WorldWideScience

Sample records for fusion materials development

  1. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  2. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  4. The role of materials R&D in the development of commercial fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. W.

    The introduction of new materials into a commercial fusion power plant is the ultimate goal of any long range materials development program. Success requires interactive communication between the design community and materials community to ensure that the materials being developed meet the requirements of the user or customer. This communication can be in the form of participating in project meetings with the reactor designers and providing supporting data. It can also be in the form of a material properties handbook used by the designers and structural analysts. The R&D activities must also support the development of structural design criteria to ensure the reliability and long-life capability of these new materials. This paper examines the materials development issues, looks at the role of ITER and other experimental facilities in materials development, and shows how ITER can be used to develop confidence in the use of new materials in future fusion reactors.

  5. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  6. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  7. Development of whole energy absorption spectrometer for decay heat measurement on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    To measure decay heat on fusion reactor materials irradiated by D-T neutrons, a Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer (WEAS) consisting of a pair of large BGO (bismuth-germanate) scintillators was developed. Feasibility of decay heat measurement with WEAS for various materials and for a wide range of half-lives (seconds - years) was demonstrated by experiments at FNS. Features of WEAS, such as high sensitivity, radioactivity identification, and reasonably low experimental uncertainty of {approx} 10 %, were found. (author)

  8. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  9. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    with the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) under discussion at the time. Worldwide technological efforts are maturing soundly and the time for a fusion-relevant neutron source has arrived according to world fusion roadmaps; if decisions are taken we could count the next decade with a powerful source of 14 MeV neutrons thanks to the expected significant results of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) phase of the IFMIF project. The accelerator know-how has matured in all possible aspects since the times of FMIT conception in the 1970s; today, operating 125 mA deuteron beam at 40 MeV in CW with high availabilities seems feasible thanks to the understanding of the beam halo physics and the three main technological breakthroughs in accelerator technology: (1) the ECR ion source for light ions developed at Chalk River Laboratories in the early 1990s, (2) the RFQ operation of H+ in CW with 100 mA demonstrated by LEDA in LANL in the late 1990s, and (3) the growing maturity of superconducting resonators for light hadrons and low β beams achieved in recent years.

  10. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  11. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  12. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the realization of fusion as an energy source, the development of suitable materials is one of the most critical issues. The required material properties are in many aspects unique compared to the existing solutions, particularly the need for necessary resistance to irradiation with neutrons...... having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected...... as testing under neutron flux-induced conditions. For the realization of a DEMO power plant, the materials solutions must be available in time. The European initiative FEMaS-CA – Fusion Energy Materials Science – Coordination Action – aims at accelerating materials development by integrating advanced...

  13. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO{sub 2}-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm{sup -2}, meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm{sup -2} for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs

  14. Need for development of higher strength cryogenic structural materials for fusion magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Arata

    2014-01-01

    A prototype fusion reactor is targeted as a beyond ITER project which is so called DEMO. Several conceptual designs have been carried out. Recently, in order to recognize practical aspects on maintenance of the prototype reactor, the replacement procedure of in-vessel components was focused and "sector process" was proposed. The process is that the reactor consists of sectors and all sectors will be drowned and replaced in a short time. The slim coil which generated higher magnetic field is required to realize the sector process. From the point of coil design, the occupancy of the structural material on the cross section of the coil increases with an increase of magnetic field. To realize the slim coil, the cryogenic structural material with higher yield strength and the proper toughness is desired.

  15. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  16. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  17. Modelling irradiation effects in fusion materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victoria, M.; Dudarev, S.; Boutard, J.L.;

    2007-01-01

    We review the current status of the European fusion materials modelling programme. We describe recent findings and outline potential areas for future development. Large-scale density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the structure of the point defects in α-Fe, and highlight the crucial...

  18. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast spectrum reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Baldev; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara

    2009-04-01

    The alloys 316L(N) and Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel are the major structural materials for fabrication of structural components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Various factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of these alloys and different modes of deformation and failure in SFR systems, their analysis and the simulated tests performed on components for assessment of structural integrity and the applicability of RCC-MR code for the design and validation of components are highlighted. The procedures followed for optimal design of die and punch for the near net shape forming of petals of main vessel of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR); the safe temperature and strain rate domains established using dynamic materials model for forming of 316L(N) and 9Cr-1Mo steels components by various industrial processes are illustrated. Weldability problems associated with 316L(N) and Mo. 9Cr-1Mo are briefly discussed. The utilization of artificial neural network models for prediction of creep rupture life and delta-ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds is described. The usage of non-destructive examination techniques in characterization of deformation, fracture and various microstructural features in SFR materials is briefly discussed. Most of the experience gained on SFR systems could be utilized in developing science and technology for fusion reactors. Summary of the current status of knowledge on various aspects of fission and fusion systems with emphasis on cross fertilization of research is presented.

  19. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  1. Capabilities of computer materials science and irradiation experiments for irradiation materials database and design methodology development (based on discussions at the {sup I}EA symposium on fusion reactor materials development)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsukawa, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kaburaki, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Wiffen, F.W.; Stoller, R. [ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., AK TN (United States); Sharafat, S. [UCLA, Los Angeles, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., AK CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation by high-energy fusion neutrons of the first wall of a DEMO blanket introduces transmutation produced helium atoms and displacement damage in the structural material to levels of greater than 1000 appm and 100 displacement per atom during typical service lifetimes, respectively. To simulate high levels of helium atoms in materials, doping techniques using species with large helium producing cross sections are often used in fission reactor irradiation experiments. However, the capability of these techniques is rather limited due to the geometric accumulation of dopants and helium along grain boundaries. In recent years, significant progress in modeling and simulation studies on these irradiation effects using large-scale computational techniques has been achieved. However, further improvements in accuracy and reliability of modeling results are needed prior to application of these results to structural design analyses and licensing. Therefore, the community is anticipating the construction of an intense neutron source, such as the d-Li stripping reaction neutron source of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). At the recent 'IEA Symposium on Fusion Reactor Materials Development' held Tokyo, Japan 2006, accomplishments of modeling and simulation studies, results of fission neutron and ion irradiation experiments, and a gap between the knowledge of these activities and design methodology of fusion reactor components were presented and discussed. One of the major conclusions of the meeting was that 'IFMIF is an essential facility in the pursuit of a low-risk path to the rapid development of commercially-viable fusion energy (DEMO). To facilitate highly productive IFMIF and supporting efforts (theory, modeling, and computer materials science), it is also important to enhance the activities of materials development, by continuing irradiation experiments in fission reactors and at other

  2. Technical issues related to the development of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels as structural materials for a fusion blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu, E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Hirose, Takanori; Jitsukawa, Shiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. Because of the possibility of creating sound engineering bases, such as a suitable fabrication technology and a materials database, RAFM steels can be used as structural materials for pressure equipment. Further, the development of an irradiation database in addition to design methodologies for fusion-centered applications is critical when evaluating the applicability of RAFM steels as structural materials for fusion-neutron-irradiated pressure equipment. In the International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) project in the Broader Approach (BA) activities between the EU and Japan, R and D is underway to optimize RAFM steel fabrication and processing technologies, develop a method for estimating fusion-neutron-irradiation effects, and study the deformation behaviors of irradiated structures. The results of these research activities are expected to form the basis for the DEMO power plant design criteria and licensing. The objective of this paper is to review the BA R and D status of RAFM steel development in Japan, especially F82H (Fe-8Cr-2W-V, Ta). The key technical issues relevant to the design and fabrication of the DEMO blanket and the recent achievements in Japan are introduced.

  3. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining.

  4. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  5. Developing Structural, High-heat flux and Plasma Facing Materials for a near-term DEMO Fusion Power Plant: the EU Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Stork, D; Boutard, J-L; Buckthorpe, D; Diegele, E; Dudarev, S L; English, C; Federici, G; Gilbert, M R; Gonzalez, S; Ibarra, A; Linsmeier, Ch; Puma, A Li; Marbach, G; Morris, P F; Packer, L W; Raj, B; Rieth, M; Tran, M Q; Ward, D J; Zinkle, S J

    2014-01-01

    The findings of the EU 'Materials Assessment Group' (MAG), within the 2012 EU Fusion Roadmap exercise, are discussed. MAG analysed the technological readiness of structural, plasma facing and high heat flux materials for a DEMO concept to be constructed in the early 2030s, proposing a coherent strategy for R&D up to a DEMO construction decision. Technical consequences for the materials required and the development, testing and modelling programmes, are analysed using: a systems engineering approach, considering reactor operational cycles, efficient maintenance and inspection requirements, and interaction with functional materials/coolants; and a project-based risk analysis, with R&D to mitigate risks from material shortcomings including development of specific risk mitigation materials.

  6. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  7. Materials Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Tomlinson

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Materials development is both a field of study and a practical undertaking. As a field it studies the principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials, by teachers for their own classrooms and by materials writers for sale or distribution. Ideally these two aspects of materials development are interactive in that the theoretical studies inform and are informed by the development and use of classroom materials (e. g. Tomlinson 1998c).

  8. Development scenario for laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-03-30

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power.

  9. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Noe, Susan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  10. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m/sup 3/ versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m/sup 3/), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.).

  11. Composite materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic matrix composites, CMCs, are being considered for advanced first-wall and blanket structural applications because of their high-temperature properties, low neutron activation, low density and low coefficient of expansion coupled with good thermal conductivity and corrosion behavior. This paper presents a review and analysis of the hermetic, thermal conductivity, corrosion, crack growth and radiation damage properties of CMCs. It was concluded that the leak rates of a gaseous coolant into the plasma chamber or tritium out of the blanket could exceed design criteria if matrix microcracking causes existing porosity to become interconnected. Thermal conductivities of unirradiated SiC/SiC and C/SiC materials are about 1/2 to 2/3 that of Type 316 SS whereas the thermal conductivity for C/C composites is seven times larger. The thermal stress figure-of-merit value for CMCs exceeds that of Type 316 SS for a single thermal cycle. SiC/SiC composites are very resistant to corrosion and are expected to be compatible with He or Li coolants if the O{sub 2} concentrations are maintained at the appropriate levels. CMCs exhibit subcritical crack growth at elevated temperatures and the crack velocity is a function of the corrosion conditions. The radiation stability of CMCs will depend on the stability of the fiber, microcracking of the matrix, and the effects of gaseous transmutation products on properties. 23 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.T. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, D. [CMAM, UAM, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [IFN, ETSII, UPM, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  13. Developing structural, high-heat flux and plasma facing materials for a near-term DEMO fusion power plant: The EU assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stork, D., E-mail: derek.stork@btinternet.com [Euratom – CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Agostini, P. [ENEA, Brasimone Research Centre, 40032 Cumugnano, Bologna (Italy); Boutard, J.L. [CEA, cab HC, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Buckthorpe, D. [AMEC, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Diegele, E. [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IMF-I, D-7602 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [Euratom – CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); English, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Federici, G. [EFDA Power Plant Physics and Technology, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Gilbert, M.R. [Euratom – CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez, S. [EFDA Power Plant Physics and Technology, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, Madrid (Spain); Linsmeier, Ch. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Li Puma, A. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Marbach, G. [CEA, cab HC, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Morris, P.F. [Formerly of TATA Steel Europe, Swinden Technology Centre, Moorgate, Rotherham S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Packer, L.W. [Euratom – CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Raj, B. [Indian National Academy of Engineering, Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg, New Delhi 110016 (India); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IMF-I, D-7602 Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

    2014-12-15

    The findings of the EU ‘Materials Assessment Group’ (MAG), within the 2012 EU Fusion Roadmap exercise, are discussed. MAG analysed the technological readiness of structural, plasma facing and high heat flux materials for a DEMO concept to be constructed in the early 2030s, proposing a coherent strategy for R and D up to a DEMO construction decision. A DEMO phase I with a ‘Starter Blanket’ and ‘Starter Divertor’ is foreseen: the blanket being capable of withstanding ⩾2 MW yr m{sup −2} fusion neutron fluence (∼20 dpa in the front-wall steel). A second phase ensues for DEMO with ⩾5 MW yr m{sup −2} first wall neutron fluence. Technical consequences for the materials required and the development, testing and modelling programmes, are analysed using: a systems engineering approach, considering reactor operational cycles, efficient maintenance and inspection requirements, and interaction with functional materials/coolants; and a project-based risk analysis, with R and D to mitigate risks from material shortcomings including development of specific risk mitigation materials. The DEMO balance of plant constrains the blanket and divertor coolants to remain unchanged between the two phases. The blanket coolant choices (He gas or pressurised water) put technical constraints on the blanket steels, either to have high strength at higher temperatures than current baseline variants (above 650 °C for high thermodynamic efficiency from He-gas coolant), or superior radiation-embrittlement properties at lower temperatures (∼290–320 °C), for construction of water-cooled blankets. Risk mitigation proposed would develop these options in parallel, and computational and modelling techniques to shorten the cycle-time of new steel development will be important to achieve tight R and D timescales. The superior power handling of a water-cooled divertor target suggests a substructure temperature operating window (∼200–350 °C) that could be realised, as a

  14. Developing structural, high-heat flux and plasma facing materials for a near-term DEMO fusion power plant: The EU assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Agostini, P.; Boutard, J. L.; Buckthorpe, D.; Diegele, E.; Dudarev, S. L.; English, C.; Federici, G.; Gilbert, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Li Puma, A.; Marbach, G.; Morris, P. F.; Packer, L. W.; Raj, B.; Rieth, M.; Tran, M. Q.; Ward, D. J.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The findings of the EU 'Materials Assessment Group' (MAG), within the 2012 EU Fusion Roadmap exercise, are discussed. MAG analysed the technological readiness of structural, plasma facing and high heat flux materials for a DEMO concept to be constructed in the early 2030s, proposing a coherent strategy for R&D up to a DEMO construction decision. A DEMO phase I with a 'Starter Blanket' and 'Starter Divertor' is foreseen: the blanket being capable of withstanding ⩾2 MW yr m-2 fusion neutron fluence (∼20 dpa in the front-wall steel). A second phase ensues for DEMO with ⩾5 MW yr m-2 first wall neutron fluence. Technical consequences for the materials required and the development, testing and modelling programmes, are analysed using: a systems engineering approach, considering reactor operational cycles, efficient maintenance and inspection requirements, and interaction with functional materials/coolants; and a project-based risk analysis, with R&D to mitigate risks from material shortcomings including development of specific risk mitigation materials. The DEMO balance of plant constrains the blanket and divertor coolants to remain unchanged between the two phases. The blanket coolant choices (He gas or pressurised water) put technical constraints on the blanket steels, either to have high strength at higher temperatures than current baseline variants (above 650 °C for high thermodynamic efficiency from He-gas coolant), or superior radiation-embrittlement properties at lower temperatures (∼290-320 °C), for construction of water-cooled blankets. Risk mitigation proposed would develop these options in parallel, and computational and modelling techniques to shorten the cycle-time of new steel development will be important to achieve tight R&D timescales. The superior power handling of a water-cooled divertor target suggests a substructure temperature operating window (∼200-350 °C) that could be realised, as a baseline-concept, using tungsten on a copper

  15. The Development of Low Activation Ferritic Steels for Fusion Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kohyama, A; Hishinuma, A.; Kohno, Y; Shiba, K; Sagara, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R & D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progres...

  16. Structural materials for fission & fusion energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Zinkle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural materials represent the key for containment of nuclear fuel and fission products as well as reliable and thermodynamically efficient production of electrical energy from nuclear reactors. Similarly, high-performance structural materials will be critical for the future success of proposed fusion energy reactors, which will subject the structures to unprecedented fluxes of high-energy neutrons along with intense thermomechanical stresses. Advanced materials can enable improved reactor performance via increased safety margins and design flexibility, in particular by providing increased strength, thermal creep resistance and superior corrosion and neutron radiation damage resistance. In many cases, a key strategy for designing high-performance radiation-resistant materials is based on the introduction of a high, uniform density of nanoscale particles that simultaneously provide good high temperature strength and neutron radiation damage resistance.

  17. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  18. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-15

    {center_dot} Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. {center_dot} Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances {center_dot} Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  19. Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

  20. Development of coatings for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. E-mail: dalesmith@anl.gov; Konys, J.; Muroga, T.; Evitkhin, V

    2002-12-01

    Coatings have been proposed as the solution to critical materials constraints for most of the blanket concepts under development for fusion power applications. However, the international programs on coating development are focused primarily on electrically insulating coatings to mitigate the magneto-hydrodynamic pressure drop in self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concepts, and on tritium permeation barriers to reduce tritium permeation from Pb-Li into the water coolant in water-cooled Pb-Li concepts. Emphasis of the insulator coating development is on CaO and AlN coatings formed on vanadium alloys either in situ in lithium or by vapor deposition processes. The tritium barrier coating development is focused on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on aluminized martensitic steels by several processes. This paper presents an overview of the fundamental materials issues associated with the various coatings and the status of coating development for the various applications.

  1. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  2. Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    SLL 80 676 copy 1 SAN D78-2306 Unlimited Release UC-21 aM* m ml 8 H Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications Research Progress...Printed Copy $6.00; Microfiche $3.00 Accession Number: 3885 Publication Date: Dec 01,1978 Title: Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications...Document: Archive, RRI, DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Laser Development Fusion Application Oscillator Amplifier Geometry Electron Beam Iodine Hydrogen

  3. Development of radiation fusion biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-04-15

    Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready to eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Selection of 20 kinds of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling (fractionated irradiation of total 5Gy, a lapse of 4 months or more - Selection of effective aging modulating substances by screening of 800 natural substances - Development of 1 multi-functional and high-efficacy aging modulator by combination of effective substances and evaluation by in vivo models Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 100 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing. - Establishment of multi-channel type Lab on a chip (LOC) using

  4. Baseline high heat flux and plasma facing materials for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Ito, A.; Hasegawa, A.; Hardie, C.; Porton, M.; Gilbert, M.

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, surfaces of plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat and particle flux. Tungsten and Copper alloys are primary candidates for plasma facing materials (PFMs) and coolant tube materials, respectively, mainly due to high thermal conductivity and, in the case of tungsten, its high melting point. In this paper, recent understandings and future issues on responses of tungsten and Cu alloys to fusion environments (high particle flux (including T and He), high heat flux, and high neutron doses) are reviewed. This review paper includes; Tritium retention in tungsten (K. Schmid and M. Balden), Impact of stationary and transient heat loads on tungsten (J.W. Coenen and Th. Loewenhoff), Helium effects on surface morphology of tungsten (Y. Ueda and A. Ito), Neutron radiation effects in tungsten (A. Hasegawa), and Copper and copper alloys development for high heat flux components (C. Hardie, M. Porton, and M. Gilbert).

  5. Recent developments concerning the fusion; Developpements recents sur la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Andre, M. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Aymar, R. [ITER Joint Central Team Garching, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    2000-09-04

    Organized the 9 march 2000 by the SFEN, this meeting on the european program concerning the fusion, showed the utility of the exploitation and the enhancement of the actual technology (JET, Tore Supra, ASDEX) and the importance of the Europe engagement in the ITER program. The physical stakes for the magnetic fusion have been developed with a presentation of the progresses in the knowledge of the stability limits. A paper on the inertial fusion was based on the LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) project. The two blanket concepts chosen in the scope of the european program on the tritium blankets, have been discussed. These concepts will be validated by irradiation tests in the ITER-FEAT and adapted for a future reactor. (A.L.B.)

  6. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  7. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  8. Investigation of materials for fusion power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Slugeň, V.; Sojak, S.; Veterníková, J.; Petriska, M.; Bartošová, I.

    2014-06-01

    The possibility of application of nuclear-physical methods to observe radiation damage to structural materials of nuclear facilities is nowadays a very actual topic. The radiation damage to materials of advanced nuclear facilities, caused by extreme radiation stress, is a process, which significantly limits their operational life as well as their safety. In the centre of our interest is the study of the radiation degradation and activation of the metals and alloys for the new nuclear facilities (Generation IV fission reactors, fusion reactors ITER and DEMO). The observation of the microstructure changes in the reactor steels is based on experimental investigation using the method of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental part of the work contains measurements focused on model reactor alloys and ODS steels. There were 12 model reactor steels and 3 ODS steels. We were investigating the influence of chemical composition on the production of defects in crystal lattice. With application of the LT 9 program, the spectra of specimen have been evaluated and the most convenient samples have been determined.

  9. Spin-off produced by the fusion research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear fusion devices are constructed by the integration of many frontier technologies and fusion science based on a wide area of science such as physics, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, material engineering, heat transfer and heat flow, thermal engineering, neutronics, cryogenics, chemical engineering, control engineering, instrumentation engineering, vacuum engineering. For this, the research and development of elementary technology for fusion devices contributes to advance the technology level of each basic field. In addition, the mutual stimulus among various research fields contributes to increase the potential level of whole 'science and technology'. The spin-offs produced by the fusion technology development give much contribution not only to the general industrial technologies such as semiconductor technology, precision machining of large component, but also contribute to the progress of the accelerator technology, application technology of superconductivity, instrumentation and diagnostics, plasma application technology, heat-resistant and heavy radiation-resistant material technology, vacuum technology, and computer simulation technology. The spin-off produced by the fusion technology development expedite the development of frontier technology of other field and give much contribution to the progress of basic science on physics, space science, material science, medical science, communication, and environment. This report describes the current status of the spin-off effects of fusion research and development by focusing on the contribution of technology development for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to industrial technology. The possibilities of future application in the future are also included in this report from the view point of researchers working for nuclear fusion development. Although the nuclear fusion research has a characteristic to integrate the frontier

  10. Concept of Staged Approach for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, M; Takeuchi, H

    2000-01-01

    The intense neutron source for development of fusion materials planned by international collaboration makes a new step to clarify the technical issues for realizing the 40 MeV, 250 mA deuteron beam facility. The baseline concept employs two identical 125 mA linac modules whose beams are combined at the flowing lithium target. Recent work for reducing the cost loading concerns the staged deployment of the full irradiation capability in three steps. The Japanese activity about the design and development study about IFMIF accelerator in this year is presented and the schedule of next several years is overviewed.

  11. Fusion reactor materials. Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee`, S.S.; Dowker, C.L. [comps.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  12. Silicon carbide as an advanced material for long-term fusion reactor development programs; Il Carburo di silicio come materiale avanzato per i programmi long-term relativi ai futuri reattori a fusione nucleare: Review sulle tecnologie applicative e sullo stato della ricerca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, A.

    1991-10-01

    Silicon carbide is being considered a possible candidate low activation material for the construction of important components (e.g., first wall coating, limitors, divertors and beam stops) of future commercial fusion reactors which will require excellent thermal and mechanical behaviour in high temperature environments and very high irradiation fields. In this paper a literature review covering the last ten years (up to 1990) is reported. It concerns silicon carbide properties, its relative manufacturing technologies and technological developments. One hundred and twenty-seven papers published in scientific magazines were selected and reviewed, out of 400 concerning silicon carbide in general. Several important analogies and possible industrial synergies for its use both in fusion reactors and in aerospace devices were found. The material as produced today, the design methodology and the technology are relatively new and seem to need further development. Moreover, extensive research work is necessary to better evaluate silicon carbide behaviour in fusion reactor operating conditions.

  13. Status and problems of fusion reactor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, U

    2001-03-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes.

  14. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  15. Design and development of fusion materials database system(FUMDS)%聚变材料数据库平台FUMDS的设计与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭蕾; 黄群英; 李春京; 李艳芬; 章毛连; 陈明亮; 吴宜灿; FDS团队

    2007-01-01

    聚变材料数据库平台(FUMDS,FUsion Materials Database System)收集了聚变材料研究相关的各种材料的数据,运用现代计算机技术和数据分析方法,对材料数据进行系统的管理和分析,为聚变堆设计以及聚变材料的研究和工程制备提供数据支持.

  16. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  17. An Investigation for Ground State Features of Some Structural Fusion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, H.; Tel, E.; Baldik, R.; Aydin, A.

    2011-02-01

    Environmental concerns associated with fossil fuels are creating increased interest in alternative non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. When considered in all energy systems, the requirements for performance of structural materials in a fusion reactor first wall, blanket or diverter, are arguably more demanding or difficult than for other energy system. The development of fusion materials for the safety of fusion power systems and understanding nuclear properties is important. In this paper, ground state properties for some structural fusion materials as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe are investigated using Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  18. The development of low activation ferritic steels for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Hishinuma, A.; Kohno, Y.; Shiba, K.; Sagara, A.

    1997-03-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R and D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progress as an activity of the International Energy Agency (IEA) fusion materials working group to verify the feasibility of using ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion by an extensive test program covering the most relevant technical issues for the qualification of a material for a nuclear application. The development of a comprehensive data base on the representative industrially processed reduced-activation steels of type 8-9Cr-2WVTa is underway for providing designers a preliminary set of material data for the mechanical design of components, e.g. for DEMO relevant blanket modules. The current design status of FFHR and SSTR utilizing low-activation ferritic steels is reviewed and future prospects are defined. (author)

  19. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  20. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G.

    2000-03-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components.

  1. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1999-09-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and its reported separately.

  2. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliff, A.F.; Burn, G.

    1999-04-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately.

  3. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, S.E.

    2001-02-13

    This is the twenty-eighth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately.

  4. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-09-01

    This is the second in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities in the following areas: (1) Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; (2) Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and (3) Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. Separate analytics were prepared for the reports in this volume.

  5. Designing Radiation Resistance in Materials for Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    Proposed fusion and advanced (Generation IV) fission energy systems require high-performance materials capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 atomic displacements per atom with large amounts of transmutant hydrogen and helium isotopes. After a brief overview of fusion reactor concepts and radiation effects phenomena in structural and functional (nonstructural) materials, three fundamental options for designing radiation resistance are outlined: Utilize matrix phases with inherent radiation tolerance, select materials in which vacancies are immobile at the design operating temperatures, or engineer materials with high sink densities for point defect recombination. Environmental and safety considerations impose several additional restrictions on potential materials systems, but reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels (including thermomechanically treated and oxide dispersion-strengthened options) and silicon carbide ceramic composites emerge as robust structural materials options. Materials modeling (including computational thermodynamics) and advanced manufacturing methods are poised to exert a major impact in the next ten years.

  6. Fusion technology development annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In FY96, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Design Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), SiC/SiC Composite Material Development (Section 4), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, the authors carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  7. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW....... The energy pay back time, defined later in Section 6, is little more than half a year for a fusion plant with capacity 1 GWe. Only the electrical energy is accounted for as released energy not the thermal energy. In all these indicators, fusion compares well with conventional technologies while it consumes...

  8. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. [ed.] [comp.

    1998-09-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. High temperature indentation tests on fusion reactor candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.montanari@uniroma2.it; Filacchioni, G. [ENEA CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S.M. di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Iacovone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Plini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Riccardi, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, P.O. Box 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-01

    Flat-top cylinder indenter for mechanical characterization (FIMEC) is an indentation technique employing cylindrical punches with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm. The test gives pressure-penetration curves from which the yield stress can be determined. The FIMEC apparatus was developed to test materials in the temperature range from -180 to +200 {sup o}C. Recently, the heating system of FIMEC apparatus has been modified to operate up to 500 {sup o}C. So, in addition to providing yield stress over a more extended temperature range, it is possible to perform stress-relaxation tests at temperatures of great interest for several nuclear fusion reactor (NFR) alloys. Data on MANET-II, F82H mod., Eurofer-97, EM-10, AISI 316 L, Ti6Al4V and CuCrZr are presented and compared with those obtained by mechanical tests with standard methods.

  10. Hydrogen isotopes transport parameters in fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, E. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Benamati, G. [ENEA Fusion Division, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camungnano, Bologna (Italy); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    This work presents a review of hydrogen isotopes-materials interactions in various materials of interest for fusion reactors. The relevant parameters cover mainly diffusivity, solubility, trap concentration and energy difference between trap and solution sites. The list of materials includes the martensitic steels (MANET, Batman and F82H-mod.), beryllium, aluminium, beryllium oxide, aluminium oxide, copper, tungsten and molybdenum. Some experimental work on the parameters that describe the surface effects is also mentioned. (orig.) 62 refs.

  11. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V. [Kazakhstan State University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Y. [Kazakh National University, Kourmangazy 15, app.lO, 480100 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Azizov, E. [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, O. [Effremov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, P.O. Box 369, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the

  12. Ablation-erosion analyses of various fusion material surfaces and developments of surface erosion monitors for notification of fusion chamber maintenance times, as an example: Visible light transparent SiC and up-conversion phosphors applied to plasma facing surface structures, useful for versatile purposes to protect and diagnose fusion chambers and so on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, K.; Motokoshi, S.; Taniguchi, S.; Nakai, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Frolov, O.; Straus, J.; Matejicek, J.; Choukourov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of pulsed lasers in Japan and Czech Republic were used to irradiate various sample materials to investigate the surface erosion thresholds under very hazardous environments including nuclear fusion chambers. The first was ArF laser in ILT and the second was XUV laser in IPP. These data were in-cooperated with our former data to build up our material strength data for our succeeding applications of various materials to a variety of fields. As an example, we proposed surface erosion monitors to notice the fusion chamber maintenance times with which the facilities can be protected from the collapses under very severe operation conditions. These kinds of monitors are expected to be useful for future different kinds of mechanical structures not only for the fusion chambers but also various chambers for many purposes. Special upconversion phosphors are also newly proposed to be used as the candidate materials to measure the thermal inputs onto the front surfaces of the armor structures. Optical transparent SiC was also newly tested to enrich our data base for our future diagnostic and protection possibilities.

  13. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srikumar

    2014-12-01

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu-1 wt%Cr-0.1 wt%Zr - an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall - was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead-lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li2TiO3 pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb-Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U-shaped first wall of the TBM box

  14. Technical Developments for Harnessing Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Jacob, W.

    This chapter gives the conditions for achieving power production using nuclear fusion reactions. The two basic schemes for plasma confinement, inertial and magnetic, are briefly considered and the present technical solutions are outlined. The physical and chemical processes taking place between the hot plasma and the containing vessel wall are discussed in more detail. At the end of the chapter, the present status of research and the planned future development plans are summarized.

  15. Status of R&D Activities on Materials for Fusion Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baluc, N.; Abe, K.; Boutard, J. L.; Chernov, V. M.; Diegele, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, Akihiko; Klueh, R. L.; Kohyama, Akira; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lasser, R.; Matsui, H.; Moslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Odette, George R.; Tran, M. Q.; van der Schaaf, B.; Wu, Y.; Yu, J.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2007-09-19

    Current R&D activities on materials for fusion power reactors are mainly focused on plasma facing, structural and tritium breeding materials for plasma facing (first wall, divertor) and breeding blanket components. Most of these activities are being performed in Europe, Japan, P.R. China, Russia and the USA. They relate to development of new high temperature, radiation resistant materials, development of coatings that shall act as erosion, corrosion, permeation or electrical/MHD barriers, characterization of the whole candidate materials in terms of mechanical and physical properties, assessment of irradiation effects, compatibility experiments, development of reliable joints, and development and/or validation of design rules. Priorities defined worldwide in the field of materials for fusion power reactors are summarized, as well as the main achievements obtained during the last few years and the near-term perspectives in the different investigation areas.

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This is the twelfth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  17. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-07-01

    This is the tenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance; damage analysis and fundamental studies; special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the test of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  18. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: {sm_bullet} Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance. {sm_bullet} Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies. {sm_bullet} Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. This report has been compiled and edited under the guidance of A.F. Rowcliffe by Gabrielle Burn, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their efforts, and the efforts of the many persons who made technical contributions, are gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1988-03-01

    This is the third in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performances; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  20. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This is the seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance, damage analysis and fundamental studies, and special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  1. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This is the ninth in series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development of Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  2. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armstrong, D.E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue, de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Basuki, W.W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Battabyal, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Blagoeva, D. [NRG, Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Boldyryeva, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Praha (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-01-15

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  3. Fusion technology development. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In FY95, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies (Section 2), DiMES (Section 3), SiC Composite Studies (Section 4), Magnetic Probe (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  4. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. [ed.] [comp.

    1998-03-01

    This is the twenty-third in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. A large fraction of this work, particularly in relation to fission reactor experiments, is carried out collaboratively with their partners in Japan, Russia, and the European Union. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Double differential light charged particle emission cross sections for some structural fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpün, Ismail Hakki; n, Abdullah Aydı; Tel, Eyyup

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, neutron induced radioactivity strongly depends on the irradiated material. So, a proper selection of structural materials will have been limited the radioactive inventory in a fusion reactor. First-wall and blanket components have high radioactivity concentration due to being the most flux-exposed structures. The main objective of fusion structural material research is the development and selection of materials for reactor components with good thermo-mechanical and physical properties, coupled with low-activation characteristics. Double differential light charged particle emission cross section, which is a fundamental data to determine nuclear heating and material damages in structural fusion material research, for some elements target nuclei have been calculated by the TALYS 1.8 nuclear reaction code at 14-15 MeV neutron incident energy and compared with available experimental data in EXFOR library. Direct, compound and pre-equilibrium reaction contribution have been theoretically calculated and dominant contribution have been determined for each emission of proton, deuteron and alpha particle.

  6. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures, volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Tobler, R. L.

    1989-11-01

    The results are given of a research program to determine the properties of materials that may be used in cryogenic structures for the superconducting magnets of fusion energy power plants and prototypes. The program was developed jointly by the staffs of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Office of Fusion Energy of the Department of Energy. Research results for 1988 are presented in technical papers under four headings that reflect the main program areas: Structural Alloys; Welding; Technology Transfer; and United States-Japan Development of Test Standards. Objectives and research highlights are summarized in the introduction to each program area.

  7. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  8. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  9. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-09-01

    These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The major areas of concern covered in this report are irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; ceramics and superconducting magnet materials. There are 61 reports cataloged separately. (LSP)

  10. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K. [Vista Metals, Inc., McKeesport, PA (United States); Froes, F.H. [Univ. of Idaho, ID (United States); Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with high temperature strength has been developed in line with low activation criteria for application in fusion power systems. The composition Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sup 3} was chosen to provide a minimum chromium content to insure fully delta-ferrite stability. High temperature strength has been demonstrated by measuring creep response of the ODS alloy in uniaxial tension at 650 and 900 C in an inert atmosphere chamber. Results of tests at 900 C demonstrate that this alloy has creep properties similar to other alloys of similar design and can be considered for use in high temperature fusion power system designs. The alloy selection process, materials production, microstructural evaluation and creep testing are described.

  11. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D. K.; Froes, F. H.; Gelles, D. S.

    1998-10-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with high temperature strength has been developed in line with low activation criteria for application in fusion power systems. The composition Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25Y 2O 3 was chosen to provide a minimum chromium content to insure fully delta-ferrite stability. High temperature strength has been demonstrated by measuring creep response of the ODS alloy in uniaxial tension at 650°C and 900°C in an inert atmosphere chamber. Results of tests at 900°C demonstrate that this alloy has creep properties similar to other alloys of similar design and can be considered for use in high temperature fusion power system designs. The alloy selection process, materials production, microstructural evaluation and creep testing are described.

  12. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops` as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems.

  13. LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Susana; Dunne, Mike; Kramer, Kevin; Anklam, Tom; Havstad, Mark; Mazuecos, Antonio Lafuente; Miles, Robin; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Deri, Bob

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed at LLNL in partnership with other institutions with the goal to deliver baseload electricity from safe, secure, sustainable fusion power in a time scale that is consistent with the energy market needs. For this purpose, the LIFE design takes advantage of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology and adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units used on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. The LIFE market entry plant will demonstrate the feasibility of a closed fusion fuel cycle, including tritium breeding, extraction, processing, refueling, accountability, and safety, in a steady-state power-producing device. While many fusion plant designs require large quantities of tritium for startup and operations, a range of design choices made for the LIFE fuel cycle act to reduce the in-process tritium inventory. This paper presents an overview of the delivery plan and the preconceptual design of the LIFE facility with emphasis on the key safety design principles being adopted. In order to illustrate the favorable safety characteristics of the LIFE design, some initial accident analysis results are presented that indicate potential for a more attractive licensing regime than that of current fission reactors.

  14. Strategy for D/He-3 fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, John F.

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that Deuterium/Helium-3 fusion faces a more difficult physics development path but an easier technology development path than does Deuterium/Tritium. Early D/He-3 tests in next generation D/T fusion experiments might provide a valuable D/He-3 proof-of-principle at modest cost. At least one high leverage alternate concept should be vigorously pursued. Space applications of D/He-3 fusion are critically important to large scale development.

  15. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  16. Nuclear data needs for neutron spectrum tailoring at International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a proposal of D-Li intense neutron source to cover all aspects of the fusion materials development in the framework of IEA collaboration. The new activity has been started to qualifying the important technical issues called Key Element technology Phase since 2000. Although the neutron spectrum can be adjusted by changing the incident beam energy, it is favorable to be carried out many irradiation tasks at the same time under the unique beam condition. For designing the tailored neutron spectrum, neutron nuclear data for the moderator-reflector materials up to 50 MeV are required. The data for estimating the induced radioactivity is also required to keep the radiation level low enough at maintenance time. The candidate materials and the required accuracy of nuclear data are summarized. (author)

  17. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m/sup 2/. A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW/sup 2/, provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys.

  18. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  19. Introduction to the special issue on the technical status of materials for a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Materials determine in a fundamental way the performance and environmental attractiveness of a fusion reactor: through the size (power fluxes to the divertor, neutron fluxes to the first wall); economics (replacement lifetime of critical in-vessel components, thermodynamic efficiency through operating temperature etc); plasma performance (erosion by plasma fluxes to the divertor surfaces); robustness against off-normal accidents (safety); and the effects of post-operation radioactivity on waste disposal and maintenance. The major philosophies and methodologies used to formulate programmes for the development of fusion materials are outlined, as the basis for other articles in this special issue, which deal with the fundamental understanding of the issues regarding these materials and their technical status and prospects for development.

  20. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  1. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  2. Inertial fusion power development: the path to global warming suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the demonstration of the first lasers, it was proposed that nuclear fusion induced by laser energized implosion could be utilized for energy generation. Today, there are many facilities worldwide undertaking IFE research, and after decades of experiments, theoretical developments and simulations, it is expected that the laser fusion ignition will be demonstrated in the next few years. If this does indeed happen, we will see a new era toward the realization of a fusion power plant.

  3. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This is the twenty-first in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The report covers the following topics: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composite materials; ferritic/martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects, mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; and irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods.

  4. Materials degradation in fission reactors: Lessons learned of relevance to fusion reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, Gary S.

    2007-08-01

    The management of materials in power reactor systems has become a critically important activity in assuring the safe, reliable and economical operation of these facilities. Over the years, the commercial nuclear power reactor industry has faced numerous 'surprises' and unexpected occurrences in materials. Mitigation strategies have sometimes solved one problem at the expense of creating another. Other problems have been solved successfully and have motivated the development of techniques to foresee problems before they occur. This paper focuses on three aspects of fission reactor experience that may benefit future fusion systems. The first is identification of parameters and processes that have had a large impact on the behavior of materials in fission systems such as temperature, dose rate, surface condition, gradients, metallurgical variability and effects of the environment. The second is the development of materials performance and failure models to provide a basis for assuring component integrity. Last is the development of proactive materials management programs that identify and pre-empt degradation processes before they can become problems. These aspects of LWR experience along with the growing experience with materials in the more demanding advanced fission reactor systems form the basis for a set of 'lessons learned' to aid in the successful management of materials in fusion reactor systems.

  5. The role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have completed a conceptual design for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{mu}m solid-state laser system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security, energy, and science applications. The technical goal of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program as stated in the current ICF Five-Year Program Plan is {open_quotes}to produce pure fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 MJ, in support of three missions: (1) to play an essential role in accessing physics regimes of interest in nuclear weapon design...; (2) to provide an above-ground simulation capability for nuclear weapon effects...; and (3) to develop inertial fusion energy for civilian power production.{close_quotes} This article addresses the third goal-- the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE). This article reports a variety of potential contributions the NIF could make to the development of IFE, drawn from a nationally attended workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in Feb, 1994. In addition to demonstrating fusion ignition as a fundamental basis for IFE, the findings of the workshop, are that the NIF could also provide important data for target physics and fabrication technology, for IFE target chamber phenomena such as materials responses to target emissions, and for fusion power technology-relevant tests.

  6. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  7. Optimal Liner Material for Near Term Magnetized Liner Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Substantial fusion yields are predicted with existing pulsed power machines driving cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. Experiments are planned using the Z accelerator to drive these implosions. However, the peak current, the laser heating energy, and the applied magnetic field will be less than optimal. We present simulations which show, that under these conditions, the yield can be improved significantly by decreasing the density of the liner material, e.g. Lithium substituted for Beryllium. Furthermore, the simulations show that decreasing the liner density allows the use of very low aspect ratio (R/δR) liners, while still obtaining interesting yields. Low aspect ratio liners should be more robust to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  8. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  9. Materials development for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mishan, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Materials development has become much more important in the field of TESOL in the last twenty years: modules on materials development are now commonplace on MA TESOL courses around the world. The overall aim of the book is to introduce readers to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues in materials development to enable them to make informed and principled choices in the selection, evaluation, adaptation and production of materials. The book aims to show how these choices need to be informed by an awareness of culture, context and purpose.

  10. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  11. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  12. Experimental devices in the osiris reactor to study effects of radiations on fusion reactor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, F.; Thevenot, G.

    1986-11-01

    Within the framework of the Technology Research Program on controlled fusion initiated by the European Communities, the Services des Piles de Saclay (SPS) of Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have been requested to perform some necessary experiments to study the irradiation behaviour of materials which are possible candidates for controlled fusion reactors. This paper describes the devices, generally adapted from a standard model "The COLIBRI", which allow one to carry out, in the OSIRIS reactor, irradiations on the three great families of fusion reactor materials: - lithium containing materials of breeding blanket for in-situ tritium production, - protection materials, and - structural materials.

  13. Experimental devices in the OSIRIS reactor to study effects of radiations on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, F.; Thevenot, G.

    Within the framework of the Technology Research Program on controlled fusion initiated by the European Communities, the Services des Piles de Saclay (SPS) of Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have been requested to perform some necessary experiments to study the irradiation behaviour of materials which are possible candidates for controlled fusion reactors. This paper describes the devices, generally adapted from a standard model The COLIBRI, which allow one to carry out, in the OSIRIS reactor, irradiations on the three great families of fusion reactor materials: Lithium containing materials of breeding blanket for in-situ tritium production, protection materials, and structural materials.

  14. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxuan, E-mail: yuxuan.zhang@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zhu, Wenzhong [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We created brazed joints between tungsten and EUROFER 97, Cu and SS316L with Au80Cu19Fe1 filler. • No elemental transitions were detected between the W and the AuCuFe filler in either direction. • Transition regions between filler to EUROFER97/316L showed similar elastic modulus and hardness to the filler. • Smooth elemental and mechanical properties transition were detected between the filler and Cu. - Abstract: In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  15. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document summarizes FY2016 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for MFE carried out by ORNL. The organization of the report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities.

  16. Developing Teaching Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 罗江霞

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers have more choices to select teaching materials for their students. In the teaching of English, there are several main sets of textbooks available for non-majors of English. These textbooks are compiled based on China ’s Na-tional Syllabus of College English. In order to learn these materials better, both teachers and students should know how to use and develop the teaching materials. In the essay, the book of“College English”will be used to explain the ways to develop teach-ing materials. As teachers and learners, textbooks are so important that every teacher and learner should choose the best and the most suitable one for their learning.

  17. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  18. Surface modifications of fusion reactor relevant materials on exposure to fusion grade plasma in plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niranjan, Ram, E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rout, R.K.; Srivastava, R. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chakravarthy, Y. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, T.C.; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exposure of materials (W, Ni, SS, Mo and Cu) to fusion plasma in a plasma focus device. • The erosion and the formations of blisters, pores, craters, micro-cracks after irradiation. • The structural phase transformation in the SS sample after irradiation. • The surface layer alloying of the samples with the plasma focus anode material. - Abstract: An 11.5 kJ plasma focus (PF) device was used here to irradiate materials with fusion grade plasma. The surface modifications of different materials (W, Ni, stainless steel, Mo and Cu) were investigated using various available techniques. The prominent features observed through the scanning electron microscope on the sample surfaces were erosions, cracks, blisters and craters after irradiations. The surface roughness of the samples increased multifold after exposure as measured by the surface profilometer. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the changes in the microstructures and the structural phase transformation in surface layers of the samples. We observed change in volumes of austenite and ferrite phases in the stainless steel sample. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis suggested alloying of the surface layer of the samples with elements of the PF anode. We report here the comparative analysis of the surface damages of materials with different physical, thermal and mechanical properties. The investigations will be useful to understand the behavior of the perspective materials for future fusion reactors (either in pure form or in alloy) over the long operations.

  19. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  20. Decay heat measurement on fusion reactor materials and validation of calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Decay heat rates for 32 fusion reactor relevant materials irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons were measured for the cooling time period between 1 minute and 400 days. With using the experimental data base, validity of decay heat calculation systems for fusion reactors were investigated. (author)

  1. Plasma-Facing Materials Research For Fusion Reactors At FOM Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G. J.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Kleyn, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  2. Plasma-facing materials research for fusion reactors at Fom Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G.J.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Kleijn, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  3. Plasma-Facing Materials Research For Fusion Reactors At FOM Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G. J.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Kleyn, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  4. Plasma-facing materials research for fusion reactors at Fom Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G.J.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Kleijn, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  5. Accuracy improvement of T-history method for measuring heat of fusion of various materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiki Hong [KyungHee University (Korea). School of Mechanical and Industrial Systems Engineering; Sun Kuk Kim [KyungHee University (Korea). School of Architecture and Civil Engineering; Yong-Shik Kim [University of Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

    2004-06-01

    T-history method, developed for measuring heat-of-fusion of phase change material (PCM) in sealed tubes, has the advantages of a simple experimental device and convenience with no sampling process. However, some improper assumptions in the original method, such as using a degree of supercooling as the end of latent heat period and neglecting sensible heat during phase change, can cause significant errors in determining the heat of fusion. We have improved this problem in order to predict better results. The present study shows that the modified T-history method is successfully applied to a variety of PCMs such as paraffin and lauric acid having no or a low degree of supercooling. Also it turned out that selected periods for sensible and latent heat do not significantly affect the accuracy of heat- of-fusion. As a result, the method can provide an appropriate means to assess a newly developed PCM by a cycle test even if a very accurate value cannot be obtained. (author)

  6. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Meier, W.R. [Shafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  7. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  8. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880{degrees}C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000{degrees}C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures.

  9. Advanced fusion technologies developed for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakasai, A.; Ishida, S.; Matsukawa, M.; Akino, N.; Ando, T.; Arai, T.; Ezato, K.; Hamada, K.; Ichige, H.; Isono, T.; Kaminaga, A.; Kato, T.; Kawano, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Kizu, K.; Koizumi, N.; Kudo, Y.; Kurita, G.; Masaki, K.; Matsui, K.; Miura, Y. M.; Miya, N.; Miyo, Y.; Morioka, A.; Nakajima, H.; Nunoya, Y.; Oikawa, A.; Okuno, K.; Sakurai, S.; Sasajima, T.; Satoh, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takeji, S.; Takenaga, K.; Tamai, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobita, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Urata, K.; Yagyu, J.

    2004-02-01

    Modification of JT-60 as a full superconducting tokamak (JT-60SC) is planned. The objectives of the JT-60SC programme are to establish scientific and technological bases for steady-state operation of high performance plasmas and utilization of reduced-activation materials in an economically and environmentally attractive DEMO reactor. Advanced fusion technologies relevant to the DEMO reactor have been developed for the superconducting magnet technology and plasma facing components of the JT-60SC design. To achieve a high current density in a superconducting strand, Nb3Al strands with a high copper ratio of 4 have been newly developed for the toroidal field coils (TFCs) of JT-60SC. The R&D to demonstrate the applicability of the Nb3Al conductor to TFCs by a react-and-wind technique has been carried out using a full-size Nb3Al conductor. A full-size NbTi conductor with low ac loss using Ni-coated strands has been successfully developed. A forced cooling divertor component with high heat transfer using screw tubes has been developed for the first time. The heat removal performance of the carbon fibre composite target was successfully demonstrated on an electron beam irradiation stand.

  10. Development of W coatings for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruset, C., E-mail: ruset@infim.ro [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Euratom-MEdC Association, Bucharest (Romania); Grigore, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Euratom-MEdC Association, Bucharest (Romania); Maier, H.; Neu, R.; Greuner, H.; Mayer, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Max-Plank Institut fuer Plasma Physik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Euratom Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The paper gives a short overview on tungsten (W) coatings deposited by various methods on carbon materials (carbon fibre composite - CFC and fine grain graphite - FGG). Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS), Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques are analyzed in respect with the characteristics and performances of the W coatings. A particular attention is paid to the Combined Magnetron Sputtering and Ion Implantation (CMSII) technique, which was developed during the last 4 years from laboratory to industrial scale and it is successfully applied for W coating (10-15 {mu}m and 20-25 {mu}m) of more than 2500 tiles for the ITER-like Wall project at JET and ASDEX Upgrade. This technique involves simultaneously magnetron sputtering and high energy (tens of keV) ion implantation. Due to the ion bombardment a stress relief occurs within the coating enabling its growth without delamination to a relatively large thickness. In addition, in order to adjust the thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and W, a Mo interlayer of 2-3 {mu}m is currently used. Experimentally, W/Mo coatings with a thickness up to 50 {mu}m were produced and successfully tested in the GLADIS ion beam facility up to 23 MW/m{sup 2}.

  11. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  12. Developing a Model for Simplified Higher Level Sensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    conveying its wide scope is to use a process model. The most referenced model within the DoD appears to be the Joint Director of Labs ( JDL ) data fusion...model shown in Figure 1 [5]. The JDL , is an organization which no longer exists but in the 1980s they were tasked to develop a model for data fu- sion...This JDL model, revised in 1999, was created to show a general process of data fusion with wide applicability for both government and academia. It

  13. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Depart of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Separate abstracts were prepared for each individual section.

  14. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  15. Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, M R; Nguyen-Manh, D; Zheng, S; Packer, L W; Sublet, J -Ch

    2013-01-01

    In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant co...

  16. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  17. The properties and weldability of materials for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.A.; Kee, C.K.; Wilcox, R.C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-11-15

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steels have been suggested for applications within fusion reactors. The use of these nickel-free steels will help to reduce the radioactive waste management problem after service. one requirement for such steels is the ability to obtain sound welds for fabrication purposes. Thus, two austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn alloys were studied to characterize the welded microstructure and mechanical properties. The two steels investigated were a Russian steel (Fe-11.6Cr19.3Mn-0.181C) and an US steel (Fe-12.lCr-19.4Mn-0.24C). Welding was performed using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Microscopic examinations of the structure of both steels were conducted. The as-received Russian steel was found to be in the annealed state. Only the fusion zone and the base metal were observed in the welded Russian steel. No visible heat affected zone was observed. Examination revealed that the as-received US steel was in the cold rolled condition. After welding, a fusion zone and a heat affected zone along with the base metal region were found.

  18. Fusion Material Studies Relating to Safety in Russia in 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. N. Kolbasov; M. I. Guseva; B. I. Khripunov; Y. V. Martynenko; P. V. Romanov; S. A. Lelekhov; S. A. Bartenev

    2004-01-01

    The paper is a summary of Russian material studies performed in frames of activities aiming at substantiation of safety of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) after 2001. Subthreshold sputtering of tungsten by 5eV deuterons was revealed at temperatures above 1150rm oC. Mechanism of globular films formation was further studied. Computations of tritium permeation into vacuum vessel coolant confirmed the acceptability of vacuum vessel cooling system for removal of the decay heat. The most dangerous accident with high-current arc in toroidal superconducting magnets able to burn out a bore up to 0.6 m in diameter in the cryostat vessel was determined. Radiochemical reprocessing of V-Cr-Ti alloy and its purification from activation products down to a contact dose rate of ~10muSv/h was developed.

  19. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  20. Development of benchmark reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, H.; Gaganidze, E.; Hirose, T.; Ando, M.; Zinkle, S. J.; Lindau, R.; Diegele, E.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is the benchmark structural material for in-vessel components of fusion reactor. The current status of RAFM developments and evaluations is reviewed based on two leading RAFM steels, F82H and EUROFER-97. The applicability of various joining technologies for fabrication of fusion first wall and blanket structures, such as weld or diffusion bonding, is overviewed as well. The technical challenges and potential risks of utilizing RAFM steels as the structural material of in-vessel components are discussed, and possible mitigation methodology is introduced. The discussion suggests that deuterium-tritium fusion neutron irradiation effects currently need to be treated as an ambiguity factor which could be incorporated within the safety factor. The safety factor will be defined by the engineering design criteria which are not yet developed with regard to irradiation effects and some high temperature process, and the operating time condition of the in-vessel component will be defined by the condition at which those ambiguities due to neutron irradiation become too large to be acceptable, or by the critical condition at which 14 MeV fusion neutron irradiation effects is expected to become different from fission neutron irradiation effects.

  1. Materials Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion: growth and characterization of coatings with nuclear applications; Laboratorio de Materiales en el Instituto de Fusion Nuclear: crecimiento y caracterizacion de recubrimientos con aplicaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Gordillo, N.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Fernandez-Martinez, I.; Wennberg, A.; Rivera, A.; Pena, O.; Briones, F.; Perlado, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the capabilities of the new materials lab located at the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear to develop coating for nuclear applications. The main objectives of the lab are described: (a) design of coatings which fulfil industrial requirements and (b) development of the need instrumentation to coat non-planar surfaces, i.e. inner and outer surface of pipes. Some examples of radiation resistance materials (self-healing) will be shown. Moreover, we present some new solution with improved corrosion resistance when facing liquid metals to conform the cooling system of future fission and fusion nuclear reactors. (Author)

  2. Green materials for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable development is an integrity of multidiscipline concept combining ecological, social and economic aspects to construct a liveable human living system. The sustainable development can be support through the development of green materials. Green materials offers a unique characteristic and properties including abundant in nature, less toxic, economically affordable and versatility in term of physical and chemical properties. Green materials can be applied for a numerous field in science and technology applications including for energy, building, construction and infrastructures, materials science and engineering applications and pollution management and technology. For instance, green materials can be developed as a source for energy production. Green materials including biomass-based source can be developed as a source for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Biomass-based materials also can be transformed into advanced functionalized materials for advanced bio-applications such as the transformation of chitin into chitosan which further used for biomedicine, biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Recently, cellulose-based material and lignocellulose-based materials as a source for the developing functional materials attracted the potential prospect for biomaterials, reinforcing materials and nanotechnology. Furthermore, the development of pigment materials has gaining interest by using the green materials as a source due to their unique properties. Eventually, Indonesia as a large country with a large biodiversity can enhance the development of green material to strengthen our nation competitiveness and develop the materials technology for the future.

  3. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interfacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-01

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  4. Revisiting the Design of a Fusion Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, V. S.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Garofalo, A. M.; Smith, J. P.; Wong, C. P. C.

    2009-11-01

    A Fusion Development Facility (FDF) is proposed to make possible a DEMO of the ARIES-AT type as the next step after ITER. The mission of the FDF should be to carry forward advanced tokamak physics and enable development of fusion nuclear science and technology. We have added more realism to the initial FDF concept [1] including inner and outer gaps from the plasma to the first wall; an improved estimate of the inboard/outboard blanket/shield thickness to protect the magnets/insulators; control coil positions; and realistic divertor geometry. Optimizing the mix of heating and current drive power has high leverage on the operating power. We have also revisited the assumed impurity fraction and the density profile peakedness. 8pt [1] R.D. Stambaugh, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 53, 259 (2008).

  5. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  6. Achieving "Fairness" in Data Fusion Performance Evaluation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-30

    Performance Evaluation Development 5b. GRANT NUMBER F49620-03-1-0037 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. James Llinas 5e...Evaluation Methods for Network Centric Data-Fusion Capable Tactical Platforms Kedar Sambhoos, Satyaki Ghosh Dastidar, James Llinas Christopher Bowman...were based settings were as follows: 8. ensor ID: Sensor matix wer based 1. Targets: 6 targets upon entity class confusion matrix per sensor mode. 2

  7. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  8. Fusion Technology for ITER, the ITER Project. Further Development Towards a DEMO Fusion Power Plant (3/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    This is the second half of a lecture series on fusion and will concentrate on fusion technology. The early phase of fusion development was concentrated on physics. However, during the 1980s it was realized that if one wanted to enter the area of fusion reactor plasmas, even in an experimental machine, a significant advance in fusion technologies would be needed. After several conceptual studies of reactor class fusion devices in the 1980s the engineering design phase of ITER started in earnest during the 1990s. The design team was in the beginning confronted with many challenges in the fusion technology area as well as in physics for which no readily available solution existed and in a few cases it was thought that solutions may be impossible to find. However, after the initial 3 years of intensive design and R&D work in an international framework utilizing basic fusion technology R&D from the previous decade it became clear that for all problems a conceptual solution could be found and further devel...

  9. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  10. Advanced tungsten materials for plasma-facing components of DEMO and fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, R., E-mail: Rudolf.Neu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riesch, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Brinkmann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Calvo, A. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elgeti, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Greuner, H.; Hoeschen, T.; Holzner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klein, F. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Development of W-fibre enhanced W-composites incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. • Production of a large sample (more than 2000 long fibres) for mechanical and thermal testing. • Even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms are still effective. • Emissions of volatile W-oxides can be suppressed by alloying W with elements forming stable oxides. • WCr10Ti2 has been successfully tested under accidental conditions and high heat fluxes. - Abstract: Tungsten is the major candidate material for the armour of plasma facing components in future fusion devices. To overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten, which strongly limits its operational window, a W-fibre enhanced W-composite material (W{sub f}/W) has been developed incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. Small W{sub f}/W samples show a large increase in toughness. Recently, a large sample (50 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm) with more than 2000 long fibres has been successfully produced allowing further mechanical and thermal testing. It could be shown that even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms as crack bridging by intact fibres, as well as the energy dissipation by fibre-matrix interface debonding and crack deflection are still effective. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO{sub 3} compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. It has been shown that the oxidation of W can be strongly suppressed by alloying with elements forming stable oxides. WCr10Ti2 alloy has been produced on a technical scale and has been successfully tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. Recently, W-Cr-Y alloys have been produced on a lab-scale. They seem to have even improved properties compared to the previously investigated W alloys.

  11. Overview of recent tritium target filling, layering, and material testing at Los Alamos national laboratory in support of inertial fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebey, P. S.; Dole, J. M.; Geller, D. A.; Hoffer, J. K.; Morris, J.; Nobile, A.; Schoonover, J. R.; Wilson, D. [MS-C927, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bonino, M.; Harding, D.; Sangster, C.; Shmayda, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE, Univ. of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A.; Sheliak, J. D. [General Atomics GA (United States); Burmann, J.; Cook, B.; Letts, S.; Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Science and Engineering (AET-3) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performs a variety of activities to support Inertial Fusion (IF) research - both to further fundamental fusion science and to develop technologies in support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power generation. Inertial fusion ignition target designs have a smooth spherical shell of cryogenic Deuterium-Tritium (DT) solid contained within a metal or plastic shell that is a few mm in diameter. Fusion is attained by imploding these shells under the symmetric application of energy beams. For IFE targets the DT solid must also survive the process of injecting it into the power plant reactor. Non-ignition IF targets often require a non-cryogenic DT gas fill of a glass or polymeric shell. In this paper an overview will be given of recent LANL activities to study cryogenic DT layering, observe tritium exposure effects on IF relevant materials, and fill targets in support of IF implosion experiments. (authors)

  12. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  13. Developments and needs in nuclear analysis of fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, R., E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, J. [F4E Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Sanz, J. [UNED, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Turner, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Engineering Department, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Complex fusion nuclear analyses require detailed models, sophisticated acceleration and coupling of cumbersome tools. • Progress on development of tools and methods to meet specific needs of fusion nuclear analysis reported. • Advances in production of reference models and in preparation and QA of acceleration and coupling algorithms shown. • Evaluation and adaptation studies of alternative transport codes presented. • Discussion made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs. -- Abstract: Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-performance parallel computations, and coupling of large and complex transport and activation codes and databases. This paper reports progress on some key areas in the development of tools and methods to meet the specific needs of fusion nuclear analyses. In particular, advances in the production and modernisation of reference models, in the preparation and quality assurance of acceleration algorithms and coupling schemes, and in the evaluation and adaptation of alternative transport codes are presented. Emphasis is given to ITER-relevant activities, which are the main driver of advances in the field. Discussion is made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs and requirements. In some cases, they call for a more efficient and coordinated use of the scarce resources available.

  14. Data fusion-based assessment of raw materials in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Xu, Jin; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-11-01

    In mammalian cell culture producing therapeutic proteins, one of the important challenges is the use of several complex raw materials whose compositional variability is relatively high and their influences on cell culture is poorly understood. Under these circumstances, application of spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics can provide fast, simple, and non-destructive ways to evaluate raw material quality, leading to more consistent cell culture performance. In this study, a comprehensive data fusion strategy of combining multiple spectroscopic techniques is investigated for the prediction of raw material quality in mammalian cell culture. To achieve this purpose, four different spectroscopic techniques of near-infrared, Raman, 2D fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectra were employed for comprehensive characterization of soy hydrolysates which are commonly used as supplements in culture media. First, the different spectra were compared separately in terms of their prediction capability. Then, ensemble partial least squares (EPLS) was further employed by combining all of these spectral datasets in order to produce a more accurate estimation of raw material properties, and compared with other data fusion techniques. The results showed that data fusion models based on EPLS always exhibit best prediction accuracy among all the models including individual spectroscopic methods, demonstrating the synergetic effects of data fusion in characterizing the raw material quality.

  15. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  16. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  17. Developing Boundary/PMI Solutions for Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; Allen, S. L.; Hill, D. N.; Unterberg, Z.

    2014-10-01

    The path towards next-step fusion development requires increased emphasis on the boundary/plasma-material interface. The new DIII-D Boundary/Plasma-Material Interactions (PMI) Center has been established to address these critical issues on a timescale relevant to the design of FNSF, adopting the following transformational approaches: (1) Develop and test advanced divertor configurations on DIII-D compatible with core plasma high performance operational scenarios in FNSF; (2) Validate candidate reactor PFC materials at reactor-relevant temperatures in DIII-D high-performance plasmas, in collaboration with the broad material research/development community; (3) Integrate validated boundary-materials interface with high performance plasmas to provide viable boundary/PMI solutions for next-step fusion devices. This program leverages unique DIII-D capabilities, promotes synergistic programs within the broad PMI community, including linear material research facilities. It will also enable us to build a compelling bridge for the US research on long-pulse facilities. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR2725.

  18. The effects of material property assumptions on predicted meltpool shape for laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chong; Ashby, Kathryn; Phan, Nam; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide guidance on material specifications for powders used in laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The methodology was to investigate how different material property assumptions in a simulation affect meltpool prediction and by corrolary how different material properties affect meltpool formation in AM processes. The sensitvity of meltpool variations to each material property can be used as a guide to help drive future research and to help prioritize material specifications in requirements documents. By identifying which material properties have the greatest affect on outcomes, metrology can be tailored to focus on those properties which matter most; thus reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary testing and property charaterizations. Futhermore, this sensitivity study provides insight into which properties require more accurate measurements, thus motivating development of new metrology methods to measure those properties accurately.

  19. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    subjected to extremely high heat loads and very high particle and neutron fluxes. They must have high thermal conductivity for efficient heat transport, high cohesive energy for low erosion by particle bombardment and low atomic number to minimize plasma cooling. These contradictory requirements make the development of plasma-facing materials one of the greatest challenges ever faced by materials scientists. The erosion of plasma-facing materials is one of the main factors influencing the operational schedule of experimental fusion reactors and future power plants. A number of materials selected for current designs cannot withstand the presently foreseen plasma scenarios of a power plant for a commercially viable period of time. Therefore, further coordinated development of plasma scenarios and materials is essential for the realization of fusion as an energy source. The design and development of plasma-facing materials requires a detailed understanding of the processes that occur when a material surface is bombarded with an intense flux of heat, particles and neutrons simultaneously. These materials-related topics are the focus of this series of workshops which has established itself as a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future thermonuclear fusion devices. During the joint conference PFMC-13/FEMaS-1 recent developments and research results in the following fields were addressed: carbon, beryllium, and tungsten based materials mixed materials erosion and redeposition high heat flux component development benchmarking of radiation damage modelling synchrotron and neutron based characterization techniques application of advanced transmission electron microscopy and micro-/nano-mechanical testing. With the approaching technical realization of ITER, the ITER-related PFMC topics are naturally the main focus of research. In this respect the start of the ITER-like wall experiment

  20. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  1. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  3. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsui, H.; Abe, K. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Osch, E. van [NERF, Petten (Netherlands); Kazakov, V.A. [RIAR, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  4. Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.

  5. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  6. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  7. Calculation of excitation function of some structural fusion material for (n,p) reactions up to 25 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Siddik, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, Furthermore, there are not radioactive nuclear waste problems in the fusion reactors. In this study, (n, p) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg, 51 V(n,p) 51 Ti, 52 Cr(n,p) 52 V, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr and 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn reactions have been carried out up to 30 MeV incident neutron energy. Statistical model calculations, based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism, have been carried out using the TALYS-1.0 and were compared with available experimental data in the literature and with ENDF/B-VII, T=300k; JENDL-3.3, T=300k and JEFF3.1, T=300k evaluated libraries .

  8. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  9. Activation analysis and materials choice in the laser fusion reactor KOYO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlado, J. M.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Alonso, E.; Mun˜oz, E.; Sanz, J.

    1996-10-01

    The laser fusion conceptual reactor KOYO, developed by the ILE Osaka, is presented and analyzed from the activation perspective. The reactor is driven by a laser diode pumped solid state laser which dramatically increases the efficiency of the system, and uses liquid LiPb film protection flowing through ceramic SiC porous tubes in the blanket. Neutron fluxes have been computed using 2/3D models and compared with spherical approaches. Two blanket areas with different packing fractions are considered, and we show the availability of a large fraction of the SiC with impurities to be considered as shallow land burial (SLB). We propose a more complete solution for SLB through the use of porous woven graphite (C) fabric tubes. A graphite reflector is included with important effect in the activation of the chamber wall. Ferritic HT-9 is considered as the structural material for the chamber wall, allowing its SLB and different recycling options. Releases of 1 kg of target-emissions-facing SiC tubes and HT-9 materials have also been simulated with optimum performances.

  10. Rheological behavior and cryogenic properties of cyanate ester/epoxy insulation material for fusion superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR (China); Li, L. F. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China and State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, C (China); Li, J. W. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR (China); Tan, R.; Tu, Y. P. [North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, PR (China)

    2014-01-27

    In a Tokamak fusion reactor device like ITER, insulation materials for superconducting magnets are usually fabricated by a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. Thus these insulation materials must exhibit low viscosity, long working life as well as good radiation resistance. Previous studies have indicated that cyanate ester (CE) blended with epoxy has an excellent resistance against neutron irradiation which is expected to be a candidate insulation material for a fusion magnet. In this work, the rheological behavior of a CE/epoxy (CE/EP) blend containing 40% CE was investigated with non-isothermal and isothermal viscosity experiments. Furthermore, the cryogenic mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were evaluated in terms of interlaminar shear strength and electrical breakdown strength. The results showed that CE/epoxy blend had a very low viscosity and an exceptionally long processing life of about 4 days at 60 °C.

  11. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    knowledge is still limited, especially in relation to the behaviour of these metals in environments containing multiple species. There are many appealing issues related to material mixing and fuel retention that call for robust and comprehensive studies. In this sense, the aim of the workshop is not only to discuss hot topics, but also to identify the most important research areas and those that need urgent solutions. Another topic of foremost relevance to ITER is the development of plasma-facing components that are able to withstand extreme power fluxes, in particular, those during transient phases. Materials and production methods for high-heat-flux components have to be further developed and industrialized. A key requirement in this field is the development of non-destructive testing methods for the qualification of methods and quality assessment during production. Invited talks and contributed presentations therefore dealt with aspects of fundamental processes, experimental findings, advanced modelling and the technology of fusion reactor components. Several areas were selected as the major topics of PFMC-12: materials for the ITER-divertor (erosion, redeposition, fuel retention) carbon-based materials tungsten and tungsten coatings beryllium mixed materials (intentional and non-intentional) the ITER-Like Wall Project materials under high-heat-flux loads including transients (ELMs, disruptions) technology and testing of plasma-facing components neutron effects in plasma-facing materials. 26 invited lectures and oral contributions, and 131 posters were presented by participants from research laboratories and industrial companies. 210 researchers from 24 countries from all over the world participated in a lively and intense exchange of knowledge and ideas. The workshop was hosted by Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), a centre where the integration of science and technology for fusion reactor materials has been a focus for decades. This is reflected by the operation of

  13. Inertial fusion target development for ignition and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Norimatsu, T. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1994-12-01

    The target needs of the next ICF experiments that will lead toward ignition and energy are different from those of today`s experiments. The future experiments on OMEGA Upgrade, GEKKO XII Upgrade, the National Ignition Facility and Megajoule will need large, precise, cryogenic targets. Development is needed on a number of aspects of these targets, including shell fabrication, characterization, cryogenic layering and target handling. However, coordinated R and D programs are in place and work is in process to carry out the needed development. It is vital to the success of inertial fusion that this work be sustained. Coordinated effort, like the National Cryogenic Target Program in the USA, will help make the development activities as efficient and effective as possible, and should be encouraged.

  14. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Thomas, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Abrams, T.; Boedo, J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Buchenauer, D.; Bykov, I.; Canik, J. M.; Chrobak, C.; Covele, B.; Ding, R.; Doerner, R.; Donovan, D.; Du, H.; Elder, D.; Eldon, D.; Lasa, A.; Groth, M.; Guterl, J.; Jarvinen, A.; Hinson, E.; Kolemen, E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A.; Meyer, B.; Moser, A. L.; Nygren, R.; Owen, L.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rudakov, D.; Sang, C. F.; Samuell, C.; Si, H.; Schmitz, O.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wampler, W.; Wang, H.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, which we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). This paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.

  15. Development of advanced high heat flux and plasma-facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Rieth, M.; Aktaa, J.; Chikada, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Hoffmann, J.; Houben, A.; Kurishita, H.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Litnovsky, A.; Matsuo, S.; von Müller, A.; Nikolic, V.; Palacios, T.; Pippan, R.; Qu, D.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Shikama, T.; Stieglitz, R.; Weber, T.; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Plasma-facing materials and components in a fusion reactor are the interface between the plasma and the material part. The operational conditions in this environment are probably the most challenging parameters for any material: high power loads and large particle and neutron fluxes are simultaneously impinging at their surfaces. To realize fusion in a tokamak or stellarator reactor, given the proven geometries and technological solutions, requires an improvement of the thermo-mechanical capabilities of currently available materials. In its first part this article describes the requirements and needs for new, advanced materials for the plasma-facing components. Starting points are capabilities and limitations of tungsten-based alloys and structurally stabilized materials. Furthermore, material requirements from the fusion-specific loading scenarios of a divertor in a water-cooled configuration are described, defining directions for the material development. Finally, safety requirements for a fusion reactor with its specific accident scenarios and their potential environmental impact lead to the definition of inherently passive materials, avoiding release of radioactive material through intrinsic material properties. The second part of this article demonstrates current material development lines answering the fusion-specific requirements for high heat flux materials. New composite materials, in particular fiber-reinforced and laminated structures, as well as mechanically alloyed tungsten materials, allow the extension of the thermo-mechanical operation space towards regions of extreme steady-state and transient loads. Self-passivating tungsten alloys, demonstrating favorable tungsten-like plasma-wall interaction behavior under normal operation conditions, are an intrinsic solution to otherwise catastrophic consequences of loss-of-coolant and air ingress events in a fusion reactor. Permeation barrier layers avoid the escape of tritium into structural and cooling

  16. Development of dysphagia and trismus developed after c1-2 posterior fusion in extended position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Haruo; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Koshimune, Kouichiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Cervical misalignment after upper cervical fusion including the occipital bone may cause trismus or dysphagia, because the occipito-atlanto joint is associated with most of the flex and extended motion of the cervical spine. There are no reports of dysphagia and trismus after C1-2 fusion. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential risk of dysphagia and trismus even after upper cervical short fusion without the occipital bone. The patient was a 69-year-old man with myelopathy caused by os odontoideum and Klippel-Feil syndrome, who developed dysphagia and trismus immediately after C1-2 fusion and C3-6 laminoplasty. Radiographs and CT revealed that his neck posture was extended, but his symptoms still existed a week after surgery. The fixation angle was hyperextended 12 days after the first surgery. His symptoms disappeared immediately after revision surgery. The fixation in the neck-flexed position is thought to be the main cause of the patient's post-operative dysphagia and trismus. Dysphagia and trismus may occur even after short upper cervical fusion without the occipital bone or cervical fusion in the neck-extended position. The pre-operative cervical alignment and range of motion of each segment should be thoroughly evaluated.

  17. Development of Dysphagia and Trismus Developed after C1-2 Posterior Fusion in Extended Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misawa,Haruo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical misalignment after upper cervical fusion including the occipital bone may cause trismus or dysphagia, because the occipito-atlanto joint is associated with most of the flex and extended motion of the cervical spine. There are no reports of dysphagia and trismus after C1-2 fusion. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential risk of dysphagia and trismus even after upper cervical short fusion without the occipital bone. The patient was a 69-year-old man with myelopathy caused by os odontoideum and Klippel-Feil syndrome, who developed dysphagia and trismus immediately after C1-2 fusion and C3-6 laminoplasty. Radiographs and CT revealed that his neck posture was extended, but his symptoms still existed a week after surgery. The fixation angle was hyperextended 12 days after the first surgery. His symptoms disappeared immediately after revision surgery. The fixation in the neck-flexed position is thought to be the main cause of the patientʼs post-operative dysphagia and trismus. Dysphagia and trismus may occur even after short upper cervical fusion without the occipital bone or cervical fusion in the neck-extended position. The pre-operative cervical alignment and range of motion of each segment should be thoroughly evaluated.

  18. Towards a programme of testing and qualification for structural and plasma-facing materials in ‘fusion neutron’ environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Heidinger, R.; Muroga, T.; Zinkle, S. J.; Moeslang, A.; Porton, M.; Boutard, J.-L.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials damage by 14.1MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions can only be characterised definitively by subjecting a relevant configuration of test materials to high-intensity ‘fusion-neutron spectrum sources’, i.e. those simulating closely D-T fusion-neutron spectra. This provides major challenges to programmes to design and construct a demonstration fusion reactor prior to having a large-scale, high-intensity source of such neutrons. In this paper, we discuss the different aspects related to these ‘relevant configuration’ tests, including: • generic issues in materials qualification/validation, comparing safety requirements against those of investment protection; • lessons learned from the fission programme, enabling a reduced fusion materials testing programme; • the use and limitations of presently available possible irradiation sources to optimise a fusion neutron testing program including fission-neutron irradiation of isotopically and chemically tailored steels, ion damage by high-energy helium ions and self-ion beams, or irradiation studies with neutron sources of non-fusion spectra; and • the different potential sources of simulated fusion neutron spectra and the choice using stripping reactions from deuterium-beam ions incident on light-element targets.

  19. Numerical modelling of liquid material flow in the fusion zone of hybrid welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubiak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns modelling of liquid metal motion in the fusion zone of laser-arc hybrid butt-welded plate. Velocity field in the fusion zone and temperature field in welded plate were obtained on the basis of the solution of mass, momentum and energy conservationsequations. Differential equations were solved using Chorin’s projection method and finite volume method. Melting and solidificationprocesses were taken into account in calculations assuming fuzzy solidification front where fluid flow is treated as a flow through porous medium. Double-ellipsoidal heat source model was used to describe electric arc and laser beam heat sources. On the basis of developed solution algorithms simulation of hybrid welding process was performed and the influence of liquid metal motion in the fusion zone on the results of calculations was analyzed.

  20. Fusion of Hurricane Models and Observations: Developing the Technology to Improve the Forecasts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop the technology to provide the fusion of observations and operational model simulations to help improve the understanding and forecasting of hurricane...

  1. English teachers as materials developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Salas, Marlene

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo enfatiza la necesidad de que los profesores de Inglés crean y adapten sus propios materiales. La autora presenta la definición de Desarrollo y Adaptación de Materiales, su proceso y algunos ejemplos elaborados por ella misma para ilustrar el tema. This article focuses on the need for English language teachers to become materials developers. The writer presents a definition of Materials Development and Adaptation, the process to follow to develop and/or adapt teaching materials, and some samples created or adapted by the writer to illustrate the topic.

  2. Design optimization and performances of New Sorgentina Fusion Source (NSFS) supporting materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camprini, Patrizio Console, E-mail: patrizio.consolecamprini@enea.it [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Bernardi, Davide [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Pillon, Mario; Angelone, Maurizio [Frascati Research Center, Via Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Frisoni, Manuela [Bologna Research Center, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy); Pietropaolo, Antonino; Pizzuto, Aldo [Frascati Research Center, Via Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Agostini, Pietro [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the framework of fusion materials research, a neutron source has been considered a key installation to support EU plan toward DEMO reactor design. IFMIF facility being the present proposal, a pragmatic approach to EU fusion roadmap timeline considers complementary solutions mandatory, within a shared strategy. New Sorgentina Fusion Source (NSFS) has been recently proposed in order to populate an engineering database through materials irradiation tests. Proven technology of D–T neutron generators is implemented together with ion source and accelerator devices currently used in neutral injection systems at experimental tokamaks. Deuterium and tritium enriched hydride is on-line reloaded by impinging D–T beams via ion implantation onto a high-speed rotating target – D–T retention is allowed through temperature control. Hydride metal layer is re-deposited increasing plant availability factor. Target design is proposed to cope with thermal transients and mechanical loads. Solutions to thermal fatigue concerns are presented. Irradiation capability is then enhanced attaining relevant materials exposure. Main facility characteristics are provided as well as thermal and mechanical issues.

  3. An Electrothermal Plasma Source Developed for Simulation of Transient Heat Loads in Future Large Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Trey; Baylor, Larry; Winfrey, Leigh

    2016-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy requires materials that can withstand high heat and particle fluxes at the plasma material interface. In this work, an electrothermal (ET) plasma source has been designed as a possible transient heat flux source for a linear plasma material interaction device. An ET plasma source operates in the ablative arc regime, which is driven by a DC capacitive discharge. The current travels through the 4mm bore of a boron nitride liner and subsequently ablates and ionizes the liner material. This results in a high density plasma with a large unidirectional bulk flow out of the source exit. The pulse length for the ET source has been optimized using a pulse forming network to have a duration of 1ms at full-width half maximum. The peak currents and maximum source energies seen in this system are 2kA and 5kJ. The goal of this work is to show that the ET source produces electron densities and heat fluxes that are comparable to transient events in future large magnetic confinement fusion devices. Heat flux, plasma temperature, and plasma density were determined for each test shot using infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy techniques. This work will compare the ET source output (heat flux, temperature, and density) with and without an applied magnetic field. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  4. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J. [comp.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities.

  5. Developing test materials for dyscalculia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Bent, Lindhardt,

    Aims, requirements and context for the development of test materials for dyscalculia are analyzed. The test materials are to be used for Grade 4 pupils in Danish primary schools. Preliminary results are presented from focus group interview with adolescents and adults, who see themselves as being...

  6. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1999-02-01

    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  7. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, G. De

    2006-07-01

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

  8. Preliminary Design of 3.5-MeV Helium RFQ for Fusion Materials Radiation Damage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yongsub; Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work briefly summarized a 3.5 MeV helium RFQ design for alpha irradiation study. We have studied a 3.5-MeV helium RFQ for the fusion material damage study, especially for the alpha particle effects produced by DT reaction. The total length is about 3.7 m, which is compact to be installed in a general experiment hall with a reasonable radiation shielding. For the ion source of He, we are considering a microwave ion source. KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has developed a 100-MeV proton linac which includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The RFQ technology can be also used to MeV ion beam applications. Especially helium beam with the kinetic energy of 3.5 MeV can be used to study the alpha particle irradiation from DT nuclear fusion reaction on the first wall of the fusion reactor.

  9. Application and development of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion%经椎间孔腰椎椎体间融合术的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王辉; 丁文元

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar fusion has become a major surgical method in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion ( TLIF ) has a series of advantages such as less damage to lumbar structure, less nerve injuries and less postoperative complications. With the constant increase of lumbar degenerative diseases, TLIF has been rapidly developed in recent years. With the development of surgery, minimally invasive technique has been used in TLIF. Minimally invasive-TLIF ( MI-TLIF ) has become one of the research hotspots in spinal surgery. The development process, technical features, biomechanical advantages, internal ifxation methods and fusion materials of TLIF and MI-TLIF are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, Axel; Fischer, Ulrich; Gehre, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  11. Compatibility of structural materials with fusion reactor coolant and breeder fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion reactors are characterized by a lithium-containing blanket, a heat transfer medium that is integral with the blanket and first wall, and a heat engine that couples to the heat transfer medium. A variety of lithium-containing substances have been identified as potential blanket materials, including molten lithium metal, molten LiF--BeF/sub 2/, Pb--Li alloys, and solid ceramic compounds such as Li/sub 2/O. Potential heat transfer media include liquid lithium, liquid sodium, molten nitrates, water, and helium. Each of these coolants and blankets requires a particular set of chemical and mechanical properties with respect to the associated reactor and heat engine structural materials. This paper discusses the materials factors that underlie the selection of workable combinations of blankets and coolants. It also addresses the materials compatibility problems generic to those blanket-coolant combinations currently being considered in reactor design studies.

  12. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  13. Development of RNA-FISH Assay for Detection of Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 Fusion Genes in FFPE Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takahiro; Nishimura, Kouichi; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Ueno, Satoshi; Iizumi, Yuichi; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Habuchi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Takashi; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Nagumo, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Oikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and FGFR3 mutations are target candidates for small molecule inhibitors in bladder cancer (BC). Because FGFR3 and TACC3 genes are located very closely on chromosome 4p16.3, detection of the fusion by DNA-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) is not a feasible option. In this study, we developed a novel RNA-FISH assay using branched DNA probe to detect FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human BC samples. Materials and Methods The RNA-FISH assay was developed and validated using a mouse xenograft model with human BC cell lines. Next, we assessed the consistency of the RNA-FISH assay using 104 human BC samples. In this study, primary BC tissues were stored as frozen and FFPE tissues. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were independently detected in FFPE sections by the RNA-FISH assay and in frozen tissues by RT-PCR. We also analyzed the presence of FGFR3 mutations by targeted sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from deparaffinized FFPE sections. Results FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts were identified by RNA-FISH and RT-PCR in mouse xenograft FFPE tissues using the human BC cell lines RT112 and RT4. These cell lines have been reported to be fusion-positive. Signals for FGFR3-TACC3 fusions by RNA-FISH were positive in 2/60 (3%) of non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) and 2/44 (5%) muscle-invasive BC (MIBC) patients. The results of RT-PCR of all 104 patients were identical to those of RNA-FISH. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 27/60 (45%) NMIBC and 8/44 (18%) MIBC patients. Except for one NMIBC patient, FGFR3 mutation and FGFR3-TACC3 fusion were mutually exclusive. Conclusions We developed an RNA-FISH assay for detection of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in FFPE samples of human BC tissues. Screening for not only FGFR3 mutations, but also for FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts has the potential to identify additional patients that can be treated with FGFR inhibitors. PMID:27930669

  14. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  15. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  16. Recent contributions to fusion reactor design and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The report contains a collection of 16 recent fusion technology papers on the STARFIRE Project, the study of alternate fusion fuel cycles, a maintainability study, magnet safety, neutral beam power supplies and pulsed superconducting magnets and energy transfer. This collection of papers contains contributions for Argonne National Laboratory, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, General Atomic Company, The Ralph M. Parsons Company, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin. Separate abstracts are presented for each paper. (MOW)

  17. NIFS workshop on application of micro-indentation technique to evaluation of mechanical properties of fusion materials. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Katoh, Yutai [eds.] [Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Branch, Inst. for Materials Research

    1996-11-01

    NIFS workshop on `Application of Micro-Indentation Technique to Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Fusion Materials` were help in Toki on October 9, 1996, as a part of the activity of NIFS collaborative research on `Advanced Technologies for Small-Volume Mechanical Property Testing of Fusion Reactor Materials`. The major topics at the workshop included the application of micro- (and nano-) indentation technique to evaluation of tensile stress-strain property, interfacial mechanical property of composite and joining materials and hardening of this layers in ion-irradiated materials. This report compiles the abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation. (author)

  18. Gene expression, single nucleotide variant and fusion transcript discovery in archival material from breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Norton

    Full Text Available Advantages of RNA-Seq over array based platforms are quantitative gene expression and discovery of expressed single nucleotide variants (eSNVs and fusion transcripts from a single platform, but the sensitivity for each of these characteristics is unknown. We measured gene expression in a set of manually degraded RNAs, nine pairs of matched fresh-frozen, and FFPE RNA isolated from breast tumor with the hybridization based, NanoString nCounter (226 gene panel and with whole transcriptome RNA-Seq using RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq V2 library preparation kits. We performed correlation analyses of gene expression between samples and across platforms. We then specifically assessed whole transcriptome expression of lincRNA and discovery of eSNVs and fusion transcripts in the FFPE RNA-Seq data. For gene expression in the manually degraded samples, we observed Pearson correlations of >0.94 and >0.80 with NanoString and ScriptSeq protocols, respectively. Gene expression data for matched fresh-frozen and FFPE samples yielded mean Pearson correlations of 0.874 and 0.783 for NanoString (226 genes and ScriptSeq whole transcriptome protocols respectively, p<2x10(-16. Specifically for lincRNAs, we observed superb Pearson correlation (0.988 between matched fresh-frozen and FFPE pairs. FFPE samples across NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms gave a mean Pearson correlation of 0.838. In FFPE libraries, we detected 53.4% of high confidence SNVs and 24% of high confidence fusion transcripts. Sensitivity of fusion transcript detection was not overcome by an increase in depth of sequencing up to 3-fold (increase from ~56 to ~159 million reads. Both NanoString and ScriptSeq RNA-Seq technologies yield reliable gene expression data for degraded and FFPE material. The high degree of correlation between NanoString and RNA-Seq platforms suggests discovery based whole transcriptome studies from FFPE material will produce reliable expression data. The RiboZeroGold ScriptSeq protocol

  19. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Ahmed [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  20. FAFNIR: Strategy and risk reduction in accelerator driven neutron sources for fusion materials irradiation data

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E; Caballero, A; Davenne, T; Findlay, D; Letchford, A; Thomason, J; Marrow, J; Roberts, S; Seryi, A; Connolly, B; Mummery, P; Owen, H

    2014-01-01

    The need to populate the fusion materials engineering data base has long been recognized, the IFMIF facility being the present proposed neutron source for this purpose. Re-evaluation of the regulatory approach for the EU proposed DEMO device shows that the specification of the neutron source can be reduced with respect to IFMIF, allowing lower risk technology solutions to be considered. The justification for this approach is presented and a description of a proposed facility, FAFNIR, is presented with more detailed discussion of the accelerator and target designs.

  1. Calculated Lattice Energies of Energetic Materials in a Prediction of their Heats of Fusion and Sublimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper specifies an unambiguous basic relationship between the published results of ab initio calculations of lattice energies,EL,and heats of sublimation,ΔHs,of individual energetic materials. In this relationship,the ΔHs value has been replaced by heats of fusion,ΔHm,tr. Thereby its unambiguity has been lost,and the similarity of details of molecular structure begins to be of decisive importance. The resulting partial relationships,together with the basic relationship,have been used for prediction of ΔHs,and ΔHm,tr values of technically attractive polynitro compounds.

  2. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wiffen, F.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Fusion Energy

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  3. Dealing with uncertainties in fusion power plant conceptual development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R.; Lux, H.; Kovari, M.; Morris, J.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.; Biel, W.; Federici, G.

    2017-04-01

    Although the ultimate goal of most current fusion research is to build an economically attractive power plant, the present status of physics and technology does not provide the performance necessary to achieve this goal. Therefore, in order to model how such plants may operate and what their output might be, extrapolations must be made from existing experimental data and technology. However, the expected performance of a plant built to the operating point specifications can only ever be a ‘best guess’. Extrapolations far beyond the current operating regimes are necessarily uncertain, and some important interactions, for example the coupling of conducted power from the scape-off layer to the divertor surface, lack reliable predictive models. This means both that the demands on plant systems at the target operating point can vary significantly from the nominal value, and that the overall plant performance may potentially fall short of design targets. In this contribution we discuss tools and techniques that have been developed to assess the robustness of the operating points for the EU-DEMO tokamak-based demonstration power plant, and the consequences for its design. The aim is to make explicit the design choices and areas where improved modelling and DEMO-relevant experiments will have the greatest impact on confidence in a successful DEMO design.

  4. Development of an MRI fiducial marker prototype for automated MR-US fusion of abdominal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, C. P.; Gorny, K. R.; Washburn, M. J.; Hangiandreou, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    External MRI fiducial marker devices are expected to facilitate robust, accurate, and efficient image fusion between MRI and other modalities. Automating of this process requires careful selection of a suitable marker size and material visible across a variety of pulse sequences, design of an appropriate fiducial device, and a robust segmentation algorithm. A set of routine clinical abdominal MRI pulse sequences was used to image a variety of marker materials and range of marker sizes. The most successfully detected marker was 12.7 mm diameter cylindrical reservoir filled with 1 g/L copper sulfate solution. A fiducial device was designed and fabricated from four such markers arranged in a tetrahedral orientation. MRI examinations were performed with the device attached to phantom and a volunteer, and custom developed algorithm was used to detect and segment the individual markers. The individual markers were accurately segmented in all sequences for both the phantom and volunteer. The measured intra-marker spacings matched well with the dimensions of the fiducial device. The average deviations from the actual physical spacings were 0.45+/- 0.40 mm and 0.52 +/- 0.36 mm for the phantom and the volunteer data, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that this general fiducial design and detection algorithm could be used for MRI multimodality fusion applications.

  5. In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    2005-11-15

    This final report on "In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation" (DE-FG03-01ER54632) consists of a series of summaries of work that has been published, or presented at meetings, or both. It briefly describes results on the following topics: 1) A Transport and Fate Model for Helium and Helium Management; 2) Atomistic Studies of Point Defect Energetics, Dynamics and Interactions; 3) Multiscale Modeling of Fracture consisting of: 3a) A Micromechanical Model of the Master Curve (MC) Universal Fracture Toughness-Temperature Curve Relation, KJc(T - To), 3b) An Embrittlement DTo Prediction Model for the Irradiation Hardening Dominated Regime, 3c) Non-hardening Irradiation Assisted Thermal and Helium Embrittlement of 8Cr Tempered Martensitic Steels: Compilation and Analysis of Existing Data, 3d) A Model for the KJc(T) of a High Strength NFA MA957, 3e) Cracked Body Size and Geometry Effects of Measured and Effective Fracture Toughness-Model Based MC and To Evaluations of F82H and Eurofer 97, 3-f) Size and Geometry Effects on the Effective Toughness of Cracked Fusion Structures; 4) Modeling the Multiscale Mechanics of Flow Localization-Ductility Loss in Irradiation Damaged BCC Alloys; and 5) A Universal Relation Between Indentation Hardness and True Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior. Further details can be found in the cited references or presentations that generally can be accessed on the internet, or provided upon request to the authors. Finally, it is noted that this effort was integrated with our base program in fusion materials, also funded by the DOE OFES.

  6. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  7. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  8. International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source term simulation and neutronics analyses of the high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Heinzel, V; Moellendorff, U V

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the new results of the development work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe on the neutronics of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). An important step forward has been done in the simulation of neutron production of the deuteron-lithium source using the Li(d,xn) reaction cross sections from evaluated data files. The developed Monte Carlo routine and d-Li reaction data newly evaluated at INPE Obninsk have been verified against available experimental data on the differential neutron yield from deuteron-bombarded thick lithium targets. With the modified neutron source three-dimensional distributions of neutron and photon fluxes, displacement and gas production rates and nuclear heating inside the high flux test module (HFTM) were calculated. In order to estimate the uncertainty resulting from the evaluated data, two independent libraries, recently released by INPE and LANL, have been used in the transport calculations. The proposal to use a reflector around ...

  9. Reaction-Based SiC Materials for Joining Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Singh, M.; Serizawa, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2000-09-01

    The fabrication of large or complex silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) components for fusion energy systems requires a method to assemble smaller components that are limited in size by manufacturing constraints. Previous analysis indicates that silicon carbide should be considered as candidate joint materials. Two methods to obtain SiC joints rely on a reaction between silicon and carbon to produce silicon carbide. This report summarizes preliminary mechanical properties of joints formed by these two methods. The methods appear to provide similar mechanical properties. Both the test methods and materials are preliminary in design and require further optimization. In an effort to determine how the mechanical test data is influenced by the test methodology and specimen size, plans for detailed finite element modeling (FEM) are presented.

  10. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc.

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  11. Preserving Data about the Knowledge Creation Process: Developing an Archive on the Cold Fusion Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the creation of the Cold Fusion Archive at Cornell University and raises questions about documenting how scientific knowledge is created, diffused, and evaluated. Types of materials collected are described; issues involving the acquisition, organization, and preservation of materials are addressed; and the scope and limitations of…

  12. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  13. Materials recycle and waste management in fusion power reactors. Progress report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, S.; Jung, J.; Steindler, M.J.; Maya, I.; Levine, H.E.; Peterman, D.D.; Strausburg, S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of a STARFIRE fusion reactor have been studied. The breeding ratios were calculated as a function of lithium enrichment and neutron multiplier for systems containing either Li/sub 2/O or LiAlO/sub 2/. The lithium requirements for a fusion economy were also estimated for those cases and the current US resources were found to be adequate. However, competition with other lithium demands in the future emphasizes the need for recovering and reusing lithium. The radioactivities induced in the breeder and the impurities responsible for their formation were determined. The residual radioactivities of several low-activation structural materials were compared with the radioactivity from the prime candidate alloy (PCA) a titanium modified Type 316 stainless steel used in STARFIRE. The impurities responsible for the radioactivity levels were identified. From these radioactive impurity levels it was determined that V15Cr5Ti could meet the requirements for shallow land burial as specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10CFR61), whereas PCA would require a more restrictive disposal mode, i.e. in a geologic medium. The costs for each of these disposal modes were then estimated.

  14. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kayo [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Hartman, Philip S. [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ishii, Takamasa [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Suda, Hitoshi [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Akatsuka, Akira [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Shoyama, Tetsuji [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Miyazawa, Masaki [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Ishii, Naoaki, E-mail: nishii@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  15. Experimental facilities for investigation of structural material properties for fusion reactor under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Sidorenkov, A.V.; Zyryanov, A.P.; Barsanov, V.I.; Shushlebin, V.V. (Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russia)); Rybin, V.V.; Vinokurov, V.F.; Odintsov, N.B. (Central Scientific and Research Inst. of Structural Materials, St. Petersburg (Russia)); Zykanov, V.A.; Shamardin, V.K.; Kazakov, V.A. (Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russia))

    1992-09-01

    The study of sturctural and breeding materials for fusion reactors covers a wide range of investigations including the effect of different operating factors; irradiation is the main factor. This paper presents basic reactor characteristics, the types of investigations on structural and breeding materials carried out at these reactors, and the reactor irradiation conditions. The design of equipment used for parameter control during the irradiations is also discussed. CM-2 and BOR-60 reactors are primarily used to irradiate structural materials for the blanket, first wall and divertor at temperatures of 80 and 350deg C and fluences up to 5x10[sup 22] n/cm[sup 2]. The IVV-2 reactor is used to investigate breeding blanket materials and to study the problems of hydrogen/tritium permeability and recovery from Li-Pb eutectic and through 0.4C-16Cr-11Ni-3Mo-Ti steel. In addition, there are facilities for carrying out irradiation experiments at cryogenic temperatures as well as in different media. (orig.).

  16. Repetitive tabletop plasma focus to produce a tunable damage factor on materials for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Inestrosa-Izurieta, Maria Jose; Moreno, Jose; Davis, Sergio; Bora, Biswajit; Avaria, Gonzalo; Jain, Jalaj; Altamirano, Luis; Panizo, Miguel; Gonzalez, Raquel; Rivera, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Future thermonuclear reactors, both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches, need materials capable of withstanding the extreme radiation and heat loads expected from high repetition rate plasma. A damage factor (F = qτ1/2) in the order of 104 (W/cm2) s1/2 is expected. The axial plasma dynamics after the pinch in a tabletop plasma focus of hundred joules, PF-400J, was characterized by means of pulsed optical refractive diagnostics. The energy, interaction time and power flux of the plasma burst interacting with targets was obtained. Results show a high dependence of the damage factor with the distance from the anode top where the sample is located. A tunable damage factor in the range 10- 105(W/cm2) s1/2 can be obtained. At present the PF-400J operating at 0.077 Hz is being used to study the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material target, including nanostructured materials. A new tabletop device to be operated up to 1Hz including tunable damage factor has been designed and is being constructed, thus thousand cumulative shots on materials could be obtained in few minutes. The scaling of the damage factor for plasma foci operating at different energies is discussed. Supported by CONICYT: PIA ACT-1115, PAI 79130026.

  17. Modeling and Testing Miniature Torsion Specimens for SiC Joining Development Studies for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-08-19

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with CVD-SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many of these miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the CVD-SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated joint strengths to determine the effects of the irradiation. Finite element elastic damage and elastic-plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated joint test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  18. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klix Axel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  19. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 92--94). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    This is the Final Report for a three-year (FY 92--94) study of the Environmental, Safety, and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion energy systems, emphasizing development of computerized approaches suitable for incorporation as modules in fusion system design codes. First, as is reported in Section 2, the authors now have operating a simplified but complete environment and safety evaluation code, BESAFE. The first tests of BESAFE as a module of the SUPERCODE, a design optimization systems code at LLNL, are reported in Section 3. Secondly, as reported in Section 4, the authors have maintained a strong effort in developing fast calculational schemes for activation inventory evaluation. In addition to these major accomplishments, considerable progress has been made on research on specific topics as follows. A tritium modeling code TRIDYN was developed in collaboration with the TSTA group at LANL and the Fusion Nuclear Technology group at UCLA. A simplified algorithm has been derived to calculate the transient temperature profiles in the blanket during accidents. The scheme solves iteratively a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing about 10 regions of the blanket by preserving energy balance. The authors have studied the physics and engineering aspects of divertor modeling for safety applications. Several modifications in the automation and characterization of environmental and safety indices have been made. They have applied this work to the environmental and safety comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors. A methodology in decision analysis utilizing influence and decision diagrams has been developed to model fusion reactor design problems. Most of the work during this funding period has been reported in 26 publications including theses, journal publications, conference papers, and technical reports, as listed in Section 11.

  20. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. E., E-mail: weking@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kamath, C. [Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rubenchik, A. M. [NIF and Photon Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  1. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, Raphael, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Cara, Philippe; Duglué, Daniel; Gex, Dominique [Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H{sup +} and D{sup +} 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  2. Application of Kelvin Probe to Studies of Fusion Reactor Materials under Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guangnan; K. Yamaguchi; T. Terai; M. Yamawaki

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the work function (WF) changes in metallic and ceramic materials to be potentially used in future fusion reactors have been examined by means of Kelvin probe (KP),under He ion irradiation in high energy (MeV) and / or low energy (500 eV) ranges. The results of polycrystalline Ni samples indicate that the 1 MeV beam only induces decrease in the WF within the experimental fluence range; whereas the irradiation of 500 eV beam results in decrease in the WF firstly, then increase till saturation. A dual layer surface model is employed to explain the observed phenomena, together with computer simulation results by SRIM code. Charges buildup on the surface of lithium ceramics has been found to greatly influence the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively using a model concerning an induction electric field due to external field and free charges on the ceramic surface.

  3. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  4. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1988-08-01

    This report contains papers on thermonuclear reactor materials. The general categories of these papers are: irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; ceramics; and radiation effects. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the energy database. (LSP)

  5. Fusion Reactor Materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1992-04-01

    This report contains papers on topic in the following areas of thermonuclear reactor materials: irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials and beryllium; and ceramics. These paper have been index separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  6. Fusion energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, Rob [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons from DT fusion can be used to produce {sup 239}Pu or {sup 233}U. However since no fertile nor fissile material need be present in a pure fusion power plant, it would be relatively easy to detect significant covert transmutation in a declared facility. Clandestine fusion-based transmutation does not appear credible. Furthermore, no fissile materials are immediately available in a fusion breakout scenario. DT fusion systems produce and burn 400g of tritium per day, a small fraction of which, if diverted, could be used to enhance the efficiency, reliability and/or safety of a nuclear weapon. Very accurate T accountancy needs to be developed for fusion energy systems. Finally, the spread of inertial fusion energy R and D may result in dissemination of knowledge relevant to the design of nuclear weapons. International agreements to restrain information transfer are required. In summary, fusion is much safer from a proliferation standpoint than fission, but still requires verification and control.

  7. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  8. DEVELOPING LEARNING MATERIALS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Teaching/learning materials is one of the very crucial elements that has to exist to conduct teaching/learning activities. This paper describes teaching/learning materials development for ESP. The description includes the definition, the principles, the procedure, and the practical undertaking of the materials development with the case of developing learning materials for ESP.

  9. DEVELOPING LEARNING MATERIALS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harsono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Teaching/learning materials is one of the very crucial elements that has to exist to conduct teaching/learning activities. This paper describes teaching/learning materials development for ESP. The description includes the definition, the principles, the procedure, and the practical undertaking of the materials development with the case of developing learning materials for ESP.

  10. Condensation of ablated first-wall materials in the cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, A.J.C.

    1985-12-18

    This report concerns problems involved in recondensing first-wall materials vaporized by x rays and pellet debris in the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor. It examines three proposed first-wall materials, beryllium oxide (BeO), silicon carbide (SiO), and pyrolytic graphite (C), paying particular attention to the chemical equilibrium and kinetics of the vaporized gases. The major results of this study are as follows. Ceramic materials composed of diatomic molecules, such as BeO and SiC, exist as highly dissociated species after vaporization. The low gas density precludes significant recombination during times of interest (i.e., less than 0.1 s). The dissociated species (Be, O, Si, and C) are, except for carbon, quite volatile and are thermodynamically stable as a vapor under the high temperature and low density found in Cascade. These materials are thus unsuitable as first-wall materials. This difficulty is avoided with pyrolytic graphite. Since the condensation coefficient of monatomic carbon vapor (approx. 0.5) is greater than that of the polyatomic vapor (<0.1), recondensation is assisted by the expected high degree of dissociation. The proposed 10-layer granular carbon bed is sufficient to condense all the carbon vapor before it penetrates to the BeO layer below. The effective condensation coefficient of the porous bed is about 50% greater than that of a smooth wall. An estimate of the mass flux leaving the chamber results in a condensation time for a carbon first wall of about 30 to 50 ms. An experiment to investigate condensation in a Cascade-like chamber is proposed.

  11. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, C.H., E-mail: chuck.henager@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Nguyen, B.N.; Kurtz, R.J.; Roosendaal, T.J.; Borlaug, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Ferraris, M.; Ventrella, A. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite element elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed. - Highlights: • Finite element damage models developed and applied to understand miniature torsion specimen. • Damage models correctly predict torsion joint failure locations for wide range of materials. • Tests of strong, stiff ceramic joints will not produce accurate shear strength values. • Miniature torsion specimen has diminished test utility but still valuable.

  12. Development status of CLAM steel for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qunying, E-mail: qunying.huang@fds.org.cn

    2014-12-15

    The China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) under wide collaboration within China. Significant R and D work on CLAM steel was carried out to help make it suitable for industrial applications. The effect of refining processes and thermal aging on composition, microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Material properties before irradiation including impact, fracture toughness, thermal aging, creep and fatigue properties etc. were assessed. A series of irradiation tests in the fission reactor HFETR in Chengdu up to 2 dpa and in the spallation neutron source SINQ in Paul Scherrer Institute up to 20 dpa were performed. PbLi corrosion tests for more than 10,000 h were done in the DRAGON-I and PICOLO loops. Fabrication techniques for a test blanket module (TBM) are being developed and a 1/3 scale TBM prototype is being fabricated with CLAM steel. Recent progresses on the development status of this steel are presented here. The code qualification of CLAM steel is under plan for its final application in ITER-TBM and DEMO in the future.

  13. Towards standardization of the dissemination measures and tritium solubility in materials of fusion reactors; Hacia la estandarizacion de las medidas de difusion y solubilidad de tritio en materiales de reactores de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, G.; Penalva, I.; Aranburu, I.; Sarrionandia-Ibarra, A.; Legarda, F.; Martinez, P. M.; Sedano, L.; Moral, N.

    2011-07-01

    The standardization of the measurements of hydrogen isotope interaction with different materials is a challenge and goal of fusion technology programs worldwide. For decades the programs have promoted the need for a reference laboratory for measurements of hydrogen transport to the evolution of fusion technology, but that goal is still pending, in contrast to the situation in other goals I+D.

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of developing vertebral fusions using a teleost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeverfjord Grete

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal disorders are a major cause of disability for humans and an important health problem for intensively farmed animals. Experiments have shown that vertebral deformities present a complex but comparable etiology across species. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in bone deformities are still far from understood. To further explicate the mechanisms involved, we have examined the fundamental aspects of bone metabolism and pathogenesis of vertebral fusions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Results Experimentally, juvenile salmon were subjected to hyperthermic conditions where more than 28% developed fused vertebral bodies. To characterize the fusion process we analyzed an intermediate and a terminal stage of the pathology by using x-ray, histology, immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. At early stage in the fusion process, disorganized and proliferating osteoblasts were prominent at the growth zones of the vertebral body endplates. PCNA positive cells further extended along the rims of fusing vertebral bodies. During the developing pathology, the marked border between the osteoblast growth zones and the chondrocytic areas connected to the arches became less distinct, as proliferating cells and chondrocytes blended through an intermediate zone. This cell proliferation appeared to be closely linked to fusion of opposing arch centra. During the fusion process a metaplastic shift appeared in the arch centra where cells in the intermediate zone between osteoblasts and chondrocytes co-expressed mixed signals of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. A similar shift also occurred in the notochord where proliferating chordoblasts changed transcription profile from chondrogenic to also include osteogenic marker genes. In progressed fusions, arch centra and intervertebral space mineralized. Conclusion Loss of cell integrity through cell proliferation and metaplastic shifts seem to

  15. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  16. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  17. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Department of Fussion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yutani, Toshiaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m{sup 2}) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm{sup 3}) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  18. Developing Language Course Materials. Portfolio Series #11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian; Masuhara, Hitomi

    2004-01-01

    This book is for all language teachers. It regards them all as materials developers in that teachers frequently have to make decisions about selecting and adapting materials, they make decisions everyday in their classrooms about how to use the materials and they sometimes develop materials of their own to supplement or even replace the materials…

  19. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  20. Operation and commissioning of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) LIPAc injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Y., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Knaster, J.; Ayala, J.-M.; Marqueta, A.; Perez, M.; Pruneri, G.; Scantamburlo, F. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Gobin, R., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Harrault, F.; Senée, F.; Valette, M. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Heidinger, R.; Cara, P.; Gex, D.; Phillips, G. [F4E, Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A. [JAEA, Division of Rokkasho BA Project, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The objective of linear IFMIF prototype accelerator is to demonstrate 125 mA/CW deuterium ion beam acceleration up to 9 MeV. The injector has been developed in CEA Saclay and already demonstrated 140 mA/100 keV deuterium beam [R. Gobin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02A918 (2014)]. The injector was disassembled and delivered to the International Fusion Energy Research Center in Rokkasho, Japan. After reassembling the injector, commissioning has started in 2014. Up to now, 100 keV/120 mA/CW hydrogen and 100 keV/90 mA/CW deuterium ion beams have been produced stably from a 10 mm diameter extraction aperture with a low beam emittance of 0.21 π mm mrad (rms, normalized). Neutron production by D-D reaction up to 2.4 × 10{sup 9} n/s has been observed in the deuterium operation.

  1. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  2. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This report mainly discusses topics on the physical effects of radiation on thermonuclear reactor materials. The areas discussed are: irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; mechanistic studies, theory and modeling; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics. (FI)

  3. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  4. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  5. Characterization of scintillator materials for fast-ion loss detectors in nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García López, J.; García-Muñoz, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Carmona Gázquez, M.; Zurro, B.

    2014-08-01

    . The solid angle subtended by the fiber is ∼2.2 × 10-5 sr. The final element is a compact and high sensitive spectrometer, QE6500 (Ocean Optics Inc.) with a 2D area detector which allow us to measure simultaneously in the range of 200-1100 nm with a spectral resolution ∼1-2 nm. The measured signals were analyzed and stored with the SpectraSuite software [6]. The absolute calibration of the optical system described above was carried out with a HL-2000-CAL Tungsten Halogen Calibration Standard light source which provides absolute intensity values (in μW/cm2/nm) at the fiber port at wavelengths from 360-1050 nm.The beam fluxes used to irradiate the phosphors were ∼ 1012 p/cm2s- for the IL yields determination, and up to ten times higher for the degradation analyses.The Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements of the screens were accomplished in the same vacuum chamber using protons at 3 MeV and 5 MeV. Two different energies were employed due to the large difference between the thicknesses of the samples. The proton beam intensity was 10 nA and the beam size 1 mm of diameter. The analysis were performed with a Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector of 300 mm2, positioned at 150° and with a 10 μm thick aluminized mylar foil placed at the detector surface to avoid the light emitted by the scintillators. The RBS spectra were analyzed using the SIMNRA code [7].The scintillators investigated in this work were selected according to their availability, radiation hardness, fast response, and/or prior use in plasma diagnostics. In this paper, three different kinds of materials have been analyzed. The TG-Green (so called by the manufacturer, Sarnoff Corporation, USA) is a Eu doped SrGa2S4 powder substrate with density of 3.65 g/cm3, and presents an emission at 540 nm with a very short decay time.≈490 ns [8]. A TG-Green scintillator coating has been applied, for the first time, to a fusion plasma diagnostics for the detection of fast

  6. Compression fracture in the middle of a chronic instrumented fusion that developed into pseudarthrosis after balloon kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirris, Stephen M; Kimes, Sherri M

    2014-06-01

    There are only 2 documented cases of vertebral compression fractures occurring within a solid lumbar fusion mass: one within the fusion mass after hardware removal and the other within the levels of the existing instrumentation 1 year postoperatively. The authors report a case of fracture occurring in a chronic (> 30 years) solid instrumented fusion mass in a patient who underwent kyphoplasty. The pain did not improve after the kyphoplasty procedure, and the patient developed a posterior cleft in the fusion mass postoperatively. The patient, a 46-year-old woman, had undergone a T4-L4 instrumented fusion with placement of a Harrington rod when she was 12 years old. Adjacent-segment breakdown developed, and her fusion was extended to the pelvis, with pedicle screws placed up to L-3 to capture the existing fusion mass. Almost 2 years after fusion extension, she fell down the stairs and suffered an L-2 compression fracture, which is when kyphoplasty was performed without pain relief, and she then developed a cleft in the posterior fusion mass that was previously intact. She refused further surgical options. This case report is meant to alert surgeons of this possibility and allow them to consider the rare occurrence of fracture within the fusion mass when planning extension of chronic spinal fusions.

  7. Development of the Synarcual in the Elephant Sharks (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes): Implications for Vertebral Formation and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Boisvert, Catherine; Maksimenko, Anton; Currie, Peter; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea), within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage. Examination of early developmental stages indicates that in the Batoidea and the 'Placodermi', individual vertebrae developed normally and only later become incorporated into the synarcual, implying regular somite segmentation and vertebral development. Here we show that in the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii, uniform and regular vertebral segmentation also occurs, with anterior individual vertebra developing separately with subsequent fusion into a synarcual. Vertebral elements forming directly behind the synarcual continue to be incorporated into the synarcual through growth. This appears to be a common pattern through the Vertebrata. Research into human disorders, presenting as cervical fusion at birth, focuses on gene misexpression studies in humans and other mammals such as the mouse. However, in chondrichthyans, vertebral fusion represents the normal morphology, moreover, taxa such Leucoraja (Batoidea) and Callorhinchus (Holocephali) are increasingly used as laboratory animals, and the Callorhinchus genome has been sequenced and is available for study. Our observations on synarcual development in three major groups of early jawed vertebrates indicate that fusion involves heterotopic cartilage and perichondral bone/mineralised cartilage developing outside the regular skeleton. We

  8. Development of the Synarcual in the Elephant Sharks (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes: Implications for Vertebral Formation and Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerina Johanson

    Full Text Available The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea, within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage. Examination of early developmental stages indicates that in the Batoidea and the 'Placodermi', individual vertebrae developed normally and only later become incorporated into the synarcual, implying regular somite segmentation and vertebral development. Here we show that in the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii, uniform and regular vertebral segmentation also occurs, with anterior individual vertebra developing separately with subsequent fusion into a synarcual. Vertebral elements forming directly behind the synarcual continue to be incorporated into the synarcual through growth. This appears to be a common pattern through the Vertebrata. Research into human disorders, presenting as cervical fusion at birth, focuses on gene misexpression studies in humans and other mammals such as the mouse. However, in chondrichthyans, vertebral fusion represents the normal morphology, moreover, taxa such Leucoraja (Batoidea and Callorhinchus (Holocephali are increasingly used as laboratory animals, and the Callorhinchus genome has been sequenced and is available for study. Our observations on synarcual development in three major groups of early jawed vertebrates indicate that fusion involves heterotopic cartilage and perichondral bone/mineralised cartilage developing outside the regular

  9. Evaluative Review in Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Horn, Bradley; Grabe, William; Robinson, Marin S.

    2006-01-01

    English for Academic Purposes (EAP) professionals know that initial efforts to produce or adapt materials generally require evaluative review and revision. A review process that solicits feedback from teacher and student users is critical because materials writers often find it difficult to envision the problems others may have with their…

  10. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology; Estudo de materiais estruturais na tecnolgia da fusao termonuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billa, R. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Amaral, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    1995-12-31

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. It is divided into the following chapters: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide components; ferritic-martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; radiation effects, mechanistic studies, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; and irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods. There were no papers for the chapters on solid breeding materials and materials engineering and design requirement. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Material development for India’s nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Suri

    2013-10-01

    The area of materials research has registered a phenomenal growth in the recent years, assiduously accepting and assimilating ideas, concepts and analytical as well as experimental methodologies and techniques form almost all scientific disciplines, thereby demonstrating its remarkably multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character. The focus of the materials programme of this centre is to provide materials, processes and processing solutions to the emerging needs of evolving indigenous nuclear energy systems by proactive research and development on a continuing basis. The initial stage of our activities was formulated around three stage Indian nuclear power programme. In stage I, material issues related to in-core materials with emphasis on development of fabrication routes of zirconium alloys for structural application were addressed. Subsequently the thrust areas were development and characterization of mixed oxide fuel, advanced zirconium alloys, structural steels, superalloys, neutron absorber materials based on boron carbides and borides, and shape memory alloys. The research was useful for in-service performance evaluation, safety assessment, residual life estimation and life extension of nuclear reactors built during stage I i.e., PHWRs and BWRs. It also included developments which would permit rapid expansion of nuclear power initially through fast breeder reactor based on mixed oxide fuel and later based on metallic fuels. For the 3rd stage, multilayer coatings, graphite coolant tube, BeO, refractory metals and alloys, heat-treated zirconium alloys are being developed for CHTR, ADSS and AHWR. The materials being developed for fusion programme are low Z and high Z material for plasma facing application, Cu-alloys for heat sink, austenitic steels, RAFMS and ODS for structurals and NbTi, Nb3Sn and Nb3Al superconductors, lithium titanate, lithium silicate breeders, and Pb–Bi coolant. A brief overview of the materials research activities currently being

  13. A miniaturized test method for the mechanical characterization of structural materials for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Mech. Eng. Dept.; Donato, A. [ENEA CRE, Fusion Sector, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Montanari, R. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Mech. Eng. Dept.; Sili, A. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Mech. Eng. Dept.

    1996-10-01

    This work deals with a non-destructive method for mechanical tests which is based on the indentation of materials at a constant rate by means of a cylinder with a small radius and penetrating flat surface. The load versus penetration depth curves obtained using this method have shown correspondences with those of tensile tests and have given indications about the mechanical properties on a reduced scale. In this work penetration tests have been carried out on various kinds of Cr martensitic steels (MANET-2, BATMAN and modified F82H) which are of interest for first wall and structural applications in future fusion reactors. The load versus penetration depth curves have been examined with reference to data obtained in tensile tests and to microhardness measurements. Penetration tests have been performed at various temperature (from -180 to 100 C). Conclusions, which can be drawn for the ductile to brittle transition, are discussed for MANET-2 steel. Preliminary results obtained on BATMAN and modified F82H steels are reported. The characteristics of the indenter imprints have been studied by scanning electron microscopy. (orig.).

  14. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  15. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H. [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Fusion Neutron Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  16. Congenital Cervical Fusion as a Risk Factor for Development of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Lange, Stefan F; Kotter, Mark R N; Mikulis, David J; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, including Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), is a suspected risk factor for development of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). We aimed to establish prevalence and degenerative patterns of congenital cervical fusion (CCF) among a global cohort of patients with DCM. Data from 3 prospective DCM studies were merged, including clinical data for 813 patients and imaging for 592 patients. CCF was diagnosed by presence of fused cervical vertebrae without signs of degenerative fusion. A wasp-waist sign was used to define a KFS subgroup. Characteristics of patients with CCF and the KFS subgroup were compared with the remainder of patients with DCM. Twenty-three patients with CCF (14 KFS) were identified, indicating a prevalence of 3.9% (2.4% KFS). Patients with CCF were older (P = 0.02), had more operated levels (P = 0.01), had higher rates of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (P = 0.02), and demonstrated worse degenerative changes at C3-4, including spinal cord compression (P = 0.002) and T2 weighted image T2WI signal hyperintensity (P = 0.04). Levels adjacent to fusions showed a trend toward increased spinal cord compression (P = 0.09), with fusions at C3-4 or above showing cord compression below in 9 of 10 patients, fusions at C5-6 or below having cord compression above in 8 of 8 patients, and fusions at C4-5 showed cord compression above and below in 2 of 2 patients. The prevalence of CCF and KFS is higher in DCM than for the general population, suggesting that these patients are predisposed to DCM development. Patients with CCF also have an altered pattern of degenerative changes, seemingly related to adjacent segment degeneration that preferentially affects midcervical levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Caught in the struggle with food craving: Development and validation of a new cognitive fusion measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Silva, Bárbara

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive fusion has been related to the development and maintenance of a series of mental health difficulties. Specifically, growing research on eating psychopathology has been demonstrating the important role of cognitive fusion related to body image in these disorders. Nonetheless, cognitive fusion specifically focused on eating remained to be investigated. The current study aimed at developing and validating the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire-Food Craving, a measure assessing the extent to which an individual is fused with food-craving undesirable and disturbing thoughts and urges. This study was conducted with distinct samples comprising men and women from the student and general population. A principal component analysis was conducted to assess the scale's structure, which was further examined in a confirmatory factor analysis. The scale's reliability and validities were also analysed. Results indicated that the CFQ-FC presented a one-dimensional structure with 7 items, accounting for 66.14% of the variance. A CFA confirmed the plausibility of the measurement model, which was found to be invariant in both sexes. The CFQ-FC also revealed very good internal consistency, construct reliability, temporal stability, and convergent and divergent validity, being positively associated with similar constructs and with indicators of eating and general psychopathology. CFQ-FC also discriminated individuals with clinically significant symptoms of binge eating from participants with no symptoms. Finally, the CFQ-FC presents incremental validity over a global measure of cognitive fusion in predicting eating psychopathology, namely binge eating. The CFQ-FC is a psychometrically sound measure that allows for a brief and reliable assessment of eating-related cognitive fusion. This is a novel measure that may significantly contribute for the assessment of this specific dimension of cognitive fusion and for the understanding of its role in eating psychopathology.

  18. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  19. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  20. A MODEL OF EFL LISTENING MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Zaenuri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In oral communication, listening skill is important because communication does not take place successfully if the message stated is not understood. To master the skill, learners should learn it. Therefore, good listening materials are needed. However, English teachers often find it difficult to teach listening skills because the listening materials are not adequately available. Besides, if the materials are available, they are not appropriate with the students’ needs and the curriculum. In that case, English teachers need to develop listening materials by themselves. For this, they should have knowledge of materials development. This paper presents ideas and tips for English teachers how to develop good and applicable listening materials.

  1. Magnetic fusion energy materials technology program, annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.L. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    Activities in research programs are reported on materials for use in thermonuclear reactor development. Information and data are included on radiation effects on stainless steel 316, nickel-base alloys, molybdenum-base alloys, vanadium alloys, and SAP. Results of compatibility studies involving iron-base alloys and lithium are also included along with research results on magnet development. (JRD)

  2. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  3. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  4. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (˜1 m), high-current (˜1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ˜5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  5. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  6. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  7. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  8. Development of heat sink concept for near-term fusion power plant divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Sandeep; Khirwadkar, Samir; Velusamy, Karupanna

    2017-04-01

    Development of an efficient divertor concept is an important task to meet in the scenario of the future fusion power plant. The divertor, which is a vital part of the reactor has to discharge the considerable fraction of the total fusion thermal power (∼15%). Therefore, it has to survive very high thermal fluxes (∼10 MW/m2). In the present paper, an efficient divertor heat exchanger cooled by helium is proposed for the fusion tokamak. The Plasma facing surface of divertor made-up of several modules to overcome the stresses caused by high heat flux. The thermal hydraulic performance of one such module is numerically investigated in the present work. The result shows that the proposed design is capable of handling target heat flux values of 10 MW/m2. The computational model has been validated against high-heat flux experiments and a satisfactory agreement is noticed between the present simulation and the reported results.

  9. A New Developed GIHS-BT-SFIM Fusion Method Based On Edge and Class Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of image fusion (or sometimes pan sharpening is to produce a single image containing the best aspects of the source images. Some desirable aspects are high spatial resolution and high spectral resolution. With the development of space borne imaging sensors, a unified image fusion approach suitable for all employed imaging sources becomes necessary. Among various image fusion methods, intensity-hue-saturation (IHS and Brovey Transforms (BT can quickly merge huge amounts of imagery. However they often face color distortion problems with fused images. The SFIM fusion is one of the most frequently employed approaches in practice to control the tradeoff between the spatial and spectral information. In addition it preserves more spectral information but suffer more spatial information loss. Its effectiveness is heavily depends on the filter design. In this work, two modifications were tested to improve the spectral quality of the images and also investigating class-based fusion results. First, a Generalized Intensity-Hue-Saturation (GIHS, Brovey Transform (BT and smoothing-filter based intensity modulation (SFIM approach was implemented. This kind of algorithm has shown computational advantages among other fusion methods like wavelet, and can be extended to different number of bands as in literature discussed. The used IHS-BT-SFIM algorithm incorporates IHS, IHS-BT, BT, BT-SFIM and SFIM methods by two adjustable parameters. Second, a method was proposed to plus edge information in previous GIHS_BT_SFIM and edge enhancement by panchromatic image. Adding panchromatic data to images had no much improvement. Third, an edge adaptive GIHS_BT_SFIM was proposed to enforce fidelity away from the edges. Using MS image off edges has shown spectral improvement in some fusion methods. Fourth, a class based fusion was tested, which tests different coefficients for each method due to its class. The best parameters for vegetated areas was k1 = 0.6, k2

  10. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Suryanarayana, C.; Froes, F.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Seven ODS steels, Fe(5-13.5)Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in weight percent) were manufactured using the mechanical alloying process. Only the composition Fe-13.5Cr3W-0.5Ti-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed no austenite formation at any temperature using differential thermal analysis and hence was selected as an experimental alloy for the present investigation. Milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and hot swaging. Electron microscopy studies indicated high material homogeneity. The hardness of the as-swaged specimen was 65 R{sub c}. Annealing of the as-swaged material at 800, 900, 1000, 1100, and 1200{degrees}C showed a minor decrease in the hardness.

  11. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  12. Development of Data Registration and Fusion Methods for Measurement of Ultra-Precision Freeform Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling Bao Kong; Ming Jun Ren; Min Xu

    2017-01-01

    .... The accuracy of the overlapping area is further improved by developing a Gaussian process based data fusion method with full consideration of the associated uncertainties in the measured datasets. Experimental studies are undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method. The study should contribute to the high precision and efficient measurement of ultra-precision freeform surfaces on multi-sensor systems.

  13. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. J.

    2006-07-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R&D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA).

  14. Instability growth for magnetized liner inertial fusion seeded by electro-thermal, electro-choric, and material strength effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecover, J. D.; Chittenden, J. P. [The Centre for Inertial Fusion Studies, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    A critical limitation of magnetically imploded systems such as magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability which primarily disrupts the outer surface of the liner. MagLIF-relevant experiments have showed large amplitude multi-mode MRT instability growth growing from surface roughness [McBride et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 135004 (2012)], which is only reproduced by 3D simulations using our MHD code Gorgon when an artificially azimuthally correlated initialisation is added. We have shown that the missing azimuthal correlation could be provided by a combination of the electro-thermal instability (ETI) and an “electro-choric” instability (ECI); describing, respectively, the tendency of current to correlate azimuthally early in time due to temperature dependent Ohmic heating; and an amplification of the ETI driven by density dependent resistivity around vapourisation. We developed and implemented a material strength model in Gorgon to improve simulation of the solid phase of liner implosions which, when applied to simulations exhibiting the ETI and ECI, gave a significant increase in wavelength and amplitude. Full circumference simulations of the MRT instability provided a significant improvement on previous randomly initialised results and approached agreement with experiment.

  15. Instability growth for magnetized liner inertial fusion seeded by electro-thermal, electro-choric, and material strength effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecover, J. D.; Chittenden, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    A critical limitation of magnetically imploded systems such as magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability which primarily disrupts the outer surface of the liner. MagLIF-relevant experiments have showed large amplitude multi-mode MRT instability growth growing from surface roughness [McBride et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 135004 (2012)], which is only reproduced by 3D simulations using our MHD code Gorgon when an artificially azimuthally correlated initialisation is added. We have shown that the missing azimuthal correlation could be provided by a combination of the electro-thermal instability (ETI) and an "electro-choric" instability (ECI); describing, respectively, the tendency of current to correlate azimuthally early in time due to temperature dependent Ohmic heating; and an amplification of the ETI driven by density dependent resistivity around vapourisation. We developed and implemented a material strength model in Gorgon to improve simulation of the solid phase of liner implosions which, when applied to simulations exhibiting the ETI and ECI, gave a significant increase in wavelength and amplitude. Full circumference simulations of the MRT instability provided a significant improvement on previous randomly initialised results and approached agreement with experiment.

  16. Fusion development and technology. Technical progress report, October 15, 1990--October 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R&D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  17. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  18. Organ fusion and defective shoot development in oni3 mutants of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Takafumi; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Kimura, Fumiko; Tsuda, Katsutoshi; Shibata, Kiko; Ishibashi, Mayu; Moriya, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kurata, Nori; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of organ separation is one of the essential phenomena for normal plant development. We have identified and analyzed ONION3 (ONI3), which is required for avoiding organ fusions in rice. Loss-of-function mutations of ONI3, which were identified as mutants with ectopic expression of KNOX genes in leaves and morphologically resembling KNOX overexpressors, showed abnormal organ fusions in developing shoots. The mutant seedlings showed fusions between neighboring organs and also within an organ; they stopped growing soon after germination and subsequently died. ONI3 was shown to encode an enzyme that is most similar to Arabidopsis HOTHEAD and is involved in biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. Expression analyses showed that ONI3 was specifically expressed in the outermost cell layer in the shoot apex throughout life cycle, and the oni3 mutants had an aberrant outermost cell layer. Our results together with previous studies suggest that long-chain fatty acids are required for avoiding organ fusions and promoting normal shoot development in rice. PMID:24192297

  19. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  20. Material Development and Meeting Learner's Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to show that learners' needs can be met using simple and cheap materials that can be found everywhere in 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. To this end, materials were developed using simple everyday life materials for 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. In the research, the project method was employed. The study was…

  1. Developing and Evaluating Patient Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane; Reynolds, Audree

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for nurse involvement in the development of patient education materials. Presents guidelines for evaluating existing material, including print and web resources, for credibility and readability. Makes recommendations for rewriting material at an easier-to-read level. (SK)

  2. RESOURCE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995) and address issues of the teacher's role and status, gender ... been developed and shaped through critical reflection and reflexive .... reflective deliberation on action research as orienting ... becoming visible through methodologies to.

  3. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H

    2006-01-15

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals.

  4. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  5. Development of the breeding blanket and shield model for the fusion power reactors system SYCOMORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Puma, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lipuma@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-Charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, Brunella, E-mail: brunella.martin@gmail.com [Incka, 19-21 Rue du 8 mai 1945, F-94110 Arcueil (France)

    2014-10-15

    SYCOMORE, a fusion reactor system code based on a modular approach is under development at CEA. Within this framework, this paper describes the relevant sub-modules which have been implemented to model the main outputs of the breeding blanket and shield block of the system code: tritium breeding ratio, peak energy deposition in toroidal field coils, reactor layout and power deposition, blanket pressure drops and materials inventory. Blanket and shield requirements are calculated by several sub-modules: the blanket assembly and layout sub-module, the neutronic sub-module, the blanket design sub-module (thermal hydraulic and thermo-mechanic pre-design tool). A power flow module has also been developed which is directly linked to the blanket thermo-dynamic performances, which is not described in this paper. For the blanket assembly and layout and the blanket module design sub-modules, explicit analytic models have been developed and implemented; for the neutronic sub-module neural networks that replicate the results of appropriate simplified 1D and 2D neutronic simulations have been built. Presently, relevant model for the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead is available. Sub-modules have been built in a way that they can run separately or coupled into the breeding blanket and shield module in order to be integrated in SYCOMORE. In the paper, the objective and main input/output parameters of each sub-module are reported and relevant models discussed. The application to previous studied reactor models (PPCS model AB, DEMO-HCLL 2006–2007 studies) is also presented.

  6. Developing Listening Skills with Authentic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to help English-as-a-Second-Language learners develop effective listening skills. Suggests a process for helping ESL learners develop their listening skills and makes suggestions for how this might be achieved with authentic materials. (VWL)

  7. Developing Listening Skills with Authentic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to help English-as-a-Second-Language learners develop effective listening skills. Suggests a process for helping ESL learners develop their listening skills and makes suggestions for how this might be achieved with authentic materials. (VWL)

  8. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  9. Code development incorporating environmental, safety and economic aspects of fusion reactors; Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.; Greenspan, E.; Holdren, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    This document is a proposal to continue the authors work on the Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion reactors under DOE contract DE-FR03-89ER52514. The grant objectives continue those from the previous grant: (1) completion of first-generation Environmental, Safety and Economic (ESE) computer modules suitable as integral components of tokamak systems codes. (2) continuation of work on special topics, in support of the above and in response to OFE requests. The proposal also highlights progress on the contract in the twelve months since April, 1992. This has included work with the ARIES and ITER design teams, work on tritium management, studies on materials activation, and calculation of radioactive inventories in fusion reactors.

  10. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

  11. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

  12. Developing target injection and tracking for inertial fusion energy power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Gibson, C. R.; Nobile, A.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Siegel, N. P.; Thompson, L.

    2001-05-01

    Fuelling of a commercial inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant consists of supplying about 500 000 fusion targets each day. The most challenging type of target in this regard is that for laser driven direct drive IFE power plants. Spherical capsules with cryogenic DT fuel must be injected into the centre of a reaction chamber operating at temperatures as high as 1500° C and possibly containing as much as 0.5 torr of xenon fill gas. The DT layer must remain highly symmetric, have a smooth inner ice surface finish and reach the chamber centre (CC) at a temperature of about 18.5 K. This target must be positioned at the centre of the chamber with a placement accuracy of +/-5 mm. The accuracy of alignment of the laser driver beams and the target in its final position must be within +/-20 μm. All this must be repeated six times per second. The method proposed to meet these requirements is to inject the targets into the reaction chamber at high speed ( approx 400 m/s), track them, and hit them in flight with steerable driver beams. The challenging scientific and technological issues associated with this task are being addressed through a combination of analyses, modelling, materials property measurements and demonstration tests with representative injection equipment. Measurements of relevant DT properties are planned at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental target injection and tracking system is now being designed to support the development of survivable targets and demonstrate successful injection scenarios. Analyses of target heating are under way. Calculations have shown that a direct drive target must have a highly reflective outer surface to prevent excess heating by thermal radiation. In addition, heating by hot chamber fill gas during injection far outweighs that by the thermal radiation. It is concluded that the dry wall, gas filled reaction chambers must have gas pressures and wall temperatures less than previously assumed in order to prevent

  13. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  14. Chemical thermodynamics of fusion reactor breeding materials and their interaction with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.))

    1985-02-01

    Liquid lithium, lithium alloys (solid and liquid) and ceramic lithium compounds are candidate breeding materials for (D, T) fusion reactors. Besides their tritium breeding capability, which results from neutron capture, their thermochemical properties and their interaction with tritium are of particular interest. A good knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of liquid lithium exists; and the systems Li-LiH, Li-LiD and Li-LiT have been studied in great detail. For dilute solutions of D/sub 2/ in liquid lithium, Sieverts' law was found to be valid down to an atom fraction of xsub(D)=10/sup -6/; in the vapor, lithium polymers up to Li/sub 4/ and lithium deuterides are found. In the system liquid Li-Pb, the solubility of D/sub 2/ was measured as a function of temperature and alloy composition, and correlated with the activities of the constituent metals. The solubility of D/sub 2/ was found to obey Sieverts' law at low concentrations, and is many orders of magnitude smaller than that in liquid lithium. This holds also for solid 'Li/sub 7/ Pb/sub 2/'. Vaporization studies yielded data on the thermal stability of the oxides: Li/sub 2/O, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, ..beta..-Li/sub 5/AlO/sub 4/, LiAl/sub 5/O/sub 8/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/ZrO/sub 4/, Li/sub 8/ZrO/sub 6/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/ and Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/. Tritium diffusivity was studied in Li/sub 2/O, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, ..beta..-Li/sub 5/AlO/sub 4/ and Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/. A large number of gaseous lithides were detected during these studies.

  15. Fusion Power Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the October--December 1978 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Three separate abstracts were prepared for the included sections. (MOW)

  16. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  17. Helium desorption in EFDA iron materials for use in nuclear fusion reactors; Desorcion de helio en materiales de fierro EFDA para su aplicacion en los reactores de fusion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar R, A. R.; Pinedo V, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sanchez, F. J.; Ibarra, A.; Vila, R., E-mail: arsr2707@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense No. 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the implantation with monoenergetic ions (He{sup +}) was realized with an energy of 5 KeV in iron samples (99.9999 %) EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) using a collimated beam, after this a Thermal Desorption Spectrometry of Helium (THeDS) was made using a leak meter that detects amounts of helium of up to 10{sup -}- {sup 12} mbar l/s. Doses with which the implantation was carried out were 2 x 10{sup 15} He{sup +} /cm{sup 2}, 1 x 10{sup 16} He{sup +} /cm{sup 2}, 2 x 10{sup 16} He{sup +} /cm{sup 2}, 1 x 10{sup 17} He{sup +} /cm{sup 2} during times of 90 s, 450 s, 900 s and 4500 s, respectively. Also, using the SRIM program was calculated the depth at which the helium ions penetrate the sample of pure ion, finding that the maximum distance is 0.025μm in the sample. For this study, 11 samples of Fe EFDA were prepared to find defects that are caused after implantation of helium in order to provide valuable information to the manufacture of materials for future fusion reactors. However understand the effects of helium in the micro structural evolution and mechanical properties of structural materials are some of the most difficult questions to answer in materials research for nuclear fusion. When analyzing the spectra of THeDS was found that five different groups of desorption peaks existed, which are attributed to defects of He caused in the material, these defects are He{sub n} V (2≤n≤6), He{sub n} V{sub m}, He V for the groups I, II and IV respectively. These results are due to the comparison of the peaks presented in the desorption spectrum of He, with those of other authors who have made theoretical calculations. Is important to note that the thermal desorption spectrum of helium was different depending on the dose with which the implantation of He{sup +} was performed. (Author)

  18. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Park, H. R.; Jang, B. S.; Roh, C. H.; Eom, H. S.; Choi, N. H.; Seol, M. A.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, H. M.; Park, M. K.; Shin, H. J.; Ryu, D. K.; Oh, W. J.; Kim, S. H; Yee, S. T.

    2012-04-15

    1. Objectives Establishment of modelling of degenerative aging using radiation technology Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model 2. Project results Establishment of the modeling of degenerative aging using radiation technology - The systematic study on the comparison of radiation-induced degeneration and natural aging process in animals and cells confirmed the biological similarity between these two degeneration models - The effective biomarkers were selected for the modelling of degenerative aging using radiation (10 biomarkers for immune/hematopoiesis, 1 for oxidative stress, 6 for molecular signaling, 3 for lipid metabolism) - The optimal irradiation condition was established for the modelling of degerative aging (total 5Gy with fractionation by over 10 times, lapse of over 4 months) - The molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced degeneration were studied including chronic inflammation (lung), inflammation-related lipid metabolism disturbance, mitochondria biogenesis and dynamics - The radiation degenerative model was evaluated with previously known natural substances (resveratrol, EGCG, etc) Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model - After the screening of about 800 natural herb extracts, 5 effective substances were selected for aging modulation. - 3 candidate compositions were selected from 20 compositions made from effective substances by in vitro evaluation (WAH2, WAH6, WAH7) - 1 composition (WAH6) was selected as the best aging modulator by in vivo evaluation in radiation-induced aging models and degenerative disease models. 3. Expected benefits and plan of application The modelling of degenerative aging using radiation can facilitate the aging research by providing the useful cell/animal models for aging research A large economic benefits are expected by the commercialization of developed aging modulators (over 10 billion KW in 2015.

  19. Development of a 3D co-culture model using human stem cells for studying embryonic palatal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic tissue fusion is a critical and complex event in embryonic development and failure of this event leads to birth defects, such as cleft palate. Palatal fusion requires adhesion and subsequent dissolution of the medial epithelial layer of the mesenchymal palatal shelv...

  20. Development of a 3D co-culture model using human stem cells for studying embryonic palatal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic tissue fusion is a critical and complex event in embryonic development and failure of this event leads to birth defects, such as cleft palate. Palatal fusion requires adhesion and subsequent dissolution of the medial epithelial layer of the mesenchymal palatal shelv...

  1. Developing an anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion simulator for neurosurgical resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z; Ganju, Aruna; Harrop, James S; Hoh, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    Surgical simulators are useful in many surgical disciplines to augment residency training. Duty hour restrictions and increasing emphasis on patient safety and attending oversight have changed neurosurgical education from the traditional apprenticeship model. The Congress of Neurological Surgeons Simulation Committee has been developing neurosurgical simulators for the purpose of enhancing resident education and assessing proficiency. To review the initial experience with an anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) simulator. The first ACDF training module was implemented at the 2012 Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting. The 90-minute curriculum included a written pretest, didactics, a practical pretest on the simulator, hands-on training, a written posttest, a practical posttest, and postcourse feedback. Didactic material covered clinical indications for ACDF, comparison with other cervical procedures, surgical anatomy and approach, principles of arthrodesis and spinal fixation, and complication management. Written pretests and posttests were administered to assess baseline knowledge and evidence of improvement after the module. Qualitative evaluation of individual performance on the practical (simulator) portion was included. Three neurosurgery residents, 2 senior medical students, and 1 attending neurosurgeon participated in the course. The pretest scores were an average 9.2 (range, 6-13). Posttest scores improved to 11.0 (range, 9-13; P = .03). Initial experience with the ACDF simulator suggests that it may represent a meaningful training module for residents. Simulation will be an important training modality for residents to practice surgical technique and for teachers to assess competency. Further development of an ACDF simulator and didactic curriculum will require additional verification of simulator validity and reliability.

  2. Development of a Bi+ source for heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Volk, K.; Beller, P.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Klein, H.

    1998-02-01

    A volume source based on the high efficiency source is being developed for heavy ion production. Bismuth was chosen for exemplifying investigations because of its low melting point. The ion source is driven by an arc discharge ionizing bismuth atoms which are evaporated from an oven inside the source chamber. It has been optimized to produce a beam with a fraction of singly ionized bismuth above 92%. A multiaperture extraction system was built consisting of seven holes with a radius of 3 mm each. For that system, the perveance limit was achieved at a beam current of 70 mA and an extraction voltage of 27.5 kV. The corresponding emission current density amounts to 35 mA/cm2. This value was obtained for an arc power of only 280 W. Furthermore, the emittance of a beam extracted from the multiaperture extraction system has been determined with a high power emittance scanner. It amounts to 0.27π mm mrad (80%, normalized, 4 rms). In this case, the emittance of a single beam is 0.017π mm mrad. This article will give a detailed description of both the source and the experimental setup. In addition, various dependencies between the plasma parameters and the beam composition are presented.

  3. Development of Modulators Against Degenerative Aging Using Radiation Fusion Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U.; Park, H. R.

    2010-04-15

    In this study, we selected final 20 biomarkers for the degenerative aging to develop radiation aging modeling, and validated a few of selected markers to utilize them in the screening of aging modulators. To select the biomarkers of the degenerative aging, 4 categories of aging-related markers (immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, signaling molecule, lipid metabolism) were comparatively analyzed in irradiated and normally aged biosystems (cell lines or mice). In result, most of the biomarkers showed similar changes by irradiation and normal aging. Regarding the immune/hematopoiesis, the decline of immune cell functions (lymphocyte, NK cell) and Th1/Th2 imbalance, and decreased antigen-presenting of dendritic cells were observed and 10 biomarkers were selected in this category. mtDNA deletion was selected for the oxidative damage marker, 6 biomarkers including p21 and p-FOXO3a for signaling molecule biomarkers, and 3 biomarkers including the adipose tissue weight were selected for lipid metabolism. In addition, the various radiation application conditions by single/factionated irradiation and the periods after the irradiation were investigated for the optimal induction of changes of biomarker, which revealed that total 5Gy of 10 or more fractionated irradiations and 4 months or greather period were observed to be optimal. To found the basis for the screening of natural aging modulators, some selected aging biomarkers were validated by their inhibition by well-known natural agents (EGCG, HemoHIM, etc) in aged cell or mouse model. Additionally, by evaluating the reductive efficacy of 5 natural agents on the degeneration of skin and reproductive organs induced by radiation and chemicals (cyclophosphamide, etc), we established the base for the screening of degenerative diseases by various factors

  4. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  5. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  6. Defeating anisotropy in material extrusion 3D printing via materials development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado Perez, Angel Ramon

    ABS, UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) and SEBS (Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene) were further examined due to the potential they demonstrated as low anisotropic materials in terms of strength. Also, the geometrical influence of different standard tensile specimens was studied. The development of materials that lead to lowered anisotropy on the strength of 3D printed parts has been successfully demonstrated, and alternative methodologies for the evaluation of anisotropic characteristics has been proposed as well. The present work shows the beginning to a better understanding of the mechanics taking place during the fusion of deposited material in MEAM.

  7. The Mercury Project: A High Average Power, Gas-Cooled Laser For Inertial Fusion Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A; Armstrong, P; Ault, E; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Dawson, J; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Kent, R; Liao, Z; Ladran, T; Menapace, J; Molander, B; Payne, S; Peterson, N; Randles, M; Schaffers, K; Sutton, S; Tassano, J; Telford, S; Utterback, E

    2006-11-03

    Hundred-joule, kilowatt-class lasers based on diode-pumped solid-state technologies, are being developed worldwide for laser-plasma interactions and as prototypes for fusion energy drivers. The goal of the Mercury Laser Project is to develop key technologies within an architectural framework that demonstrates basic building blocks for scaling to larger multi-kilojoule systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications. Mercury has requirements that include: scalability to IFE beamlines, 10 Hz repetition rate, high efficiency, and 10{sup 9} shot reliability. The Mercury laser has operated continuously for several hours at 55 J and 10 Hz with fourteen 4 x 6 cm{sup 2} ytterbium doped strontium fluoroapatite (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier slabs pumped by eight 100 kW diode arrays. The 1047 nm fundamental wavelength was converted to 523 nm at 160 W average power with 73% conversion efficiency using yttrium calcium oxy-borate (YCOB).

  8. Model Data Fusion: developing Bayesian inversion to constrain equilibrium and mode structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hole, M J; Bertram, J; Svensson, J; Appel, L C; Blackwell, B D; Dewar, R L; Howard, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new probabilistic "data fusion" framework based on Bayesian principles has been developed on JET and W7-AS. The Bayesian analysis framework folds in uncertainties and inter-dependencies in the diagnostic data and signal forward-models, together with prior knowledge of the state of the plasma, to yield predictions of internal magnetic structure. A feature of the framework, known as MINERVA (J. Svensson, A. Werner, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50, 085022, 2008), is the inference of magnetic flux surfaces without the use of a force balance model. We discuss results from a new project to develop Bayesian inversion tools that aim to (1) distinguish between competing equilibrium theories, which capture different physics, using the MAST spherical tokamak; and (2) test the predictions of MHD theory, particularly mode structure, using the H-1 Heliac.

  9. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y. C.; Kang, P. H.; Choi, J. H.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we have developed the radiation-based new therapeutic agents such as hydrogel patch, paste, naganol, nanoparticles and nano fibers containing natural medicinal materials for the treatment of atomic dermatitis and diabetic ulcer. Also, we have developed the separator, the polymer gel electrolyte, and proton exchange membranes for lithium secondary battery and fuel cell by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology. In the 3rd project, the crucial radiation-induced surface modification technologies for the fabrication of the advanced biosensors/chips and electronic devices have been successfully developed.

  10. Development of the Neck in Fusion Reactions 40Ca+90,96Zr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 吴锡真; 李祝霞

    2003-01-01

    The neck dynamics and nucleon transfer through the neck in fusion reactions 40 Ca +90,96Zr are studied by applying the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. A special attention is paid to the dynamic behaviour of the neck development at touching point and to the contribution of excess neutrons in a neutron-rich target (or projectile) to neck formation and nucleon transfer.

  11. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J. (eds.)

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  12. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S.; Meyer, E.A.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.P.

    1985-10-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  13. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Oona, H.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the US Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  14. Plasma–wall interaction in laser inertial fusion reactors: novel proposals for radiation tests of first wall materials

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Mima, K.; Garoz, D.; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Fuchs, J; Tanaka, K.; Fernández, I.; Briones, F.; Perlado Martin, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Dry-wall laser inertial fusion (LIF) chambers will have to withstand strong bursts of fast charged particles which will deposit tens of kJ m−2 and implant more than 1018 particles m−2 in a few microseconds at a repetition rate of some Hz. Large chamber dimensions and resistant plasma-facing materials must be combined to guarantee the chamber performance as long as possible under the expected threats: heating, fatigue, cracking, formation of defects, retention of light species, swelling and er...

  15. Recent development of organic electron transport materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the recent development of organic electron transport materials applied in the fields of organic photoconductors, light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and solar cells. Several technologies for charge carrier mobility measurement are summarized and compared, and a series of basic principles for designing high-performance organic electron transport materials are suggested as well.

  16. On Using Materiality in Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    This research brief presents a discussion on the use of the concept of materiality and material knowing in information systems development (ISD). The discussion addresses some of the practical problems still plaguing ISD, augmenting existing ISD methodologies with contributions from systems theory...

  17. On Using Materiality in Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    This research brief presents a discussion on the use of the concept of materiality and material knowing in information systems development (ISD). The discussion addresses some of the practical problems still plaguing ISD, augmenting existing ISD methodologies with contributions from systems theory...

  18. Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-22

    10 SOVRCE Of FUNO#NG NUM#E*S DM J .j PROGRAM PR0jECT TA5. ~ *0. I1I TITLE &Vila* So.Ivety ClaUMC400NJ Development of Organic NonLinear Optical Materials (U...0102-LF-014-6603 UNCLASSIFIED (U) AFOSR Contract: F4962040-C 0097 FINAL REPORT Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials by J. Sounnk IL

  19. Computational development of the nanoporous materials genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Peter G.; Lee, Yongjin; Smit, Berend

    2017-08-01

    There is currently a push towards big data and data mining in materials research to accelerate discovery. Zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and other related crystalline porous materials are not immune to this phenomenon, as evidenced by the proliferation of porous structure databases and computational gas-adsorption screening studies over the past decade. The endeavour to identify the best materials for various gas separation and storage applications has led not only to thousands of synthesized structures, but also to the development of algorithms for building hypothetical materials. The materials databases assembled with these algorithms contain a much wider range of complex pore structures than have been synthesized, with the reasoning being that we have discovered only a small fraction of realizable structures and expanding upon these will accelerate rational design. In this Review, we highlight the methods developed to build these databases, and some of the important outcomes from large-scale computational screening studies.

  20. The Development of Probability Material using Edmodo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujadi, I.; Kurniasih, R.; Subanti, S.

    2017-04-01

    This research is aimed to describe the process and to get product development of learning material using Edmodo. Learning material is developed in the form of interactive learning material using Edmodo. This research belongs to Research and Development (R&D). The procedure includes the steps of Borg and Gall such as conducting research, collecting information, planning and developing preliminary form product, preliminary field testing and main product revision, main field testing and operational product revision, operational field testing and final product revision, dissemination and implementation. Expert judgment conducts data validity with the average score of media expert 3.57 and 3.67 from the material expert with a maximum score of 4 on a Likert scale. Practicability is obtained by the implementation of learning materials in each meeting which has exceeded 75%. The effectiveness of the response questionnaire of the student has achieved 80%. The students have received instructional materials well. The result of focus group discussion (FGD) can be concluded that learning material can be used in the teaching-learning process in curriculum 2013.

  1. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  2. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  3. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  4. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  5. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  6. Studies in ion source development for application in heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapica, Jonathan G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The overall purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the development of ion injector technology in order to produce a driver for use in a heavy-ion-fusion (HIF) power generating facility. The overall beam requirements for HIF are quite demanding; a short list of the constraints is the following: (1) Low cost (a large portion of overall cost will come from the beam system); (2) Bright, low emittance beam; (3) Total beam energy 5MJ; (4) Spot size 3mm (radius); (5) Pulse Duration 10ns; (6) Current on target 40kA; (7) Repetition Rate 5Hz; (8) Standoff from target 5m; and (9) Transverse Temp < 1 keV. The reasons for employing ion beams in inertial fusion systems become obvious when the repetition rate required is considered. While laser drivers are useful in producing a proof-of-concept, they will be incapable of application in power generation. Consequently attempts in the U.S. to achieve a power generating system make use of linear ion accelerators. It is apparent that the accelerator system requires the highest quality input as obtainable. Therefore injector design is an essential portion of the entire inertial fusion system. At Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories experiments are being conducted using two injector formats. For this project I have conducted a series of studies using both. The next two sections provide a brief description of the sources used for my experiments.

  7. Using Simulations on Materials Development Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian; Masuhara, Hitomi

    2000-01-01

    Describes the advantages of simulations over real-life tasks in courses in instructional materials development. Explains how to develop a simulation, including setting objectives, considering learning and gaming principles, and evaluation; and discusses simulation as an experiential approach that is cost effective. (Contains 45 references.) (LRW)

  8. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Choi, Jae Hak

    2010-04-15

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we carried out the radiation-based new research to apply long-term moisturizing effects and effective natural herbal extracts on the atopic wounds using gamma-ray irradiation. Also, we have developed the separator and the polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary battery by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology for TFT-LCD panel by radiation. In the 3rd project, we have developed the various radiation-based techniques for the surface modification of polymers and ceramics, biomolecules immobilization and patterning, prevention of biomolecule's non-specific adhesion, and surface modification of carbon nanotubes

  9. Considerations for the development of neutral beam injection for fusion reactors or DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.; Boilson, D.

    2017-08-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) has been the most successful heating scheme applied to fusion devices, the majority of which have been based on the acceleration and neutralization in a gas target of accelerated positive ions. For large fusion devices such as ITER, DEMO and fusion reactors, beam energies of the order of 0.5 MeV per nucleon or higher are required to penetrate deeply into the fusing plasma, and thus to heat the plasma in the most important region, i.e. near the poloidal axis of the device, and to drive current in the plasma. Because the efficiency of neutralization of positive ions in a gas target becomes unacceptably low at energies above ≈100 keV/nucleon, future injectors will be based on the neutralization of negative ions, either in a gas target, by photons or in a plasma target. So far only two systems based on negative ions have been used on fusion devices, at JT-60U and at LHD, both based on neutralization in a gas target. The injectors for ITER will also use a gas target, but the energy and operating environment are reactor and DEMO relevant. Also the ITER injectors will have to operate for pulse lengths orders of magnitude higher than all previous NBI systems. In this paper the R&D required for an NBI system for a reactor, or DEMO, is considered against the background of the ITER NBI system development, and the main elements of the required R&D are identified.

  10. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  11. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  12. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  13. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Berry, L.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1990-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion research: toroidal confinement activities; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; fusion theory and computation; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; advanced systems program; fusion materials research; neutron transport; and management services, quality assurance, and safety.

  14. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  15. DEVELOPING LISTENING MATERIALS FOR THE TENTH GRADERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafi’i

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The needs survey shows that English listening skill of the students in the tenth graders of Indonesian Islamic High School or Madrasah Aliyah is not well developed. Consequently, the listening instructional materials based on standard of content 2006 used in the classes need to be advanced. The researcher used only one try out of the product, second revision in this study was the seventh step of Borg and Gall model operational product revision. This was done based on the result of the try out, and the final product (the production of the new materials. The development used in this study consists of needs survey, developing the materials, experts and teacher‟s validation, revision, try out, second revision and the final product. The product is found acceptable for the tenth grade students.

  16. Developments in polymer materials for electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich; Buesing, Arne; Falcou, Aurelie; Heun, Susanne; Kluge, Edgar; Parham, Amir; Stoessel, Philipp; Spreitzer, Hubert; Treacher, Kevin; Vestweber, Horst

    2002-02-01

    In the last few years industrial research into materials fulfilling the needs of the fledgling OLED display industry have intensified considerably. At Covion we have developed a range of polymers based on phenyl-PPV derivatives which are now being commercially exploited in the first polymer LED applications. These materials have been developed systematically with the demanding requirements of the devices (e.g., high efficiency and lifetime) and the industrial applicability (e.g. processibility, reproducibility and reliability of supply) in mind. However due to market forces, such as the introduction of 3rd generation mobile communication technology, there will be an immediate demand for materials for full color OLED displays. In this paper we will report on progress in the development of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) materials at Covion. The requirements for the different colors vary depending on band gap (amongst others) and therefore the challenges for each color are different. The experience gained in understanding the important structure-property relationships in the phenyl-PPVs has been used to develop these new RGB materials.

  17. Development & Characterization of Multifunctional Microfluidic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Ahmet Burak

    The field of microfluidics has been mostly investigated for miniaturized lab on a chip devices for analytical and clinical applications. However, there is an emerging class of "smart" microfluidic materials, combining microfluidics with soft polymers to yield new functionalities. The best inspiration for such materials found in nature is skin, whose functions are maintained and controlled by a vascular "microfluidic" network. We report here the development and characterization of a few new classes of microfluidic materials. First, we introduced microfluidic materials that can change their stiffness on demand. These materials were based on an engineered microchannel network embedded into a matrix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), whose channels were filled with a liquid photoresist (SU- 8). The elastomer filled with the photoresist was initially soft. The materials were shaped into a desired geometry and then exposed to UV-light. Once photocured, the material preserved the defined shape and it could be bent, twisted or stretched with a very high recoverable strain. As soon as the external force was removed the material returned back to its predefined shape. Thus, the polymerized SU-8 acted as the 'endoskeleton' of the microfluidic network, which drastically increased the composite's elastic and bending moduli. Second, we demonstrated a class of simple and versatile soft microfluidic materials that can be turned optically transparent or colored on demand. These materials were made in the form of flexible sheets containing a microchannel network embedded in PDMS, similar to the photocurable materials. However, this time the channels were filled with a glycerolwater mixture, whose refractive index was matched with that of the PDMS matrix. By pumping such dye solutions into the channel network and consecutively replacing the medium, we showed that we can control the material's color and light transmittance in the visible and near-infrared regions, which can be used for

  18. Development of a cryogenically cooled platform for the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, T. J.; Shelton, K. P.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lamppa, D. C.; Baker, J. L.; Rovang, D. C.; Robertson, G. K.

    2017-09-01

    A cryogenically cooled hardware platform has been developed and commissioned on the Z Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) Program. MagLIF is a magneto-inertial fusion concept that employs a magnetically imploded metallic tube (liner) to compress and inertially confine premagnetized and preheated fusion fuel. The fuel is preheated using a ˜2 kJ laser that must pass through a ˜1.5-3.5-μm-thick polyimide "window" at the target's laser entrance hole (LEH). As the terawatt-class laser interacts with the dense window, laser plasma instabilities (LPIs) can develop, which reduce the preheat energy delivered to the fuel, initiate fuel contamination, and degrade target performance. Cryogenically cooled targets increase the parameter space accessible to MagLIF target designs by allowing nearly 10 times thinner windows to be used for any accessible gas density. Thinner LEH windows reduce the deleterious effects of difficult to model LPIs. The Z Facility's cryogenic infrastructure has been significantly altered to enable compatibility with the premagnetization and fuel preheat stages of MagLIF. The MagLIF cryostat brings the liquid helium coolant directly to the target via an electrically resistive conduit. This design maximizes cooling power while allowing rapid diffusion of the axial magnetic field supplied by external Helmholtz-like coils. A variety of techniques have been developed to mitigate the accumulation of ice from vacuum chamber contaminants on the cooled LEH window, as even a few hundred nanometers of ice would impact laser energy coupling to the fuel region. The MagLIF cryostat has demonstrated compatibility with the premagnetization and preheat stages of MagLIF and the ability to cool targets to liquid deuterium temperatures in approximately 5 min.

  19. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Khairallah, Saad A; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2017-06-22

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas flow. The physics of droplet ejection under strong evaporative flow is described using simulations of the laser powder bed interactions to elucidate the experimental results. Hydrodynamic drag analysis is used to augment the single phase flow model and explain the entrainment phenomenon for 316 L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V powder layers. The relevance of vapor driven entrainment of metal micro-particles to similar fluid dynamic studies in other fields of science will be discussed.

  20. Tritium permeation characterization of materials for fusion and generation IV very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.; Pilatzke, K.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Suppiah, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this work is to establish the tritium-permeation properties of structural alloys considered for Fusion systems and very high temperature reactors (VHTR). A description of the work performed to set up an apparatus to measure permeation rates of hydrogen and tritium in 304L stainless steel is presented. Following successful commissioning with hydrogen, the test apparatus was commissioned with tritium. Commissioning tests with tritium suggest the need for a reduction step that is capable of removing the oxide layer from the test sample surfaces before accurate tritium-permeation data can be obtained. Work is also on-going to clearly establish the temperature profile of the sample to correctly estimate the tritium-permeability data.

  1. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  2. Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anthony Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these

  3. Design and Analysis of HIP joined W and Ferritic-Martensitic Steel Mockup for Fusion Reactor Divertor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Shin, K. I.; Kim, S. K.; Jin, H. G.; Lee, E. H.; Yoon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, S. Y.; Hong, B. G. [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Korea has developed a Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) based Test Blanket System (TBS) for an ITER, which consists of the First Wall (FW), Breeding Zone (BZ), Side Wall (SW), and BZ box. Among them, the FW is an important component which faces the plasma directly and, therefore, it is subjected to high heat and neutron loads. The FW of the TBM is considered to be composed of a beryllium (Be) armor as a plasma-facing material and Ferritic-Martensitic (FM) steel as a structure material, or a tungsten (W) armor and FM steel, or bare FM steel. Since Be/FMS and bare FMS were developed and proved by high heat flux (HHF) test, W armor and FM steel joining, fabricated mock-ups, and preparation of the high heat flux (HHF) test for integrity investigation are introduced in the present study. For the application to fusion reactor, joining methods with W to FMS has been developed. The W mock-up was fabricated with HIP considering Ti interlayer and PHHT condition. And the HHF test was prepared by performing the preliminary analysis to determine the test conditions. From the analysis heating and cooling conditions were determined for 0.5 and 1.0 MW/m2 heat fluxes. In the near future, the thermal life-time will be evaluated to determine the test period of the mockups by the mechanical analysis with ANSYS.

  4. Development of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Wittmayer, F.J.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1976-08-17

    A program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors suitable for use in constructing fusion research magnets has resulted in the commercial production of conductors having cross-sectional areas in the range 0.06 cm/sup 2/ to 0.84 cm/sup 2/. Critical current densities near the goal of 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 12 T and 4.2 K have been obtained in conductors produced by two different techniques. The latest results of this program are presented and discussed.

  5. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  6. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  7. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  8. Launching an ESOL Materials Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Fraida

    Guidelines for teachers of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) who wish to undertake an ESOL materials development project are presented. Three areas that affect all such projects are discussed: (1) writing for a local or a wider audience, (2) writing as a team effort, and (3) writing as a decision-making process. In creating for a local…

  9. Launching an ESOL Materials Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Fraida

    Guidelines for teachers of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) who wish to undertake an ESOL materials development project are presented. Three areas that affect all such projects are discussed: (1) writing for a local or a wider audience, (2) writing as a team effort, and (3) writing as a decision-making process. In creating for a local…

  10. Compromise Issues in Materials Development for TESOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ying-qiong

    2015-01-01

    The paper will focus on the“Compromise”issues in developing teaching materials for speakers of other languages. It discusses inevitability will be discussed in the following part, with an analysis of examples in English teaching context of China and possible effects.

  11. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the understan

  12. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the

  13. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  14. Functional materials for breeding blankets—status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, S.; Enoeda, M.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T.; Ying, A.; Sharafat, S.; Smolentsev, S.

    2017-09-01

    The development of tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and flow channel insert materials for the breeding blanket of the DEMO reactor is reviewed. Present emphasis is on the ITER test blanket module (TBM); lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) and lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles have been developed by leading TBM parties. Beryllium pebbles have been selected as the neutron multiplier. Good progress has been made in their fabrication; however, verification of the design by experiments is in the planning stage. Irradiation data are also limited, but the decrease in thermal conductivity of beryllium due to irradiation followed by swelling is a concern. Tests at ITER are regarded as a major milestone. For the DEMO reactor, improvement of the breeder has been attempted to obtain a higher lithium content, and Be12Ti and other beryllide intermetallic compounds that have superior chemical stability have been studied. LiPb eutectic has been considered as a DEMO blanket in the liquid breeder option and is used as a coolant to achieve a higher outlet temperature; a SiC flow channel insert is used to prevent magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop and corrosion. A significant technical gap between ITER TBM and DEMO is recognized, and the world fusion community is working on ITER TBM and DEMO blanket development in parallel.

  15. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  16. New chemical method of viral inactivation for vaccine development based on membrane fusion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Fausto; De Miranda, Joari; Schechter, Marcos C; Queiroz, Fernando A; Santos, Nathalia O; Alves, Ada M B; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2007-11-14

    Membrane fusion is an essential step in the entry of enveloped viruses into their host cells. This process is triggered by conformational changes in viral surface glycoproteins. We have demonstrated previously that modification of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) abolished the conformational changes on VSV glycoprotein and the fusion reaction induced by the virus. Moreover, we observed that viral treatment with DEPC inactivates the virus, preserving the conformational integrity of its surface proteins. In the present work, we evaluated the potential use of DEPC as a viral inactivating chemical agent for the development of useful vaccines. Pathogenicity and viral replication in Balb/c mice were abolished by viral treatment with 0.5mM DEPC. In addition, antibodies elicited in mice after intraperitoneal immunization with DEPC-inactivated VSV mixed with adjuvants were able to recognize and neutralize the native virus and efficiently protected animals against the challenge with lethal doses of VSV. These results together suggest that viral inactivation with DEPC seems to be a suitable method for the development of safe vaccines.

  17. Recent developments in dynamic testing of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilat Amos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New techniques for dynamic characterization of materials that have been developed in the last three years (since the last DYMAT conference in 2012, and results from recent dynamic testing of Inconel 718 are presented. The first development is a dynamic punch test in which three dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC is used to measure the deformation of the rear surface of a specimen as it being penetrated. The second experimental technique that is under development is a dynamic tension experiment in which full-field strain measurement with DIC and full-field temperature measurement are done simultaneously during the test.

  18. Forthcoming Break-Even Conditions of Tokamak Plasma Performance for Fusion Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value ΒN), confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fnGW), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of Btmax = 16 T, ηe = 40 %, plant availability 60 %, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires ΒN ˜ 5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with ΒN ˜ 3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break-even price in the present world energy scenario, which implies that it is necessary to improve the plasma performance beyond that of the ITER advanced plasma operation.

  19. Development of synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Arvic; Gilligan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were in the Bqg(-1) range, for the radionuclides in the material were determined by NPL and compared with results from measurements made by 36 organisations from 17 countries using a 'consensus' approach. The measurements were made within two wider test exercises (the NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercises 2009 and 2010). Certified activity concentration values were obtained for (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (241)Am and indicative values were obtained for (55)Fe and (90)Sr.

  20. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  1. A fusion algorithm for joins based on collections in Odra (Object Database for Rapid Application development)

    CERN Document Server

    Satish, Laika

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the functionality of a currently under development database programming methodology called ODRA (Object Database for Rapid Application development) which works fully on the object oriented principles. The database programming language is called SBQL (Stack based query language). We discuss some concepts in ODRA for e.g. the working of ODRA, how ODRA runtime environment operates, the interoperability of ODRA with .net and java .A view of ODRA's working with web services and xml. Currently the stages under development in ODRA are query optimization. So we present the prior work that is done in ODRA related to Query optimization and we also present a new fusion algorithm of how ODRA can deal with joins based on collections like set, lists, and arrays for query optimization.

  2. Laser inertial fusion dry-wall materials response to pulsed ions at power-plant level fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, T. J.; Tanaka, T. J.; Olson, C. L.; Peterson, R. R.; Knowles, T. R.

    2004-08-01

    Pulses of MeV-level ions with fluences of up to 20 J/cm 2 can be expected to impinge on the first-wall of future laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants. To simulate the effect of these ions, we have exposed candidate dry-wall materials to ion pulses from RHEPP-1, located at Sandia National Laboratories. Various forms of tungsten and tungsten alloy were exposed to up to 1000 pulses, with some samples heated to 600 °C. Thresholds for roughening and material removal, and evolution of surface morphology were measured and compared with code predictions for materials response. Tungsten is observed to undergo surface roughening and subsurface crack formation that evolves over hundreds of pulses, and which can occur both below and above the melt threshold. Heating and Re-alloying mitigate, but do not eliminate, these apparently thermomechanically-caused effects. Use of a 3-D geometry, and/or use of the tungsten in thin-film form may offer improved survivability compared to bulk tungsten.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on Silicon Carbide Based Joining Materials for Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Nozawa, T.; Kotani, M.; Kishimoto, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2001-10-01

    Two general approaches to obtaining silicon carbide-based joint materials were used. The first method relies on reactions between silicon and carbon to form silicon carbide, or to bond silicon carbide powders together. The second method consists of pyrolysing a polycarbosilane polymer to yield an amorphous, covalently bonded material. In order to assess the long-term durability of the joint materials, various heat treatments were performed and the effects on the mechanical properties of the joints were measured. Although the joints derived from the polycarbosilane polymer were not the strongest, the value of strength measured was not affected by heat treatment. On the other hand, the value of the strength of the reaction-based joints was affected by heat treatment, indicating the presence of residual stresses or unreacted material subsequent to processing. Further investigation of reaction-based joining should consist of detailed microscopic studies; however, continued study of joints derived from polymers is also warranted.

  4. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  5. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, J.P., E-mail: allain@purdue.ed [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Nieto-Perez, M. [CICATA-IPN, Cerro Blanco 141 Cimatario, Queretaro, QRO 76090 (Mexico); Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  6. Influence of heat treatment and indenter tip material on depth sensing hardness tests at high temperatures of fusion relevant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredl, Julian, E-mail: julian.bredl@kit.edu; Dany, Manuel; Albinski, Bartlomiej; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Kraft, Oliver

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Operation of a custom-made indentation device designed for test temperatures up to 650 °C and a remote handled operation in a Hot Cell. • Instrumented indentation and conventional hardness testing of unirradiated MANET II and EUROFER. • Comparison of diamond and sapphire as indenter tip materials. - Abstract: The instrumented indentation is a suitable method for testing of even small neutron-irradiated specimens. From the continuously recorded indentation depth and the indentation force, it is possible to deduce mechanical parameters of the tested material. In this paper, a brief description of the high temperature device is given and representative results are presented. In the study, unirradiated steels are investigated by instrumented indentation at temperatures up to 500 °C. It is shown that the hardness is highly depending on the testing-temperature and can be correlated to the results of conventional tensile testing experiments. A not negligible influence of the indenter tip material is observed. The results show the functionality of the high-temperature indentation device.

  7. Developing Novel Protein-based Materials using Ultrabithorax: Production, Characterization, and Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Compared to 'conventional' materials made from metal, glass, or ceramics, protein-based materials have unique mechanical properties. Furthermore, the morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of protein-based materials may be optimized via sequence engineering for use in a variety of applications, including textile materials, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled the production and engineering of protein-based materials ex vivo. However, harsh production conditions can compromise the mechanical properties of protein-based materials and diminish their ability to incorporate functional proteins. Developing a new generation of protein-based materials is crucial to (i) improve materials assembly conditions, (ii) create novel mechanical properties, and (iii) expand the capacity to carry functional protein/peptide sequences. This thesis describes development of novel protein-based materials using Ultrabithorax, a member of the Hox family of proteins that regulate developmental pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments presented (i) establish the conditions required for the assembly of Ubx-based materials, (ii) generate a wide range of Ubx morphologies, (iii) examine the mechanical properties of Ubx fibers, (iv) incorporate protein functions to Ubx-based materials via gene fusion, (v) pattern protein functions within the Ubx materials, and (vi) examine the biocompatibility of Ubx materials in vitro. Ubx-based materials assemble at mild conditions compatible with protein folding and activity, which enables Ubx chimeric materials to retain the function of appended proteins in spatial patterns determined by materials assembly. Ubx-based materials also display mechanical properties comparable to existing protein-based materials and demonstrate good biocompatibility with living cells in vitro. Taken together, this research demonstrates the unique features and future potential of novel Ubx

  8. Socio-Economic research on fusion SERF 3(2001-2003) External Costs of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.; Cabal, H.

    2003-07-01

    Based on SEAFP project (Raeder et al, 1995) findings a preliminary assessment of environmental external costs associated to fusion power was performed under the framework of the first phase of the SERF (Socioeconomic Research on Fusion) project (Saez et al, 1999). This study showed very low external costs of fusion power compared with other traditional and new energy generating technologies. In order to update the assessment of externalities of fusion power, SERF2 project a new plant was included and an analysis of the key variables influencing the external cost was carried out. In the new phase of the SERF project, SERF3, three new additional plant models have been introduced with the aim of assessing the possibilities of silicon carbide to be used as structural material for fusion power plants. Furthermore, comparison of fusion external costs with those of other generation technologies in the state of technology development expected for 2050 has been also performed. (Author)

  9. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  10. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  11. 'Speak out' - issues in participatory materials development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannie Bock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.

  12. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R and D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O and M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R and D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with US geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  13. Developments in data storage materials perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Chong Tow

    2011-01-01

    "The book covers the recent developments in the field of materials for advancing recording technology by experts worldwide. Chapters that provide sufficient information on the fundamentals will be also included, so that the book can be followed by graduate students or a beginner in the field of magnetic recording. The book also would have a few chapters related to optical data storage. In addition to helping a graduate student to quickly grasp the subject, the book also will serve as a useful reference material for the advanced researcher. The field of materials science related to data storage applications (especially hard disk drives) is rapidly growing. Several innovations take place every year in order to keep the growth trend in the capacity of the hard disk drives. Moreover, magnetic recording is very complicated that it is quite difficult for new engineers and graduate students in the field of materials science or electrical engineering to grasp the subject with a good understanding. There are no compet...

  14. Development of Nuclear Materials and Degradation Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Sang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heung Bae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    There are about 440 operating nuclear power reactors in the world including 20 units from Korea. The average age of the reactors is more than 20 years and many of them are approaching to their original 30 or 40 years licensing terms. Even though some failures were reported in components or pipes of nuclear power plants (NPPs), these NPPs are considered to be too valuable to stop their operation at the end of design life. Therefore, the long-term operation of NPPs has become a worldwide trend based on technical and economic consideration. In order to ensure safe long-term operation of NPPs, it is increasingly necessary to adopt new approaches to deal with nuclear materials aging and degradation. Proactive Material Degradation Assessment (PMDA) is one of the key elements of these new approaches. Many kinds of background information such as materials and degradation history of components or piping in NPP plant are also needed for PMDA by the experts. Nuclear Materials and Degradation Database is being developed as a part of Nuclear Technology Revolution Project (NTRP) funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE)

  15. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  16. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  17. Prospects and problems using vanadium alloys as a structural material of the first wall and blanket of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votinov, S.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Solonin, M.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kazennov, Yu.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kondratjev, V.P. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Nikulin, A.D. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Tebus, V.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Adamov, E.O. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bougaenko, S.E. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strebkov, Yu.S. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorenkov, A.V. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V.B. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Kazakov, V.A. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Evtikhin, V.A. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Trojanov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rusanov, A.E. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Birgevoj, G.A. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Vanadium-based alloys are most promising as low activation structural materials for DEMO. It was previously established that high priority is to be given to V-alloys of the V-Ti-Cr system as structural materials of a tritium breeding blanket and the first wall of a fusion reactor. However, there is some uncertainty in selecting a specific element ratio between the alloy components in this system. This is primarily explained by the fact that the properties of V-alloys are dictated not only by the ratio between the main alloying elements (here Ti and Cr), but also by impurities, both metallic and oxygen interstitials. Based on a number of papers today one can say that V-Ti-Cr alloys with insignificant variations in the contents of the main constituents within 5-10 mass% Ti and 4-6 mass% Cr must be taken as a base for subsequent optimization of chemical composition and thermomechanical working. However, the database is obviously insufficient to assess the ecological acceptability (activation), physical and mechanical properties, corrosion and irradiation resistance and, particularly, the commercial production of alloys. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive studies of promising V-alloys, namely V-4Ti-4Cr and V-10Ti-5Cr. (orig.).

  18. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  19. Spatial and Temporal characterization of plasma properties via emission spectroscopy in fusion materials testing device Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Casey; Biewer, Theodore; Shaw, Guinevere; Beers, Josh; Ray, Holly

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma source, and is intended to study plasma-material interactions (PMI) in conditions similar to those found in future fusion reactors. A high-resolution McPherson Czerny-Turner visible range spectrometer has been utilized to study the behavior of ions in the plasma. Analysis of the spectral lines, D_beta, D_gamma, and D_delta yields valuable information regarding the temperature and density of plasma ions at various locations along Proto-MPEX. Spectroscopic temperature and density measurements are compared to double Langmuir probe measurements to determine plasma behavior as a function of radius. Temporal and spatial measurements along the length of Proto-MPEX are constructed and compared to a photomultiplier tube based diagnostic manufactured at ORNL to determine the plasma's axial behavior along Proto-MPEX. Relative emission of beta, gamma, and delta lines are used to assess recycling effects in the device. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Key Aspects for Developing Your Instructional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Pardo Astrid

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes crucial aspects that EFL teachers must consider for the elaboration of materials to support the instructional design component of their classes. It also emphasizes that language educators should not only maintain a balance between theory and practice when developing their didactic resources, but they also should keep themselves updated in terms of the latest research in the language education field. The article also addresses key questions teachers should formulate before beginning the process of design, and provides useful ideas to develop dynamic, content enriching, and visually attractive materials. Key words: Course Design, Material Design, Motivational Design, Content Enriching Materials, Attractive Layouts, Teachers’ Creativity Este artículo describe aspectos cruciales que los docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera deben tener en cuenta para la elaboración de materiales de apoyo del componente de instrucción de sus clases. También enfatiza que los docentes de lengua extranjera no solamente deben mantener un balance entre la teoría y la práctica al desarrollar sus ayudas didácticas, sino que también deben mantenerse actualizados en términos de los más recientes avances de la investigación en el campo de la educación en lenguas. El artículo discute preguntas claves que los maestros deben formular antes de comenzar el proceso de diseño y brinda ideas útiles para el desarrollo de materiales con contenidos enriquecedores y que resulten dinámicos y atractivos visualmente. Palabras claves: Diseño de Cursos, Diseño de Materiales, Contenidos Enriquecedores, Esquemas Llamativos, Creatividad Docente

  2. Development of a Bayesian method for the analysis of inertial confinement fusion experiments on the NIF

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, Jim A; Sonnad, Vijay; Libby, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    The complex nature of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments results in a very large number of experimental parameters that are only known with limited reliability. These parameters, combined with the myriad physical models that govern target evolution, make the reliable extraction of physics from experimental campaigns very difficult. We develop an inference method that allows all important experimental parameters, and previous knowledge, to be taken into account when investigating underlying microphysics models. The result is framed as a modified $\\chi^{2}$ analysis which is easy to implement in existing analyses, and quite portable. We present a first application to a recent convergent ablator experiment performed at the NIF, and investigate the effect of variations in all physical dimensions of the target (very difficult to do using other methods). We show that for well characterised targets in which dimensions vary at the 0.5% level there is little effect, but 3% variations change the results of i...

  3. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of fusion reactor. 1. Single pulse operation simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1997-11-01

    A dynamic simulation code for the fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during a single pulse operation. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the function of fuel burn, exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for the steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using the code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  4. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  5. A 160 kJ dual plasma focus (DuPF) for fusion-relevant materials testing and nano-materials fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. H.; Damideh, V.; Chong, P. L.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes PF-160 Dual Plasma Focus (DuPF) numerical experiments using the Lee Model code and preliminary 3D design drawings using SolidWorks software. This DuPF consists of two interchangeable electrodes enabling it to be optimized for both Slow Pinch Mode (SFM) and Fast Pinch Mode (FFM); the latter using a speed factor (SF) of 90 kA cm-1 Torr-0.5 for FFM in deuterium [S Lee et al, IEEE Trans Plasma Science 24, 1101-1105 (1996)]; and the former with SF of less than half that value for SFM. Starting with available 6 × 450 µF capacitors rated at 11kV (10% reversal), numerical experiments indicate safe operation at 9 kV, 6 Torr deuterium with FFM anode of 5 cm radius; producing intense ion beam and streaming plasma pulses which would be useful for studies of potential fusion reactor wall materials. On the other hand operating at 5 kV, 10 Torr deuterium with SFM anode of 10 cm radius leads to long-duration, uniform large-area flow which could be more suitable for synthesis of nano-materials. The dual plasma focus design is illustrated here with two figures showing FFM and SFM electrodes.

  6. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  7. Materials Development for Next Generation Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballato, John; Dragic, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Optical fibers, the enablers of the Internet, are being used in an ever more diverse array of applications. Many of the rapidly growing deployments of fibers are in high-power and, particularly, high power-per-unit-bandwidth systems where well-known optical nonlinearities have historically not been especially consequential in limiting overall performance. Today, however, nominally weak effects, most notably stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are among the principal phenomena restricting continued scaling to higher optical power levels. In order to address these limitations, the optical fiber community has focused dominantly on geometry-related solutions such as large mode area (LMA) designs. Since such scattering, and all other linear and nonlinear optical phenomena including higher order mode instability (HOMI), are fundamentally materials-based in origin, this paper unapologetically advocates material solutions to present and future performance limitations. As such, this paper represents a ‘call to arms’ for material scientists and engineers to engage in this opportunity to drive the future development of optical fibers that address many of the grand engineering challenges of our day. PMID:28788683

  8. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  9. The development of chiral nematic mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joel A; Giese, Michael; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2014-04-15

    of the mesoporous films can be varied by using assorted organosilica precursors. After removal of the cellulose by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, highly porous, iridescent organosilica films are obtained. These materials are flexible and offer the ability to tune the chemical and mechanical properties through variation of the organic spacer. Chiral nematic mesoporous silica and organosilica materials, obtainable as centimeter-scale freestanding films, are interesting hosts for nanomaterials. When noble metal nanoparticles are incorporated into the pores, they show strong circular dichroism signals associated with their surface plasmon resonances that arise from dipolar coupling of the particles within the chiral nematic host. Fluorescent conjugated polymers show induced circular dichroism spectra when encapsulated in the chiral nematic host. The porosity, film structure, and optical properties of these materials could enable their use in sensors. We describe the development of chiral nematic mesoporous silica and organosilica, demonstrate different avenues of host-guest chemistry, and identify future directions that exploit the unique combination of properties present in these materials. The examples covered in this Account demonstrate that there is a rich diversity of composite materials accessible using CNC templating.

  10. Off-Hugoniot characterization of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-05-01

    The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign, a glow- discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple- shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile [1]. We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) and compare with GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP.

  11. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.

  12. Dynamic Assembly of Brambleberry Mediates Nuclear Envelope Fusion during Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L.; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, a mitotic intermediate wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope, which then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. brambleberry is a previously unannotated gene homologous to Kar5p, which participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry localizes to the nuclear envelope with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. Our studies identify the first factor acting in karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. PMID:22863006

  13. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-03

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres.

  14. Bidirectional Fusion of the Heart-forming Fields in the Developing Chick Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rodriguez, R.A.; Krug, E.L.; Reyes, L.; Villavicencio, L.; Mjaatvedt, C.H.; Markwald, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally thought that the early pre-tubular chick heart is formed by fusion of the anterior or cephalic limits of the paired cardiogenic fields. However, this study shows that the heart fields initially fuse at their midpoint to form a transitory “butterfly”-shaped, cardiogenic structure. Fusion then progresses bi-directionally along the longitudinal axis in both cranial and caudal directions. Using in vivo labeling, we demonstrate that cells along the ventral fusion line are highly motile, crossing future primitive segments. We found that mesoderm cells migrated cephalically from the unfused tips of the anterior/cephalic wings into the head mesenchyme in the region that has been called the secondary heart field. Perturbing the anterior/cranial fusion results in formation of a biconal heart. A theoretical role of the ventral fusion line acting as a “heart organizer” and its role in cardia bifida is discussed. PMID:16252277

  15. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  17. Different bone graft fusion materials applied in lumbar interbody fusion%不同植骨融合材料在腰椎椎体间脊柱融合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃建朴; 王翀; 张朋云; 曹广如; 蔡玉强; 廖文波

    2016-01-01

    背景:脊柱融合治疗时选择合适的替代移植骨具有重要的意义,能够解决自体骨移植及其他移植材料带来的弊端。目的:观察不同植骨融合材料性能,探讨不同植骨融合材料在犬腰椎椎体间脊柱融合中的应用效果。方法:选取45只中华田园犬建立腰椎椎体间脊柱融合模型,建模后随机分3组,分别植入自体髂骨、重组人骨形态发生蛋白2复合材料和同种异体髂骨,分析不同植骨融合材料在犬腰椎椎体间脊柱融合中的效果。结果与结论:①融合率:重组人骨形态发生蛋白2复合材料组犬融合率显著高于其他组(P <0.05);②Oswestry 功能障碍指数:重组人骨形态发生蛋白2复合材料组术后 Oswestry 功能障碍指数显著低于其他2组(P <0.05);②组织学形态:苏木精-伊红染色显示,术后12周,与其他2组相比,重组人骨形态发生蛋白2犬完全骨性融合,且形成了连续骨小梁,植入骨与犬上下椎体完全粘连;④结果提示:重组人骨形态发生蛋白2复合材料更能够促更好地促进脊柱愈合,效果优于自体和同种异体骨移植。%BACKGROUND: The choice of suitable bone graft substitute is vital for spinal fusion treatment, which can solve some limitations caused by autogenous bone graft and other materials. OBJECTIVE: To investigate properties of different bone graft fusion materials, and to explore their application in dog spinal fusion of lumbar vertebral body. METHODS: Forty-five Chinese rural dogs were enrol ed to prepare lumbar interbody fusion models, and then were randomized into three groups transplanted with autogenous ilium, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite or al ograft ilium, respectively. Afterwards, effects of different materials in the lumbar interbody fusion were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The fusion rate of the composite group was significantly higher than those of the other

  18. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  19. Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate Γ is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for Γ versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

  20. Fusion Programme SCK-CEN - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    2009-10-15

    This report summarizes the Research and Development work carried out at SCK-CEN on fusion technology in the year 2009. This covers mostly the work done under the EFDA agreement as well as the new developments carried out within the so-called Broader Approach of fusion such as - studies on structural and first wall materials for ITER and DEMO - studies and testing on the radiation resistance of instruments and componenets for the diagnostic and remote handling - development of irradiation devices and systems for the testing of fusion materials under representative environment.

  1. Developing diagnostic systems for ITER – the next step fusion energy experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Gutierrez Espinoza, Heidi Estibaliz

    to be a viable energy source. Fusion energy power plants will be safe and can be operated to supply the baseload of an energy system. The fuel resources are inexhaustible, and can be derived from sea water. Fusion energy is based on the nuclear reaction fusing hydrogen isotopes into helium – like in the Sun......Fusion energy research is moving to the next stage with the well progressed construction of one of the largest research infrastructures ever – ITER. The goal of ITER is to produce 500 MW of fusion power while heating the fuel –deuterium/tritium plasma – by 50 MW. This will confirm fusion energy...... is the ultimate goal of fusion energy, the path towards this is challenging. A fusion plasma has a temperature of 200 mio. degrees (15 times that of the core of the Sun), and this is confined by a magnetic field generated by powerful superconducting magnets in a vacuum chamber of 1000 m3. Operating diagnostic...

  2. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The WxTaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  3. Development of Multiscale Materials Modeling Techniques and Coarse- Graining Strategies for Predicting Materials Degradation in Extreme Irradiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Exposure of metallic structural materials to irradiation environments results in significant microstructural evolution, property changes and performance degradation, which limits the extended operation of current generation light water reactors and restricts the design of advanced fission and fusion reactors [1-8]. This effect of irradiation on materials microstructure and properties is a classic example of an inherently multiscale phenomenon, as schematically illustrated in Figure 1a. Pertinent processes range from the atomic nucleus to structural component length scales, spanning more than 15 orders of magnitude. Time scales bridge more than 22 orders of magnitude, with the shortest being less than a femtosecond [1,8]. Further, the mix of radiation-induced features formed and the corresponding property degradation depend on a wide range of material and irradiation variables. This emphasizes the importance of closely integrating models with high-resolution experimental characterization of the evolving radiation- damaged microstructure, including measurements performed in-situ during irradiation. In this article, we review some recent successes through the use of closely coordinated modeling and experimental studies of the defect cluster evolution in irradiated body-centered cubic materials, followed by a discussion of outstanding challenges still to be addressed, which are necessary for the development of comprehensive models of radiation effects in structural materials.

  4. Developing E-Learning Materials for Software Development Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Software Development is a core second-year course currently offered to undergraduate students atVictoria University at its five local and international campuses. The project aims to redesign the existingcourse curriculum to support student-centred teaching and learning. It is intended to provide a learningcontext in which learners can reflect on new material, discuss their tentative understandings with others,actively search for new information, develop skills in communication and collaboration, and buildconceptual connections to their existing knowledge base. The key feature of the cross-campus curriculuminnovation is the use of Blackboard, short for Blackboard Learning System, to assist in course contentorganization and online delivery. A well-defined and integrated case study is used throughout the courseto provide realistic practical experience of software development. It allows students to take control oftheir own learning while at the same time providing support to those students who have particularlearning difficulties. In this paper, the developed curriculum and the learning outcome are described. Thee-Learning material and various Blackboard tools used for teaching and learning activities arepresented. Finally, conclusion is drawn from classroom experience.

  5. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A. [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); LPSC, Grenoble-Alpes University, F-38026 Grenoble France (France)

    2015-04-08

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D{sup −} beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  6. Development of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine formulation to protect against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Garry; Touhey, Graham; Lu, Fangjia; Dunham, Anisa; HogenEsch, Harm

    2014-06-24

    Diseases resulting from infection by group A streptococcus (GAS) are an increasing burden on global health. A novel vaccine was developed targeting infection by Streptococcus pyogenes. The vaccine incorporates a recombinant fusion protein antigen (SpeAB) which was engineered by combining inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) from S. pyogenes. A rational, scientific approach to vaccine development was utilized to determine optimal formulation conditions with aluminum adjuvants. Investigations of the pH stability profile of SpeAB concluded the antigen was most stable near pH 8. Incorporation of the stabilizers sucrose and mannitol significantly enhanced the stability of the antigen. Vaccines were formulated in which most of the SpeAB was adsorbed to the adjuvant or remained in solution. A SpeAB vaccine formulation, stabilized with sucrose, in which the antigen remains adsorbed to the aluminum adjuvant retained the greatest potency as determined by evaluation of neutralizing antibody responses in mice. This vaccine has great potential to provide a safe and effective method for prevention of GAS disease.

  7. Development of diffractive XUV-VUV light extractors for fusion plasma diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutman, D.; Caravelli, G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.

    2009-11-01

    The diagnostic and control of next generation MFE and ICF fusion experiments will require optical light extractors capable of withstanding intense plasma and radiation exposure. A solution applicable from the XUV to the infrared is to use free-standing diffractive optics such as transmission gratings or zone plates. Here we present results on XUV-VUV diffractive extractors for the diagnostic of boundary MFE plasmas. For the VUV range we developed Si transmission gratings having 1 μm period, 5 μm thickness, 40% open fraction, 1x2 mm active area, and coated with Ni, while for the XUV range we use SiN gratings having 0.2 μm period, 0.3 μm thickness, 1x1 mm area, and coated with Ta. The grating extractors are spectrally and spatially calibrated in the laboratory using a newly developed extended XUV-VUV source and will be employed for imaging spectrometry on the NSTX experiment. The operational characteristics of the extended source and first space resolved XUV-VUV spectra will be presented. Work supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54523 at JHU and Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PU.

  8. Proceedings of the 2. workshop on vanadium alloy development for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osch, E.V. van [ed.

    1996-10-01

    From 20 to 22 May 1996 the Second IEA Vanadium Alloy Development for Fusion Workshop was held at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN in Petten. Twenty three experts from the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States exchanged results and analyses of completed experiments and discussed the program planning. The manufacturing of half-finished products and the optimization of subsequent heat treatments were presented and discussed in the first session. The problems and solutions to joining vanadium alloy half-finished products by welding and brazing have been addressed in another session. Corrosion and compatibility properties have been evaluated in a different session together with coating requirements. Several sessions were devoted to the effects of radiation on the mechanical properties, especially toughness, of vanadium alloys. Also the role of the transmutation product helium, in particular its introduction into specimens, was evaluated. The respective plans of the four parties for continuation of the ongoing research and development programs have been discussed with the emphasis on avoiding duplications in the area of radiation experiments. The critical issues were identified and the related priorities discussed in the time frame set by the schedule for the building of ITER test modules and with the long term DEMO requirements in mind. (orig.).

  9. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-01

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D- beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R&D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  10. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Snead, L. L.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-09-01

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ∼500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. The strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9-20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  11. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for sp

  12. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for

  13. Development of a rapid cell-fusion-based phenotypic HIV-1 tropism assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairote Teeranaipong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dual split reporter protein system (DSP, recombining Renilla luciferase (RL and green fluorescent protein (GFP split into two different constructs (DSP1–7 and DSP8–11, was adapted to create a novel rapid phenotypic tropism assay (PTA for HIV-1 infection (DSP-Pheno. Methods: DSP1–7 was stably expressed in the glioma-derived NP-2 cell lines, which expressed CD4/CXCR4 (N4X4 or CD4/CCR5 (N4R5, respectively. An expression vector with DSP8–11 (pRE11 was constructed. The HIV-1 envelope genes were subcloned in pRE11 (pRE11-env and transfected into 293FT cells. Transfected 293FT cells were incubated with the indicator cell lines independently. In developing the assay, we selected the DSP1–7-positive clones that showed the highest GFP activity after complementation with DSP8–11. These cell lines, designated N4R5-DSP1–7, N4X4-DSP1–7 were used for subsequent assays. Results: The env gene from the reference strains (BaL for R5 virus, NL4-3 for X4 virus, SF2 for dual tropic virus subcloned in pRE11 and tested, was concordant with the expected co-receptor usage. Assay results were available in two ways (RL or GFP. The assay sensitivity by RL activity was comparable with those of the published phenotypic assays using pseudovirus. The shortest turnaround time was 5 days after obtaining the patient's plasma. All clinical samples gave positive RL signals on R5 indicator cells in the fusion assay. Median RLU value of the low CD4 group was significantly higher on X4 indicator cells and suggested the presence of more dual or X4 tropic viruses in this group of patients. Comparison of representative samples with Geno2Pheno [co-receptor] assay was concordant. Conclusions: A new cell-fusion-based, high-throughput PTA for HIV-1, which would be suitable for in-house studies, was developed. Equipped with two-way reporter system, RL and GFP, DSP-Pheno is a sensitive test with short turnaround time. Although maintenance of cell lines and

  14. Development of mold for biodegradable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japitana, F.H.; Jabrica, A.M. [Metals Industry Research and Develeopment Center, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Science and Technology; Komatsu, M. [Komatsu Consulting Engineer Office, Iwaki City, Fukushima (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The improper disposal of non-biodegradable plastics adversely affect global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology and ecoefficiency. Therefore, a new generation of bio-based polymeric products has been developed. These polylactides (PLA), cellulose esters, starch plastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are made from renewable natural resources and are biodegradable. They meet environmental conditions and can compete with their petrochemical counterparts. Among them, PLA is particularly attractive as a sustainable alternative to synthetic polymers and a potential candidate for the fabrication of biocomposites. Certain blends have proved successful in medical implants, sutures and drug delivery systems because of their capacity to dissolve away with time. However, widespread use of PLA is limited because of cost. Biodegradable plastic products are currently 6 to 10 times more expensive than traditional plastics. Environmentalists argue that the cheaper price of traditional plastics does not reflect their true cost when their impact is considered. This paper presented a solution to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics. In particular, it described a newly developed plastic injection mold for biodegradable materials which can produce a scrapless product. The system reduces processing time because it is not necessary to remove any gating or runners after the injection process. Takeout robots ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. 12 figs.

  15. Materials informatics and study on its further development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Materials informatics is a cross discipline combining materials science and information science. The concept of materials informatics was introduced and expounded. The current status of research and application of materials informatics was analyzed. And the main tasks and research areas of materials informatics were summarized. Then the foundation and significance of its development in China was discussed. Lastly the development vision of materials informatics was proposed.

  16. Developing E-Learning Materials for Software Development Course

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Software Development is a core second-year course currently offered to undergraduate students at Victoria University at its five local and international campuses. The project aims to redesign the existing course curriculum to support student-centred teaching and learning. It is intended to provide a learning context in which learners can reflect on new material, discuss their tentative understandings with others, actively search for new information, develop skills in communication and collaboration, and build conceptual connections to their existing knowledge base. The key feature of the cross-campus curriculum innovation is the use of Blackboard, short for Blackboard Learning System, to assist in course content organization and online delivery. A well-defined and integrated case study is used throughout the course to provide realistic practical experience of software development. It allows students to take control of their own learning while at the same time providing support to those students who have parti...

  17. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  18. Chinese RE Performance Materials on the Fast Developing Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Rare earth elements are endowed with excellent magnetic, optical and electrical features for their special electronic shell. Series of unsubstitutive advanced materials with prominent performances have been developed, such as magnetic materials, hydrogen storage materials, luminescent materials and catalytic materials, etc. These performance materials are widely used in the fields of metallurgy, oil industry, chemical industry, light industry, agriculture,electronics industry, environmental protection, national defense and some hi-tech advanced materials.

  19. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 89--91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of Fusion reactors.: Activation Analysis; Tritium Inventory; Environmental and Safety Indices and Their Graphical Representation; Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Decision Analysis; Plasma Burn Control -- Application to ITER; and Other Applications.

  20. Thermal Protection Materials: Development, Characterization and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Silvia M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the heat experienced during entry into an atmosphere. The application for these materials is very specialized as are the materials. They must have specific properties to withstand conditions during specific entries. There is no one-size-fits-all TPS as the conditions experienced by a material are very dependent upon the atmosphere, the entry speed, the size and shape of the vehicle, and the location on the vehicle. However, all TPS must be reliable and efficient to ensure mission safety, that is to protect the vehicle while ensuring that payload is maximized. Types of TPS will be reviewed in relation to types of missions and applications. Both reusable and ablative materials will be discussed. Approaches to characterizing and evaluating these materials will be presented. The role of heritage versus new materials will be described.

  1. Developing paradigms of data fusion for sensor-actuator networks that perform engineering tasks.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, SS; Sastry, S.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we provided a new foundation for data fusion based on two concepts: a conceptual framework and the goal-seeking paradigm. The conceptual framework emphasizes the dominant structures in the system. The goal-seeking paradigm is a mechanism for representing system evolution that explicitly manages uncertainty. The goal-seeking formulation for data fusion helps to distinguish between subjective decisions that resolve uncertainty by involving humans and objective decisions that can...

  2. Development of 2D/3D equilibrium codes for magnetically confined fusion experiments

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The present work is the result of a three-year Ph.D. research project carried out at Consorzio RFX on magnetically confined plasmas. Research on controlled thermonuclear fusion is currently being pursued by many countries throughout the world, thanks to its promise of a relatively clean and abundant energy source. The next steps for the international community are the construction and operation of a large device, ITER, considered as the last fusion physics experiment with respect to the tokam...

  3. Fusion research at General Atomics annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    In FY94, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the controlled fusion power program. The work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy, Advanced Physics and Technology Division and ITER and Technology Division, of the US Department of Energy. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies, Plasma Interactive Materials, RF Technology, and Diagnostics. Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to the next-generation fusion reactor experiments, Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and ITER, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, we carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power reactors, and we conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. We continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  4. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  5. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  6. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  7. Exploration of steady-state scenarios for the Fusion Development Facility (FDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Choi, M.; Kinsey, J. E.; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H. E.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2011-10-01

    A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) has to operate at 105 times longer duration than that of present tokamak discharges. The scalability of plasma sustainment to such a long time is an issue that needs to be resolved by scientific understanding. We carry out steady-state (SS) scenario development of the FDF (a candidate for FNSF-AT) using an iterative process toward a self-consistent solution via alternating temperature profiles and current profile evolution. The temperature profile evolves according to a physics-based transport model GLF23. SS requires large off-axis current drive (CD). To achieve this with no NBI is highly challenging. It however simplifies tritium containment, increases area for tritium breeding, and avoids costly negative-ion NBI technology. We find that with ECH/ECCD only, too much power is required. A SS baseline equilibrium is found by adding LHCD: Qfus ~ 4 , H98 y 2 ~ 1 . 2 , fBS ~ 70 %, Pfus ~ 260 MW, PEC = 35 MW, PLH = 21 MW. The GATO ideal MHD code finds the equilibrium stable to n = 1 internal kink at κ = 2 . 3 . Work supported by General Atomics internal funds.

  8. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, T; Landoas, O; Briat, M; Kime, S; Rossé, B; Thfoin, I; Bourgade, J L; Disdier, L; Glebov, V Yu; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (~10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a (60)Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  9. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  10. Development of a protease activity assay using heat-sensitive Tus-GFP fusion protein substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Samuel P; Morin, Isabelle; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2011-08-15

    Proteases are implicated in various diseases and several have been identified as potential drug targets or biomarkers. As a result, protease activity assays that can be performed in high throughput are essential for the screening of inhibitors in drug discovery programs. Here we describe the development of a simple, general method for the characterization of protease activity and its use for inhibitor screening. GFP was genetically fused to a comparatively unstable Tus protein through an interdomain linker containing a specially designed protease site, which can be proteolyzed. When this Tus-GFP fusion protein substrate is proteolyzed it releases GFP, which remains in solution after a short heat denaturation and centrifugation step used to eliminate uncleaved Tus-GFP. Thus, the increase in GFP fluorescence is directly proportional to protease activity. We validated the protease activity assay with three different proteases, i.e., trypsin, caspase 3, and neutrophil elastase, and demonstrated that it can be used to determine protease activity and the effect of inhibitors with small sample volumes in just a few simple steps using a fluorescence plate reader.

  11. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  12. Developing Knowledge for Design by Operationalizing Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Bendixen, Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a material side of design that we cannot address through the studies of use and social practice—the properties and potentials of materials, forms, and structures must be explored through another kind of studies. Based on two cases of experimental design research we analyze of what...... such studies could consist—how we can operationalize material objects by engaging them in situations that give us access to their properties and enable us to explore their potential....

  13. Development of material balance evaluation technique (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; So, Dong Sup; Kwack, Eun Ho; Jung, Mi Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on MUF is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as nuclear material accountancy. It is necessary to get the information such as nuclear material inventory lists, measurement result and errors, IAEA accounting report for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts of MUF, D and MUF-D, the computation methods of measurement errors, MUF evaluation technique using the 'Statistical Concepts and Technique' published by IAEA are described. 3 tabs. (Author)

  14. Negative ion source development for a photoneutralization based neutral beam system for future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, A.; Agnello, R.; Bechu, S.; Bernard, J. M.; Blondel, C.; Boeuf, J. P.; Bresteau, D.; Cartry, G.; Chaibi, W.; Drag, C.; Duval, B. P.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Fubiani, G.; Furno, I.; Grand, C.; Guittienne, Ph; Howling, A.; Jacquier, R.; Marini, C.; Morgal, I.

    2016-12-01

    In parallel to the developments dedicated to the ITER neutral beam (NB) system, CEA-IRFM with laboratories in France and Switzerland are studying the feasibility of a new generation of NB system able to provide heating and current drive for the future DEMOnstration fusion reactor. For the steady-state scenario, the NB system will have to provide a high NB power level with a high wall-plug efficiency (η ˜ 60%). Neutralization of the energetic negative ions by photodetachment (so called photoneutralization), if feasible, appears to be the ideal solution to meet these performances, in the sense that it could offer a high beam neutralization rate (>80%) and a wall-plug efficiency higher than 60%. The main challenge of this new injector concept is the achievement of a very high power photon flux which could be provided by 3 MW Fabry-Perot optical cavities implanted along the 1 MeV D- beam in the neutralizer stage. The beamline topology is tall and narrow to provide laminar ion beam sheets, which will be entirely illuminated by the intra-cavity photon beams propagating along the vertical axis. The paper describes the present R&D (experiments and modelling) addressing the development of a new ion source concept (Cybele source) which is based on a magnetized plasma column. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize and compare the plasma parameters in the source column with different plasma generators, such as filamented cathodes, radio-frequency driver and a helicon antenna specifically developed at SPC-EPFL satisfying the requirements for the Cybele (axial magnetic field of 10 mT, source operating pressure: 0.3 Pa in hydrogen or deuterium). The paper compares the performances of the three plasma generators. It is shown that the helicon plasma generator is a very promising candidate to provide an intense and uniform negative ion beam sheet.

  15. LOW ACTIVATION JOINING OF SIC/SIC COMPOSITES FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS: MODELING DUAL-PHASE MICROSTRUCTURES AND DISSIMILAR MATERIAL JOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-03-31

    Finite element continuum damage models (FE-CDM) have been developed to simulate and model dual-phase joints and cracked joints for improved analysis of SiC materials in nuclear environments. This report extends the analysis from the last reporting cycle by including results from dual-phase models and from cracked joint models.

  16. Experimental results on the irradiation of nuclear fusion relevant materials at the dense plasma focus ‘Bora’ device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Gribkov, V. A.; Niemela, J.; Tuniz, C.; Zanolli, C.; Chernyshova, M.; Demina, E. V.; Latyshev, S. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Talab, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Samples of materials counted as perspective ones for use in the first-wall and construction elements in nuclear fusion reactors (FRs) with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement (W, Ti, Al, low-activated ferritic steel ‘Eurofer’ and some alloys) were irradiated in the dense plasma focus (DPF) device ‘Bora’ having a bank energy of ⩽5 kJ. The device generates hot dense (T ˜ 1 keV, n ˜ 1019 cm-3) deuterium plasma, powerful plasma streams (v ˜ 3 × 107 cm s-1) and fast (E ˜ 0.1 … 1.0 MeV) deuterons of power flux densities q up to 1010 and 1012 W cm-2 correspondingly. ‘Damage factor’ F = q × τ0.5 ensures an opportunity to simulate radiation loads (predictable for both reactors types) by the plasma/ion streams, which have the same nature and namely those parameters as expected in the FR modules. Before and after irradiation we provided investigations of our samples by means of a number of analytical techniques. Among them we used optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand character and parameters of damageability of the surface layers of the samples. Atomic force microscopy was applied to measure roughness of the surface after irradiation. These characteristics are quite important for understanding mechanisms and values of dust production in FR that may relate to tritium retention and emergency situations in FR facilities. We also applied two new techniques. For the surface we elaborated the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single photon detection with high spectroscopic and angular resolutions. For bulk damageability investigations we applied an x-ray microCT system where x-rays were produced by a Hamamatsu microfocus source (150 kV, 500 µA, 5 µm minimum focal spot size). The detector was a Hamamatsu CMOS flat panel coupled to a fibre optic plate under the GOS scintillator. The reconstruction of three-dimensional data was run with Cobra 7.4 and DIGIX CT software while VG Studio Max 2.1, and Amira 5.3 were used for

  17. PRIMAS materials – IBL teaching and professional development materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126974764

    2014-01-01

    The project PRIMAS regroups 14 teams from 12 different countries. It aims to effect a change across Europe in the teaching and learning of mathematics and science with teachers supported to develop inquiry-based learning (IBL) pedagogies so that students gain experience of IBL approaches. Ultimately

  18. PRIMAS materials – IBL teaching and professional development materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The project PRIMAS regroups 14 teams from 12 different countries. It aims to effect a change across Europe in the teaching and learning of mathematics and science with teachers supported to develop inquiry-based learning (IBL) pedagogies so that students gain experience of IBL approaches. Ultimately

  19. PRIMAS materials – IBL teaching and professional development materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The project PRIMAS regroups 14 teams from 12 different countries. It aims to effect a change across Europe in the teaching and learning of mathematics and science with teachers supported to develop inquiry-based learning (IBL) pedagogies so that students gain experience of IBL approaches.

  20. Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the materials and training program that Extension created to assist current and potential Latino immigrant entrepreneurs in starting businesses in Arkansas. The content-based educational materials describe the process for starting a new business, government regulatory requirements, start-up costs and considerations, and how…

  1. Development of an Anisotropic Thermal Transport Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Oxide” Materials Research Society Cancun Meeting, 2010. 4) Oyer, A. J.; Dobrynin, A. V.; Asandei, A. D.; Adamson, D. H., “High Concentration...Graphene Suspensions” International Materials Research Congress XX, Cancun MX, 2011. 5) Oyer, A. J.; Carrillo, J.-M. Y.; Hire, C. C.; Schniepp, H. C

  2. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Development of a High Sound Absorption Material CEMCOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bao-guo; ZHU Hong-bo; DONG Rong-zhen

    2002-01-01

    Based on sound absorption mechanism of material, the special sound absorption material CEMCOM for road sound insulation is introduced. This high sound absorption material is mainly composed of expanded perlite. Using multiple sound absorption structure can improve sound absorption property of material. According to the preparation principle and durability design of material, a new kind of material with low cost and high durability is developed.

  4. Development of a Prototype Lattice Boltzmann Code for CFD of Fusion Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, Martin J; Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Dwivedi, Vinay

    2007-02-26

    Designs of proposed fusion reactors, such as the ITER project, typically involve the use of liquid metals as coolants in components such as heat exchangers, which are generally subjected to strong magnetic fields. These fields induce electric currents in the fluids, resulting in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces which have important effects on the flow. The objective of this SBIR project was to develop computational techniques based on recently developed lattice Boltzmann techniques for the simulation of these MHD flows and implement them in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the study of fluid flow systems encountered in fusion engineering. The code developed during this project, solves the lattice Boltzmann equation, which is a kinetic equation whose behaviour represents fluid motion. This is in contrast to most CFD codes which are based on finite difference/finite volume based solvers. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach which has a number of advantages compared with more conventional methods such as the SIMPLE or projection method algorithms that involve direct solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. These are that the LBM is very well suited to parallel processing, with almost linear scaling even for very large numbers of processors. Unlike other methods, the LBM does not require solution of a Poisson pressure equation leading to a relatively fast execution time. A particularly attractive property of the LBM is that it can handle flows in complex geometries very easily. It can use simple rectangular grids throughout the computational domain -- generation of a body-fitted grid is not required. A recent advance in the LBM is the introduction of the multiple relaxation time (MRT) model; the implementation of this model greatly enhanced the numerical stability when used in lieu of the single relaxation time model, with only a small increase in computer time. Parallel processing was implemented using MPI and demonstrated the

  5. Innovations in Curriculum and Instructional Materials Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents a sample population education lesson plan from China. Included with the lesson, which focuses on quality of life and socialist modernization, are objectives, instructional strategies, list of materials needed, evaluation methods, and sample test items. (JN)

  6. New developments in photon and materials research

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the most recent updates in the field of photon and optical materials research. It is devoted to various interdisciplinary subjects such as fundamental photon physics, bio and medical photon physics, ultrafast non-linear optics, quasiparticle excitation and spectroscopy, coherent mid-infrared (IR) light sources, functional optoelectronic materials and optical fibres, and quantum nano-structured devices for various important technological applications. It contains 19 authoritative peer-reviewed chapters regarding experimental and theoretical research in these fields, contributed by young scientists and engineers (assistant or associate professor level) along with well-established experts. The response of materials to electromagnetic fields, namely light-matter interaction, has been of special concern in fundamental optical sciences. The ability to fabricate and/or engineer new materials and structures is giving rise to revolutionary changes in the field, which also includes soft condensed mat...

  7. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  8. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  9. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  10. Development of a Multifilament PIT V3Ga Conductor for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distin, J.S.; Ghosh, A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.

    2011-08-03

    Previous studies on V{sub 3}Ga assert its suitability for use in proposed fusion reactors. V{sub 3}Ga may outperform Nb{sub 3}Sn in a fusion reactor environment based on its relatively flat critical-current profile in the 15 T-20 T range, resilience to applied strain, and reduced risk of induced radioactivity. A multifilament powder-in-tube V{sub 3}Ga conductor was designed, fabricated and tested with a focus on evaluating critical current versus applied field and applied strain performance, wire drawing difficulties, heat-treatment optimization, and overall feasibility of the concept.

  11. Is high T-1 slope a significant risk factor for developing interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oichi, Takeshi; Oshima, Yasushi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Yuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE Several investigators have reported the occurrence of interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty, which is reportedly associated with reduced postoperative cervical range of motion (ROM). However, to the authors' knowledge, no previous study has investigated the characteristics of patients who were likely to develop interlaminar bony fusion after cervical laminoplasty. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors for interlaminar bony fusion in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) following cervical laminoplasty and to investigate the effect of interlaminar bony fusion on surgical outcomes. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 92 patients with CSM (63 men and 29 women) after cervical laminoplasty. The presence of interlaminar bony fusion was evaluated by functional radiographs 2 years after surgery. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of postoperative interlaminar bony fusion: a fusion group (at least 1 new postoperative interlaminar bony fusion) and a nonfusion group (no new interlaminar bony fusion). Potential risk factors for postoperative interlaminar bony fusion were assessed, including diabetes mellitus, smoking status, whether the C-2 lamina was included in the surgical treatment, C2-7 Cobb angle in each cervical position, preoperative cervical ROM, and T-1 slope. The differences in each variable were compared between the fusion and nonfusion groups. Thereafter, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for postoperative interlaminar bony fusion. For surgical outcomes, the recovery rate based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and the reduction rate of cervical ROM were evaluated 2 years after surgery. RESULTS Interlaminar bony fusion was observed in 60 cases, 52 of which were observed at the C2-3 level. Patients in the fusion group were significantly older, had a significantly larger C2-7 angle

  12. Huntingtin interacting proteins 14 and 14-like are required for chorioallantoic fusion during early placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shaun S; Hou, Juan; Sutton, Liza M; Garside, Victoria C; Mui, Katherine K N; Singaraja, Roshni R; Hayden, Michael R; Hoodless, Pamela A

    2015-01-15

    Huntington disease (HD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that is caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene. Palmitoylation is the addition of saturated fatty acids to proteins by DHHC palmitoylacyl transferases. HTT is palmitoylated by huntingtin interacting proteins 14 and 14-like (HIP14 and HIP14L or ZDHHC17 and 13 respectively). Mutant HTT is less palmitoylated and this reduction of palmitoylation accelerates its aggregation and increases cellular toxicity. Mouse models deficient in either Hip14 (Hip14(-/-)) or Hip14l (Hip14l(-/-)) develop HD-like phenotypes. The biological function of HTT palmitoylation and the role that loss of HTT palmitoylation plays in the pathogenesis of HD are unknown. To address these questions mice deficient for both genes were created. Loss of Hip14 and Hip14l leads to early embryonic lethality at day embryonic day 10-11 due to failed chorioallantoic fusion. The chorion is thickened and disorganized and the allantois does not fuse correctly with the chorion and forms a balloon-like shape compared to Hip14l(-/-); Hip14(+/+) littermate control embryos. Interestingly, the Hip14(-/-) ; Hip14(-/-) embryos share many features with the Htt(-/-) embryos, including folding of the yolk sac, a bulb shaped allantois, and a thickened and disorganized chorion. This may be due to a decrease in HTT palmitoylation. In Hip14(-/-); Hip14l(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a 25% decrease in HTT palmitoylation compared to wild type cells. This is the first description of a double PAT deficient mouse model where loss of a PAT or multiple PATs results in embryonic lethality in mammals. These results reinforce the physiological importance of palmitoylation during embryogenesis.

  13. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  14. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  15. Critical Pedagogy and Materials Development: Content Selection and Gradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ali; Kushki, Ali; Ansaripour, Ehsan; Maki, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at presenting how materials developers can design materials based on the tenets of Critical Pedagogy (CP). Having reviewed the literature on CP, the present study attempted to propose ideas for the selection and gradation phase of Materials Development in line with the tenets of CP. The distinguishing feature of the study was to…

  16. 15 CFR 922.22 - Development of designation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of designation materials... Sanctuaries § 922.22 Development of designation materials. (a) In designating a National Marine Sanctuary, the Secretary shall prepare the designation materials described in section 304 of the Act. (b) If a...

  17. Developing a Principled Framework for Materials Evaluation: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Ali Ata

    2010-01-01

    Published language materials are widely used around the world, but many Foreign Language (FL) and/or Second Language (SL) learners still fail to develop their communicative competence satisfactorily and they are still not happy with their language materials. Materials design has recently been characterized by two important developments: first,…

  18. FLOAT2 WP4: Development of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Aarup, Bendt

    This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC.......This report refers to complementary material testing to support the design and production of UHPC floaters for installation in the Wave Star Machine under FLOAT2 project. The main objective of WP4 is the characterization of mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced UHPC....

  19. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  20. Selection of low activation materials for fusion power plants using ACAB system: the effect of computational methods and cross section uncertainties on waste management assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M.; Sanz, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Falquina, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Dept. of Power Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O.; Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (UPM) (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of nuclear fusion as a realistic option for energy generation depends on its radioactive waste management assessment. In this respect, the production of high level waste is to be avoided and the reduction of low level waste volumes is to be enhanced. Three different waste management options are commonly regarded in fusion plants: Hands-on Recycling, Remote Recycling and Shallow Land Burial (SLB). Therefore, important research work has been undertaken to find low activation structural materials. In performing this task, a major issue is to compute the concentration limits (CLs) for all natural elements, which will be used to select the intended constituent elements of a particular Low Activation Material (LAM) and assess how much the impurities can deteriorate the waste management properties. Nevertheless, the reliable computation of CLs depends on the accuracy of nuclear data (mainly activation cross-sections) and the suitability of the computational method both for inertial and magnetic fusion environments. In this paper the importance of nuclear data uncertainties and mathematical algorithms used in different activation calculations for waste management purposes will be studied. Our work is centred on the study of {sup 186}W activation under first structural wall conditions of Hylife-II inertial fusion reactor design. The importance of the dominant transmutation/decay sequence has been documented in several publications. From a practical point of view, W is used in low activation materials for fusion applications: Cr-W ferritic/martensitic steels, and the need to better compute its activation has been assessed, in particular in relation to the cross-section uncertainties for reactions leading to Ir isotopes. {sup 192n}Ir and {sup 192}Ir reach a secular equilibrium, and {sup 192n}Ir is the critical one for waste management, with a half life of 241 years. From a theoretical point of view, this is one of the most complex chains appearing in

  1. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  2. Keratin materials for new product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material found as pure protein in over 90% by weight of fiber. As a polymeric amide, keratin is a rich source of intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) which are being investigated for a wide range of biomaterial applications. The po...

  3. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  4. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  5. Research and development of a compact discharge-driven D-D fusion neutron source for explosive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyoshi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takamatsu, Teruhisa [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamauchi, Kunihito [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) devices. With a 50 mm-thick water-jacketed IEC device (IEC20C) of a 200 mm inner diameter, it can produce 10{sup 7} neutrons/s stably in CW mode for 80 kV and 80 mA. Ample 10.8 MeV {gamma}-rays produced through (n, {gamma}) reaction with nitrogen atoms in the melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) powder (explosive simulant) are clearly measured by a BGO-NaI-combined scintillation sensor with distinct difference in cases with and without melamine. This proves feasibility of the identification of the buried landmines.

  6. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  7. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  8. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  9. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  10. Development of Zinc Sulfide Seeker Window Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    coupon was archived from both the “as grown” (e.g. CVD’d) and after HIP’ing. The coupons for thermal testing were ground with an 80/50 surface...optical test specimens were prepared under the same requirements as the thermal test material. The specimens were all marked with a control number on...received. Note that these specimens do not have an AR coating. The thermal testing was conducted at the Thermophysical Properties Research

  11. Development of multifunctional nanofibrous materials via electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Kayacı, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program of the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Doctor's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 288-316. Electrospun nanofibers are very attractive for many applications including functional textile, biomedical, energy, sensor, biotechnology, food packaging and filtration due to their large surface area to volume ratio, pores in nano range, high encapsula...

  12. Development of Polymer Materials for Combating Desertification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aiming respectively at the two problems in desertiflcation areas, namely water shortage and serious soil erosion, the polymer materials for combating desertiflcation may be classified as water absorbing-retaining polymers (WARPs) and sandy soil stabilizing polymers (SSSPs). Their further classifications and current researcfl situations were introduced. It is suggested that the major hindrancefor their wide appHcation is the high cost. The authors' newest research resuits on cutting cost and enhancing ef...

  13. Development of tin-plated regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. Y.; Morie, T.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2017-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of a cryocooler, it is vital to improve the regenerator. In general, the heat capacity of materials decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, when temperature is below 50 K, lead spheres are often used as a regenerator material. However, the pressure drop through a sphere regenerator is larger than that through a screen regenerator. To overcome this dilemma, a new, low pressure loss tin-plated screen is proposed. A comparison test was performed with a two-stage GM cryocooler by replacing part of the first stage regenerator material, bronze screens with tin-plated screens. Compared to a regenerator filled with bronze screens, the cooling capacity of the first stage increased by about 14% at 40 K and 90% at 30 K with such tin-plated screens. The ratio of the wire diameter before and after the deposition was also optimized. An optimum cooling capacity of 53.5 W at 40 K was obtained at a diameter ratio of about 1.4. The detailed experimental results are reported in this paper.

  14. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  15. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry - The development of remote sensing robot vision system based on multi sensor fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Sung Il; Ryu, Kang Su; Choi, Il; Baek, Yung Mok; Koo, Bon Ki; Han, Yang Hwan; Kim, Byung Sun [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The stereo vision algorithm based on newly developed fusion technique incorporating region information feature map to the traditional matching method has been developed here to provide more reliable depth information for= the acquired stereo image. Reliable segmentation results obtained from 3-D depth information were also presented here. The novel technique to generate automatic initial windows for image tracker from stereo images could be demonstrated quite successfully. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 43 figs. (author)

  16. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear Fusion Reactors. I. Analysis of Alumina; Determinacion Espectrografica de impurezas en materiales ceramicos para fusion nuclear. I.- Analisis de alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-07-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the aluminium oxide considered as possible ceramic material in thermonuclear fusion reactors has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 * for Ca, Si and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current ore excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Mg, Ta, Ti, V and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as lnternal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the bent results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Spectrographic Determination of Impurities in Ceramic Materials for Nuclear fusion Reactors. II. Analysis of Magnesium Aluminate; Determinacion Espectrografia de Impurezas en materiales Ceramicos para Fusion Nuclear. II. Analisis de Aluminato de Magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Roca, M.; Melon, A.

    1990-07-01

    The determination of minor and trace elements in the magnesium aluminate, considered as possible material in thermonuclear fusion reactors, has been studied. The concentration ranges are 0.1 - 0.3 % for Ca, SI and Y, and at the ppm level for Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Ta, Ti, V and Zr. Atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic detection has been employed. For Hf, Ta and Zr the use of 40% of copper fluoride as a carrier and of Nb as internal standard provide suitable sensitivities and precessions, while for the rest of elements the best results are obtained with graphite powder in different proportions and Rb or Sn as internal standard. (Author)4 refs.

  18. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  19. Developing Instructional Materials on English Oral Communication for Nursing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismiati; Adnan Latief, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The needs survey shows that English communication skill of the students in nursing school speaking classes is not well developed. Consequently, the speaking instructional materials used in the classes need to be advanced. Yalden's (1987) Language Program Development covering Needs Analysis, Syllabus and Materials Development, Expert Validation,…

  20. Inertial Fusion Energy Development: What is Needed and What will be Learned at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1999-10-21

    Successful development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) requires that many technical issues be resolved. Separability of drivers, targets, chambers and other IFE power plant subsystems allows resolution of many of these issues in off-line facilities and programs. Periodically, major integrated facilities give a snapshot of the rate of progress toward the ultimate solutions. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are just such integrating facilities. This paper reviews the status of IFE development and projects what will be learned from the NIF and LMJ.

  1. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    &E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behaviour of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state-of-the-art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating and improving fusion facility design in terms of accident safety, worker safety, and waste disposal. There are three papers considering safety issues of the test blanket modules (TBM) producing tritium to be installed in ITER. These modules represent different concepts of demonstration fusion power facilities (DEMO). L. Boccaccini et al (Germany) analyses the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety under specific accidents in the European helium-cooled pebble-bed TBM, e.g. pressurization of the vacuum vessel (VV), hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and VV causing air ingress. Safety analysis is also presented for Chinese TBM with a helium-cooled solid breeder to be tested in ITER by Z. Chen et al (China). Radiological inventories, afterheat, waste disposal ratings, electromagnetic characteristics, LOCA and tritium safety management are considered. An overview of a preliminary safety analysis performed for a US proposed TBM is presented by B. Merrill et al (USA). This DEMO relevant dual coolant liquid lead-lithium TBM has been explored both in the USA and EU. T. Pinna et al (Italy) summarize the six-year development of a failure rate database for fusion specific components on the basis of data coming from operating experience gained in various fusion laboratories. The activity began in 2001 with the study of the Joint European Torus vacuum and active gas handling systems. Two years later the

  2. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  3. Surgical Outcomes of Anterior Cervical Fusion Using Deminaralized Bone Matrix as Stand-Alone Graft Material: Single Arm, Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho-Jung; Hur, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Jin-Sung; Seong, Ji-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a bone graft substitute for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery. Twenty consecutive patients treated with ACDF using stand-alone polyestheretherketone (PEEK) cages (Zero-P) with DBM(CGDBM100) were prospectively evaluated with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Radiologic efficacy was evaluated with a 6-point scoring method for osseous fusion using plain radiograph and computed tomogrpahy scans. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Owestry disability index (ODI), and short-form health questionnaire-36. The safety of the bone graft substitute was assessed with vital sign monitoring and a survey measuring complications at each follow-up visit. There were significant improvements in VAS and ODI scores at a mean 6-month follow-up. Six months after surgery, solid fusion was achieved in all patients. Mean score on the 6-point scoring system was 5.1, and bony formation was found to score at least 4 points in all patients. There was no case with implant-related complications such as cage failure or migration, and no complications associated with the use of CGDBM100. ACDF using CGDBM100 demonstrated good clinical and radiologic outcomes. The fusion rate was comparable with the published results of traditional ACDF. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the use of a PEEK cage packed with DBM for ACDF is a safe and effective alternative to the gold standard of autologous iliac bone graft.

  4. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  5. Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC) is committed to quality testing and inspection services that are delivered on time and...

  6. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse; Fusion Nuclear: Analisis Contextual de Paneles Informativos Elaborados por la Comunidad Cientifica versus Discurso Ciudadano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  7. Functional materials for tokamak in-vessel systems—status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Vicente, S. M.; Hodgson, E. R.; Shikama, T.

    2017-09-01

    The challenge to be faced in ITER and DEMO, as well as future fusion power plants (PPs), by the insulating (functional) materials for use not only in the magnetic coils and heating systems but for safety and control diagnostics is daunting. The available data on thermomechanical properties (strength, swelling, thermal conductivity) indicate that suitable materials are available for doses  >1 dpa. However, for the important physical properties which degrade at far lower doses, data are generally only available for doses \\ll 1 dpa, corresponding at most to ITER expectations. To address this, the selection and development of potential radiation hard materials and components for diagnostic, H&CD, and other systems for DEMO and PPs is urgently needed, and will also assist in defining the materials test requirements for materials test reactors and IFMIF. This paper reviews the current data and basic knowledge for materials required for optical, DC electric, and AC/RF dielectric applications. A short discussion of the associated R&D needs/requirements deduced from missing or limited irradiation data is also presented.

  8. Development of Application of RE Polishing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueshun; Huang Shaodong; Yang Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing method and functions of the RE polishing powder and comparation of the current situation of its production and application home and abroad were introduced.By analyzing the development of the liquid crystal (plate) display, the wide application of the RE polishing powder in the field of the liquid crystal display and predicts the development direction of the market of the RE polishing powder was presented.In addition, the development trends of the RE polishing powder industry and forecasts the application prospect of the RE polishing powder was analyzed.

  9. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  10. Bio-based amphiphilic materials development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-based raw materials are increasingly used in the development of amphiphilic materials that have potential applications in the production of a variety of consumer and industrial products, including lubricants. Raw materials of interest include: starches, proteins, fats, oils, and sugars. These ...

  11. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  12. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  13. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis methodology for multiple modules of water-cooled breeder blanket in fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A methodology to simulate the K-DEMO blanket system was proposed. • The results were compared with the CFD, to verify the prediction capability of MARS. • 46 Blankets in a single sector in K-DEMO were simulated using MARS-KS. • Supervisor program was devised to handle each blanket module individually. • The calculation results showed the flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures. - Abstract: According to the conceptual design of the fusion DEMO reactor proposed by the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea, the water-cooled breeding blanket system incorporates a total of 736 blanket modules. The heat flux and neutron wall loading to each blanket module vary along their poloidal direction, and hence, thermal analysis for at least one blanket sector is required to confirm that the temperature limitations of the materials are satisfied in all the blanket modules. The present paper proposes a methodology of thermal analysis for multiple modules of the blanket system using a nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS-KS. In order to overcome the limitations of the code, caused by the restriction on the number of computational nodes, a supervisor program was devised, which handles each blanket module separately at first, and then corrects the flow rate, considering pressure drops that occur in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a single sector were simulated; the calculation results of the parameters, such as mass flow, pressure drops, and temperature distribution in the multiple blanket modules showed that the multi-module analysis method can be used for efficient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  14. A Strategy for the Development of Macromolecular Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MACROMOLECULAR NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS Braja K. Mandala , Jan-Chan...materials is significantly different from the conventional inorganic NLO materials. The extent of second order (quadratic) NLO effect such as second...is a criterion of paramount importance for a large second order electro-optic effect in organic materials 8 ,9 . The most common approach to obtain

  15. Space Product Development of Commercial NLO Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.

    1998-01-01

    Growth on selected substrates under various processing conditions have been useful for preparing highly oriented and otherwise promising films of organic compounds for optical thin films and waveguides. The significance of processing conditions to uniformity in thickness, degree of orientation, film quality, and optical properties for a specific processing technique is the general focus of work in this area. A study on the effect of processing conditions relevant to thin-film deposition by various techniques is particularly difficult because of the possibility that convection may play a major role in some cases. It is a goal of some researchers to produce good quality anisotropic films, therefore, an important, yet understudied, requirement should be to assess the role of gravity during certain processing methods. This may be particularly true for the vapor deposition of diacetylenes where subsequent polymerization in the crystal is topochemical and occurs readily only when neighboring monomer molecules are sufficiently close and suitably oriented. Likewise, this requirement is equally viable for the vapor deposition of certain materials such as Pcs in view of the results of microgravity experiments by 3M Corporation involving the preparation of thin films of copper Pc (CuPc). Microgravity-grown CuPc had several desirable features which indicate that the vapor growth of organic films in low-g may result in better quality films for optical and electrical applications. Indeed, other materials vapor deposited onto specific substrates in microgravity produce films potentially beneficial for electro-optic applications. A novel technique, recently discovered, for growing polydiacetylene thin films involves exposing a transparent substrate, in contact with diacetylene monomer solution, to ultraviolet (LTV) light. A polymer film deposits on the side of the substrate in contact with monomer in solution, and there are distinct gravitational effects, which influence film

  16. Participatory Materials Development in Rural Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game Management Areas (GMA), which are areas adjacent to national ... analyse the contextual and other factors that may influence development and use of ... enquiry that can help to improve the rationality and justice of practitioners' own practice. .... The art briefs were subjected to critical reviews during plenary sessions ...

  17. Songs Enhance Learner Involvement: Materials Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Regina Suk Mei; Li, Henry Chi Fai

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how songs can be used to motivate students in the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom. Songs develop students' language abilities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing and can be used to teach sentence patterns, vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, adjective, adverbs, and so on. Learning English through songs also provides a…

  18. Development and characterization of nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschbach, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire, Saarland-Lorraine (Germany); Rouxel, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire, Saarland-Lorraine (Germany)], E-mail: didier.rouxel@lpmi.uhp-nancy.fr; Vincent, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire, Saarland-Lorraine (Germany); Mugnier, Y.; Galez, C.; Le Dantec, R. [Laboratoire Systemes et Materiaux pour la Mecatronique, Polytech' Savoie, Annecy (France); Bourson, P. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systemes, CNRS-UMR 7132, Universite Paul Verlaine, Metz (France); Krueger, J.K. [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire, Saarland-Lorraine (Germany); Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Elmazria, O.; Alnot, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire, Saarland-Lorraine (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite materials based on crystalline nanoparticles dispersed in an oligomer matrix (DGEBA, used in epoxy resin). Two types of nanoparticles are used. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, commercially available, allow us to carry out the fabrication process of the nanocomposites. This system (DGEBA + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is considered as a reference for the second one based on iron iodate nanoparticles fabricated by co-precipitation. The nanocomposite fabrication process is described. The dispersion step and the problems inherent to clusters destruction are underlined. Iron iodate nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, SEM, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and EDX. Results point out that the nanoparticles have dimensions between 20 and 30 nm and present two different morphologies (ball and needle). Mechanical properties of the nanocomposite based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are explored by Brillouin spectroscopy. An enhancement of the Young's modulus is observed with a very weak mass percentage of nanoparticles (3%), the glass transition is also shifted from 247 K to 251 K. X-ray diffraction measurement on iron iodate nanocomposite demonstrates that nanoparticles remain in the same phase (P6{sub 3}) after the nanocomposite preparation process. This result is of great importance in order to achieve piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications.

  19. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  20. Chinese RE Performance Materials on the Fast Developing Way (Continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ (2) Other Magnetic Materials RE Giant Magnetostrictive Materials (GMM) Research of GMM in China started since 1980s but developed rapidly. The products can be produced in batches today. However, application of such materials in apparatus is laggard than developed countries. GMM materials are mainly applied in step motors, linear actuators, ultrasonic systems,sonar systems, valves, precise controls, active vibration damping etc. It is estimated that the near 10 years will be the fast developing period of global GMM market. Global production of GMM rnaterials during 1989 to 2005 is listed in Table 3.