategy is to retain tritium (outgas and recover, or immobilize it) so that residual tritium releases are kept to a minimum. For that, wastes are identified, actual regulations are described and judged inadequate without amendments for fusion problems. Appropriate criteria are defined. Options for treatment and disposal of tritiated wastes are proposed and evaluated. A tritium recovery solution is described

  2. Mirror Fusion vacuum technology developments

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  3. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  4. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  5. Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 2002/2003; an independent publication from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway

    Stokke, Olav Schram; Thommessen, Oeystein B.

    2002-07-01

    The Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development aims to demonstrate the status of collaboration, the main obstacles to effective international solutions, and how to overcome them. The Yearbook assesses the achievements and the shortcomings of international co-operation, and helps the reader to distinguish between rhetoric and reality. The combination of independent, high-quality analysis and updated reference material makes this Yearbook an indispensable guide for decision-makers in government, international organizations, NGOs, and industry, as well as an essential source book for academic institutions, students, and libraries serving the concerned public. Current Issues and Key Themes in this edition focus on: (1) how effective environmental mega-conferences are in global environmental governance; (2) how the climate change regime can achieve its objective by addressing the very real concerns about climate-change impacts on human beings as much as on healthy ecosystems; (3) how the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme has been an effective regional agent for environmental protection and how it should cope with the challenges ahead; (4) how the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty has contributed to strengthening international cooperation within the Treaty, but nevertheless is hampered by the vagueness of some core requirements and by the unresolved issues of jurisdiction, control, and enforcement in the Antarctic; (5) how the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands-neither rigorous nor extensive in its obligations-has acted as a vehicle for the development of a reasonably detailed policy framework for wetland conservation; (6) how Friends of the Earth International-among the world's largest, most diverse, and most influential environmental NGOs-has such internal diversity, in addition to its geographic spread and lack of agreed political ideology, that it risks its external profile becoming blurred and its internal

  6. Materials for fusion reactors

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  7. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  8. Comparison of different Skyrme forces: Fusion barriers and fusion cross sections

    Puri, R.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion barriers and fusion cross sections are calculated using the Skyrme energy-density formalism. To study the role of different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction, we use two typical forces, i.e., the original Skyrme force S and the widely used Skyrme force SIII. Our calculations show that, in the reactions considered here, the Skyrme force S gives higher fusion cross sections compared to that of the Skyrme force SIII. The main part of this difference can be associated with the presence of the spin-density contribution in the Skyrme force SIII

  9. Mirror fusion reactors

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  10. Mirror fusion reactors

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  11. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  12. Remote sensing image fusion

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  13. Beam dancer fusion device

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  14. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  15. Japanese fusion research

    Uchida, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan experience during thirty years in nuclear fusion research is reported, after attending the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955, Osaka University, immedeately began linear pinch study using capacitor bank discharge. Subsequently to his trial several groups were organized to ward fusion R and D at universities in Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Sendai and son on. Based upon the recommendation of Japan Science Council, Institut of Plasma Physics (IPP) was established at Nagoya University in 1961 When the 1st International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research was held in Saltzburg. The gloomy Bohm barrier had stood in front of many of experiments at that time. (author) [pt

  16. Twisted boundary states and representation of generalized fusion algebra

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tani, Taro

    2006-01-01

    The mutual consistency of boundary conditions twisted by an automorphism group G of the chiral algebra is studied for general modular invariants of rational conformal field theories. We show that a consistent set of twisted boundary states associated with any modular invariant realizes a non-negative integer matrix representation (NIM-rep) of the generalized fusion algebra, an extension of the fusion algebra by representations of the twisted chiral algebra associated with the automorphism group G. We check this result for several concrete cases. In particular, we find that two NIM-reps of the fusion algebra for su(3) k (k=3,5) are organized into a NIM-rep of the generalized fusion algebra for the charge-conjugation automorphism of su(3) k . We point out that the generalized fusion algebra is non-commutative if G is non-Abelian and provide some examples for G-bar S 3 . Finally, we give an argument that the graph fusion algebra associated with simple current extensions coincides with the generalized fusion algebra for the extended chiral algebra, and thereby explain that the graph fusion algebra contains the fusion algebra of the extended theory as a subalgebra

  17. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage

  18. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  19. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  20. Why and how of fusion

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  1. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs

  2. Pacing the US magnetic fusion program

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the priority and pace of the nation's magnetic fusion research and development program in the context of long-term national energy policy. In particular, the committee interpreted its task as follows: To review the implications of long-term national energy policy for current research and development in magnetic fusion; to identify factors that should enter the further development of such policy to reduce risks associated with the future electricity supply system; to propose criteria applicable to research and develop in electric generation in reaching long-term energy policy goals; to apply these criteria to magnetic fusion and alternative electric generation technologies in order to develop recommendations on the priority pace of the magnetic fusion program; and to present its results in a final report. The most important goals of the US Department of Energy's current Magnetic Fusion Energy Program Plan are to demonstrate the scientific and engineering feasibility of fusion, Demonstrating engineering feasibility will require the design, construction, and operation of an engineering test reactor, which the plan envisions financing through a combination of domestic and international funding. The committee believes that current domestic program funding levels are inadequate to meet even the near-term objectives of the plan

  3. Fusion advanced studies Torus

    2007-01-01

    The successful development of ITER and DEMO scenarios requires preparatory activities on devices that are smaller than ITER, sufficiently flexible and capable of investigating the peculiar physics of burning plasma conditions. The aim of the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) proposal [2.1] (formerly FT3 [2.2]) is to show that the preparation of ITER scenarios and the development of new expertise for the DEMO design and RD can be effectively implemented on a new facility. FAST will a) operate with deuterium plasmas, thereby avoiding problems associated with tritium, and allow investigation of nonlinear dynamics (which are important for understanding alpha particle behaviour in burning plasmas) by using fast ions accelerated by heating and current drive systems; b) work in a dimensionless parameter range close to that of ITER; c) test technical innovative solutions, such as full-tungsten plasma-facing components and an advanced liquid metal divertor target for the first wall/divertor, directly relevant for ITER and DEMO; d) exploit advanced regimes with a much longer pulse duration than the current diffusion time; e) provide a test bed for ITER and DEMO diagnostics; f) provide an ideal framework for model and numerical code benchmarks, their verification and validation in ITER/ DEMO-relevant plasma conditions

  4. Microscopic study on dynamic barrier in fusion reactions

    Wu Xizhen; Tian Junlong; Zhao Kai; Li Zhuxia; Wang Ning

    2004-01-01

    The authors briefly review the fusion process of very heavy nuclear systems and some theoretical models. The authors propose a microscopic transport dynamic model, i.e. the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamic model, for describing fusion reactions of heavy systems, in which the dynamical behavior of the fusion barrier in heavy fusion systems has been studied firstly. The authors find that with the incident energy decreasing the lowest dynamic barrier is obtained which approaches to the adiabatic static barrier and with increase of the incident energy the dynamic barrier goes up to the diabatic static barrier. The authors also indicate that how the dynamical fusion barrier is correlated with the development of the configuration of fusion partners along the fusion path. Associating the single-particle potentials obtained at different stages of fusion with the Two Center Shell Model, authors can study the time evolution of the single particle states of fusion system in configuration space of single particle orbits along the fusion path. (author)

  5. Fusion in the energy system

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  6. Fusion-power demonstration

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  7. International aspects of fusion

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  8. Magnetic fusion energy

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in the area of fusion energy include fuel handling, processing, and containment. These studies are closely coordinated with the ORNL Fusion Energy Division. Current experimental studies are concerned with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, the evaluation and development of techniques for recovering tritium (fuel) from either solid or liquid lithium containing blankets, and the use of deep beds of sorbents as roughing pumps and/or transfer operations. In addition, a small effort is devoted to the support of the ORNL design of The Next Step (TNS) in tokamak reactor development. The more applied studies--vacuum pump development and TNS design--are funded by the DOE/Magnetic Fusion Energy, and the more fundamental studies--blanket recovery and sorption in deep beds--are funded by the DOE/Basic Energy Sciences

  9. Fusion technology programme

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  10. Fusion-breeder program

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding 239 Pu and 233 U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed

  11. Cold nuclear fusion device

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  12. Cell fusions in mammals

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  13. Fusion Canada issue 11

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  14. Fusion technology (FT)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  15. Fusion technology development

    1979-08-01

    This report includes information on the following chapters: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) magnetics, (3) plasma heating, fueling, and exhaust, (4) materials for fusion reactors, (5) alternate applications, and (6) environment and safety

  16. Fusion reactor materials

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  17. Fusion cost normalization

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  18. Complimentary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    Alford, Mark G; Jones, Eric C; Bubalo, Adnan; Neumann, Melissa; Greer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus areas were in the following regimes: multi-tensor homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management, pursuit-evasion game theoretic modeling...

  19. Fusion plasma physics

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  20. Fusion power demonstration

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  1. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified review on the status of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research aiming to present the motivation, objective, necessary conditions and adopted methods to reach the objective. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Fusion Revisits CERN

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  4. An advanced fusion neutron source facility

    Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator-based 14-MeV-neutron sources based on modifications of the original Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility are currently under consideration for investigating the effects of high-fluence high-energy neutron irradiation on fusion-reactor materials. One such concept for a D-Li neutron source is based on recent advances in accelerator technology associated with the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator accelerator under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, associated superconducting technology, and advances in liquid-metal technology. In this paper a summary of conceptual design aspects based on improvements in technologies is presented

  5. The Nature of Proof. A Description and Evaluation of Certain Procedures Used in Senior High School to Develop an Understanding of the Nature of Proof. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Yearbook 13 [1938]. Reprint 1966.

    Fawcett, Harold P.

    This yearbook focuses on the teaching of a geometry course emphasizing critical thinking and methods of proof rather than on learning a body of theorems. In the first chapter the problem is defined, and its origin and background are discussed. Next the organization of the experimental situation is described. Chapter 3 gives numerous illustrations…

  6. The fusion dilemma

    Carruthers, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present position in fusion research is reviewed and discussed with relation to the requirements of an economic reactor. Meeting these requirements calls for a mission-oriented project of interdisciplinary character whose timely evolution from one with a research orientation, is a challenging management problem. The cost-effectiveness of future expenditure on fusion research is dependent upon acknowledging this challenge and realistically facing the difficult tasks which it presents. (U.K.)

  7. Possible fusion reactor

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1976-05-01

    A scheme to improve performance characteristics of a tokamak-type fusion reactor is proposed. Basically, the tokamak-type plasma could be moved around so that the plasma could be heated by compression, brought to the region where the blanket surrounds the plasma, and moved so as to keep wall loading below the acceptable limit. This idea should be able to help to economize a fusion reactor

  8. Fusion power plant economics

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Sonoluminescence and bubble fusion

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    2003-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL), the phenomenon of light emission from nonlinear motion of a gas bubble, involves an extreme degree of energy focusing. The conditions within the bubble during the last stages of the nearly catastrophic implosion are thought to parallel the efforts aimed at developing inertial confinement fusion. A limited review on the topic of SL and its possible connection to bubble nuclear fusion is presented here. The emphasis is on looking for a link between the various forms o...

  10. Fusion reactor materials

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) surface blistering studies on fusion reactor materials, (2) TFTR design support activities, (3) analysis of samples bombarded in-situ in PLT, (4) chemical sputtering effects, (5) modeling of surface behavior, (6) ion migration in glow discharge tube cathodes, (7) alloy development for irradiation performance, (8) dosimetry and damage analysis, and (9) development of tritium migration in fusion devices and reactors

  11. Bringing together fusion research

    Leiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing involvement of the IAEA in fusion, together with the growing efforts devoted to this area, are described. The author puts forward the idea that one of the most important aspects of this involvement is in providing a world-wide forum for scientists. The functions of the IFRC (International Fusion Research Council) as an advisory group are outlined, and the role played by IFRC in the definition and objectives of INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) are briefly described

  12. Fusion Canada issue 13

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  13. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  14. Status of fusion technology

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  15. Energy from inertial fusion

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Perspectives of fusion power

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  17. Fusion of Sendai virus with vesicles of oligomerizable lipids: a microcalorimetric analysis of membrane fusion.

    Ravoo, B J; Weringa, W D; Engberts, J B

    2000-01-01

    Sendai virus fuses efficiently with small and large unilamellar vesicles of the lipid 1,2-di-n-hexadecyloxypropyl-4- (beta-nitrostyryl) phosphate (DHPBNS) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, as shown by lipid mixing assays and electron microscopy. However, fusion is strongly inhibited by oligomerization of the head groups of DHPBNS in the bilayer vesicles. The enthalpy associated with fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles was measured by isothermal titration microcalorimetry, comparing titrations of Sendai virus into (i) solutions of DHPBNS vesicles (which fuse with the virus) and (ii) oligomerized DHPBNS vesicles (which do not fuse with the virus), respectively. The observed heat effect of fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles is strongly dependent on the buffer medium, reflecting a partial charge neutralization of the Sendai F and HN proteins upon insertion into the negatively-charged vesicle membrane. No buffer effect was observed for the titration of Sendai virus into oligomerized DHPBNS vesicles, indicating that inhibition of fusion is a result of inhibition of insertion of the fusion protein into the target membrane. Fusion of Sendai virus with DHPBNS vesicles is endothermic and entropy-driven. The positive enthalpy term is dominated by heat effects resulting from merging of the protein-rich viral envelope with the lipid vesicle bilayers rather than by the fusion of the viral with the vesicle bilayers per se. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  19. Work on fusion technology at Studsvik during 1978

    Pauli, R.; Espefaelt, R.; Lorenzen, J.

    1978-02-01

    Studsvik is associated with the EUR-ATOM fusion research program and work within fusion technology is carried out regarding reactor control, conceptual design, safety and environmental impact; radiation damage. In addition research by subcontracts is done in atomic physics data at Lund university and in surface physics at Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm university. (author)

  20. Review for 'Nattoh' model and experimental findings during cold fusion

    Matsumoto, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    A review is described for the Nattoh model that provides the framework of the mechanisms of cold fusion. The model classifies the reactions into two categories: fundamental and associated reactions. The former involves the new 'hydrogen-catalyzed' fusion reaction and the chain-reactions of hydrogens. And extremely exciting physics are involved in the latter. Furthermore experimental findings are described. (author)

  1. Ontology-aided Data Fusion (Invited)

    Raskin, R.

    2009-12-01

    An ontology provides semantic descriptions that are analogous to those in a dictionary, but are readable by both computers and humans. A data or service is semantically annotated when it is formally associated with elements of an ontology. The ESIP Federation Semantic Web Cluster has developed a set of ontologies to describe datatypes and data services that can be used to support automated data fusion. The service ontology includes descriptors of the service function, its inputs/outputs, and its invocation method. The datatype descriptors resemble typical metadata fields (data format, data model, data structure, originator, etc.) augmented with descriptions of the meaning of the data. These ontologies, in combination with the SWEET science ontology, enable a registered data fusion service to be chained together and implemented that is scientifically meaningful based on machine understanding of the associated data and services. This presentation describes initial results and experiences in automated data fusion.

  2. TAF15 and the leukemia-associated fusion protein TAF15-CIZ/NMP4 are cleaved by caspases-3 and -7

    Alves, Juliano, E-mail: jalves@gnf.org [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wurdak, Heiko [Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Garay-Malpartida, Humberto M. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes 1524, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Harris, Jennifer L. [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Protease Biochemistry, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Occhiucci, Joao M.; Belizario, Jose E. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes 1524, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Li, Jun, E-mail: jli2@gnf.org [Protease Biochemistry, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2009-07-10

    Caspases are central players in proteolytic pathways that regulate cellular processes such as apoptosis and differentiation. To accelerate the discovery of novel caspase substrates we developed a method combining in silico screening and in vitro validation. With this approach, we identified TAF15 as a novel caspase substrate in a trial study. We find that TAF15 was specifically cleaved by caspases-3 and -7. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the consensus sequence {sup 106}DQPD/Y{sup 110} as the only site recognized by these caspases. Surprisingly, TAF15 was cleaved at more than one site in staurosporine-treated Jurkat cells. In addition, we generated two oncogenic TAF15-CIZ/NMP4-fused proteins which have been found in acute myeloid leukemia and demonstrate that caspases-3 and -7 cleave the fusion proteins at one single site. Broad application of this combination approach should expedite identification of novel caspase-interacting proteins and provide new insights into the regulation of caspase pathways leading to cell death in normal and cancer cells.

  3. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  4. Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting

    None

    1977-11-02

    The agenda of the meeting was developed to address, in turn, the following major areas: specific problem areas in nuclear energy systems for application of fusion-fission concepts; current and proposed fusion-fission programs in response to the identified problem areas; target costs and projected benefits associated with fusion-fission energy systems; and technical problems associated with the development of fusion-fission concepts. The greatest emphasis was placed on the characteristics of and problems, associated with fuel producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  5. Advanced fusion reactor

    Tomita, Yukihiro

    2003-01-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p- 6 Li and p- 11 B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D- 3 He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D- 3 He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of 3 He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of 3 He is estimated to be in the moon. The 3 He of about 10 23 kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Ion beam inertial fusion

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  7. Fusion Canada issue 29

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  8. Advanced fusion reactor

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  9. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  10. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  11. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  12. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  13. The need for fusion

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris

    2005-01-01

    World energy use is predicted to double in the next 40 years. Currently 80% is provided by burning fossil fuels, but this is not sustainable indefinitely because (i) it is driving climate change, and (ii) fossil fuels will eventually be exhausted (starting with oil). The resulting potential energy crisis requires increased investment in energy research and development (which is currently very small on the scale of the $3 trillion p.a. energy market, and falling). The wide portfolio of energy work that should be supported must include fusion, which is one of the very few options that are capable in principle of supplying a large fraction of need. The case for fusion has been strengthened by recent advances in plasma physics and fusion technology that are reflected in the forthcoming European Fusion Power Plant Conceptual Study, which addresses safety and cost issues. The big questions are - How can we deliver fusion power as fast as possible? How long is it likely to take? I argue for a fast track programme, and describe a fast-track model developed at Culham, which is intended to stimulate debate on the way ahead and the resources that are needed

  14. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  15. Material for fusion reactor

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  16. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  17. Fusion: Energy for the future

    1991-05-01

    Fusion, which occurs in the sun and the stars, is a process of transforming matter into energy. If we can harness the fusion process on Earth, it opens the way to assuring that future generations will not want for heat and electric power. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a viable, environmentally sustainable energy source for the twenty-first century. The booklet presents the basic principles of fusion, the global research and development effort in fusion, and Canada's programs for fusion research and development

  18. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic morphogenetic fusion

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell...

  19. ITER, the 'Broader Approach', a DEMO fusion reactor

    Janeschitz, G.; Bahm, W.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion is a very promising future energy option, which is characterized by almost unlimited fuel reserves, favourable safety features and environmental sustainability. The aim of the worldwide fusion research is a fusion power station which imitates the process taking place in the sun and thus gains energy from the fusion of light atomic nuclei. The experimental reactor ITER which will be built in Cadarache, France, marks a breakthrough in the worldwide fusion research: For the first time an energy multiplication factor of at least 10 will be achieved, the factor by which the fusion power exceeds the external plasma heating. Partners in this project are the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, USA, China, South Korea and India as well as Brazil as associated partner. The facility is supposed to demonstrate a long burning, reactor-typical plasma and to test techniques such as plasma heating, plasma confinement by superconducting magnets, fuel cycle as well as energy transition, tritium breeding and remote handling technologies. The next step beyond ITER will be the demonstration power station DEMO which requires further developments in order to create the basis for its design and construction. The roadmap to fusion energy is described. It consists of several elements which are needed to develop the knowledge required for a commercial fusion reactor. The DEMO time schedule depends on the efforts in terms of personnel and budget resources the society is willing to invest in fusion taking into account the long term energy supply and its environmental impact. (orig.)

  20. Performance limits for fusion first-wall structural materials

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Billone, M.; Mattas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Key features of fusion energy relate primarily to potential advantages associated with safety and environmental considerations and the near endless supply of fuel. However, high-performance fusion power systems will be required in order to be an economically competitive energy option. As in most energy systems, the operating limits of structural materials pose a primary constraint to the performance of fusion power systems. In the case of fusion power, the first-wall/blanket system will have a dominant impact on both economic and safety/environmental attractiveness. This paper presents an assessment of the influence of key candidate structural material properties on performance limits for fusion first-wall blanket applications. Key issues associated with interactions of the structural materials with the candidate coolant/breeder materials are discussed

  1. Vacuum engineering for fusion research and fusion reactors

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are described: (1) surface pumping by cryogenic condensation, (2) operation of large condensing cryopumps, (3) pumping for large fusion experiments, and (4) vacuum technology for fusion reactors

  2. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak

  3. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  4. Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion is presented. The experimental activity associated with the tokamak ISTTOK as well as the work carried out in the frame of international collaboration are summarized. The main technological features of ISTTOK are described along with studies on microwave reflectometry. Future plans are briefly described

  5. The technology of heavy-ion fusion

    Lawson, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of inertial confinement fusion using heavy ion beams as a driver is surveyed, with reference to parameters which might ultimately be suitable for a commercial power station. Particular attention is drawn to the parameters associated with the final focusing of the beam on the target. (author)

  6. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  7. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  8. Ceramics for fusion applications

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  9. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  10. Laser for fusion energy

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  11. Ceramics for fusion applications

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  12. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  13. Fusion reactor wastes

    Young, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The fusion reactor currently is being developed as a clean source of electricity with an essentially infinite source of fuel. These reactors are visualized as using a fusion reaction to generate large quantities of high temperature energy which can be used as process heat or for the generation of electricity. The energy would be created primarily as the kinetic energy of neutrons or other reaction products. Neutron energy could be converted to high-temperature heat by moderation and capture of the neutrons. The energy of other reaction products could be converted to high-temperature heat by capture, or directly to electricity by direct conversion electrostatic equipment. An analysis to determine the wastes released as a result of operation of fusion power plants is presented

  14. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  15. On impact fusion

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  16. Fusion research at ORNL

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress

  17. Ceramics for fusion devices

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  18. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  19. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume II. Design description

    1981-10-01

    This volume summarizes the design of the FED. It includes a description of the major systems and subsystems, the supporting plasma design analysis, a projected device cost and associated construction schedule, and a description of the facilities to house and support the device. This effort represents the culmination of the FY81 studies conducted at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Unique in these design activities has been the collaborative involvement of the Design Center personnel and numerous resource physicists from the fusion community who have made significant contributions in the physics design analysis as well as the physics support of the engineering design of the major FED systems and components

  20. Neutrons and fusion

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  1. Insulators for fusion applications

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  2. International fusion research

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  3. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  4. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  5. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  6. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  7. Fusion Energy Update

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    Fusion Energy Update (CFU) provides monthly abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all sources on fusion energy. All information announced in CFU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by CFU includes plasma physics, the physics and engineering of blankets, magnet coils and fields, power supplies and circuitry, cooling systems, fuel systems, radiation hazards, power conversion systems, inertial confinement systems, and component development and testing

  8. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  9. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  10. Pulsed power for fusion

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  11. Atomic data for fusion

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  12. Small mirror fusion reactors

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  13. Thermonuclear fusion power

    Lehnert, B

    1977-01-01

    The present state and future possibilities of controlled-nuclear-fusion research are reviewed, including basic concepts and problems, as well as various approaches based on magnetic- and nonmagnetic-confinement schemes. Considerable progress has so far been made in both plasma physics and fusion-reactor technology, and a closer relationship has been established between theory and experiments. Still, none of the present approaches will, for certain, lead to the final solution of a full-scale reactor. Intensified work along broad lines, with emphasis also on basic research and new ideas, is necessary for future success.

  14. The European Fusion Programme

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  15. Atomic data for fusion

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  17. Advanced fusion concepts program

    Dove, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  18. Fusion welding process

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  19. Cold fusion in perspective

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  20. The status of beryllium technology for fusion

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R. E-mail: gx1@inel.gov; Shestakov, V.; Kawamura, H

    2000-12-01

    Beryllium was used for a number of years in the Joint European Torus (JET), and it is planned to be used extensively on the lower heat-flux surfaces of the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It has been included in various forms in a number of tritium breeding blanket designs. There are technical advantages but also a number of safety issues associated with the use of beryllium. Research in a variety of technical areas in recent years has revealed interesting issues concerning the use of beryllium in fusion. Progress in this research has been presented at a series of International Workshops on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The most recent workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 15-17 September 1999. In this paper, a summary of findings presented there and their implications for the use of beryllium in the development of fusion reactors are presented.