WorldWideScience

Sample records for fusion hybrid development

  1. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity

  2. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  3. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  4. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  5. Case for the fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear fusion to produce fuel for nuclear fission power stations is discussed in the context of a crucial need for future energy options. The fusion hybrid is first considered as an element in the future of nuclear fission power to provide long term assurance of adequate fuel supplies for both breeder and convertor reactors. Generic differences in neutronic characteristics lead to a fuel production potential of fusion-fission hybrid systems which is significantly greater than that obtainable with fission systems alone. Furthermore, cost benefit studies show a variety of scenarios in which the hybrid offers sufficient potential to justify development costs ranging in the tens of billions of dollars. The hybrid is then considered as an element in the ultimate development of fusion electric power. The hybrid offers a near term application of fusion where experience with the requisite technologies can be derived as a vital step in mapping a credible route to eventual commercial feasibility of pure fusion systems. Finally, the criteria for assessment of future energy options are discussed with prime emphasis on the need for rational comparision of alternatives

  6. Relevance of environmental concerns in contemplating development of fission fusion hybrids: a personal view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.

    1974-01-01

    A brief comparison of hybrids to pure fusion systems with respect to timing and economics is given. The relevance of environmental concerns is discussed along with environmental criteria for hybrid designs. (U.S.)

  7. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  8. Hybrid fission-fusion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid could contribute to all components of nuclear power - fuel supply, electricity production, and waste management. The idea of the fusion-fission hybrid is many decades old. Several ideas, both new and revisited, have been investigated by hybrid proponents. These ideas appear to have attractive features, but they require various levels of advances in plasma science and fusion and nuclear technology. As a first step towards the development of hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources can be considered as an option. Compact high-field tokamaks can be a candidate for being the neutron source in a fission-fusion hybrid, essentially due to their design characteristics, such as compact dimensions, high magnetic field, flexibility of operation. This study presents the development of a tokamak neutron source for a material testing facility using an Ignitor-based concept. The computed values show the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion materials testing. Some full-power months of operation are sufficient to obtain relevant radiation damage values in terms of dpa. (Author)

  9. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  10. Development and fabrication of superconducting hybrid Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for indigenous fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Abdulla, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Fuels Division has initiated development and fabrication of Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) of various configurations, for superconducting fusion grade magnets required for their indigenous Fusion Programme. The process involves development of high grade superconducting multifilamentary wire, multi stage cabling of superconducting as well as copper wires and, finally, jacketing of the cables in SS316LN tubes. The overview of the development and fabrication of CICC is presented in this article. (author)

  11. An introduction to hybrid fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to some hybrid fusion proposals. The idea is to take advantage of the high neutron energy in fusion compared to fission either to breed fuel more efficiently than in a fast reactor, or increase the power output by fission of U 238 or transmute radioactive waste. The penalty is an increased cost and complexity of the blanket and the loss of environmental and safety arguments for fusion systems which rest on their low inventory of radioactive materials. (author)

  12. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors: a capsule introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A short introduction to fusion-fission hybrid systems is provided touching on (a) basic technological characteristics; (b) potential applications; (c) relevance of environmental considerations in the development rationale for hybrids. References to the more technical literature are supplied

  13. Fusion-Fission hybrid reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-09-01

    New options for the development of the nuclear energy economy which might become available by a successful development of fusion-breeders or fusion-fission hybrid power reactors, identified and their nonproliferative attributes are discussed. The more promising proliferation-resistance ettributes identified include: (1) Justification for a significant delay in the initiation of fuel processing, (2) Denaturing the plutonium with 238 Pu before its use in power reactors of any kind, and (3) Making practical the development of denatured uranium fuel cycles and, in particular, denaturing the uranium with 232 U. Fuel resource utilization, time-table and economic considerations associated with the use of fusion-breeders are also discussed. It is concluded that hybrid reactors may enable developing a nuclear energy economy which is more proliferation resistant than possible otherwise, whileat the same time, assuring high utilization of t he uranium and thorium resources in an economically acceptable way. (author)

  14. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  15. A cost and safety superiority of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtszev, P.E.; Luan Guishi; Xia Chengang

    1994-08-01

    Considering economy and safety, an optimization model of nuclear energy developing scenarios of China was set up. An objective function to optimize was determined. Three prospective developing scenarios of China nuclear energy system including hybrid reactor were calculated and discussed. In the system which has no fissile material exchange with other system, a smooth developing model has a smooth distribution of inventory of Pu, thus the potential danger of whole nuclear energy system will be decreased. This scheme will improve investment effectiveness. Result shows that the optimization is necessary and the significant profit in cost and safety can be obtained. (5 tabs., 8 figs., 12 refs.)

  16. A cost/benefit analysis of commercial fusion-fission hybrid reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoff, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A simple algorithm was developed that allows rapid computation of the ratio R, of present worth of benefits to present worth of hybrid RandD program costs as a function of potential hybrid unit electricity cost savings, discount rate, electricity demand growth rate, total hybrid RandD program cost, and time to complete a demonstration reactor. In the sensitivity study, these variables were assigned nominal values (unit electricity cost savings of 4 mills/k W-hr, discount rate of 4%/year, growth rate of 2.25%/year, total RandD program cost of $20 billion, and time to complete a demonstration reactor of 30 years), and the variable of interest was varied about its nominal value. Results show that R increases with decreasing discount rate and increasing unit electricity savings and ranges from 4 to 94 as discount rateranges from 5 to 3%/year and unit electricity savings range from 2 to 6 mills/k W-hr. R increases with increasing growth rate and ranges from 3 to 187 as growth rate ranges from 1 to 3.5%/year and unit electricity cost savings range from 2 to 6 mills/k W-hr. R attains a maximum value when plotted against time to complete a demonstration reactor. The location of this maximum value occurs at shorter completion times as discount rate increases, and this optimal completion time ranges from 20 years for a discount rate of 4%/year to 45 years for a discount rate of 3%/year

  17. Brief review of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Much of the conceptual framework of present day fusion-fission hybrid reactors is found in the original work of the early 1950's. Present day motivations for development are quite different. The role of the hybrid reactor is discussed as well as the current activities in the development program

  18. Fusion--fission hybrid concepts for laser-induced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid concepts are viewed as subcritical fission reactors driven and controlled by high-energy neutrons from a laser-induced fusion reactor. Blanket designs encompassing a substantial portion of the spectrum of different fission reactor technologies are analyzed and compared by calculating their fissile-breeding and fusion-energy-multiplying characteristics. With a large number of different fission technologies to choose from, it is essential to identify more promising hybrid concepts that can then be subjected to in-depth studies that treat the engineering safety, and economic requirements as well as the neutronic aspects. In the course of neutronically analyzing and comparing several fission blanket concepts, this work has demonstrated that fusion-fission hybrids can be designed to meet a broad spectrum of fissile-breeding and fusion-energy-multiplying requirements. The neutronic results should prove to be extremely useful in formulating the technical scope of future studies concerned with evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of hybrid concepts for laser-induced fusion

  19. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  20. Development and testing of multigroup library with correction of self-shielding effects in fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jun; He Zhaozhong; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Wang Minghuang

    2010-01-01

    A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the K eff , neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.

  1. Mirror hybrid (fusion--fission) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Devoto, R.S.; Galloway, T.R.; Fink, J.H.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.; Rao, S.

    1977-10-01

    The reference mirror hybrid reactor design performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. The resulting reactor may thus be viewed as a comparatively near-term goal of the fusion program, and we project improved performance for the hybrid in the future as more advanced technology becomes available

  2. Power-balance analysis of muon-catalyzed fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A power-balance model of a muon-catalyzed fusion system in the context of a fission-fuel factory is developed and exercised to predict the required physics performance of systems competitive with either pure muon-catalyzed fusion systems or thermonuclear fusion-fission fuel factory hybrid systems

  3. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  4. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  5. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    The 1978 Source Book for Fusion--Fission Hybrid Systems was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. It reviews the current status of fusion--fission hybrid reactors, and presents the prevailing views of members of the fusion community on the RD and D timetable required for the development and commercialization of fusion--fission hybrids. The results presented are based on a review of related references as well as interviews with recognized experts in the field. Contributors from the academic and industrial communities are listed

  6. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  7. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  8. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems

  9. The LOFA analysis of fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.-C.; Xie, H.

    2014-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor can produce energy, breed nuclear fuel, and handle the nuclear waste, etc, with the fusion neutron source striking the subcritical blanket. The passive safety system, consisting of passive residual heat removal system, passive safety injection system and automatic depressurization system, was adopted into the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor in this paper. Modeling and nodalization of primary loop, passive core cooling system and partial secondary loop of the fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor using RELAP5 were conducted and LOFA (Loss of Flow Accident) was analyzed. The results of key transient parameters indicated that the PRHRs could mitigate the accidental consequence of LOFA effectively. It is also concluded that it is feasible to apply the passive safety system concept to fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor. (author)

  10. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  11. Scoping studies of 233U breeding fusion fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hansen, L.F.; Allen, W.O.

    1978-05-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (greater than or equal to 1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approximately 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium-thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The overall performance of the two laser fusion driven 233 U producers is discussed and estimates are given of (1) the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel, (2) their capital cost, and (3) the cost of electricity in the combined fusion breder-converter reactor scenario

  12. Scoping studies of 233U breeding fusion fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hansen, L.F.; Allen, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (greater than or equal to 1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approx. 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium--thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The overall performance of the two laser fusion driven 233 U producers is discussed and estimates are given of (1) the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel, (2) their capital cost, and (3) the cost of electricity in the combined fusion breeder-converter reactor scenario

  13. Neutronics issues in fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan

    1995-01-01

    The coupled neutron and γ-ray transport equations and nuclear number density equations, and its computer program systems concerned in fusion-fission hybrid reactor design are briefly described. The current status and focal point for coming work of nuclear data used in fusion reactor design are explained

  14. Safety analysis on tokamak helium cooling slab fuel fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Jian Hongbing

    1992-01-01

    The thermal analyses for steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow in the tokamak helium cooling slab fuel element fusion-fission hybrid reactor are presented. The design parameters, computed results of HYBRID program and safety evaluation for conception design are given. After all, it gives some recommendations for developing the design

  15. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWR's) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario is insensitive to the capital cost of the hybrid, increasing by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  16. Symbiosis of near breeder HTR's with hybrid fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-07-01

    In this contribution to INFCE a symbiotic fusion/fission reactor system, consisting of a hybrid beam-driven micro-explosion fusion reactor (HMER) and associated high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) with a coupled fuel cycle, is proposed. This system is similar to the well known Fast Breeder/Near Breeder HTR symbiosis except that the fast fission breeder - running on the U/Pu-cycle in the core and the axial blankets and breeding the surplus fissile material as U-233 in its radial thorium metal or thorium oxide blankets - is replaced by a hybrid micro-explosion DT fusion reactor

  17. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  18. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWRs) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario increases by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  19. Fusion technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This report includes information on the following chapters: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) magnetics, (3) plasma heating, fueling, and exhaust, (4) materials for fusion reactors, (5) alternate applications, and (6) environment and safety

  20. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalick, S.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  1. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrides are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpaint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  2. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  3. Construction of hybrid peptide synthetases by module and domain fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, H D; Schwarzer, D; Marahiel, M A

    2000-05-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modular enzymes that assemble peptides of diverse structures and important biological activities. Their modular organization provides a great potential for the rational design of novel compounds by recombination of the biosynthetic genes. Here we describe the extension of a dimodular system to trimodular ones based on whole-module fusion. The recombinant hybrid enzymes were purified to monitor product assembly in vitro. We started from the first two modules of tyrocidine synthetase, which catalyze the formation of the dipeptide dPhe-Pro, to construct such hybrid systems. Fusion of the second, proline-specific module with the ninth and tenth modules of the tyrocidine synthetases, specific for ornithine and leucine, respectively, resulted in dimodular hybrid enzymes exhibiting the combined substrate specificities. The thioesterase domain was fused to the terminal module. Upon incubation of these dimodular enzymes with the first tyrocidine module, TycA, incorporating dPhe, the predicted tripeptides dPhe-Pro-Orn and dPhe-Pro-Leu were obtained at rates of 0.15 min(-1) and 2.1 min(-1). The internal thioesterase domain was necessary and sufficient to release the products from the hybrid enzymes and thereby facilitate a catalytic turnover. Our approach of whole-module fusion is based on an improved definition of the fusion sites and overcomes the recently discovered editing function of the intrinsic condensation domains. The stepwise construction of hybrid peptide synthetases from catalytic subunits reinforces the inherent potential for the synthesis of novel, designed peptides.

  4. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or 233 U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of 238 U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical

  5. Interrupter and hybrid-switch testing for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Warren, R.W.; Honig, E.M.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Bellamo, P.; Cassel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses recent and ongoing switch testing for fusion devices. The first part describes testing for the TFTR ohmic-heating circuit. In this set of tests, which simulated the stresses produced during a plasma initiation pulse, circuit breakers were required to interrupt a current of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 operations each, and both appear to satisfy TFTR requirements. The second part discusses hybrid-switch development for superconducting coil protection. These switching systems must be capable of carrying large currents on a continuous basis as well as performing interruption duties. The third part presents preliminary results on an early-counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters. Implementation of this technique has resulted in large increases in interruptible current as well as a marked reduction in contact erosion

  6. Hybrid testing of lumbar CHARITE discs versus fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, Manohar; Malcolmson, George; Teng, Edward; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Henderson, Gweneth; Serhan, Hassan

    2007-04-20

    An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. To quantify effects on operated and other levels, including adjacent levels, due to CHARITE disc implantations versus simulated fusions, using follower load and the new hybrid test method in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion. Spinal fusion has been associated with long-term accelerated degeneration at adjacent levels. As opposed to the fusion, artificial discs are designed to preserve motion and diminish the adjacent-level effects. Five fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (T12-S1) underwent multidirectional testing in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion with 400 N follower load. Intact specimen total ranges of motion were determined with +/-10 Nm unconstrained pure moments. The intact range of motion was used as input for the hybrid tests of 5 constructs: 1) CHARITE disc at L5-S1; 2) fusion at L5-S1; 3) CHARITE discs at L4-L5 and L5-S1; 4) CHARITE disc at L4-L5 and fusion at L5-S1; and 5) 2-level fusion at L4-L5-S1. Using repeated-measures single factor analysis of variance and Bonferroni statistical tests (P < 0.05), intervertebral motion redistribution of each construct was compared with the intact. In flexion-extension, 1-level CHARITE disc preserved motion at the operated and other levels, while 2-level CHARITE showed some amount of other-level effects. In contrast, 1- and 2-level fusions increased other-level motions (average, 21.0% and 61.9%, respectively). In torsion, both 1- and 2-level discs preserved motions at all levels. The 2-level simulated fusion increased motions at proximal levels (22.9%), while the 1-level fusion produced no significant changes. In general, CHARITE discs preserved operated- and other-level motions. Fusion simulations affected motion redistribution at other levels, including adjacent levels.

  7. Utility market penetration assessment of fusion-fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.K.; Nour, N.E.; Piascik, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the utility generation expansion evaluation procedure and to present the results of a fusion-fission hybrid market penetration assessment in a model of a typical utility system. The analysis addresses the key factors and tradeoffs affecting the utility's evaluation of generation alternatives

  8. Development of fusion safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Dinneen, G.A.; Herring, J.S.; DeLooper, J.; Levine, J.D.; Gouge, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. Pulsed fission/fusion hybrid engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research into high-thrust, high-specific impulse rocket engines using energy from nuclear reactions which has been conducted at this organization will be discussed. The engines are all conceptual in nature, yet are within the realization of conventional or near-term technology. The engine concepts under study at Foundation, Inc. are designed to obviate or minimize these negative effects of the ORION scheme. By using non-chemical triggers to initiate a non-breakeven fusion reaction at the core of a target composed of both fission and fusion fuel, it should be possible to employ the fusion neutrons thus produced to begin a fission reaction in U-235 or Pu-239. Since the density of the target can be increased by as much as a factor of 250 through compression of the pellet, the amount of fission material necessary to produce a critical mass can be greatly reduced. (This also means that the amount of fission products produced for a giventhrust level is also reduced from the ORION levels.) Coupling this eeffect to the large number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons produced early in the compression process and subsequently to the heating of some additional fusion fuel surrounding the critical mass leads to the very efficient burnup of the target. This insures both high yield from the target as well as low cost per MJ energy released. Finally, the use of such small pellets allows the scale of the energy released to be tailored to a level usable in rocket engines of a few tens of tons thrust level. (orig.) [de

  10. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor Design Study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Feng Kaiming; Deng Baiquan; Deng, P.Zh.; Zhang Guoshu; Hu Gang; He Kaihui; Wu Yican; Qiu Lijian; Huang Qunying; Xiao Bingjia; Liu Xiaoping; Chen Yixue; Kong, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The motivation for developing fusion-fission hybrid reactors is discussed in the context of electricity power requirements by 2050 in China. A detailed conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB) was developed from 1986-1995. The FEB has a subignited tokamak fusion core with a major radius of 4.0 m, a fusion power of 145 MW, and a fusion energy gain Q of 3. Based on this, an engineering outline design study of the FEB, FEB-E, has been performed. This design study is a transition from conceptual to engineering design in this research. The main results beyond that given in the detailed conceptual design are included in this paper, namely, the design studies of the blanket, divertor, test blanket, and tritium and environment issues. In-depth analyses have been performed to support the design. Studies of related advanced concepts such as the waste transmutation blanket concept and the spherical tokamak core concept are also presented

  11. Conceptual scheme of a hybrid mesocatalytic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    To test the practical realization of the mesocatalytic method for energy production a preliminary engineering analysis and calculation of the separate units of the conceptual scheme of the hybrid mesocatalytic reactor was made. The construction and efficiency of the most characteristic separate blocks of the conceptual scheme for muon-catalyzed fusion are examined. The muon catalysis cycle in a dt mixture was assessed. The kinetics and energetics of muon production through a pion-forming target and a converter were evaluated. Concomitant questions, particularly the removal of helium from hydrogen, are discussed. Fusion chamber requirements were calculated and problems of heat removal were assessed. Blanket construction and efficiency were examined. The efficiency of different methods for power generation were comparatively reviewed including hybrid thermonuclear, electronuclear nuclear, and hybrid mesocatalytic methods. Energy balances and economic restrictions were examined

  12. Evaluations of fusion-fission (hybrid) concepts: market penetration analysis for fusion-fission hybrids. Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.; Deonigi, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the fusion-fission studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. This particular study focused on the evaluation of fissile material producing hybrids. Technical results of the evaluation of actinide burning are presented in a companion volume, Part B

  13. Thermal safety analysis for pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie

    1998-01-01

    Pebble bed blanket hybrid reactor may have more advantages than slab element blanket hybrid reactor in nuclear fuel production and nuclear safety. The thermo-hydraulic calculations of the blanket in the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor developed in China are carried out using the Code THERMIX and auxiliary code. In the calculations different fuel pebble material and steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow accident conditions are included. The results demonstrate that the conceptual design of the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor with dump tank is feasible and safe enough only if the suitable fuel pebble material is selected and the suitable control system and protection system are established. Some recommendations for due conceptual design are also presented

  14. Development scenario for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power

  15. Environmental development plan: magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program (MFE). Environment is defined to include the environmental, health (occupational and public), and safety aspects

  16. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  17. On the safety of conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.; Badham, V.; Caspi, S.; Chan, C.K.; Ferrell, W.J.; Frederking, T.H.K.; Grzesik, J.; Lee, J.Y.; McKone, T.E.; Pomraning, G.C.; Ullman, A.Z.; Ting, T.D.; Kim, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors is presented in this paper. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The major potential hazards were found to be: (a) fission products, (b) actinide elements, (c) induced radioactivity, and (d) tritium. As a result of these studies, it appears that highly reliable and even redundent decay heat removal must be provided. Loss of the ability to remove decay heat results in melting of fuel, with ultimate release of fission products and actinides to the containment. In addition, the studies indicate that blankets can be designed which will remain subcritical under extensive changes in both composition and geometry. Magnet safety and the effects of magnetic fields on thermal parameters were also considered. (Auth.)

  18. Assessment of fusion reactor development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Tazima, T.

    1994-04-01

    Symposium on assessment of fusion reactor development was held to make clear critical issues, which should be resolved for the commercial fusion reactor as a major energy source in the next century. Discussing items were as follows. (1) The motive force of fusion power development from viewpoints of future energy demand, energy resources and earth environment for 'Sustainable Development'. (2) Comparison of characteristics with other alternative energy sources, i.e. fission power and solar cell power. (3) Future planning of fusion research and advanced fuel fusion (D 3 He). (4) Critical issues of fusion reactor development such as Li extraction from the sea water, structural material and safety. (author)

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  20. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  1. Magnetic fusion research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme. 6 figs, 1 tab

  2. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-01

    · Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. · Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances · Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  3. Hefei experimental hybrid fusion-fission reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Lijian; Luan Guishi; Xu Qiang

    1992-03-01

    A new concept of hybrid reactor is introduced. It uses JET-like(Joint European Tokamak) device worked at sub-breakeven conditions, as a source of high energy neutrons to induce a blanket fission of depleted uranium. The solid breeding material and helium cooling technique are also used. It can produce 100 kg of 239 Pu per year by partial fission suppressed. The energy self-sustained of the fusion core is not necessary. Plasma temperature is maintained by external 20 MW ICRF (ion cyclotron resonance frequency) and 10 MW ECRF (electron cyclotron resonance frequency) heating. A steady state plasma current at 1.5 Ma is driven by 10 MW LHCD (lower hybrid current driven). Plasma density will be kept by pellet injection. ICRF can produce a high energy tail in ion distribution function and lead to significant enhancement of D-T reaction rate by 2 ∼ 5 times so that the neutron source strength reaches to the level of 1 x 10 19 n/s. This system is a passive system. It's power density is 10 W/cm 3 and the wall loading is 0.6 W/cm 2 that is the lower limitation of fusion and fission technology. From the calculation of neutrons it could always be in sub-critical and has intrinsic safety. The radiation damage and neutron flux distribution on the first wall are also analyzed. According to the conceptual design the application of this type hybrid reactor earlier is feasible

  4. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  5. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  6. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  7. Economics of fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    This paper analyzes the range of allowable performance characteristics (capital costs, operating costs, plutonium production rate and thermal-to-electrical conversion) which will result in net benefits to the public through reduced electrical costs at levels ranging from zero to $20 billion. These targets for performance will be established in light of nine different development scenarios for the remaining electric generating alternatives

  8. Laser fusion hybrid reactor systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The work was performed in three phases. The first phase included a review of the many possible laser-reactor-blanket combinations and resulted in the selection of a ''demonstration size'' 500 MWe plant for further study. A number of fast fission blankets using uranium metal, uranium-molybdenum alloy, and uranium carbide as fuel were investigated. The second phase included design of the reactor vessel and internals, heat transfer system, tritium processing system, and the balance of plant, excluding the laser building and equipment. A fuel management scheme was developed, safety considerations were reviewed, and capital and operating costs were estimated. Costs developed during the second phase were unexpectedly high, and a thorough review indicated considerable unit cost savings could be obtained by scaling the plant to a larger size. Accordingly, a third phase was added to the original scope, encompassing the redesign and scaling of the plant from 500 MWe to 1200 MWe

  9. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  10. Advanced nuclear fuel production by using fission-fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Sahin, S.; Abdulraoof, M.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are made at the College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh to lay out the main structure of a prototype experimental fusion and fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor blanket in cylindrical geometry. The geometry is consistent with most of the current fusion and hybrid reactor design concepts in respect of the neutronic considerations. Characteristics of the fusion chamber, fusion neutrons and the blanket are provided. The studies have further shown that 1 GWe fission-fusion reactor can produce up to 957 kg/year which is enough to fuel five light water reactors of comparable power. Fuel production can be increased further. 29 refs

  11. Statistical comparison of a hybrid approach with approximate and exact inference models for Fusion 2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. David; Wiesenfeld, Eric; Gelfand, Andrew

    2007-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in modern combat is maintaining a high level of timely Situational Awareness (SA). In many situations, computational complexity and accuracy considerations make the development and deployment of real-time, high-level inference tools very difficult. An innovative hybrid framework that combines Bayesian inference, in the form of Bayesian Networks, and Possibility Theory, in the form of Fuzzy Logic systems, has recently been introduced to provide a rigorous framework for high-level inference. In previous research, the theoretical basis and benefits of the hybrid approach have been developed. However, lacking is a concrete experimental comparison of the hybrid framework with traditional fusion methods, to demonstrate and quantify this benefit. The goal of this research, therefore, is to provide a statistical analysis on the comparison of the accuracy and performance of hybrid network theory, with pure Bayesian and Fuzzy systems and an inexact Bayesian system approximated using Particle Filtering. To accomplish this task, domain specific models will be developed under these different theoretical approaches and then evaluated, via Monte Carlo Simulation, in comparison to situational ground truth to measure accuracy and fidelity. Following this, a rigorous statistical analysis of the performance results will be performed, to quantify the benefit of hybrid inference to other fusion tools.

  12. Excimer laser development for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanielli, D.

    1985-01-01

    The future utility of inertial confinement fusion requires a new driver. Successful experiments coupling laser energy to targets, and our understanding of fuel capsule behavior strongly suggest that a laboratory thermonuclear source is attainable and power production may be considered if a suitable driver with high efficiency, high repetition rate, and most importantly, low capital cost, can be identified. No adequate driver exists today; however, the krypton fluoride laser holds great promise. By the end of this decade, driver development can be brought to the point that a technically justifiable choice can be made for the future direction of ICF

  13. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-15

    {center_dot} Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. {center_dot} Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances {center_dot} Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  14. Neutron analysis of a hybrid system fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes C, J. J.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    The use of energy at world level implies the decrease of natural resources, reduction of fossil fuels, in particular, and a high environmental impact. In view of this problem, an alternative is the energy production for nuclear means, because up to now is one of the less polluting energy; however, the nuclear fuel wastes continue being even a problem without being solved. For the above mentioned this work intends the creation of a device that incorporates the combined technologies of fission and nuclear fusion, called Nuclear Hybrid Reactor Fusion-Fission (HRFF). The HRFF has been designed theoretically with base in experimental fusion reactors in different parts of the world like: United States, Russia, Japan, China and United Kingdom, mainly. The hybrid reactor model here studied corresponds at the Compact Nuclear Facility Source (CNFS). The importance of the CNFS resides in its feasibility, simple design, minor size and low cost; uses deuterium-tritium like main source of neutrons, and as fuel can use the spent fuel of conventional nuclear reactors, such as the current light water reactors. Due to the high costs of experimental research, this work consists on simulating in computer a proposed model of CNFS under normal conditions of operation, to modify the arrangement of the used fuel: MOX and IMF, to analyze the obtained results and to give final conclusions. In conclusion, the HRFF can be a versatile system for the management of spent fuel of light water reactors, so much for the possibility of actinides destruction, like for the breeding of fissile material. (Author)

  15. Fusion-fission hybrid design with analysis of direct enrichment and non-proliferation features (the SOLASE-H study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.; Maynard, C.W.; Magheb, M.M.H.; Sviatolslavsky, I.N.; Vogelsang, W.F.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The role of a fusion-fission hybrid in the context of a nuclear economy with and without reprocessing is examined. An inertial confinement fusion driver is assumed and a consistent set of reactor parameters are developed. The form of the driver is not critical, however, to the general concepts. The use of the hybrid as a fuel factory within a secured fuel production and reprocessing center is considered. Either the hybrid or a low power fission reactor can be used to mildly irradiate fuel prior to shipment to offsite reactors thereby rendering the fuel resistant to diversion. A simplified economic analysis indicates a hybrid providing fuel to 10 fission reactors of equal thermal power is insensitive to the recirculating power fraction provided reprocessing is permitted. If reprocessing is not allowed, the hybrid can be used to directly enrich light water reactor fuel bundles fabricated initially from fertile fuel (either ThO 2 or 238 UO 2 ). A detailed neutronic analysis indicates such direct enrichments is feasible but the support ratio for 233 U or 239 Pu production is only 2, making such an approach highly sensitive to the hybrid cost. The hybrid would have to produce considerable net power for economic feasibility in this case. Inertial confinement fusion performance requirements for hybrid application are also examined and an integrated design, SOLASE-H, is described based upon the direct enrichment concept. (orig.)

  16. Development of radiation fusion biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Uhee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready to eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Selection of 20 kinds of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling (fractionated irradiation of total 5Gy, a lapse of 4 months or more - Selection of effective aging modulating substances by screening of 800 natural substances - Development of 1 multi-functional and high-efficacy aging modulator by combination of effective substances and evaluation by in vivo models Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 100 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing. - Establishment of multi-channel type Lab on a chip (LOC) using

  17. Development of radiation fusion biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-04-15

    Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready to eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Selection of 20 kinds of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling (fractionated irradiation of total 5Gy, a lapse of 4 months or more - Selection of effective aging modulating substances by screening of 800 natural substances - Development of 1 multi-functional and high-efficacy aging modulator by combination of effective substances and evaluation by in vivo models Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 100 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing. - Establishment of multi-channel type Lab on a chip (LOC) using

  18. Novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique for shutdown dose rate analyses of fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Develop the novel Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method for multi-step shielding analyses. •Accurately calculate shutdown dose rates using full-scale Monte Carlo models of fusion energy systems. •Demonstrate the dramatic efficiency improvement of the MS-CADIS method for the rigorous two step calculations of the shutdown dose rate in fusion reactors. -- Abstract: The rigorous 2-step (R2S) computational system uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the R2S neutron transport calculation. However, the prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their ability to accurately predict the SDDR in fusion energy systems using full-scale modeling of an entire fusion plant. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methodology that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) methodology speeds up the R2S neutron Monte Carlo calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminary results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the efficiency enhancement compared to analog Monte Carlo is higher than a factor of 10,000

  19. Survey on the fusion/fission-hybrid-reactors, a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey, based on existing literature, of the work being pursued worldwide on fusion - fission (hybrid) reactor systems is presented. Six areas are reviewed: Plasma physics parameters; Blankets concepts; Fuel cycles; Reactor conceptual designs; Safety and environmental problems; System studies and economic perspectives. Attention has been restricted to systems using magnetically confined plasmas, mainly to mirror and Tokamak - type concepts. The aim is to provide sufficient information, even if not exhaustive, on hybrid reactor concepts in order to help understand what may be expected from their possible development and the ways in which hybrids could affect the future energy scenario. Some concluding remarks are made which represent the personal view of the authors only

  20. Recent developments concerning the fusion; Developpements recents sur la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Andre, M. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Aymar, R. [ITER Joint Central Team Garching, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    2000-09-04

    Organized the 9 march 2000 by the SFEN, this meeting on the european program concerning the fusion, showed the utility of the exploitation and the enhancement of the actual technology (JET, Tore Supra, ASDEX) and the importance of the Europe engagement in the ITER program. The physical stakes for the magnetic fusion have been developed with a presentation of the progresses in the knowledge of the stability limits. A paper on the inertial fusion was based on the LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) project. The two blanket concepts chosen in the scope of the european program on the tritium blankets, have been discussed. These concepts will be validated by irradiation tests in the ITER-FEAT and adapted for a future reactor. (A.L.B.)

  1. Hybrid Histogram Descriptor: A Fusion Feature Representation for Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qinghe; Hao, Qiaohong; Chen, Yuqi; Yi, Yugen; Wei, Ying; Dai, Jiangyan

    2018-06-15

    Currently, visual sensors are becoming increasingly affordable and fashionable, acceleratingly the increasing number of image data. Image retrieval has attracted increasing interest due to space exploration, industrial, and biomedical applications. Nevertheless, designing effective feature representation is acknowledged as a hard yet fundamental issue. This paper presents a fusion feature representation called a hybrid histogram descriptor (HHD) for image retrieval. The proposed descriptor comprises two histograms jointly: a perceptually uniform histogram which is extracted by exploiting the color and edge orientation information in perceptually uniform regions; and a motif co-occurrence histogram which is acquired by calculating the probability of a pair of motif patterns. To evaluate the performance, we benchmarked the proposed descriptor on RSSCN7, AID, Outex-00013, Outex-00014 and ETHZ-53 datasets. Experimental results suggest that the proposed descriptor is more effective and robust than ten recent fusion-based descriptors under the content-based image retrieval framework. The computational complexity was also analyzed to give an in-depth evaluation. Furthermore, compared with the state-of-the-art convolutional neural network (CNN)-based descriptors, the proposed descriptor also achieves comparable performance, but does not require any training process.

  2. Preliminary neutronics calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xubo; Chen Yixue; Gao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel in PWR was preliminarily studied in this paper. According to the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel characteristics, PWR assembly including fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel was designed. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and their variation were investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly are similar. The design of this paper has a smaller uniformity coefficient of power at the same fissile isotope mass percentage. The results will provide technical support for the future fusion-fission hybrid reactor and PWR combined with cycle system. (authors)

  3. Inertial fusion energy development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Hogan, W.J.; Nakai, S.; Rozanov, V.B.; Velarde, G.

    1995-01-01

    The research and development strategy for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is delineated. The development strategy must indicate how commercial IFE power can be made available in the first part of the next century, by which is meant that a Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) will have shown that in commercial operation IFE power plants can satisfy the requirements of public and employee safety, acceptably low impact on the environment, technical performance, reliability, maintainability and economic competitiveness. The technical issues associated with the various required demonstrations for each of the subsystems of the power plant (target, driver, reaction chamber, and remainder of plant (ROP) where the tritium for future targets is extracted and thermal energy is converted into electricity) are listed. The many developments required to make IFE commercially available can be oriented towards a few major demonstrations. These demonstrations do not necessarily each need separate facilities. The goals of these demonstrations are: (i) ignition demonstration, to show ignition and thermonuclear burn in an ICF target and determine the minimum required driver conditions; (ii) high gain demonstration, to show adequate driver efficiency-gain product; (iii) engineering demonstrations, to show high pulse rate operations in an integrated system and to choose the best designs of the various reactor systems; (iv) commercial demonstrations, to prove safe, environmentally benign, reliable, economic, near-commercial operation. In this document the present status of major inertial confinement research activities is summarized including a table of the major operating or planned facilities. The aspects involved in each of the required demonstrations are discussed. Also, for each of the subsystems mentioned above the technical developments that are needed are discussed. The document ends with a discussion of the two existing detailed IFE development plans, by the United States and Japan. 9

  4. Fusion-fission hybrids: environmental aspects and their role in hybrid rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for developing hybrids depends on real or perceived liabilities of relying on pure fission to do the same job. Quite possibly the main constraint on expanded use of fission will be neither lack of fuel nor high costs, but perceived environmental liabilities - radioactive wastes, reactor safety, and links to nuclear weaponry. The environmental characteristics of hybrid systems and pure-fisson systems are compared here in detail. The findings are that significant environmental advantages for hybrids cannot now be demonstrated and may not exist. Therefore, if environmental drawbacks constrain the application of pure fission, hybrids probably also will be thus constrained

  5. Accelerated plan to develop magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that, despite funding delays since the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980, fusion development could still be carried to the point of a demonstration plant by the year 2000 as called for in the Act if funding, now about $365 million per year, were increased to the $1 billion range over the next few years (see Table I). We have also suggested that there may be an economic incentive for the private sector to become in accelerating fusion development on account of the greater stability of energy production costs from fusion. Namely, whereas fossil fuel prices will surely escalate in the course of time, fusion fuel will always be abundantly available at low cost; and fusion technology poses less future risk to the public and the investor compared to conventional nuclear power. In short, once a fusion plant is built, the cost of generating electricity mainly the amortization of the plant capital cost - would be relatively fixed for the life of the plant. In Sec. V, we found that the projected capital cost of fusion plants ($2000 to $4000 per KW/sub e/) would probably be acceptable if fusion plants were available today

  6. Developments in plasma physics and controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some developments in plasma physics over the past twenty years are considered from the theoretical physics standpoint under the headings; oscillations, waves and instabilities, plasma turbulence, basic kinetic theory, and developments in fusion. (UK)

  7. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors based on the laser solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Quimby, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission reactors, based on the laser solenoid concept, can be much smaller in scale than their pure fusion counterparts, with moderate first-wall loading and rapid breeding capabilities (1 to 3 tonnes/yr), and can be designed successfully on the basis of classical plasma transport properties and free-streaming end-loss. Preliminary design information is presented for such systems, including the first wall, pulse coil, blanket, superconductors, laser optics, and power supplies, accounting for the desired reactor performance and other physics and engineering constraints. Self-consistent point designs for first and second generation reactors are discussed which illustrate the reactor size, performance, component parameters, and the level of technological development required

  8. Neutronics analysis of water-cooled energy production blanket for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jieqiong; Wang Minghuang; Chen Zhong; Qiu Yuefeng; Liu Jinchao; Bai Yunqing; Chen Hongli; Hu Yanglin

    2010-01-01

    Neutronics calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of blanket energy multiplication factor (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for energy production named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-EM (Energy Multiplier) blanket. The most significant and main goal of the FDS-EM blanket is to achieve the energy gain of about 1 GWe with self-sustaining tritium, i.e. the M factor is expected to be ∼90. Four different fission materials were taken into account to evaluate M in subcritical blanket: (i) depleted uranium, (ii) natural uranium, (iii) enriched uranium, and (iv) Nuclear Waste (transuranic from 33 000 MWD/MTU PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and depleted uranium) oxide. These calculations and analyses were performed using nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) and a home-developed code VisualBUS. The results showed that the performance of the blanket loaded with Nuclear Waste was most attractive and it could be promising to effectively obtain tritium self-sufficiency and a high-energy multiplication.

  9. Properties of the ion-ion hybrid resonator in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, George J.

    2015-01-01

    The project developed theoretical and numerical descriptions of the properties of ion-ion hybrid Alfvn resonators that are expected to arise in the operation of a fusion reactor. The methodology and theoretical concepts were successfully compared to observations made in basic experiments in the LAPD device at UCLA. An assessment was made of the excitation of resonator modes by energetic alpha particles for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. The broader impacts included the generation of basic insight useful to magnetic fusion and space science researchers, defining new avenues for exploration in basic laboratory experiments, establishing broader contacts between experimentalists and theoreticians, completion of a Ph.D. dissertation, and promotion of interest in science through community outreach events and classroom instruction.

  10. Fusion-fission hybrid as an alternative to the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.; Hardie, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    This report compares the fusion-fission hybrid on the plutonium cycle with the classical fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle as a long-term nuclear energy source. For the purpose of comparison, the current light-water reactor once-through (LWR-OT) cycle was also analyzed. The methods and models used in this study were developed for use in a comparative analysis of conventional nuclear fuel cycles. Assessment areas considered in this study include economics, energy balance, proliferation resistance, technological status, public safety, and commercial viability. In every case the characteristics of all fuel cycle facilities were accounted for, rather than just those of the reactor

  11. Review of Battelle-Northwest technical studies on fusion--fission (hybrid) energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, R.C.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Wolkenhauer, W.C.; Aase, D.T.

    1974-01-01

    A variety of studies conducted over the past few years and the principal results of these studies are summarized. Studies of power producing hybrids, the use of fusion neutrons for transmutation of radioactive wastes, and the evaluation of the most likely combinations of fusion and fission technologies are discussed. (U.S.)

  12. Mirror Fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  13. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  14. Fusion instrumentation and control: a development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Greninger, R.C.; Longhurst, G.R.; Madden, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined requirements for a fusion instrumentation and control development program to determine where emphasis is needed. The complex, fast, and closely coupled system dynamics of fusion reactors reveal a need for a rigorous approach to the development of instrumentation and control systems. A framework for such a development program should concentrate on three principal need areas: the operator-machine interface, the data and control system architecture, and fusion compatible instruments and sensors. System dynamics characterization of the whole fusion reactor system is also needed to facilitate the implementation process in each of these areas. Finally, the future need to make the instrumentation and control system compatible with the requirements of a commercial plant is met by applying transition technology. These needs form the basis for the program tasks suggested

  15. Progress of nuclear fusion research and review on development of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Set up in October 1971, the ad hoc Committee on Survey of Nuclear Fusion Reactors has worked on overall fusion reactor aspects and definition of the future problems under four working groups of core, nuclear heat, materials and system. The presect volume is intended to provide reference materials in the field of fusion reactor engineering, prepared by members of the committee. Contents are broadly the following: concept of the nuclear fusion reactor, fusion core engineering, fusion reactor blanket engineering, fusion reactor materials engineering, and system problems in development of fusion reactors. (Mori, K.)

  16. Additional gleaning of fusion energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo; Koizumi, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the major topics in the history of fusion energy development in Japan from its dawn to the tokamak fusion experimental reactor, ITER. The domestic circumstances and situation in foreign countries in those days, and the details of each decision and discussion, are described. Since my previous writing, 'Forty years for Nuclear Fusion Energy Development - Big Science in Japan (1997, ERC Press. Co. Ltd.)', was a book which briefly summarize a large quantity of documents on the history, there are many points, which require additional detail explanation. This time, I selected and extracted major topics in the fusion research history, and added additional descriptions and my comments so as to supplement my previous writing. (author)

  17. The development of laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    1998-01-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from 'implosion physics' to 'ignition and high gain', namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called 'Fast Ignition'. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  18. The development of laser fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, Kunioki [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Laser fusion research started soon after the invention of laser. In 1972, the research was declassified and nuclear fusion by laser inplosion was proposed by J. Nuckolls. Since then, 26 years has passed and laser implosion experiments demonstrated 1000 times solid density compression. By the demonstration of 1000 times solid density, the mission of the laser fusion research shifted from `implosion physics` to `ignition and high gain`, namely demonstration of fusion output of 100 times input laser energy. By the recent developments of laser technology, ultra intense laser became available and opened up a new ignition scheme which is called `Fast Ignition`. The technology for the diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is developed toward a laser driver for reactor. U.S. and France are constructing MJ lasers for demonstrating ignition and burn and Osaka University is investigating the fast ignition and the equivalent plasma of confinement (EPOC) toward high gain. (author)

  19. Preliminary study of the economics of enriching PWR fuel with a fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.

    1978-09-01

    This study is a comparison of the economics of enriching uranium oxide for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant fuel using a fusion hybrid reactor versus the present isotopic enrichment process. The conclusion is that privately owned hybrid fusion reactors, which simultaneously produce electrical power and enrich fuel, are competitive with the gaseous diffusion enrichment process if spent PWR fuel rods are reenriched without refabrication. Analysis of irradiation damage effects should be performed to determine if the fuel rod cladding can withstand the additional irradiation in the hybrid and second PWR power cycle. The cost competitiveness shown by this initial study clearly justifies further investigations

  20. Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, Jan; Bredow, Jan; Oppermann, Johannes; Koy, Timmo; Delank, Stefan; Knoell, Peter; Eysel, Peer; Sobottke, Rolf; Zarghooni, Kourosh; Röllinghoff, Marc

    2014-09-05

    The 360° fusion of lumbar segments is a common and well-researched therapy to treat various diseases of the spine. But it changes the biomechanics of the spine and may cause adjacent segment disease (ASD). Among the many techniques developed to avoid this complication, one appears promising. It combines a rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system (hybrid instrumentation, "topping off"). However, its clinical significance is still uncertain due to the lack of conclusive data. The study is a randomized, therapy-controlled, two-centre trial conducted in a clinical setting at two university hospitals. If they meet the criteria, outpatients presenting with degenerative disc disease, facet joint arthrosis or spondylolisthesis will be included in the study and randomized into two groups: a control group undergoing conventional fusion surgery (PLIF - posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion), and an intervention group undergoing fusion surgery using a new flexible pedicle screw system (PLIF + "topping off"), which was brought on the market in 2013. Follow-up examination will take place immediately after surgery, after 6 weeks and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. An ongoing assessment will be performed every year.Outcome measurements will include quality of life and pain assessments using validated questionnaires (ODI - Ostwestry Disability Index, SF-36™ - Short Form Health Survey 36, COMI - Core Outcome Measure Index). In addition, clinical and radiologic ASD, sagittal balance parameters and duration of work disability will be assessed. Inpatient and 6-month mortality, surgery-related data (e.g., intraoperative complications, blood loss, length of incision, surgical duration), postoperative complications (e.g. implant failure), adverse events, and serious adverse events will be monitored and documented throughout the study. New hybrid "topping off" systems might improve the outcome of lumbar spine fusion. But to date, there is a serious lack of and a great need

  1. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  2. Prospects for developing attractive inertial fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, T.; Bodner, S.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hogan, W.; Storm, E.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the role of inertial fusion in relationship to defense activities as well as in relation to energy alternatives. Other general advantages to inertial fusion besides maintaining the system more cheaply and easily, are discussed such as certain designs and the use of very short wavelength with a very modest laser intensity. A discussion on the direct illumination approach is offered. The progress made in high-gain target physics and the potential for development of solid-state lasers as a potential multimegajoule driver and a potential high-rep-rate fusion driver are discussed. Designs for reaction chambers are examined, as is the heavy-ion fusion program. Light-ion accelerators are also discussed

  3. Genetic engineering with tobacco protoplasts. [Hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H H

    1976-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca (GG) and N. langsdorffii (LL) was confirmed and extended. Enzymatic digestion of leaf tissues to obtain protoplats was followed by fusion with the aid of polyethylene glycol. The hybrid calli were selected by their better growth on defined culture media. Mature hybrid plants were identified by their morphology and tumor formation. Cytological examination revealed a range in chromosome numbers from 56 to 64 rather than the amphiploid GGLL number of 42. About 75 percent of the hybrids were fertile. The potential range in combining widely disparate genotypes by somatic cell fusion was demonstrated by fusing tobacco GGLL protoplasts with human HeLa cells. The HeLa nucleus was observed inside the plant protoplasts, thus forming an interkingdom heterokaryon.

  4. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  5. The contribution of fusion to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The world demand for energy is projected to more than double over the next 50 years, indeed this will be essential to bring much of the world out of poverty. At the same time there is increasing pressure to substantially reduce atmospheric pollution, most notably of carbon dioxide. Together, these conflicting goals drive a need to produce enormous amounts of non-carbon energy supply, much greater than our total present energy supply. This presents a huge challenge. As one of very few options for large-scale, non-carbon future supply of energy, fusion has the potential to make an important contribution to sustained energy supplies. Fusion's advantages of large fuel reserves, low atmospheric emissions and high levels of safety make it an important consideration in future energy strategies. Conceptual designs of fusion power plants have been optimised against safety and environmental criteria; the results are described here and the outcomes compared with other energy sources. To make a contribution to sustainable development, fusion must be economically viable in a future energy market. The calculated costs of electricity from fusion show that, particularly in an energy market where environmental constraints are playing an increasing role, fusion can make an important contribution

  6. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more

  7. Development of our laser fusion integration simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Zhai, C.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Zheng, W.; Yong, H.; Zeng, Q.; Hang, X.; Qi, J.; Yang, R.; Cheng, J.; Song, P.; Gu, P.; Zhang, A.; An, H.; Xu, X.; Guo, H.; Cao, X.; Mo, Z.; Pei, W.; Jiang, S.; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the target design of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, it is common practice to apply radiation hydrodynamics code to study the key physical processes happening in ICF process, such as hohlraum physics, radiation drive symmetry, capsule implosion physics in the radiation-drive approach of ICF. Recently, many efforts have been done to develop our 2D integrated simulation capability of laser fusion with a variety of optional physical models and numerical methods. In order to effectively integrate the existing codes and to facilitate the development of new codes, we are developing an object-oriented structured-mesh parallel code-supporting infrastructure, called JASMIN. Based on two-dimensional three-temperature hohlraum physics code LARED-H and two-dimensional multi-group radiative transfer code LARED-R, we develop a new generation two-dimensional laser fusion code under the JASMIN infrastructure, which enable us to simulate the whole process of laser fusion from the laser beams' entrance into the hohlraum to the end of implosion. In this paper, we will give a brief description of our new-generation two-dimensional laser fusion code, named LARED-Integration, especially in its physical models, and present some simulation results of holhraum. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of tritium transport in the biomass-fusion hybrid system and its environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Kyosuke [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We assumed that tritium migrates from biomass hybrid fusion system to fuel cell vehicles. • We developed a seven-compartment model to describe the water flow and tritium in an urban area Osaka. • Tritium concentration of surface soil water run by 4 Bq/L level after 60 years later. • The tritium does not deserve health hazard but easily detectable in the environment. - Abstract: The behavior of tritium contained in the biofuel produced by the fusion energy is analyzed. Hydrogen product is contaminated with tritium from breeding blanket of fusion plant within the regulation limit and released to atmosphere when used for fuel cell vehicles. In the model city, Osaka, seven-compartment model describes the behavior of exhausted tritium by adapting the environment water flow and its migration was analyzed with STELLA system dynamics code. Tritium (HTO) with a concentration of 5000 Bq//m{sup 3} exhausted from the running vehicle increases decades and reaches steady state after about 50 years, at around 40 Bq/m{sup 3} in atmosphere and 4 Bq/L in surface soil water that does not deserve health hazard, however causes contamination of large populated area.

  9. Burn-up calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor using thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shido, S.; Matsunaka, M.; Kondo, K.; Murata, I.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A burn-up calculation system has been developed to estimate performance of blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which is a fusion reactor with a blanket region containing nuclear fuel. In this system, neutron flux is calculated by MCNP4B and then burn-up calculation is performed by ORIGEN2. The cross-section library for ORIGEN2 is made from the calculated neutron flux and evaluated nuclear data. The 3-dimensional ITER model was used as a base fusion reactor. The nuclear fuel (reprocessed plutonium as the fission materials mixed with thorium as the fertile materials), transmutation materials (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) and tritium breeder were loaded into the blanket. Performances of gas-cooled and water-cooled blankets were compared with each other. As a result, the proposed reactor can meet the requirement for TBP and power density. As far as nuclear waste incineration is concerned, the gas-cooled blanket has advantages. On the other hand, the water cooled-blanket is suited to energy production. (author)

  10. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Baldwin, D.L.; Keough, R.F.; Van der Cook, B.P.

    1985-04-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  11. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  12. Fusion neutronics plan in the development of fusion reactor. With the aim of realizing electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Morimoto, Yuichi; Ochiai, Kentarou; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    On June 1992, Atomic Energy Commission in Japan has settled Third Phase Program of Fusion Research and Development to achieve self-ignition condition, to realize long pulse burning plasma and to establish basis of fusion engineering for demonstration reactor. This report describes research plan of Fusion Neutron Laboratory in JAERI toward a development of fusion reactor with an aim of realizing electric power. The fusion neutron laboratory has a fusion neutronics facility (FNS), intense fusion neutron source. The plan includes research items in the FNS; characteristics of shielding and breeding materials, nuclear characteristics of materials, fundamental irradiation process of insulator, diagnostics materials and structural materials, and development of in-vessel diagnostic technology. Upgrade of the FNS is also described. Also, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) for intense neutron source to develop fusion materials is described. (author)

  13. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  14. Integrated approach for fusion multi-physics coupled analyses based on hybrid CAD and mesh geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng, E-mail: yuefeng.qiu@kit.edu; Lu, Lei; Fischer, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated approach for neutronics, thermal and structural analyses was developed. • MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4 were coupled with CFX, Fluent and ANSYS Workbench. • A novel meshing approach has been proposed for describing MC geometry. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics analyses on fusion reactor devices require high-fidelity neutronic models, and flexible, accurate data exchanging between various calculation codes. An integrated coupling approach has been developed to enable the conversion of CAD, mesh, or hybrid geometries for Monte Carlo (MC) codes MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4, and translation of nuclear heating data for CFD codes Fluent, CFX and structural mechanical software ANSYS Workbench. The coupling approach has been implemented based on SALOME platform with CAD modeling, mesh generation and data visualization capabilities. A novel meshing approach has been developed for generating suitable meshes for MC geometry descriptions. The coupling approach has been concluded to be reliable and efficient after verification calculations of several application cases.

  15. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a 233 U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed

  16. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  17. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  18. Development of superconducting equipment for fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Masayuki; Ueda, Toshio; Hiue, Hisaaki; Ohgushi, Kouzou

    1993-01-01

    At Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., the development of superconductivity was started from 1960, and superconducting equipment for fusion device has been developed for ten years. The superconducting equipment, which is developed for fusion by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., are able to be grouped in three categories which are current lead, superconducting coil and superconducting bus-line. The current lead is an electrical feeder between a superconducting coil and an electrical power supply. The rated current of developed current lead is 30kA at continuous use and 100kA at short time use respectively. The advanced disk type coil is developed for the toroidal field coil and some coils are developed for critical current measurement. Superconductor is applied to the superconducting bus-line between the superconducting coils and the current leads, and the bus-line is being developed for the Large Helical Device. This report describes an abstract of these equipment. (author)

  19. Physical Investigation for Neutron Consumption and Multiplication in Blanket Module of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid reactor can be the first milestone of fusion technology and achievable in near future. It can provide operational experience for tritium recycling for pure fusion reactor and be used for incineration of high-level long-lived waste isotopes from existing fission power reactors. Hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT) was designed and optimized to assess its otential for waste transmutation. ITER will be the first large scaled experimental tokamak facility for the testing of test blanket modules (TBM) which will layout the foundation for DEMO fusion power plants. Similarly hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) will be the foundation for rationality of fusion fission hybrid reactors. Designing and testing of hybrid blankets will lead to another prospect of nuclear technology. This study is initiated with a preliminary design concept of a hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) which would be tested in ITER. The neutrons generated in D-T fusion plasma are of high energy, 14.1 MeV which could be multiplied significantly through inelastic scattering along with fission in HTBM. In current study the detailed neutronic analysis is performed for the blanket module which involves the neutron growth and loss distribution within blanket module with the choice of different fuel and coolant materials. TRU transmutation and tritium breeding performance of HTBM is analyzed under ITER irradiation environment for five different fuel types and with Li and LiPb coolants. Simple box geometry with plate type TRU fuel is adopted so that it can be modelled with heterogeneous material geometry in MCNPX. Waste transmutation ratio (WTR) of TRUs and tritium breeding ration (TBR) is computed to quantify the HTBM performance. Neutron balance is computed in detail to analyze the performance parameters of HTBM. Neutron spectrum and fission to capture ratio in TRU fuel types is also calculated for detailed analysis of HTBM

  20. Physical Investigation for Neutron Consumption and Multiplication in Blanket Module of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq Siddique, M.; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Fusion-fission hybrid reactor can be the first milestone of fusion technology and achievable in near future. It can provide operational experience for tritium recycling for pure fusion reactor and be used for incineration of high-level long-lived waste isotopes from existing fission power reactors. Hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT) was designed and optimized to assess its otential for waste transmutation. ITER will be the first large scaled experimental tokamak facility for the testing of test blanket modules (TBM) which will layout the foundation for DEMO fusion power plants. Similarly hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) will be the foundation for rationality of fusion fission hybrid reactors. Designing and testing of hybrid blankets will lead to another prospect of nuclear technology. This study is initiated with a preliminary design concept of a hybrid test blanket module (HTBM) which would be tested in ITER. The neutrons generated in D-T fusion plasma are of high energy, 14.1 MeV which could be multiplied significantly through inelastic scattering along with fission in HTBM. In current study the detailed neutronic analysis is performed for the blanket module which involves the neutron growth and loss distribution within blanket module with the choice of different fuel and coolant materials. TRU transmutation and tritium breeding performance of HTBM is analyzed under ITER irradiation environment for five different fuel types and with Li and LiPb coolants. Simple box geometry with plate type TRU fuel is adopted so that it can be modelled with heterogeneous material geometry in MCNPX. Waste transmutation ratio (WTR) of TRUs and tritium breeding ration (TBR) is computed to quantify the HTBM performance. Neutron balance is computed in detail to analyze the performance parameters of HTBM. Neutron spectrum and fission to capture ratio in TRU fuel types is also calculated for detailed analysis of HTBM.

  1. Enhanced fuel production in thorium fusion hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitulski, R.H.; Chapin, D.L.; Klevans, E.

    1979-01-01

    The multiplication of 14 MeV D-T fusion neutrons via (n,2n), (n,3n), and fission reactions by 238 U is well known and established. This study consistently evaluates the effectiveness of a depleted (tails) UO 2 multiplier on increasing the production of 233 U and tritium in a thorium/lithium fusion--fission hybrid blanket. Nuclear performance is evaluated as a function of exposure and zone thickness

  2. The Contribution of Fusion to Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.

    2006-01-01

    The world demand for energy is projected to more than double over the next 50 years, indeed this will be essential to bring much of the world out of poverty. At the same time there is increasing pressure to substantially reduce atmospheric pollution, most notably of carbon dioxide. Together, these conflicting goals drive a need to produce enormous amounts of non-carbon energy supply, much greater than our total present energy supply. This presents an enormous challenge. As one of very few options for large-scale, non-carbon future supply of energy, fusion has the potential to make an important contribution to sustained energy supplies. Fusion's advantages of large fuel reserves, low atmospheric emissions and high levels of safety make it an important consideration in future energy strategies. - Fuel supplies are sufficient for at least thousands of years, and probably up to millions of years, of energy use. - Atmospheric emissions of CO 2 are very low and minor emissions of other pollutants are less harmful than those from most existing energy sources. - Hazards to the public will be very low because of the high levels of passive safety. - Waste materials will require little, or no, use of repository storage. Conceptual designs of fusion power plants have been optimised against safety and environmental criteria. The optimum designs vary both with the assessed progress in the development programme and according to the weight given to different criteria. The impact of this weighting on design, and the comparison of the outcomes with other energy sources, is described. To make a contribution to sustainable development, fusion must also be economically viable to enter the energy market. The calculated cost of electricity from fusion and other technologies, both new and existing, show that, particularly in an energy market where environmental constraints are playing an increasing role, fusion can make an important contribution. (author)

  3. Some safety studies for conceptual fusion--fission hybrid reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this study was to make a preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon reference to one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The blanket is a fast-spectrum, uranium carbide, helium cooled, subcritical reactor, optimized for the production of fissile fuel. An attempt was made to generalize the results wherever possible

  4. Development of a Portable Fusion Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung-Hoon; In, Sang-Ryul; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Chang, Dae-Sik; Jang, Doh-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For this purpose commercial ones, fast neutron yield from 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 11}, are supplied by several companies and research groups around the world. But internally the following limits make it difficult to develop the related application systems by domestic companies and/or research groups. - Limited life time - High price - Frequent trouble Not only to remove these limits but also to find out new internal application fields, it is necessary to develop our own domestic neutron generators. With the related technologies earned during fusion related researches, we did start to develop movable neutron generators from small one to big one, which could cover different fusion neutron yields. In this presentation the design and initial experimental results on the developed small neutron generator with a final target of 10{sup 8} n/s of 14 MeV neutrons, will be summarized.

  5. Technology-development needs for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Steiner, D.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1983-03-01

    The technology-development needs for magnetic fusion have been identified from an assessment of the conceptual design studies which have been performed. A summary of worldwide conceptual design effort is presented. The relative maturity of the various confinement concepts and the intensity and continuity of the design efforts are taken into account in identifying technology development needs. A major conclusion of this study is that there is a high degree of commonality among the technology requirements identified for the various confinement concepts

  6. Steady state technologies for tokamak based fusion neutron sources and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Kuteev, B.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The development of demonstration fusion neutron sources for fusion nuclear science activity and hybrid applications has reached the stage of conceptual design on the basis of tokamak device in Russia. The conceptual design of FNS-ST has been completed in details (plasma current 1.5 MA, magnetic field 1.5 T, major radius 0.5 m, aspect ratio 1.67 and auxiliary heating power up to 15 MW) [1, 2]. A comparison of physical plasma parameters and economics for FNS-ST and a conventional tokamak FNS-CT (plasma current 1.5 MA, magnetic field 6.7 T, major radius 2.25 m, aspect ratio 3 and auxiliary heating power up to 30 MW) has been fulfilled [3]. This study suggested the feasibility to reach 1-20 MW of fusion power using these magnetic configuration options. Nevertheless, the efficiency of neutron production Q remains comparable for both due to the beam fusion input. The total ST-economics for the full project including operation and utilization costs is by a factor of 2 better than of CT. Zero [4] and one-dimensional [5] models have been developed and used in this system analysis. The characteristics of plasma confinement, stability and current drive in operation have been confirmed by numerous benchmarking simulations of modern experiments. Scenarios allowing us to reach and maintain steady state operation have been considered and optimized. The results of these studies will be presented. Prospective technical solutions for SSO-technology systems have been evaluated, and the choice of enabling technologies and materials of the basic FNS options has been made. A conceptual design of a thin-wall water cooled vacuum chamber for heat loadings up to 1.5 MW/m 2 has been fulfilled. The chamber consists of 2 mm Be tiles, pre-shaped CuCrZr 1 mm shell and 1 mm of stainless steel shell as a structural material. A concept of double-null divertor for FNS-ST has been offered that is capable to withstand heat fluxes up to 6 MW/m 2 . Lithium dust

  7. Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruda, Harald

    2001-01-01

    .... We have designed a Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System (WEADS) that will allow distributed development and execution of AIR and fusion algorithms using currently available infrastructures...

  8. Comparison of Data Fusion Methods Using Crowdsourced Data in Creating a Hybrid Forest Cover Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lesiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion represents a powerful way of integrating individual sources of information to produce a better output than could be achieved by any of the individual sources on their own. This paper focuses on the data fusion of different land cover products derived from remote sensing. In the past, many different methods have been applied, without regard to their relative merit. In this study, we compared some of the most commonly-used methods to develop a hybrid forest cover map by combining available land cover/forest products and crowdsourced data on forest cover obtained through the Geo-Wiki project. The methods include: nearest neighbour, naive Bayes, logistic regression and geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR, as well as classification and regression trees (CART. We ran the comparison experiments using two data types: presence/absence of forest in a grid cell; percentage of forest cover in a grid cell. In general, there was little difference between the methods. However, GWR was found to perform better than the other tested methods in areas with high disagreement between the inputs.

  9. Hybrid indirect-drive/direct-drive target for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Lindsay John

    2018-02-27

    A hybrid indirect-drive/direct drive for inertial confinement fusion utilizing laser beams from a first direction and laser beams from a second direction including a central fusion fuel component; a first portion of a shell surrounding said central fusion fuel component, said first portion of a shell having a first thickness; a second portion of a shell surrounding said fusion fuel component, said second portion of a shell having a second thickness that is greater than said thickness of said first portion of a shell; and a hohlraum containing at least a portion of said fusion fuel component and at least a portion of said first portion of a shell; wherein said hohlraum is in a position relative to said first laser beam and to receive said first laser beam and produce X-rays that are directed to said first portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component; and wherein said fusion fuel component and said second portion of a shell are in a position relative to said second laser beam such that said second portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component receive said second laser beam.

  10. Critical masses of miniexplosion in fission-fusion hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliski, S [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki

    1976-01-01

    The critical mass of the fissionable material subjected to the explosive compression and the action of the neutron stream originating from the process of D-T fusion in the spherical cavity was estimated. High energy recovery from the fissionable material was obtained and the energy of the laser pulse was minimized.

  11. Recent progress in fusion gyrotron development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shively, J.F.; Stone, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The gyrotron, a microwave tube capable of producing high power output at millimeter wavelengths, has recently found applications for electron cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor experiments. This paper describes work in progress to develop a gyrotron oscillator to deliver 200 kW CW at 60 GHz (/lambda/sub //. 5 mm). A pulsed oscillator is described which produced over 200 kw peak power. A CW oscillator is under construction. The latest experimental results are presented

  12. Nuclear fusion: technology development and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana, G.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.; Spiridon, I.; Vijulie, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for reducing the enhanced greenhouse effect, affecting our planet and the increasing energy demand caused by global growth of population, as well, is, certainly, that of adopting, all the three long-term carbon-free options for energy: renewable sources, fission and fusion reactions. All of them should be further explored and developed for the welfare of future generations, thus leaving them the option of a clean and green energy. From all those available options, the fusion is viewed as an energy source that would be effective in solving future demands, referring to the amount of the energy that can be produced taking into account spent fuel to obtain it. The slow (but steady) progress of fusion development linked with the need for large and expensive experimental devices is remarkable; all available technical and scientific information from experiment shows that progress is being made towards a successful reactor (ITER). The desired objective of this intensive research is obtaining of an industrial reactor able to cover energy future requirements. For the construction of this desired reactor, special designs systems are required. The TRF (TRITIUM RECOVERY FACILITY) is one of the installations that have a major importance maintaining an efficient fuel cycle of the reactor in proper function stage. A test model of TRF for implementation in reactor systems, proposed and developed at ICIT Ramnicu Valcea is presented. (authors)

  13. European structural materials development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, B. van der E-mail: vanderschaaf@nrg-nl.com; Ehrlich, K.; Fenici, P.; Tavassoli, A.A.; Victoria, M

    2000-09-01

    Leading long term considerations for choices in the European Long Term Technology programme are the high temperature mechanical- and compatibility properties of structural materials under neutron irradiation. The degrees of fabrication process freedom are closely investigated to allow the construction of complex shapes. Another important consideration is the activation behaviour of the structural material. The ideal solution is the recycling of the structural materials after a relatively short 'cooling' period. The structural materials development in Europe has three streams. The first serves the design and construction of ITER and is closely connected to the choice made: water cooled austenitic stainless steel. The second development stream is to support the design and construction of DEMO relevant blanket modules to be tested in ITER. The helium cooled pebble bed and the water cooled liquid lithium concept rely both on RAFM steel. The goal of the third stream is to investigate the potential of advanced materials for fusion power reactors beyond DEMO. The major contending materials: SiCSiC composites, vanadium, titanium and chromium alloys hold the promise of high operating temperatures, but RAFM has also a high temperature potential applying oxide dispersion strengthening. The development of materials for fusion power application requires a high flux 14 MeV neutron source to simulate the fusion power environment.

  14. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10 9 over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power

  16. Progress of research and development of nuclear fusion and development of large nuclear fusion device technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the last several years, the results of tokamak experiments were conspicuous, and the progress of plasma confinement performance, transport mechanism, divertors and impurities, helium transport and exhaust, electric current drive, magnetic field ripple effect and high speed particle transport and DT experiment are reported. The other confinement methods than tokamak, the related theories and reactor technology are described. The conceptual design of ITER was carried out by the cooperation of Japan, USA, EC and the former USSR. The projects of developing nuclear fusion in various countries, the design and the required research and development of ITER, the reconstruction and the required research and development of JT-60, JET and TFTR, the design and the required research and development of large helical device, the state of research and development of laser nuclear fusion and inversion magnetic field pinch nuclear fusion, the activities and roles of industrial circles in large nuclear fusion device technology, and the long term perspective of the technical development of nuclear fusion are described. (K.I.)

  17. XEUS: Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s for Fission Fusion Hybrid Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Jeong, Wi S.; Son, Hyung M.

    2008-01-01

    World energy outlook requires environmental friendliness, sustain ability and improved economic feasibility. The Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s (XEUS) is being developed at the Seoul National University (SNU) to satisfy these demands. Generation IV (Gen IV) and fusion reactors are considered as candidates for the primary system. Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor which is one of the Gen IV concepts. Fusion Engineering Lifetime Integral Explorer (FELIX) is a fusion demonstration reactor for power generation. These two concepts are considered as dominant options for future nuclear energy source from the environmental, commercial and nonproliferation points of view. XEUS may as well be applied to the fusion-fission hybrid system. The system code is being developed to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the primary system. Compact and high efficiency heat exchangers are designed in the Loop Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS). Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) incorporates a Brayton cycle with supercritical fluid to achieve high power conversion ratio. The high volumetric energy density of the Brayton cycle enables designers to reduce the size and eventually the cost of the system when compared with that of the Rankine cycle. MOBIS is home to heat exchangers and turbo machineries. The advanced shell-and-tube or printed circuit heat exchanger is considered as heat transfer components to reduce size of the system. The supercritical fluid driven turbines and compressor are designed to achieve higher component efficiency. Thermo hydrodynamic characteristics of each component in MOBIS are demonstrated utilizing computational fluid dynamics software CFX R . Another key contributor to the reduction of capital costs per unit energy has to do with manufacturing and assembly processes that streamline plant construction by minimizing construction work and time. In a three

  18. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility

  19. Development Plan and R&D Status of China Lead-based Reactors (CLEAR) for ADS, LFR and Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yican

    2013-01-01

    China has launched the ADS engineering construction project in 2011. The engineering design and related R&D activities are going on in order to finish the construction of the first system around 2017. China has a strong program to support the development of fusion and hybrid concepts and R&D activities in order to initiate the construction of fusion test reactor in the near future. CLEAR may play an important bridge role in the transition period from fission energy to fusion energy, such as to support: • Nuclear waste transmutation, fuel breeding, energy production, for promoting fission industry. • Technology sharing, pre-test platform, tritium supply, for promoting fusion development

  20. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an RF linac/storage ring combination as an intertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL

  1. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs

  2. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  3. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  4. First wall studies of a laser-fusion hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-09-01

    The design of a first wall for a 20 MW thermonuclear power laser fusion hybrid reactor is presented. The 20 mm thick graphite first wall is located 3.5 m from the DT microexplosion with a thermonuclear yield of 10 MJ. Estimates of the energy deposition, temperature, stresses, and material vaporized from the first wall due to the interaction of the x-rays, charged particle debris, and reflected laser light with the graphite are presented, along with a brief description of the analytical methods used for these estimations. Graphite is a viable first wall material for inertially-confined fusion reactors, with lifetimes of a year possible

  5. Design study of a fusion-driven tokamak hybrid reactor for fissile fuel production. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1979-05-01

    This study evaluated conceptual approaches for a tokamak fusion-driven fuel producing reactor. The conceptual design of this hybrid reactor was based on using projected state-of-the-art technology for the late 1980s. This reactor would be a demonstration plant and, therefore, first-of-a-kind considerations have been included. The conceptual definitions of two alternatives for the fusion driver were evaluated. A Two-Component Tokamak (TCT) concept, based on the TFTR plasma physics parameters, was compared to a Beam-Driven Thermonuclear (BDTN) concept, based on the USSR T-20 plasma physics parameters

  6. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  7. Development of technology for medical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Amano, Daizou

    2012-01-01

    With entry into a field of medical diagnosis in mind, we have developed positron emission tomography (PET) ''MIP-100'' system, of which spatial resolution is far higher than the conventional one, using semiconductor detectors for preclinical imaging for small animals. In response to the recently increasing market demand to fuse functional images by PET and anatomical ones by CT or MRI, we have been developing software to implement image fusion function that enhances marketability of the PET Camera. This paper describes the method of fusing with high accuracy the PET images and anatomical ones by CT system. It also explains that a computer simulation proved the image overlay accuracy to be ±0.3 mm as a result of the development, and that effectiveness of the developed software is confirmed in case of experiment to obtain measured data. Achieving such high accuracy as ±0.3 mm by the software allows us to present fusion images with high resolution (<0.6 mm) without degrading the spatial resolution (<0.5 mm) of the PET system using semiconductor detectors. (author)

  8. Study of DD versus DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission hybrid energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce fissile fuel for fission reactors. DD and DT fusion reactors were examined in this study with either a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion reactor. Various fuel cycles were examined for light-water reactors including the denatured fuel cycles (which may offer proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles); these fuel cycles include a uranium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a thorium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a denatured uranium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup, and a denatured thorium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup. Four different blankets were considered for this study. The first two blankets have a tritium breeding capability for DT reactors. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O) was used for tritium breeding due to its high lithium density and high temperature capability; however, the use of Li 2 O may result in higher tritium inventories compared to other solid breeders

  9. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  10. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Guo Haiping; Mou Yunfeng; Zheng Pu; Liu Rong; Yang Xiaofei; Yang Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established. It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium. The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D + beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode. The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α, β) thermal scattering model, so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. (authors)

  11. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  12. A hybrid model for coupling kinetic corrections of fusion reactivity to hydrodynamic implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires an imploded target in which a central hot spot is surrounded by a cold and dense pusher. The hot spot/pusher interface can take complicated shape in three dimensions due to hydrodynamic mix. It is also a transition region where the Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect can significantly modify the fusion reactivity in comparison with the commonly used value evaluated with background Maxwellians. Here, we describe a hybrid model that couples the kinetic correction of fusion reactivity to global hydrodynamic implosion simulations. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions in the interface region where the Gamow ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. The accuracy of the coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space.

  13. Hybrid intelligent control concepts for optimal data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, James

    1994-02-01

    In the post-Cold War era, Naval surface ship operations will be largely conducted in littoral waters to support regional military missions of all types, including humanitarian and evacuation activities, and amphibious mission execution. Under these conditions, surface ships will be much more isolated and vulnerable to a variety of threats, including maneuvering antiship missiles. To deal with these threats, the optimal employment of multiple shipborne sensors for maximum vigilance is paramount. This paper characterizes the sensor management problem as one of intelligent control, identifies some of the key issues in controller design, and presents one approach to controller design which is soon to be implemented and evaluated. It is argued that the complexity and hierarchical nature of problem formulation demands a hybrid combination of knowledge-based methods and scheduling techniques from 'hard' real-time systems theory for its solution.

  14. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  15. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

    2015-01-01

    Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

  16. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  17. Fusion technology development: role of fusion facility upgrades and fission test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The near term national fusion program is unlikely to follow the aggressive logic of the Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. Faced with level budgets, a large, new fusion facility with an engineering thrust is unlikely in the near future. Within the fusion community the idea of upgrading the existing machines (TFTR, MFTF-B) is being considered to partially mitigate the lack of a design data base to ready the nation to launch an aggressive, mission-oriented fusion program with the goal of power production. This paper examines the cost/benefit issues of using fusion upgrades to develop the technology data base which will be required to support the design and construction of the next generation of fusion machines. The extent of usefulness of the nation's fission test reactors will be examined vis-a-vis the mission of the fusion upgrades. The authors show that while fission neutrons will provide a useful test environment in terms of bulk heating and tritium breeding on a submodule scale, they can play only a supporting role in designing the integrated whole modules and systems to be used in a nuclear fusion machine

  18. Fusion technology development: role of fusion facility upgrades and fission test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R.; Schmunk, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The near term national fusion program is unlikely to follow the aggressive logic of the Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. Faced with level budgets, a large, new fusion facility with an engineering thrust is unlikely in the near future. Within the fusion community the idea of upgrading the existing machines (TFTR, MFTF-B) is being considered to partially mitigate the lack of a design data base to ready the nation to launch an aggressive, mission-oriented fusion program with the goal of power production. This paper examines the cost/benefit issues of using fusion upgrades to develop the technology data base which will be required to support the design and construction of the next generation of fusion machines. The extent of usefulness of the nation's fission test reactors will be examined vis-a-vis the mission of the fusion upgrades. We will show that while fission neutrons will provide a useful test environment in terms of bulk heating and tritium breeding on a submodule scale, they can play only a supporting role in designing the integrated whole modules and systems to be used in a nuclear fusion machine

  19. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  20. Investigation of lanthanides as neutron multipliers for hybrid and fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Sumer

    1982-01-01

    The neutronic performance of three lanthanides ( 149 Sm, europium, and gadolinium) as neutron multiplier for the blanket of a fusion-fission (hybrid) and a pure fusion reactor has been evaluated and compared with that of beryllium and lead. During the calculations, the fission zone is made up of UO 2 rods from the LOTUS experimental hybrid facility now under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. In fusion blanket the fuel zone is replaced by pure lithium. The calculations were performed for two different boundary conditions for the left boundary: (a) reflecting, representative of a typical confinement geometry, and (b) vacuum, which represents a typical blanket experiment in plane geometry. For a vacuum left boundary, threshold reactions are reduced by a factor of about 2 while 1/v-type reactions are decreased by a factor of between 5 and 10, as a consequence of the softer spectrum produced by a reflecting left boundary. In general, the results, notably tritium breeding and energy multiplication, are comparable for the lanthanide multipliers and for beryllium and lead if the left boundary is a vacuum. The use of 149 Sm is slightly less effective than europium or gadolinium and all of the lanthanides perform better for a vacuum left boundary than for the reflecting case. The analyses presented here also illustrate the importance of potential spectral shifts that can occur as the result of experimental exigencies

  1. Use of the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method for discrete-ordinates fusion reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, M.E.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Thayer, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the discrete-ordinates method for solving two-dimensional, neutral-particle transport in fusion reactor blankets and shields is often limited by inherent inaccuracies due to the ray-effect. This effect presents a particular problem in the case of neutron streaming in the large internal void regions of a fusion reactor. A deterministic streaming technique called the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method (SMHM) has been incorporated in the two-dimensional discrete-ordinates code TRIDENT-CTR. Calculations have been performed for an actual inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design using TRIDENT-CTR both with and without the SMHM. Comparisons of the calculated fluxes indicate that substantial mitigation of the ray effect can be achieved with the SMHM. Calculations were performed for the Los Alamos FIRST STEP hybrid ICF reactor designed for tritium production. Conventional 238 U fuel rod assemblies surround the spherical steel target chamber to form an annular cylindrical blanket. An axial fuel region is included to complete the blanket

  2. Graphs of neutron cross section data for fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shigeya

    1979-03-01

    Graphs of neutron cross section data relevant to fusion reactor development are presented. Nuclides and reaction types in the present compilation are based on a WRENDA request list from Japan for fusion reactor development. The compilation contains various partial cross sections for 55 nuclides from 6 Li to 237 Np in the energy range up to 20 MeV. (author)

  3. Advanced laser fusion target fabrication research and development proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars

  4. A schedule for fusion research development and international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, H.

    1983-01-01

    In order to reach their goal of commercial fusion power reactors, development must proceed in a series of basic stages. Each step is expected to incur an increased level of cost. The cost-sharing benefits of international collaboration will become increasingly important and attractive with each successive step preceding commercialization. Outstanding examples of implementation of international collaboration in fusion include the JET project and the INTOR workshop which lend encouragement for the prospects for international collaboration in fusion in the future. (author)

  5. Present status of nuclear fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions are included on the following topics: (1) plasma confinement theoretical research, (2) torus plasma research, (3) plasma measurement research, (4) technical development of equipment, (5) plasma heating, (6) vacuum wall surface phenomena, (7) critical plasma test equipment design, (8) noncircular cross-sectional torus test equipment design, (9) nuclear fusion reactor design, (10) nuclear fusion reactor engineering, (11) summary of nuclear fusion research in foreign countries, and (12) long range plan in Japan

  6. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  7. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  8. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R. [Department of Physics, Università di Torino (Italy); Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J. [CEA/DSM/IRFM F-13 108 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2014-02-12

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  9. The Role of Combined ICRF and NBI Heating in JET Hybrid Plasmas in Quest for High D-T Fusion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantsinen Mervi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined ICRF and NBI heating played a key role in achieving the world-record fusion yield in the first deuterium-tritium campaign at the JET tokamak in 1997. The current plans for JET include new experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T plasmas with more ITER-like conditions given the recently installed ITER-like wall (ILW. In the 2015-2016 campaigns, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of high-performance plasma scenarios compatible with ILW in preparation of the forthcoming D-T campaign. Good progress was made in both the inductive (baseline and the hybrid scenario: a new record JET ILW fusion yield with a significantly extended duration of the high-performance phase was achieved. This paper reports on the progress with the hybrid scenario which is a candidate for ITER longpulse operation (∼1000 s thanks to its improved normalized confinement, reduced plasma current and higher plasma beta with respect to the ITER reference baseline scenario. The combined NBI+ICRF power in the hybrid scenario was increased to 33 MW and the record fusion yield, averaged over 100 ms, to 2.9x1016 neutrons/s from the 2014 ILW fusion record of 2.3x1016 neutrons/s. Impurity control with ICRF waves was one of the key means for extending the duration of the high-performance phase. The main results are reviewed covering both key core and edge plasma issues.

  10. Preliminary design and analysis on nuclear fuel cycle for fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Wang Minghuang; Jiang Jieqiong

    2012-01-01

    A wet-processing-based fuel cycle and a dry-processing were designed for a fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner (FDS-SFB). Mass flow of SFB was preliminarily analyzed. The feasibility analysis of initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing were preliminarily evaluated. The results of mass flow of FDS-SFB demonstrated that the initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing of nuclear fuel cycle of FDS-SFB is preliminarily feasible. (authors)

  11. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  12. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Wilson, Paul P.; Sawan, Mohamed E.; Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer

  13. Trends and developments in magnetic confinement fusion reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of recent design trends and developments in reactor concepts for magnetic confinement fusion. The paper emphasizes the engineering and technology considerations of commercial fusion reactor concepts. Emphasis is placed on reactors that operate on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. Recent developments in tokamak, mirror, and Elmo Bumpy Torus reactor concepts are described, as well as a survey of recent developments on a wide variety of alternate magnetic fusion reactor concepts. The paper emphasizes recent developments of these concepts within the last two to three years

  14. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, Sunao

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 μP is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 μsec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10 -6 Pam 3 /sm 2 at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm -2 (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10 -5 Pam 3 /sm 2 which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  15. Biomechanics of Hybrid Anterior Cervical Fusion and Artificial Disc Replacement in 3-Level Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal surgical approach for cervical disk disease remains controversial, especially for multilevel cervical disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the cervical spine after 3-level hybrid surgery compared with 3-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated under displacement-input protocol. After intact testing, a simulated hybrid construct or fusion construct was created between C3 to C6 and tested in the following 3 conditions: 3-level disc plate disc (3DPD), 3-level plate disc plate (3PDP), and 3-level plate (3P). Results Compared to intact, almost 65~80% of motion was successfully restricted at C3-C6 fusion levels (p0.05). 3PDP construct resulted in significant decrease of ROM at C3-C6 levels less than 3P (pbiomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing motion. PMID:26529430

  16. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  17. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne Conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the energy oriented program. In addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any ''emerging'' energy technology. (orig.) [de

  18. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  19. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-01-01

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R ampersand D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work

  20. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  1. Conceptual design of a hybrid fusion-fission reactor with intrinsic safety and optimized energy productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Hosein; Sadat Kiai, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Designing a high yield and feasible Dense Plasma Focus for driving the reactor. • Presenting a structural method to design the dual layer cylindrical blankets. • Finding, the blanket production energy, in terms of its geometrical and material parameters. • Designing a subcritical blanket with optimization of energy amplification in detail. - Abstract: A hybrid fission-fusion reactor with a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) as a fusion core and the dual layer fissionable blanket as the energy multiplier were conceptually designed. A cylindrical DPF, energized by a 200 kJ bank energy, is considered to produce fusion neutron, and these neutrons drive the subcritical fission in the surrounding blankets. The emphasis has been placed on the safety and energy production with considering technical and economical limitations. Therefore, the k eff-t of the dual cylindrical blanket was defined and mathematically, specified. By applying the safety criterion (k eff-t ≤ 0.95), the geometrical and material parameters of the blanket optimizing the energy amplification were obtained. Finally, MCNPX code has been used to determine the detailed dimensions of the blankets and fuel rods.

  2. Status of fusion reactor concept development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Iio, Shunji

    1996-01-01

    Fusion power reactor studies in Japan based on magnetic confinement schemes are reviewed. As D-T fusion reactors, a steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) was proposed and extensively studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and an inductively operated day-long tokamak reactor (IDLT) was proposed by a group at the University of Tokyo. The concept of a drastically easy maintenance (DREAM) tokamak reactor is being developed at JAERI. A high-field tokamak reactor with force-balanced coils as a volumetric neutron source is being studied by our group at Tokyo Institute of Technology. The conceptual design of a force-free helical reactor (FFHR) is under way at the National Institute for Fusion Science. A design study of a D- 3 He field-reversed configuration (FRC) fusion reactor called ARTEMIS was conducted by the FRC fusion working group of research committee of lunar base an lunar resources. (author)

  3. The U.S. program for fusion nuclear technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.; Haas, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) research and development program in the United States is shaped by a hierarchy of documents and by the environment for nuclear energy existing in the United States. The fission nuclear industry in the United States has suffered problems with public perception of safety, waste disposal issues, and economics as influenced by safety and environmental issues. For fusion to be a viable energy alternative, it must offer significant improvements in these areas. The hierarchy of documents defining objectives, plans, and strategy of the U.S. FNT program consists of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan (MFPP) (February 1985), the Technical Planning Activity Final Report (January 1987), the Finesse Program Report (January 1987), and the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study Final Report (September 1984). In addition, two other documents are also significant in shaping FNT policy. These are the IEA report on Material for Fusion (December 1986) and the Summary of the Report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (September 1987). The U.S. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan defines four key technical issues (magnetic confinement systems, properties of burning plasmas, fusion nuclear technology, and fusion materials). (orig./KP)

  4. Spin-off produced by the fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Konishi, T.; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear fusion devices are constructed by the integration of many frontier technologies and fusion science based on a wide area of science such as physics, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, material engineering, heat transfer and heat flow, thermal engineering, neutronics, cryogenics, chemical engineering, control engineering, instrumentation engineering, vacuum engineering. For this, the research and development of elementary technology for fusion devices contributes to advance the technology level of each basic field. In addition, the mutual stimulus among various research fields contributes to increase the potential level of whole 'science and technology'. The spin-offs produced by the fusion technology development give much contribution not only to the general industrial technologies such as semiconductor technology, precision machining of large component, but also contribute to the progress of the accelerator technology, application technology of superconductivity, instrumentation and diagnostics, plasma application technology, heat-resistant and heavy radiation-resistant material technology, vacuum technology, and computer simulation technology. The spin-off produced by the fusion technology development expedite the development of frontier technology of other field and give much contribution to the progress of basic science on physics, space science, material science, medical science, communication, and environment. This report describes the current status of the spin-off effects of fusion research and development by focusing on the contribution of technology development for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to industrial technology. The possibilities of future application in the future are also included in this report from the view point of researchers working for nuclear fusion development. Although the nuclear fusion research has a characteristic to integrate the frontier technologies of

  5. Plan for the development and commercialization of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willke, T.; Dingee, D.; Ault, L.; Bampton, M.; Bickford, W.; Hartman, J.; Rockwood, A.; Simonen, E.; Teofilo, V.; Frank, T.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering development program strategy to take inertial confinement fusion (ICF) from the milestone of scientific feasibility to a point where its commercial viability can be determined is described. The ICF program objectives and basic program strategy are discussed

  6. A hybrid image fusion system for endovascular interventions of peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalys, Florent; Favre, Ketty; Villena, Alexandre; Durrmann, Vincent; Colleaux, Mathieu; Lucas, Antoine; Kaladji, Adrien

    2018-03-16

    Interventional endovascular treatment has become the first line of management in the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, contrast and radiation exposure continue to limit the feasibility of these procedures. This paper presents a novel hybrid image fusion system for endovascular intervention of PAD. We present two different roadmapping methods from intra- and pre-interventional imaging that can be used either simultaneously or independently, constituting the navigation system. The navigation system is decomposed into several steps that can be entirely integrated within the procedure workflow without modifying it to benefit from the roadmapping. First, a 2D panorama of the entire peripheral artery system is automatically created based on a sequence of stepping fluoroscopic images acquired during the intra-interventional diagnosis phase. During the interventional phase, the live image can be synchronized on the panorama to form the basis of the image fusion system. Two types of augmented information are then integrated. First, an angiography panorama is proposed to avoid contrast media re-injection. Information exploiting the pre-interventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) is also brought to the surgeon by means of semiautomatic 3D/2D registration on the 2D panorama. Each step of the workflow was independently validated. Experiments for both the 2D panorama creation and the synchronization processes showed very accurate results (errors of 1.24 and [Formula: see text] mm, respectively), similarly to the registration on the 3D CTA (errors of [Formula: see text] mm), with minimal user interaction and very low computation time. First results of an on-going clinical study highlighted its major clinical added value on intraoperative parameters. No image fusion system has been proposed yet for endovascular procedures of PAD in lower extremities. More globally, such a navigation system, combining image fusion from different 2D and 3D image

  7. The neutronics studies of a fusion fission hybrid reactor using pressure tube blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Youqi; Zu Tiejun; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Yang Chao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fusion fission hybrid reactor used for energy producing is proposed based on the situation of nuclear power in China. The pressurized light water is applied as the coolant. The fuel assemblies are loaded in the pressure tubes with a modular type structure. The neutronics analysis is performed to get the suitable design and prove the feasibility. The energy multiplication and tritium self-sustaining are evaluated. The neutron load is also cared. From different candidates, the PWR spent fuel is selected as the feed fuel. The results show that the hybrid reactor can meet the expected reactor core lifetime of 5 years with 1000 MWe power output. Two ways are discussed including burning the discharged PWR spent fuel and burning the reprocessed plutonium. The energy multiplication is big enough and the tritium can be self-sustaining for both of the two ways. The neutron wall load in the operating time is kept smaller than the one of ITER. The way to use the reprocessed plutonium brings low neutron wall load, but also brings additional difficulties in operating the hybrid reactor. The way to use the discharged spent fuel is proposed to be a better choice currently.

  8. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report on the Department of Energy's Magnetic Fusion Program was requested by the Secretary of Energy. The Panel finds that substantial progress has been made in the three years since the previous ERAB review, although budget constraints have precluded the engineering initiatives recommended in that review and authorized in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 (the Act). Recognizing that the goals of the Act cannot now be met, the Panel recommends that the engineering phase be further postponed in favor of a strong base program in physics and technology, including immediate commitment to a major new tokamak-based device for the investigation of an ignited long-pulse plasma designated in this report as the Burning Core Experiment or BCX. Resources to design such a device could be obtained from within the existing program by redirecting work toward to BCX. At this time it is not possible to assess accurately the potential economic viability of fusion power in the future. The Panel strongly recommends expansion of international collaboration, particularly the joint construction and operation of major new unique facilities, such as the proposed BCX

  10. Overview of robotics and teleoperators in developing fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the maintenance considerations for next-generation fusion reactors. It draws upon the work done at the Fusion Engineering Design Center over the past several years as well as the work of others in the United States and abroad. It specifically addresses the maintenance philosophy adopted for these devices, configuration design using modular components, maintenance operations, and equipment. In addition, the status of fusion development in the United States, Europe, and Japan is reviewed. 14 refs., 10 figs

  11. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.E.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the TBR to group structure and weighting spectrum increases and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ blankets

  12. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li 17 Pb 83 and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the tritium breeding ratio to group structure and weighting spectrum increases as the thickness and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li 17 Pb 83 blankets. (author)

  13. Hybrid iterative phase retrieval algorithm based on fusion of intensity information in three defocused planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fa; Tan, Qiaofeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2007-10-01

    Study of phase retrieval technology is quite meaningful, for its wide applications related to many domains, such as adaptive optics, detection of laser quality, precise measurement of optical surface, and so on. Here a hybrid iterative phase retrieval algorithm is proposed, based on fusion of the intensity information in three defocused planes. First the conjugate gradient algorithm is adapted to achieve a coarse solution of phase distribution in the input plane; then the iterative angular spectrum method is applied in succession for better retrieval result. This algorithm is still applicable even when the exact shape and size of the aperture in the input plane are unknown. Moreover, this algorithm always exhibits good convergence, i.e., the retrieved results are insensitive to the chosen positions of the three defocused planes and the initial guess of complex amplitude in the input plane, which has been proved by both simulations and further experiments.

  14. Large-Scale, Multi-Sensor Atmospheric Data Fusion Using Hybrid Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, MODIS, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over decades. Moving to multi-sensor, long-duration presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over 10 years of data. HySDS is a Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System that has been developed and applied under NASA AIST, MEaSUREs, and ACCESS grants. HySDS uses the SciFlow workflow engine to partition analysis workflows into parallel tasks (e.g. segmenting by time or space) that are pushed into a durable job queue. The tasks are "pulled" from the queue by worker Virtual Machines (VM's) and executed in an on-premise Cloud (Eucalyptus or OpenStack) or at Amazon in the public Cloud or govCloud. In this way, years of data (millions of files) can be processed in a massively parallel way. Input variables (arrays) are pulled on-demand into the Cloud using OPeNDAP URLs or other subsetting services, thereby minimizing the size of the transferred data. We are using HySDS to automate the production of multiple versions of a ten-year A-Train water vapor climatology under a MEASURES grant. We will present the architecture of HySDS, describe the achieved "clock time" speedups in fusing datasets on our own nodes and in the Amazon Cloud, and discuss the Cloud cost tradeoffs for storage, compute, and data transfer. Our system demonstrates how one can pull A-Train variables (Levels 2 & 3) on-demand into the Amazon Cloud, and cache only those variables that are heavily used, so that any number of compute jobs can be

  15. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  16. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  17. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  18. Status and strategy of fusion materials development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Q.Y.; Wu, Y.C.; Li, J.G.; Wan, F.R.; Chen, J.L.; Luo, G.N.; Liu, X.; Chen, J.M.; Xu, Z.Y.; Zhou, X.G.; Ju, X.; Shan, Y.Y.; Yu, J.N.; Zhu, S.Y.; Zhang, P.Y.; Yang, J.F.; Chen, X.J.; Dong, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The liquid metal and solid ceramic pebble breeder blankets have become the most promising blankets for ITER-TBMs or DEMO reactors in China and the world due to their potential advantages. In recent years the corresponding research work on fusion reactor materials mainly focuses on structural materials, plasma facing materials and the functional materials for the blanket such as breeder, coating and flow channel insert etc. for the successful application of fusion energy in the near future. The R and D on those materials in the two kinds of blankets is being carried out widely in China, including fabrication and manufacturing techniques, physical/mechanical properties assessment before and after irradiation, joining techniques for structural materials, compatibility evaluation, and the development and verification of the criteria for fusion material designs. The progress on main R and D activities of fusion reactor materials in China is introduced and prospected in the paper.

  19. Neutronic performance of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor designed for fuel enrichment for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapici, H.; Baltacioglu, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the breeding performance of a fission hybrid reactor was analyzed to provide fissile fuel for Light Water Reactors (LWR) as an alternative to the current methods of gas diffusion and gas centrifuge. LWR fuel rods containing UO 2 or ThO 2 fertile material were located in the fuel zone of the blanket and helium gas or Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) fluid was used as coolant. As a result of the analysis, according to fusion driver (D,T and D,D) and the type of coolant the enrichment of 3%-4% were achieved for operation periods of 12 and 36 months in case of fuel rods containing UO 2 , respectively and for operation periods of 18 and 48 months in case of fuel rods containing ThO 2 , respectively. Depending on the type of fusion driver, coolant and fertile fuel, varying enrichments of between 3% and 8.9% were achieved during operation period of four years

  20. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs

  1. Status and development plan of nuclear fusion research in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Weihong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the background of nuclear fusion research and current status of major devices with accomplishments in the US, as well as the national fusion plans and budgets for fusion energy development by the US government. As a fusion power in the world, the US has made significant contributions to the development of international fusion research. The strategy of fusion research developments and the accomplishments may exert a subtle influence on international fusion development situation. Withdrawing from the ITER partnership for 2 times, the US rejoined it subsequently. This paper gives a brief introduction of changes in the US fusion research policy, summarizes the implementation of ITER procurement packages undertaken by the US, and the overview of the US inertial confinement fusion re- search. The US future energy development plan is the development of magnetic confinement fusion approach in parallel with inertial confinement fusion approach. (author)

  2. Fusions and acquisitions, a strategy of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The fusions and acquisitions (F and A) activity stayed at a high level in 2001 in the overall oil, energy and environment activities, while it has strongly diminished in other sectors, like the telecommunications. The study carried out by L. Le Dortz and B. Debosscher from the French centre of external trade (CFCE) lists and comments more than 170 F and A operations, among which about 40 exceed 1 billion of US$ in terms of valorization. In a general way, the logics of concentration is confirmed in the petroleum industry, while the evolutions are more contrasted in the utilities (gas, electricity, water): decay of the operations performed by north American groups and keeping of the dynamism of F and As in Europe. This article briefly summarizes the content of this study. (J.S.)

  3. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10 13 cm -3 . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10 14 cm -3 . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs

  4. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  5. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  6. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  7. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  8. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  9. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  10. Fusion reactor development using high power particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines major applications of the ion source/accelerator to fusion research and also addresses the present status and future plans for accelerator development. Applications of ion sources/accelerators for fusion research are discussed first, focusing on plasma heating, plasma current drive, plasma current profile control, and plasma diagnostics. The present status and future plan of ion sources/accelerators development are then described focusing on the features of existing and future tokamak equipment. Positive-ion-based NBI systems of 100 keV class have contributed to obtaining high temperature plasmas whose parameters are close to the fusion break-even condition. For the next tokamak fusion devices, a MeV class high power neutral beam injector, which will be used to obtain a steady state burning plasma, is considered to become the primary heating and current drive system. Development of such a system is a key to realize nuclear fusion reactor. It will be entirely indebted to the development of a MeV class high current negative deuterium ion source/accelerator. (N.K.)

  11. Intelligible seminar on fusion reactors. (12) Next step toward the realization of fusion reactors. Future vision of fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tobita, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In the last session of this seminar the progress of research and development for the realization of fusion reactors and future vision of fusion energy research and development are summarized. The some problems to be solved when the commercial fusion reactors would be realized, (1) production of deuterium as the fuel, (2) why need the thermonuclear reactors, (3) environmental problems, and (4) ITER project, are described. (H. Mase)

  12. Synchronized fusion development considering physics, materials and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Liu, Y.; Duan, X. R.; Xu, M.; Li, Q.; Feng, K. M.; Zheng, G. Y.; Li, Z. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, B.; Zhang, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Significant achievements have been made in the last 60 years in the development of fusion energy with the tokamak configuration. Based on the accumulated knowledge, the world is embarking on the construction and operation of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) with a production of 500 MWf fusion power and the demonstration of physics Q  =  10. ITER will demonstrate D-T burn physics for a duration of a few hundred seconds to prepare for the next long-burn or steady state nuclear testing tokamak operating at much higher neutron fluence. With the evolution into a steady state nuclear device, such as the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), it is necessary to examine the boundary conditions imposed by the combined development of tokamak physics, fusion materials and fusion technology for a reactor. The development of ferritic steel alloys as the structural material suitable for use at high neutron fluence leads to the use of helium as the most likely reactor coolant. This points to the fundamental technology limitation on the removal of chamber wall maximum heat flux at around 1 MW m-2 and an average heat flux of 0.1 MW m-2 for the next test reactor. Future reactor performance will then depend on the control of spatial and temporal edge heat flux peaking in order to increase the average heat flux to the chamber wall. With these severe material and technological limitations, system studies were used to scope out a few robust steady state synchronized fusion reactor (SFR) designs. As an example, a low fusion power design at 131.6 MWf, which can satisfy steady state design requirements, would have a major radius of 5.5 m and minor radius of 1.6 m. Such a design with even more advanced structural materials like W f/W composite could allow higher performance and provide a net electrical production of 62 MWe. These can be incorporated into the CFETR program.

  13. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  14. Advanced burnup calculation code system in a subcritical state with continuous-energy Monte Carlo code for fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaka, Masayuki; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao

    2009-01-01

    The fusion-fission (FF) hybrid reactor is a promising energy source that is thought to act as a bridge between the existing fission reactor and the genuine fusion reactor in the future. The burnup calculation system that aims at precise burnup calculations of a subcritical system was developed for the detailed design of the FF hybrid reactor, and the system consists of MCNP, ORIGEN, and postprocess codes. In the present study, the calculation system was substantially modified to improve the calculation accuracy and at the same time the calculation speed as well. The reaction rate estimation can be carried out accurately with the present system that uses track-length (TL) data in the continuous-energy treatment. As for the speed-up of the reaction rate calculation, a new TL data bunching scheme was developed so that only necessary TL data are used as long as the accuracy of the point-wise nuclear data is conserved. With the present system, an example analysis result for our proposed FF hybrid reactor is described, showing that the computation time could really be saved with the same accuracy as before. (author)

  15. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Donne, M.D.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation

  16. Development of silicon carbide composites for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    The use of silicon carbide composites for structural materials is of growing interest in the fusion community. However, radiation effects in these materials are virtually unexplored, and the general state of ceramic matrix composites for nonnuclear applications is still in its infancy. Research into the radiation response of the most popular silicon carbide composite, namely, the chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC-carbon-Nicalon fiber system is discussed. Three areas of interest are the stability of the fiber and matrix materials, the stability of the fiber-matrix interface, and the true activation of these open-quotes reduced activityclose quotes materials. Two methods are presented that quantitatively measure the effect of radiation on fiber and matrix elastic modulus as well as the fiber-matrix interfacial strength. The results of these studies show that the factor limiting the radiation performance of the CVD SiC-carbon-Nicalon system is degradation of the Nicalon fiber, which leads to a weakened carbon interface. The activity of these composites is significantly higher than expected and is dominated by impurity isotopes. 52 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Fusion is urgent needed for the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang

    2005-01-01

    Energy is a global problem, as it is central to economic development, climate and environment, and international stability and sustainability. Energy need is expected to double in 40 years and an even larger increase is needed to lift the world out of poverty. 80% of world's energy is generated by burning fossil fuels, which is driving climate change and generating pollution. China will grow up to be a moderate developed country in 2050. The coal-centred energy structure will remain until 2050. Annual Energy Consumption per person will increase from near 1 TCE to no less than 3 TCE ( at present time, US: 11.5 TCE; West Europe: 5.6 TCE; Japan: 5.1 TCE) Estimated Energy Demand: increasing from near 1B TCE to over 4B TCE within next 3-4 decades. To realize the long-term sustainable development, it is necessary for China to explore reliable ways and develop thousands of GW non- fossil fuel power. The fission energy is a transit solution. To build hundreds of GW Fission Nuclear Power Plants in China - social problems, safety and environmental concerns, technical difficulties should be solved in near future. It is crucial and urgent for China to realize the controlled Nuclear Fusion Energy for our long-term development in the future as early as possible. Fusion shows environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe, the supplies of fuel are essentially limitless. JET has produced 16MW of fusion power and shown that fusion can be mastered on earth. Fusion has a long and successful history of international collaboration with obvious benefits to all partners for peaceful purpose. ITER is a device for us to bring the Sun to earth for the first time in the history. A properly organised and funded fusion development programme could lead to a proto-type fusion power plant to generate electricity to the grid within about 30 years (ITER+IFMIF). For developing countries, such as China and India, fusion is one of the very few options for large-scale sustainable energy generation

  18. Driver Fusions and Their Implications in the Development and Treatment of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gene fusions represent an important class of somatic alterations in cancer. We systematically investigated fusions in 9,624 tumors across 33 cancer types using multiple fusion calling tools. We identified a total of 25,664 fusions, with a 63% validation rate. Integration of gene expression, copy number, and fusion annotation data revealed that fusions involving oncogenes tend to exhibit increased expression, whereas fusions involving tumor suppressors have the opposite effect. For fusions involving kinases, we found 1,275 with an intact kinase domain, the proportion of which varied significantly across cancer types. Our study suggests that fusions drive the development of 16.5% of cancer cases and function as the sole driver in more than 1% of them. Finally, we identified druggable fusions involving genes such as TMPRSS2, RET, FGFR3, ALK, and ESR1 in 6.0% of cases, and we predicted immunogenic peptides, suggesting that fusions may provide leads for targeted drug and immune therapy. : Gao et al. analyze a 9,624 sample TCGA cohort with 33 cancer types to detect gene fusion events. They provide a landscape of fusion events detected, relate fusions to gene expression, focus on kinase fusion structures, examine mutually exclusive mutation and fusion patterns, and highlight fusion druggability. Keywords: fusion, cancer, RNA, translocation, gene fusions

  19. Overview of nonelectrical applications of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for, and importance of, nonelectrical applications of fusion energy is discussed. Three possibilities are reviewed in some detail: fusion-fission hybrids for fissile fuel production; high-temperature electrolysis and thermochemical processes for hydrogen production; and high-temperature steam for coal gasification. The hybrid could be an early application of fusion if this route is identified as a desirable goal. Hydrogen production and coal gasification processes appear feasible and could be developed as a part of the conventional fusion blanket research and development. The question of economics, particularly in view of the high capital cost of fusion plants, remains an open issue requiring more study

  20. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  1. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  2. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  3. Hybrid modeling of plasma and applications to fusion and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeminejad, F.

    1989-01-01

    Obtaining reasonable solutions to the nonlinear equations is crucial to the understanding of the behavior of plasmas. With the advent of high speed computers, computer modeling of plasmas has moved into the front row of the tools used in research of their nonlinear plasma dynamics. There are roughly speaking two types of plasma models, particle models and fluid models. Particle models try to emulate nature by following the motion of a large number of charged particles in their self consistent electromagnetic fields. Fluid models on the other hand use macroscopic fluid equations to model the plasma. MHD models are typical of this type. Particle models in general require larger memory for the computer due to the massive amount of data associated with the particles' kinematical variables. Particle models are generally limited to studying small regions of plasma for relatively short time intervals. Fluid models are better fit to handle large scales and long times; i.e., quite often the complete plasma involved in an experiment. The drawback of the fluid models however is that, they miss the physical phenomenon taking place at the microscale and these phenomenon can influence the properties of fluid. Another approach is to start with fluid models and incorporate more physics. Such models are referred to as hybrid models. In this thesis, two such models are discussed. They are then applied to two problems; the first is a simulation of the artificial comet generated by the AMPTE experiment; the second is the production of enhanced noise in fusion plasmas by injected energetic ions or by fusion reaction products. In both cases the models demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experimental observations

  4. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  5. Materials research and development for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the critical issues associated with materials selection for proposed magnetic fusion reactors are reviewed, with a brief overview of refractory alloys (vanadium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten) and primary emphasis on ceramic materials. SiC/SiC composites are under consideration for the first wall and blanket structure, and dielectric insulators will be used for the heating, control and diagnostic measurement of the fusion plasma. Key issues for SiC/SiC composites include radiation-induced degradation in the strength and thermal conductivity. Recent work has focused on the development of radiation-resistant fibers and fiber/matrix interfaces (porous SiC, SiC multilayers) which would also produce improved SiC/SiC performance for applications such as heat engines and aerospace components. The key physical parameters for dielectrics include electrical conductivity, dielectric loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Ionizing radiation can increase the electrical conductivity of insulators by many orders of magnitude, and surface leakage currents can compromise the performance of some fusion energy components. Irradiation can cause a pronounced degradation in the loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Fundamental physical parameter measurements on ceramics which are of interest for both fusion and non-fusion applications are discussed

  6. Development of innovative fuelling systems for fusion energy science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    The development of innovative fueling systems in support of magnetic fusion energy, particularly the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is described. The ITER fuelling system will use a combination of deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas puffing and pellet injection to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. This combination will provide a flexible fuelling source with D-T pellets penetrating beyond the separatrix to sustain the ignited fusion plasma and with deuterium-rich gas fuelling the edge region to meet divertor requirements in a process called isotopic fuelling. More advanced systems with potential for deeper penetration, such as multistage pellet guns and compact toroid injection, are also described

  7. Development of fusion first-wall radiation damage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.J.; Atkins, T.

    1986-11-01

    The report describes work performed on the development of fusion-reactor first-wall simulation facilities on the Variable Energy Cyclotron, at Harwell, United Kingdom. Two irradiation facilities have been constructed: i) a device for helium and hydrogen filling up to 1000 ppm for post-irradiation mechanical properties studies, and ii) a helium implantation and damage facility for simultaneous injection of helium and radiation damage into a specimen under stress. These facilities are now fully commissioned and are available for investigations of first-wall radiation damage and for intercorrelation of fission- and fusion -reactor materials behaviour. (U.K.)

  8. The first IEC fusion industrial neutron generator and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sved, John

    1999-06-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion grade plasma containment has been sporadically researched since the early 1960's. In the 1990's the work of G. H. Miley and his team at the University of Illinios, Fusion Studies Laboratory, Champaign-Urbana has stimulated a collaboration with industry. The development and test program for the first industrial IEC neutron generator has progressed to the point where an endurance test is under way to demonstrate at least 10,000 hours of operational life of the sealed chamber device without servicing. The market entry goals of steady 107 D-D n/s CW output with an air-cooled system have been achieved. DASA has invested in the development of the industrial product and the continuing basic research at the UI-FSL. The complete DASA FusionStar IEC-PS1 point source neutron generator set is described with emphasis on the interfaces to user NAA systems. The next product developments are pulsed neutron operations and higher fusion reaction rates of up to 1010 by means of affordable add-ons to the basic IEC-PS system. The production engineering experience gained will next be applied to a more challenging line source variant of the IEC. Beyond neutron and proton sources, several other IEC applications are being developed.

  9. Status of tritium technology development for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of tritium technology for the magnetic fusion energy program has progressed at a rapid rate over the past two years. The focal points for this development in the United States have been the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos and the FED/INTOR studies supported by the Fusion Engineering Design Center at Oak Ridge. In Canada the Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Project has been initiated and promises to make significant contributions to the tritium technology program in the next few years. The Japanese government has now approved funding for the Tritium Processing Laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's Tokai Research Establishment. Construction on this new facility is scheduled to begin in April 1983. This facility will be the center for fusion tritium technology development in Japan. The European Community is currently working on the design of the tritium facility for the Joint European Torus. There is considerable interaction between all of these programs, thus accelerating the overall development of this crucial technology

  10. Helical-type device and laser fusion. Rivals for tokamak-type device at n-fusion development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Under the current policy on the research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan, as enunciated by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the type of a prototype fusion reactor will be chosen after 2020 from tokamak, helical or some other type including the inertial confinement fusion using lasers. A prototype fusion reactor is the next step following the tokamak type International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). With the prototype reactor, the feasibility as a power plant will be examined. At present the main research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan are on tokamak type, which have been promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As for the other types of nuclear fusion, researches have been carried out on the helical type in Kyoto University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the mirror type in Tsukuba University, the tokamak type using superconductive coils in Kyushu University, and the laser fusion in Osaka University. The features and the present state of research and development of the Large Helical Device and the laser fusion which is one step away from the break-even condition are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  12. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Um, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 o C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v -1 ) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 o C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 ± 0.13 g l -1 , a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 ± 0.13 g l -1 h -1 , and a theoretical yield of 94.2 ± 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes.

  13. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  14. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  15. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1991-09-01

    The philosophy of the program at the University of California Santa Barbara has been to develop a fundamental understanding of both the basic damage processes and microstructural evolution that take place in a material during neutron irradiation and the consequent dimensional and mechanical property changes. This fundamental understanding can be used in conjunction with empirical data obtained from a variety of irradiation facilities to develop physically-based models of neutron irradiation effects in structural materials. The models in turn can be used to guide alloy development and to help extrapolate the irradiation data base (expected to be largely fission reactor based) to the fusion reactor regime. This philosophy is consistent with that of the national and international programs for developing structural materials for fusion reactors

  16. Development of superconductors for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.N.; Walters, C.R.

    1976-04-01

    A report is presented on the development of a 10 4 Amp NbTi cryogenically stabilized superconductor. The long term objective was the construction of a superconducting toroidal field magnet for a post JET Tokamak experiment. The report is in sections entitled: magnet reference parameters; specific conductor designs; theoretical studies; experimental measurements; fabrication techniques; discussion, summary, conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  17. Development of Fusion Nuclear Technologies and the role of MTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Schaaf, B. van der

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power plant operation will strongly depend on the economy and reliability of crucial components, such as first wall modules, tritium breeding blankets and divertors. Their operating temperature shall be high to accomplish high plant efficiency. The materials properties and component fabrication routes shall also assure long reliable operation to minimize plant outage. The components must be fabricated in large quantities based on demonstrations with a limited amount of test beds. Mock-ups and test loops will, through iteration processes, demonstrate the reliable operation under reference thermal-hydraulic conditions. Although 14 MeV neutrons dominate the nuclear conditions near the first wall, neutron transport analyses have shown that large portions of the components near the plasma have to cope with a neutron spectrum resembling a fission core. Present Materials Test Reactors, MTR's, offer fluxes relevant for large parts of the fusion major components. The mixed and fast fission spectra though is not representative for all fusion conditions. The strong point of MTR's is their ability to generate sufficient displacement damage in the materials in a relatively short time. The cores of MTR's provide sufficient space for irradiation of representative cut-outs of components to allow integrated functional and materials tests in a high flux neutron field. The MTR's are the primary test bed for structural and functional fusion relevant materials. The MTR space and dose rates provide a valuable base line for the developments and demonstrations of fusion key components in a neutron field. In recent years the pebble bed assembly, PBA, irradiated in the HFR, Petten, has shown the feasibility of the helium-cooled concept with lithium ceramics and beryllium multiplier pebble beds. The irradiations produce a wealth of process parameters for the control of the tritium release of the pebbles. The PBA packaging, cooling and tritium purging arrangements closely resemble the

  18. Alteration of the genomic composition of Solanum nigrum (+) potato backcross derivatives by somatic hybridisation: selection of fusion hybrids by DNA measurements and GISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.; Gavrilenko, T.; Bergervoet, M.; Huigen, D.J.; Tjin Wong Joe, A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion experiments were performed with a first (BC1-6738) and a second (BC2-9017) generation backcross hybrid of 6x Solanum nigrum (+) 2x potato somatic hybrids with potato cultivars. Because no progeny was obtained from the BC2 genotypes, alternative approaches were sought to overcome the sexual

  19. Possible futures for the development of a fusion demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    As indicated by the Fusion Planning Bulletins, the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research is becoming involved in planning with alternative scenarios. The Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin has been involved with such planning for several years and has examined various scenarios for fusion power development using the Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique. The most recent studies compare the long-term plan presented in WASH-1290, Fusion Power by Magnetic Confinement, with other plans that have been proposed, such as the plan proposed by Kulcinski and Conn of the University of Wisconsin. The study indicates that some of the alternative plans do have possibilities to shorten the required time for the completion of a demonstration fusion plant without increased costs or a decrease in the likelihood of success. The current efforts of the project are in the planning exercises recently completed by committees set up by the DCTR. Further comparisons of alternative scenarios will be performed as part of this effort

  20. Public acceptance of fusion energy and scientific feasibility of a fusion reactor. Spin-off effects of fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morino, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    It is observed that new and sophisticated technologies developed through research and development in relation to magnetic confinement fusion have been transferred to other industrial and scientific fields with remarkable spin-off effects. Approximately 10 years ago, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) has investigated technical transfer and spin-off effects of fusion technologies developed in Japan. The essence of the results of this investigation as well as high technologies developed in the last decade, some of which are in the early stage of technical spin-off, are described. It is additionally explained that independent technical development conducted by our country as well as by engineers themselves is important in achieving effective spin-off. An outline of scientific spin-off effects is also described, including utilization technologies of fusion reactions besides those for energy production purposes, the progress of scientific understanding in the course of fusion research, and scientific information transfer and communication with other fields. (author)

  1. Hybrid pump for Pazflor deepwater development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibet, Pierre-Jean

    2010-07-01

    Subsea Processing gives engineers permanent technical challenges due to the comprehensive specifications which often stretch the proven limits of technology. It is particularly true for pumps that have to boost a multiphase effluent, because they must, often at the same time, be tolerant to free gas, able to handle very viscous, generate a high ?P, and be efficient. The Pazflor project decided to base the development on full utilization of subsea pumps. This paper presents the state of the art of the pumps that are designed to be installed on the sea floor. It further describes why existing technology could not match the technical requirements for the Pazflor project. It finally presents the pump specifically developed for this world first full field's development application, the so called 'Hybrid Pump', with the description of the associated qualification program and results. (Author)

  2. Development of materials for the fusion nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, W. J.; Jung, C. H.; Jun, B. H.; Maeng, W. Y.; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Hong, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art on the nuclear material development has been reviewed based on the each component of the Tokamak typed fusion reactor. The current status of the development of structural materials such as FM steels, ODS steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites are introduced. The application of Li-based ceramics as a ceramic breeder and W-based alloys and C/C composites as plasma facing components for the divertor were also investigated, respectively. Some evaluation methods and results of the computational material simulation for irradiation damages and the compatibility between materials and coolant are described. Additionally, the material related research activities of ITER and ITER TBM and the collaboration activities on fusion materials between Japan and USA are briefly summarized

  3. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, J. W.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Ye, W. H. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fan, Z. F.; Wu, J. F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  4. Combined development of international nuclear fusion test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Ambassadors of the four most important partners (Common Market, Japan, USA and USSR) in the IAEA sponsored INTOR project, met on the 15 and 16 March 1987 in Vienna under the auspices of the IAEA. A press release was issued acknowledging the considerable technical progress made in magnetic nuclear fusion research. Future design concepts, assistance in research and development work and other activities towards the provision of an international experimental thermonuclear reactor were discussed. (G.T.H.)

  5. Development of laser technology in Research Center of Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wanguo; Deng Ying; Zhou Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress in the construction of SG-Ⅲ laser facility, integrated Testbed and XG-Ⅲ laser facility and that in the upgrade of the prototype of SG-Ⅲ, and the development in assembling and installing technology, and the achievements in maintaining cleanliness project and metrology in Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics in China in 2012. (authors)

  6. Survey of Materials for Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors Vol 1 Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry Materials and Life Sciences Directorate

    2007-07-03

    Materials for fusion-fission hybrid reactors fall into several broad categories, including fuels, blanket and coolant materials, cladding, structural materials, shielding, and in the specific case of inertial-confinement fusion systems, laser and optical materials. This report surveys materials in all categories of materials except for those required for lasers and optics. Preferred collants include two molten salt mixtures known as FLIBE (Li2BeF4) and FLINABE (LiNaBeF4). In the case of homogenous liquid fuels, UF4 can be dissolved in these molten salt mixtures. The transmutation of lithium in this coolant produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid species (HF and TF), which can rapidly degrade structural materials. Broad ranges of high-melting radiation-tolerant structural material have been proposed for fusion-fission reactor structures. These include a wide variety of steels and refractory alloys. Ferritic steels with oxide-dispersion strengthening and graphite have been given particular attention. Refractory metals are found in Groups IVB and VB of the periodic table, and include Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W, as serve as the basis of refractory alloys. Stable high-melting composites and amorphous metals may also be useful. Since amorphous metals have no lattice structure, neutron bombardment cannot dislodge atoms from lattice sites, and the materials would be immune from this specific mode of degradation. The free energy of formation of fluorides of the alloying elements found in steels and refractory alloys can be used to determine the relative stability of these materials in molten salts. The reduction of lithium transmutation products (H+ and T+) drives the electrochemical corrosion process, and liberates aggressive fluoride ions that pair with ions formed from dissolved structural materials. Corrosion can be suppressed through the use of metallic Be and Li, though the molten salt becomes laden with colloidal suspensions of Be and Li corrosion

  7. Fusion Technology for ITER, the ITER Project. Further Development Towards a DEMO Fusion Power Plant (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    This is the second half of a lecture series on fusion and will concentrate on fusion technology. The early phase of fusion development was concentrated on physics. However, during the 1980s it was realized that if one wanted to enter the area of fusion reactor plasmas, even in an experimental machine, a significant advance in fusion technologies would be needed. After several conceptual studies of reactor class fusion devices in the 1980s the engineering design phase of ITER started in earnest during the 1990s. The design team was in the beginning confronted with many challenges in the fusion technology area as well as in physics for which no readily available solution existed and in a few cases it was thought that solutions may be impossible to find. However, after the initial 3 years of intensive design and R&D work in an international framework utilizing basic fusion technology R&D from the previous decade it became clear that for all problems a conceptual solution could be found and further devel...

  8. Development of new low activation aluminum alloys for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1985-01-01

    As the materials for the R facility (a tokamak nuclear fusion device in the R project intended for D-T burning) in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Al-4 % Mg-0.2 % Bi (5083 improved type) and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li, aimed at low radioactivability, high electric resistance and high strength, have been developed. The results of the nuclear properties evaluation with 14 MeV neutrons and of the measurements of electric resistance and mechanical properties were satisfactory. The possibility of producing large Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li plate (1 m x 2 m x 25 mm) in the existing factory was confirmed, with the properties retained. The electric resistances were higher than those in the conventional aluminum alloys, and still with feasibility for the further improvement. General properties of the fusion aluminum alloys and the 26 Al formation in (n, 2n) reaction were studied. (Mori, K.)

  9. Development of Al-Mg-Li alloys for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yoshifusa; Yoshida, Hideo; Uno, Teruo; Baba, Yoshio; Kamada, Koji.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloys featuring low residual induced radioactivity and high electrical resistivity have been developed for fusion reactor structural materials. The addition of lithium in aluminum and Al-Mg alloys markedly increases electrical resistivity and tensile strength of them. However the elongation of Al-Mg-Li alloys containing more than 2 mass% lithium are less than 10 %. The Al-4--5 mass%Mg-1 mass%Li alloys are optimum for fusion reactor materials, and exhibit high resistivity (86 nΩm: 20 %IACS), medium strength (300 MPa) and good formability (22 % elongation). The variation of electrical resistivity of Al-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys in solid solution can be approximated by the Matthiessen's rule. (author)

  10. Development and application of PET-MRI image fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jianhua; Zhao Jinhua; Qiao Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and growing in popularity of PET-CT scanner brings us the convenience and cognizes the advantages such as diagnosis, staging, curative effect evaluation and prognosis for malignant tumor. And the PET-MRI installing maybe a new upsurge when the machine gradually mature, because of the MRI examination without the radiation exposure and with the higher soft tissue resolution. This paper summarized the developing course of image fusion technology and some researches of clinical application about PET-MRI at present, in order to help people to understand the functions and know its wide application of the upcoming new instrument, mainly focuses the application on the central nervous system and some soft tissue lesions. And before PET-MRI popularization, people can still carry out some researches of various image fusion and clinical application on the current equipment. (authors)

  11. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway tips the balance between apoptosis and reprograming of cell fusion hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluis, Frederic; Pedone, Elisa; Pepe, Stefano; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2010-11-01

    Cell-cell fusion contributes to cell differentiation and developmental processes. We have previously showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin enhances somatic cell reprograming after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion. Here, we show that neural stem cells and ESCs can fuse spontaneously in cocultures, although with very low efficiency (about 2%), as the hybrids undergo apoptosis. In contrast, when Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ESCs and leads to accumulation of low amounts of β-catenin in the nucleus, activated ESCs can reprogram somatic cells with very high efficiency after spontaneous fusion. Furthermore, we also show that different levels of β-catenin accumulation in the ESC nuclei can modulate cell proliferation, although in our experimental setting, cell proliferation does not modulate the reprograming efficiency per se. Overall, the present study provides evidence that spontaneous fusion occurs, while the survival of the reprogramed clones is strictly dependent on induction of a Wnt-mediated reprograming pathway. Copyright © 2010 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Developments and needs in nuclear analysis of fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, R., E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, J. [F4E Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Sanz, J. [UNED, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Turner, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Engineering Department, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Complex fusion nuclear analyses require detailed models, sophisticated acceleration and coupling of cumbersome tools. • Progress on development of tools and methods to meet specific needs of fusion nuclear analysis reported. • Advances in production of reference models and in preparation and QA of acceleration and coupling algorithms shown. • Evaluation and adaptation studies of alternative transport codes presented. • Discussion made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs. -- Abstract: Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-performance parallel computations, and coupling of large and complex transport and activation codes and databases. This paper reports progress on some key areas in the development of tools and methods to meet the specific needs of fusion nuclear analyses. In particular, advances in the production and modernisation of reference models, in the preparation and quality assurance of acceleration algorithms and coupling schemes, and in the evaluation and adaptation of alternative transport codes are presented. Emphasis is given to ITER-relevant activities, which are the main driver of advances in the field. Discussion is made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs and requirements. In some cases, they call for a more efficient and coordinated use of the scarce resources available.

  13. Fusion Energy Postdoctoral Research Program, Professional Development Program: FY 1987 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In FY 1986, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) initiated two programs for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy (OFE): the Fusion Energy Postdoctoral Research Program and the Fusion Energy Professional Development Program. These programs provide opportunities to conduct collaborative research in magnetic fusion energy research and development programs at DOE laboratories and contractor sites. Participants become trained in advanced fusion energy research, interact with outstanding professionals, and become familiar with energy-related national issues while making personal contributions to the search for solutions to scientific problems. Both programs enhance the national fusion energy research and development effort by providing channels for the exchange of scientists and engineers, the diffusion of ideas and knowledge, and the transfer of relevant technologies. These programs, along with the Magnetic Fusion Energy Science and Technology Fellowship Programs, compose the fusion energy manpower development programs administered by ORAU for DOE/OFE

  14. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  15. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  16. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  17. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  18. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  19. Neutronic calculation and cross section sensitivity analysis of the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Price, W.G. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    The neutronic calculation for the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket was performed using the PPPL cross section library. Significant differences were found in the tritium breeding and plutonium production in comparison to the results of the LLL calculation. The cross section sensitivity study for tritium breeding indicates that the response is sensitive to the cross section of 238 U in the neighborhood of 14 MeV and 1 MeV. The response is also sensitive to the cross sections of iron in the vicinity of 14 MeV near the first wall. Neutron transport in the resonance region is not important in this reactor model

  20. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  1. Fusion material development program in the broader approach activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research: Naka, Ibaraki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Takatsu, H. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Momie Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tsuchiya, K. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research, JAEA, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); MoIslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [EPFL-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, UHD - CRPP, PPB, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pizzuto, A. [ENEA CR Frascat, Frascati (Italy); Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Lasser, R.; Gasparotto, M. [EFDA CSU Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are initiated by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan. The BA activities include the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF-EVEDA), the International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC), and the Satellite Tokamak. IFERC consists of three sub project; a DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center, a Computational Simulation Center, and an ITER Remote Experimentation Center. Technical R and Ds mainly on fusion materials will be implemented as a part of the DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center. Based on the common interest of each party toward DEMO, R and Ds on a) reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a DEMO blanket structural material, SiCf/SiC composites, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier for DEMO blankets, and Tritium Technology were selected and assessed by European and Japanese experts. In the R and D on the RAFM steels, the fabrication technology, techniques to incorporate the fracture/rupture properties of the irradiated materials, and methods to predict the deformation and fracture behaviors of structures under irradiation will be investigated. For SiCf/SiC composites, standard methods to evaluate high-temperature and life-time properties will be developed. Not only for SiCf/SiC but also related ceramics, physical and chemical properties such as He and H permeability and absorption will be investigated under irradiation. As the advanced tritium breeder R and D, Japan and EU plan to establish the production technique for advanced breeder pebbles of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, respectively. Also physical, chemical, and mechanical properties will be investigated for produced breeder pebbles. For the

  2. Development of RNA-FISH Assay for Detection of Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 Fusion Genes in FFPE Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kurobe

    Full Text Available Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and FGFR3 mutations are target candidates for small molecule inhibitors in bladder cancer (BC. Because FGFR3 and TACC3 genes are located very closely on chromosome 4p16.3, detection of the fusion by DNA-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization is not a feasible option. In this study, we developed a novel RNA-FISH assay using branched DNA probe to detect FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE human BC samples.The RNA-FISH assay was developed and validated using a mouse xenograft model with human BC cell lines. Next, we assessed the consistency of the RNA-FISH assay using 104 human BC samples. In this study, primary BC tissues were stored as frozen and FFPE tissues. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were independently detected in FFPE sections by the RNA-FISH assay and in frozen tissues by RT-PCR. We also analyzed the presence of FGFR3 mutations by targeted sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from deparaffinized FFPE sections.FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts were identified by RNA-FISH and RT-PCR in mouse xenograft FFPE tissues using the human BC cell lines RT112 and RT4. These cell lines have been reported to be fusion-positive. Signals for FGFR3-TACC3 fusions by RNA-FISH were positive in 2/60 (3% of non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC and 2/44 (5% muscle-invasive BC (MIBC patients. The results of RT-PCR of all 104 patients were identical to those of RNA-FISH. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 27/60 (45% NMIBC and 8/44 (18% MIBC patients. Except for one NMIBC patient, FGFR3 mutation and FGFR3-TACC3 fusion were mutually exclusive.We developed an RNA-FISH assay for detection of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in FFPE samples of human BC tissues. Screening for not only FGFR3 mutations, but also for FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts has the potential to identify additional patients that can be treated with FGFR inhibitors.

  3. LHCD operations in JET and developments for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissard, P.; Baranov, Y.; Brandon, M.; Brusati, M.; Dobbing, J.A.; Ekedahl, A.; Finburg, P.; Fischer, B.; Gormezano, C.; Haydon, P.; Kaye, A.; Lennholm, M.; McCarthy, T.; Page, R.; Paling, P.; Platt, G.; Pledge, D.; Plancoulaine, J.; Rimini, F.; Schild, P.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    The full Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) launcher in JET has been completed and installed. Up to 6 MW has been coupled to the plasma and 2 MA full current drive was achieved with 4 MW of LH power. Coupling is improved by using active feedback control on the launcher and plasma position. A new launcher design concept, called Hyperguide, has been developed and tested successfully in JET to replace eventually conventional launchers using multijunctions for next step machines like ITER. (orig.)

  4. Application of simulation experiments to fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Li, C.Y.

    1978-01-01

    One of the major problems in the development of structural alloys for use in magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs) is the lack of suitable materials testing facilities. This is because operating fusion reactors, even of the experimental size, do not exist. A primary task in the early stages of MFR alloy development will be to adapt currently available irradiation facilities for use in materials development. Thus, it is generally recognized that, at least for the next ten years, studies of irradiation effects in an MFR environment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of structural materials must utilize ion and fission neutron simulations. Special problems will arise because, in addition to displacement damage, an MFR radiation environment will produce, in candidate structural materials, higher and more significant concentrations of gaseous nuclear transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen, than found in a fast breeder reactor. These effects must be taken into account when simulation techniques are employed, since they impact heavily on irradiation microstructure development and, hence, mechanical properties

  5. Development of the New Light-Duty Hybrid Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Hino Motors, Ltd., developed the new light-duty hybrid truck whose traction motor, inverter, and traction battery were completely redesigned for maximizing output and efficiency. It also succeeds in balancing low fuel economy and low exhaust emissions by utilizing a combination of a new hybrid system control with a specially developed diesel engine.

  6. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  7. Divertor development for a future fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, Prachai

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is considered as a future source of sustainable energy supply. In the first chapter, the physical principle of magnetic plasma confinement, and the function of a tokamak are described. Since the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX experiment ''Divertor I'' in 1982, the divertor has been an integral part of all modern tokamaks and stellarators, not least the ITER machine. The goal of this work is to develop a feasible divertor design for a fusion power plant to be built after ITER. This task is particularly challenging because a fusion power plant formulates much greater demands on the structural material and the design than ITER in terms of neutron wall load and radiation. First several divertor concepts proposed in the literature e.g. the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) using different coolants are reviewed and analyzed with respect to their performance. As a result helium cooled divertor concept exhibited the best potential to come up to the highest safety requirements and therefore has been chosen for the design process. From the third chapter the necessary steps towards this goal are described. First, the boundary conditions for the arrangement of a divertor with respect to the fusion plasma are discussed, as this determines the main thermal and neutronic load parameters. Based on the loads material selection criteria are inherently formulated. In the next step, the reference design is defined in accordance with the established functional design specifications. The developed concept is of modular nature and consists of cooling fingers of tungsten using an impingement cooling in order to achieve a heat dissipation of 10 MW/m 2 . In the next step, the design was subjected to the thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical calculations in order to analyze and improve the performance and the manufacturing technologies. Based on these results, a prototype was produced and experimentally tested on their cooling capacity, their thermo-cyclic loading

  8. Progress on the conceptual design of a mirror hybrid fusion--fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design study was made of a fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of producing fissile material and electricity. The fusion component is a D-T plasma confined by a pair of magnetic mirror coils in a Yin-Yang configuration and is sustained by neutral beam injection. The neutrons from the fusion plasma drive the fission assembly which is composed of natural uranium carbide fuel rods clad with stainless steel and helium cooled. It was shown conceptually how the reactor might be built using essentially present-day technology and how the uranium-bearing blanket modules can be routinely changed to allow separation of the bred fissile fuel

  9. The ITER fusion reactor and its role in the development of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy from nuclear fusion is the future source of sustained, full life-cycle environmentally benign, intrinsically safe, base-load power production. The nuclear fusion process powers our sun, innumerable other stars in the sky, and some day, it will power the Earth, its cities and our homes. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, represents the next step toward fulfilling that promise. ITER will be a test bed for key steppingstones toward engineering feasibility of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) in a single experimental step. It will establish the physics basis for steady state Tokamak magnetic containment fusion reactors to follow it, exploring ion temperature, plasma density and containment time regimes beyond the breakeven power condition, and culminating in experimental fusion self-ignition. (author)

  10. Role of a hybrid (fusion--fission) reactor in a nuclear economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the hybrid concepts which have been proposed to date are separated into groups according to their apparent neutronic characteristics. An attempt is made to identify these hybrid groups with two possible roles in a nuclear economy. An analysis is made to see if there is enough current information to determine which hybrid concepts appear most promising when assigned to these roles. (U.S.)

  11. Towards fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present general but broad review of the recent developments in the field of plasma physics and its application to fusion power. The first chapter describes the fusion reactions and fusion power systems. The second chapter deals in detail with production and behaviour of plasma, screening, oscillations, instability, energy losses, temperature effects, etc. Magnetic confinements, including pinch systems, toroidal systems such as Tokamac and stellarator, minor machine, etc. are discussed in detail in chapter III. Laser produced plasma, laser implosion and problems associated with it and future prospects are explained in chapter IV. Chapter V is devoted entirely to the various aspects of hybrid systems. The last chapter throws light on problems of fusion technology, such as plasma heating, vacuum requirements, radiation damage, choice of materials, blanket problems, hazards of fusion reactions, etc. (K.B.)

  12. KrF laser development for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Sethian, John D.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Obenschain, Stephen P.; Hegeler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The United States Naval Research Laboratory is developing an electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser technology for a direct drive inertial fusion energy power plant. The repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride laser technology being developed meets the fusion energy requirements for laser beam quality, wavelength, and repetition rate. The krypton fluoride laser technology is projected, based on experiments, to meet the requirements for wall plug efficiency and durability. The projected wall plug efficiency based on experiments is greater than 7 percent. The Electra laser using laser triggered gas switches has conducted continuous operation for 90,000 shots at 2.5 Hertz operation (ten hours). The Electra laser has achieved greater than 700 Joules per pulse at 1 and 2.5 Hertz repetition rate. The comparison of krypton fluoride laser performance with krypton fluoride kinetics code shows good agreement for pulse shape and laser yield. Development and operation of a durable pulse power system with solid state switches has achieved a continuous run of 11 million pulses into a resistive load at 10 Hz. (author)

  13. Investigation of tritium and 233U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, K.; Sahin, S.; Sahin, H. M.; Acir, A.; Yalcin, S.; Altinok, T.; Bayrak, M.; Alkan, M.; Durukan, O.

    2007-01-01

    In the world, thorium reserves are three times more than natural Uranium reserves. It is planned in the near future that nuclear reactors will use thorium as a fuel. Thorium is not a fissile isotope because it doesn't make fission with thermal neutrons so it could be converted to 2 33U isotope which has very high quality fission cross-section with thermal neutrons. 2 33U isotope can be used in present LWRs as an enrichment fuel. In the fusion reactors, tritium is the most important fossil fuel. Because tritium is not natural isotope, it has to be produced in the reactor. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tritium and 2 33U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO 2 for Δt=10 days during a reactor operation period in five years. The neutronic analysis is performed on an experimental hybrid blanket geometry. In the center of the hybrid blanket, there is a line neutron source in a cylindrical cavity, which simulates the fusion plasma chamber where high energy neutrons (14.1 MeV) are produced. The conventional fusion reaction delivers the external neutron source for blankets following, 2 D + 3 T →? 4 He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV). (1) The fuel zone made up of natural-ThO 2 fuel and it is cooled with different coolants. In this work, five different moderator materials, which are Li 2 BeF 4 , LiF-NaF-BeF 2 , Li 2 0Sn 8 0, natural Lithium and Li 1 7Pb 8 3, are used as coolants. The radial reflector, called tritium breeding zones, is made of different Lithium compounds and graphite in sandwich structure. In the work, eight different Lithium compounds were used as tritium breeders in the tritium breeding zones, which are Li 3 N, Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , LiBr and LiH. Neutron transport calculations are conducted in spherical geometry with the help of SCALE4.4A SYSTEM by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code CSAS and XSDRNPM, under consideration of unresolved and resolved resonances, in S 8 -P 3

  14. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    programme were: • EP-50 parallel hybrid light armoured vehicle (LAV-III) and a refuse hauler • advanced hybrid electric drive (AHED) 8 × 8, 20 ton...herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or the DoA, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 2 Unclassified. Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release.

  15. ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2001-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. The General Atomics (GA) Advanced Fusion Technology Program seeks to advance the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these technologies. GA's Advanced Fusion Technology program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the GA DIII-D program, the DIII-D facility and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and the ICF Target Fabrication facility

  16. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Kjer; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory...

  17. Fusion technology development annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In FY96, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Design Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), SiC/SiC Composite Material Development (Section 4), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA's fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, the authors carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry

  18. Development of time dependent safety analysis code for plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to analyze plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors, e.g., a loss of plasma control. The code is a hybrid code comprising a zero-dimensional plasma dynamics and a one-dimensional thermal analysis of in-vessel components. The code evaluates the time evolution of plasma parameters and temperature distributions of in-vessel components. As the plasma-safety interface model, we proposed a robust plasma physics model taking into account updated data for safety assessment. For example, physics safety guidelines for beta limit, density limit and H-L mode confinement transition threshold power, etc. are provided in the model. The model of the in-vessel components are divided into twenty temperature regions in the poloidal direction taking account of radiative heat transfer between each surface of each region. This code can also describe the coolant behavior under hydraulic accidents with the results by hydraulics code and treat vaporization (sublimation) from plasma facing components (PFCs). Furthermore, the code includes the model of impurity transport form PFCs by using a transport probability and a time delay. Quantitative analysis based on the model is possible for a scenario of plasma passive shutdown. We examined the possibility of the code as a safety analysis code for plasma anomaly events in fusion reactors and had a prospect that it would contribute to the safety analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author)

  19. A hybrid data fusion method for GNSS/INS integration navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Bofeng; Shen, Yunzhong; Li, Haojun

    2017-04-01

    coupled algorithms are equivalent when following conditions are satisfied: 1) there is enough redundancy on the GNSS raw measurements; 2) only pseudorange measurements are used; 3) If differential carrier phase measurements are used, only the float solutions of the ambiguities are considered; 4) the covariance of the loosely coupled measurement model should come from the GNSS standalone solution instead of conventional pre-determined values. Based on the equivalence proof, a dual-step loosely coupled procedure is proposed to regenerate the equal ambiguity fixing solutions in tightly coupled procedure. Accordingly, the tightly coupled differential carrier phase or pseudorange GNSS/INS integration can be simplified, which will degrade to an equivalent loosely coupled integration when there are enough measurement redundancy and recover to a tightly coupled integration when GNSS measurements are rank-deficient. By this hybrid data fusion method, both the optimality of the tightly coupled algorithm and the efficiency of the loosely coupled algorithm can be conserved. Field test results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  1. Development of liquid lithium divertor for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtihkin, V. A.; Lyublinskij, I. E.; Vertkov, A.V.; Chumanov, A.V.; Shpolyanskij, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    Development of divertor is one of the most acute problems of the tokamak fusion reactor. The use of such materials as tungsten, beryllium, graphite and CFC's enabled to solve the problem to a certain extent fulfilling the need of the ITER project. The problem still rests unsolved for the DEMO-type reactors. Lithium if used as a material for high heat flux components may provide a successful solution of the problem. A concept of Li divertor based on the use of capillary-pore structures (CPS) is proposed and is being validated by a complex of experimental research and engineering developments. An optional concept of Li divertor for power removal at 400 MW in steady-state (DEMO-S project) is presented. The complex of experimental research is under way to prove the serviceability of the Li CPS in different conditions that would be realized in divertor

  2. Generation of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing unselected fragments of human chromosome 10 by X-ray irradiation and cell fusion: Application to isolating the MEN2A region in hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, P.J.; Povey, S.; Nevanlinna, H.A.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1990-01-01

    We have used X-ray irradiation and cell fusion to generate somatic cell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 10. Our experiments were directed towards isolating the region of the MEN2A gene in hybrids and to use those as the source of DNA for cloning and mapping new markers from near the MEN2A locus. A number of hybrid clones containing human sequences that are tightly linked to the MEN2A gene were identified. Some 25% of our hybrids, however, proved to contain more than one human chromosome 10-derived fragment or showed evidence of deletions and/or rearrangements. A detailed analysis of the human content of X-ray irradiation hybrids is required to assess the integrity and number of human fragments retained. Despite retention of multiple human-derived fragments, these hybrids will prove useful as cloning and mapping resources

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  4. Major features of a mirror fusion--fast fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design was made of a fusion-fission reactor. The fusion component is a D-T plasma confined by a pair of magnetic mirror coils in a Yin-Yang configuration and sustained by hot neutral beam injection. The neutrons from the fusion plasma drive the fission assembly which is composed of natural uranium carbide fuel rods clad with stainless steel and is cooled by helium. It was shown how the reactor can be built using essentially present day construction technology and how the uranium bearing blanket modules can be routinely changed to allow separation of the bred fissile fuel of which approximately 1200 kg of plutonium are produced each year along with the approximately 750 MW of electricity. (U.S.)

  5. Development of large insulator rings for the TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Tobin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Research and development leading to the manufacture of large ceramic insulator rings for the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor). Material applictions, fabrication approach and testing activities are highlighted

  6. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  7. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  8. Diagnostic of the spatial and velocity distribution of alpha particles in tokamak fusion reactor using beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave. Progress report, 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.

    1995-01-01

    The alpha particle population from fusion reactions in a DT tokamak reactor can have dramatic effects on the pressure profiles, energetic particle confinement, and the overall stability of the plasma; thus leading to important design consideration of a fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. In order to fully understand the effects of the alpha population, a non-invasive diagnostic technique suitable for use in a reacting plasma environment needs to be developed to map out both the spatial and velocity distribution of the alphas. The proposed experimental goals for the eventual demonstration of LH wave interaction with a fast ion population is given in the reduced 3 year plan in table 1. At present time the authors are approaching the 8th month in their first year of this project. Up to now, their main effort has been concentrated in the operation of the two beat wave sources in burst mode. The second priority in the experimental project is the probe diagnostics and computer aided data acquisition system. The progress made so far is given, and they are ready to perform the beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave experiment. Some theoretical calculation had been reported at APS meetings. More refined theoretical models are being constructed in collaboration with Drs. J. Rogers and E. Valeo at PPPL

  9. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1999-02-01

    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  10. Development of ceramic vacuum pumps for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve the magnetic field resistance and tritium resistance which are required for vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, a vacuum pump consisting of middle-ceramic turbo molecular pump (TMP), using ceramic rotor and ceramic turbo roughing pump was developed. In colaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, performance tests on pumping speed, compression ratio of middle-ceramic TMP and both of pumping characteristics were carried out. Sufficient performances were obtained. It was showed that middle-ceramic TMP had pumping speed of more than 500 l/s, and could achieve the pressure below 4 x 10 -7 Pa. Ceramic turbo roughing pump could vacuum from atmospheric pressure. It is concluded that complete oil-free ceramic vacuum pump can be put into practical use (K.S.)

  11. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-09-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  12. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  13. Development of electrical insulator coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion blanket applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study was to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal-structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys (V-Ti or V-Ti-Cr) are leading candidate materials for structural applications in fusion reactors. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-5Ti, and V-20Ti, V-5Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti, and Ti, and on types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 3-5at.% dissolved metallic solute (e.g. Al, Be, Mg, Si, Ca, Pt, and Cr) at temperatures of 416-880 C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved N in liquid Li or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600-1000 C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide-nitride or oxynitride layers. This coating method is applicable to reactor components. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g. inside or outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper discusses initial results on the nature of the coatings (composition, thickness, adhesion, surface coverage) and their in situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures. (orig.)

  14. Molecular characterization of intergeneric hybrid between Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N S; Patil, S M; Govindwar, S P; Jadhav, J P

    2015-02-01

    Protoplast fusion between Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma harzianum and application of fusant in degradation of shellfish waste. The filamentous chitinolytic fungal strains A. oryzae NCIM 1272 and T. harzianum NCIM 1185 were selected as parents for protoplast fusion. Viable protoplasts were released from fungal mycelium using enzyme cocktail containing 5 mg ml(-1) lysing enzymes from T. harzianum, 0.06 mg ml(-1) β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia and 1 mg ml(-1) purified Penicillium ochrochloron chitinase in 0.8 mol l(-1) sorbitol as an osmotic stabilizer. Intergeneric protoplast fusion was carried out using 60% polyethylene glycol as a fusogen. At optimum conditions, the regeneration frequency of the fused protoplasts on colloidal chitin medium and fusion frequency were calculated. Fusant showed higher rate of growth pattern, chitinase activity and protein content than parents. Fusant formation was confirmed by morphological markers, viz. colony morphology and spore size and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This study revealed protoplast fusion between A. oryzae and T. harzianum significantly enhanced chitinase activity which ultimately provides potential strain for degradation of shellfish waste. Consistency in the molecular characterization results using DGGE is the major outcome of this study which can be emerged as a fundamental step in fusant identification. Now it is need to provide attention over effective chitin degradation to manage shrimp processing issues. In this aspect, ability of fusant to degrade shellfish waste efficiently in short incubation time revealed discovery of potential strain in the reclamation of seafood processing crustacean bio-waste. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Develop a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model with Data Assimilation Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thacker, W. C

    2003-01-01

    .... The objectives of the research are as follows: (1) to develop a methodology for assimilating temperature and salinity profiles from XBT, CTD, and ARGO float data that accommodates the peculiarities of HYCOM's hybrid vertical coordinates, allowing...

  16. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  17. Annual report of the Fusion Research and Development Center for the period of April 1, 1979 to March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Research and development activities of the Fusion Research and Development Center (Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development) from April 1979 to March 1980 are described. In Plasma physics research two experiments both related to radio-frequency power injection into tokamak plasmas are to be noted. One is the demonstration of current drive by lower hybrid waves in JFT-2 and the other high efficiency ICRF heating at two-ion hybrid resonance in JFT-2a/DIVA. A multi-MW neutral beam injection system was installed and tested at JFT-2 with heating experiments expected to start shortly. JFT-2a/DIVA was shutdown to make space for the injector. A new ingredient in this area is the initiation of dee plasma experiments in Doublet III at San Diego, USA by JAERI team under US-Japan cooperation agreement. Progress was rapid achieving all experimental objective planned for this period. Construction of JT-60 is in progress as planned. A Mukoyama site where JT-60 and other new facilities will be located was procured in October 1979, which was followed by the construction starts of JT-60 buildings. The completion of JT-60 is expected in fall 1984. The progressive brief summaries are presented in following topics; development of neutral beam and radiofrequency heating system for JT-60, installation of the cluster testing facility with NbTi field coils, and design of tritium handling facility. (J.P.N.)

  18. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections

  19. Developments in bone tissue engineering research for spinal fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many orthopaedic procedures require fusion of a bony defect. Sometimes a bone graft is needed for this fusion. Autograft bone is considered the golden standard. The harvesting of this bone is time consuming and may have serious side effects, such as chronic donor site pain. Available alternatives

  20. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  1. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Advantages of Production of New Fissionable Nuclides for the Nuclear Power Industry in Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Rodionova, E. V.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A concept of a large-scale nuclear power engineering system equipped with fusion and fission reactors is presented. The reactors have a joint fuel cycle, which imposes the lowest risk of the radiation impact on the environment. The formation of such a system is considered within the framework of the evolution of the current nuclear power industry with the dominance of thermal reactors, gradual transition to the thorium fuel cycle, and integration into the system of the hybrid fusion-fission reactors for breeding nuclear fuel for fission reactors. Such evolution of the nuclear power engineering system will allow preservation of the existing structure with the dominance of thermal reactors, enable the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with low burnup, and prevent the dangerous accumulation of minor actinides. The proposed structure of the nuclear power engineering system minimizes the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment and the SNF reprocessing facilities, decreasing it by more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the proposed scheme of closing the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of SNF with high burnup from fast reactors.

  4. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  5. Advanced fusion technologies developed for JT-60 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Akira; Ishida, S.; Matsukawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    The modification of JT-60U is planned as a full superconducting tokamak (JT-60SC). The objectives of the JT-60SC program are to establish scientific and technological bases for the steady-state operation of high performance plasmas and utilization of reduced-activation materials in economically and environmentally attractive DEMO reactor. Advanced fusion technologies relevant to DEMO reactor have been developed in the superconducting magnet technology and plasma facing components for the design of JT-60SC. To achieve a high current density in a superconducting strand, Nb 3 Al strands with a high copper ratio of 4 have been newly developed for the toroidal field coils (TFC) of JT-60SC. The R and D to demonstrate applicability of Nb 3 Al conductor to the TFC by a react-and-wind technique have been carried out using a full-size Nb 3 Al conductor. A full-size NbTi conductor with low AC loss using Ni-coated strands has been successfully developed. A forced cooling divertor component with high heat transfer using screw tubes has been developed for the first time. The heat removal performance of the CFC target was successfully demonstrated on the electron beam irradiation stand. (author)

  6. A hybrid approach to decision making and information fusion: Combining humans and artificial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Frans C.A.; Pavlin, Gregor; Winterboer, Andi; Evers, Vanessa

    This paper argues that hybrid human–agent systems can support powerful solutions to relevant problems such as Environmental Crisis management. However, it shows that such solutions require comprehensive approaches covering different aspects of data processing, model construction and the usage. In

  7. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  8. Advanced fusion technology research and development. Annual report to the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    OAK-B135 The General Atomics (GA) Advanced Fusion Technology program seeks to advance the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these technologies. GA's Advanced Fusion Technology program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the GA DIII-D program, the DIII-D facility, the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and the ICF Target Fabrication facility. The report summarizes GA's FY00 work in the areas of Fusion Power Plant Studies, Next Step Options, Advanced Liquid Plasma Facing Surfaces, Advanced Power Extraction Study, Plasma Interactive Materials, Radiation Testing of Magnetic Coil, Vanadium Component Demonstration, RF Technology, Inertial Fusion Energy Target Supply System, ARIES Integrated System Studies, and Spin-offs Brochure. The work in these areas continues to address many of the issues that must be resolved for the successful construction and operation of next-generation experiments and, ultimately, the development of safe, reliable, economic fusion power plants

  9. Remodeling of the notochord during development of vertebral fusions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Pedersen, Mona E; Baeverfjord, Grete; Hannesson, Kirsten O; Takle, Harald

    2010-12-01

    Histological characterization of spinal fusions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has demonstrated shape alterations of vertebral body endplates, a reduced intervertebral space, and replacement of intervertebral cells by ectopic bone. However, the significance of the notochord during the fusion process has not been addressed. We have therefore investigated structural and cellular events in the notochord during the development of vertebral fusions. In order to induce vertebral fusions, Atlantic salmon were exposed to elevated temperatures from fertilization until they attained a size of 15g. Based on results from radiography, intermediate and terminal stages of the fusion process were investigated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Examination of structural extracellular matrix proteins such as Perlecan, Aggrecan, Elastin, and Laminin revealed reduced activity and reorganization at early stages in the pathology. Staining for elastic fibers visualized a thinner elastic membrane surrounding the notochord of developing fusions, and immunohistochemistry for Perlecan showed that the notochordal sheath was stretched during fusion. These findings in the outer notochord correlated with the loss of Aggrecan- and Substance-P-positive signals and the further loss of vacuoles from the chordocytes in the central notochord. At more progressed stages of fusion, chordocytes condensed, and the expression of Aggrecan and Substance P reappeared. The hyperdense regions seem to be of importance for the formation of notochordal tissue into bone. Thus, the remodeling of notochord integrity by reduced elasticity, structural alterations, and cellular changes is probably involved in the development of vertebral fusions.

  10. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  11. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  12. Support and development for remote collaborations in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.; Jong, R.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Major fusion experiments and modeling efforts rely on joint research of scientists from several locations around the world. A variety of software tools are in use to provide remote interactive access to facilities and data are routinely available over wide-area-network connections to researchers. Audio and video communications, monitoring of control room information and synchronization of remote sites with experimental operations all enhance participation during experiments. Remote distributed computing capabilities allow utilization of off-site computers that now help support the demands of control room analyses and plasma modeling. A collaborative software development project is currently using object technologies with CORBA-based communications to build a network executable transport code that further demonstrates the ability to utilize geographically dispersed resources. Development to extend these concepts with security and naming services and possible applications to instrumentation systems has been initiated. An Information Technology Initiative is deploying communication systems, ISDN (telephone) and IP (network) audio/video (A/V) and web browser-based, to build the infrastructure needed to support remote physics meetings, seminars and interactive discussions

  13. Support and development for remote collaboration in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T A; Jong, R A; Meyer, W H; Moller, J M

    1999-01-01

    Major fusion experiments and modeling efforts rely on joint research of scientists from several locations around the world. A variety of software tools are in use to provide remote interactive access to facilities and data are routinely available over wide-area-network connections to researchers. Audio and video communications, monitoring of control room information and synchronization of remote sites with experimental operations all enhance participation during experiments. Remote distributed computing capabilities allow utilization of off-site computers that now help support the demands of control room analyses and plasma modeling. A collaborative software development project is currently using object technologies with CORBA-based communications to build a network executable transport code that further demonstrates the ability to utilize geographically dispersed resources. Development to extend these concepts with security and naming services and possible applications to instrumentation systems has been initiated. An Information Technology Initiative is deploying communication systems, ISDN (telephone) and IP (network) audio/video (A/V) and web browser-based, to build the infrastructure needed to support remote physics meetings, seminars and interactive discussions

  14. Development of design system of manipulator for fusion reactor maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Toshio; Niikura, Setsuo; Ishiguro, Akiko; Yamada, Masao; Matsuoka, Fushiki

    1989-01-01

    A program which supports designers of a manipulator for in-vessel maintenance of a fusion reactor has been developed. The main purpose of this program is to provide the designer with a promising manipulator specification by furnishing useful information. It combines a technique of knowledge engineering with numerical solutions. This program consists of three parts: The first part is to generate candidates for the manipulator using a knowledge base; the second is to evaluate both static and dynamic properties of each candidate through numerical simulation of the maintenance task; and the third is to select the candidates having better performance and feasibility on the basis of the simulation data and knowledge base. The feasibility of the method used in this program is confirmed by the preliminary application. This application also emphasizes the importance of the knowledge base for the candidate generation and selection. Although the degree of freedom of the manipulator is restricted to less than 7 degrees in this study, further development of the capability of manipulator simulation (seven or more degrees of freedom) will enhance the effectiveness of this program. (orig.)

  15. Development step toward fusion power plant and role of experimental reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, Ryouji; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Okano, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is going into the experimental reactor stage, and the thermal energy from the fusion reaction will be generated in a plant scale through the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project. The remaining critical issue toward the realization of fusion energy is to map out the development strategy. Recently early realization approach as for the fusion energy development is being discussed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. This approach implies that the devices for a Demo reactor and a proto-type reactor as seen in the fast breeder reactor are combined into a single device in order to advance the fusion energy development. On the other hand, a clear development road map for fusion energy hasn't been suggested yet, and whether that early realization approach is feasible or not is still ambiguous. In order to realize the fusion energy as an user-friendly energy system, the suggestion of the development missions and the road map from the user-side point of view is instructive not only to Japanese but also to other country's development policy after the ITER project. In this report, first of all, the development missions from the user's point of view have been structured. Second, the development target required to demonstrate net electric generation and to introduce the fusion energy into the market is investigated, respectively. This investigation reveals that the completion of the ITER reference operation gives the outlook toward the demonstration of net electric generation and that the completion of the ITER advanced operation gives the possibility to introduce the fusion energy into the market. At last, the electric demonstration power plant Demo-CREST and the commercial power plant CREST are proposed to construct the development road map for fusion energy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the impact of a committed site on fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Nagy, A.

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic merits of a committed fusion site for development of tokamak, mirror, and EBT reactor from ignition through demo phases were evaluated. Schedule compression resulting from evolving several reactor concepts and/or phases on a committed site as opposed to sequential use of independent sites was estimated. Land, water, and electrical power requirements for a committed fusion site were determined. A conceptual plot plan for siting three fusion reactors on a committed site was configured. Reactor support equipment common to the various concepts was identified as candidates for sharing. Licensing issues for fusion plants were briefly addressed

  17. Perspectives on the development of fusion power by magnetic confinement, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Committee concludes: that recent progress of the magnetic fusion energy program provides a tangible basis for the belief that the development of fusion power will prove feasible; that the primary near-term objective of the program should now be to demonstrate actual reactor-level conditions; and that the potential long-term benefits of fusion power are sufficiently great to warrant a sustained national effort to advance the fusion power option to the stage of commercial availability at an early time

  18. Diagnostics developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some diagnostics techniques applied to current laser fusion target experiments are reviewed. Specifically, holographic interferometry of target plasmas, coded aperture imaging of thermonuclear alpha-particles and neutron energy spectrum measurements are discussed

  19. Brief history and current developments of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The history of nuclear fusion is briefly outlined, the ITER project is described, the advantages of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator are described, alternative projects and mentioned, and prospects for the nearest time to come are shown. (P.A.)

  20. Simulation of lower hybrid current drive in enhanced reversed shear plasmas in the tokamak fusion test reactor using the lower hybrid simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Enhanced Reversed Shear (ERS) mode has already shown great potential for improving the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and other devices. Sustaining the ERS, however, remains an outstanding problem. Lower hybrid (LH) current drive is a possible method for modifying the current profile and controlling its time evolution. To predict its effectiveness in TFTR, the Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) model is used in the TRANSP code and the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). Among the results from the simulations are the following. (1) Single-pass absorption is expected in TFTR ERS plasmas. The simulations show that the LH current follows isotherms of the electron temperature. The ability to control the location of the minimum in the q profile (q min ) has been demonstrated by varying the phase velocity of the launched LH waves and observing the change in the damping location. (2) LH current drive can been used to sustain the q min location. The tendency of qmin to drift inward, as the inductive current diffuses during the formation phase of the reversed shear discharge, is prevented by the LH current driven at a fixed radial location. If this results in an expanded plasma volume with improved confinement as high power neutral beam injection is applied, the high bootstrap currents induced during this phase can then maintain the larger qmin radius. (3) There should be no LH wave damping on energetic beam particles. The values of perpendicular index of refraction in the calculations never exceed about 20, while ions at TFR injection energies are resonant with waves having values closer to 100. Other issues being addressed in the study include the LH current drive efficiency in the presence of high bootstrap currents, and the effect of fast electron diffusion on LH current localization

  1. Magnetic fusion energy and computers: the role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    This report examines the role of computing in the Department of Energy magnetic confinement fusion program. The present status of the MFECC and its associated network is described. The third part of this report examines the role of computer models in the main elements of the fusion program and discusses their dependence on the most advanced scientific computers. A review of requirements at the National MFE Computer Center was conducted in the spring of 1976. The results of this review led to the procurement of the CRAY 1, the most advanced scientific computer available, in the spring of 1978. The utilization of this computer in the MFE program has been very successful and is also described in the third part of the report. A new study of computer requirements for the MFE program was conducted during the spring of 1979 and the results of this analysis are presented in the forth part of this report

  2. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  3. Recent contributions to fusion reactor design and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The report contains a collection of 16 recent fusion technology papers on the STARFIRE Project, the study of alternate fusion fuel cycles, a maintainability study, magnet safety, neutral beam power supplies and pulsed superconducting magnets and energy transfer. This collection of papers contains contributions for Argonne National Laboratory, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, General Atomic Company, The Ralph M. Parsons Company, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin. Separate abstracts are presented for each paper

  4. Liquid metal coolants for fusion-fission hybrid system: A neutronic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Renato V.A.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany P. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Based on a work already published by the UFMG Nuclear Engineering Department, it was suggested to use different coolant materials in a fusion-fission system after a fuel burnup simulation, including that one used in reference work. The goal is to compare the neutron parameters, such as the effect multiplication factor and actinide amounts in transmutation layer, for each used coolant and find the best(s) coolant material(s) to be applied in the considered system. Results indicate that the lead and lead-bismuth coolant are the most suitable choices to be applied to cool the system. (author)

  5. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  6. Optimization of OH coil recharging scenario of quasi-steady operation in tokamak fusion reactor by lower hybrid wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Fujisawa, N.; Nishio, S.; Iida, H.

    1984-01-01

    Using simple physical model equations optimum plasma and rf parameters for an OH coil recharging scenario of quasi-steady operation in tokamak fusion reactors by lower hybrid wave current drive are studied. In this operation scenario, the minimization of the recharge time of OH coils or stored energy for it will be essential and can be realized by driving sufficient current without increasing the plasma temperature too much. Low density and broad spectrum are shown to be favorable for the minimization. In the case of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor under design study in JAERI) baseline parameters, the minimum recharge time is 3-5 s/V s. (orig.)

  7. Joint development effort Thermonuclear Fusion. Programme budgeting 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The joint KfK and IPP project for the development of thermonuclear fusion device is established as the centerpiece of Federal German efforts in this field. It is meant to enhance the German contribution to the European programme and thus foster the chances of a joint European large-scale experiment to be started in the Federal Republic of Germany. IPP's tasks in the project are to study the physical principles and aspects, whereas KfK is responsible for the technological aspects. Work at IPP is focused on divertor experiments with the ASDEX series in order to go deeper into the problems that could not be solved by the JET experiments, namely those of the plasma boundary and control of impurities. Stellarator experiments are made in order to study the potentials of this toroidal confinement concept for steady-state operation. The IPP which always has been working in the plasma physics field devotes all activities to the joint effort. KfK has established a special project group for this purpose, PKF. The budgeting programme presented therefore covers the IPP entire working schedule, and that of PKF of the KfK. (orig./GG) [de

  8. Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Mazaheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image fusion is the procedure of combining several images from one or multiple imaging modalities. In spite of numerous attempts in direction of automation ventricle segmentation and tracking in echocardiography, due to low quality images with missing anatomical details or speckle noises and restricted field of view, this problem is a challenging task. This paper presents a fusion method which particularly intends to increase the segment-ability of echocardiography features such as endocardial and improving the image contrast. In addition, it tries to expand the field of view, decreasing impact of noise and artifacts and enhancing the signal to noise ratio of the echo images. The proposed algorithm weights the image information regarding an integration feature between all the overlapping images, by using a combination of principal component analysis and discrete wavelet transform. For evaluation, a comparison has been done between results of some well-known techniques and the proposed method. Also, different metrics are implemented to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm. It has been concluded that the presented pixel-based method based on the integration of PCA and DWT has the best result for the segment-ability of cardiac ultrasound images and better performance in all metrics.

  9. Fusion energy development at McDonnell Douglas: why and how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company started a development program in fusion energy in 1974. This paper discusses the rationale for an industrial program in fusion energy and gives a brief account of the major activities that the company has been involved in during the course of this effort

  10. Research and development plan of fusion technologies in JAERI toward DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Hayashi, Takumi; Abe, Tetsuya; Akiba, Masato; Isono, Takaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sato, Satoshi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Seki, Shogo; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nishi, Masataka; Hayashi, Kimio; Matsui, Hideki; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    In accordance with the 'Third Phase Basic Program on Fusion Research and Development' established by the Fusion Council of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, research and development (R and D) of fusion technologies aim at realization of two elements: development of ITER key components and their improvement for higher performances; and construction of sound technical basis of fusion nuclear technologies essential for fusion energy utilization. JAERI has been assigned in the Third Phase Basic Program as a responsible institute for developing the above two elements, and accordingly has been implementing technology R and Ds categorized in the following three areas: R and D for ITER construction and operation; R and D for ITER utilization (blanket testing in ITER) and toward DEMO; and R and D on basic fusion technologies. The present report reviews the status and the plan of fusion technology R and Ds in the latter two areas, and presents the technical objectives, technical issues, status of R and D and near-term R and D plans for: breeding blankets; structural materials; the IFMIF program; improvements of the key ITER components for higher performances toward DEMO; and basic fusion technologies. (author)

  11. Differential recruitment of WOX transcription factors for lateral development and organ fusion in Petunia and Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbussche, M.; Horstman, A.; Zethof, J.; Koes, R.E.; Rijpkema, A.S.; Gerats, T.

    2009-01-01

    Petal fusion in petunia (Petunia × hybrida) results from lateral expansion of the five initially separate petal primordia, forming a ring-like primordium that determines further development. Here, we show that MAEWEST (MAW) and CHORIPETALA SUZANNE (CHSU) are required for petal and carpel fusion, as

  12. Annual report of Fusion Research and Development Directorate of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hirotaka; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Isei, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Hiroo; Sato, Satoshi; Shimada, Katsuhiro; Sugie, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    This annual report provides an overview of major results and progress on research and development (R and D) activities at Fusion Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008, including those performed in collaboration with other directorates of JAEA, research institutes, and universities. The JT-60U operation regime was extended toward the long sustainment of high normalized beta (β N ) with good confinement (β N =2.6 x 28 s). Effectiveness of real-time control of current profile was demonstrated in high β plasmas. Toroidal momentum diffusivity and the convection velocity were systematically clarified for the first time, and intrinsic rotation due to pressure gradient was discovered. Effects of toroidal rotation and magnetic field ripple on type 1 ELM size and pedestal performance were clarified, and type I ELM control was demonstrated by toroidal rotation control. Variety of inter-machine experiments, such as JT-60U and JET, and domestic collaborations were performed. In theoretical and analytical researches, for the NEXT (Numerical Experiment of Tokamak) project, numerical simulations of a tokamak plasma turbulence progressed and a zonal field generation was investigated. Also, nonlinear MHD simulations found the Alfven resonance effects on the evolution of magnetic islands driven by externally applied perturbations. Integrations of several kinds of element codes progressed in the integrated transport/MHD model, the integrated edge/pedestal model and the integrated SOL/divertor model. In fusion reactor technologies, R and Ds for ITER and fusion DEMO plants have been carried out. For ITER, a steady state operation of the 170GHz gyrotron up to 800 s with 1 MW was demonstrated. Also extracted beam current of the neutral beam injector has been extended to 320 mA at 796 keV. In the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM), designs and R and Ds on Water and Helium Cooled Solid Breeder TBMs were progressed. For

  13. Workshop on beryllium for fusion applications. Proceedings. IEA Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1993-12-01

    As shown by recent developments beryllium has become one of the most important materials in the development of fusion reactors. It is practically the only neutron multiplier available for blankets with ceramic breeder materials and can be used with liquid metal breeders as well. It is one of the most likely materials to be used on the surface of the first walls and of the divertor. The neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium in a fusion reactor is not well know. Beryllium was extensively irradiated about 25-40 years ago and has been used since then in material testing reactors as reflector. In the meantime, however, beryllium has been improved quite considerably. Today it is possible to obtain commercially beryllium which is much more isotropic and contains smaller ammounts of oxide. There are already indications that these new kinds of beryllium behave better under irradiation. (orig.)

  14. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2006-04-15

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  15. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation

  16. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  17. Development on hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL1.0/MG/MC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dezheng; Gao Chunjing; Zheng Shanliang; Liu Haibo; Zhu Xiaoxiang; Li Jingjing; Wu Yican

    2004-01-01

    A Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL) named as HENDL1.0 has been developed by Fusion Design Study (FDS) team of Institute of Plasma Physics, Academia Sinica (ASIPP) to take into account the requirements in design and research relevant to fusion, fission and fusion-fission sub-critical hybrid reactor. HENDLI1.0 contains one basic evaluated sub-library naming HENDL1.0/E and to processed working sub-libraries naming HENDL1.0/MG and HENDL1.0/MC, respectively. Through carefully comparing, distinguishing and choosing, HENDL1.0/E integrated basic evaluated neutron data files of 213 nuclides from the several main data libraries for evaluated neutron reaction cross sections including ENDF/B-VI (USA), JEF-2.2 (OECD/NEA, Europe), JENDL-3.2 (Japan), CENDL-2 (China), BROND-2 (Russia) and FENDL-2 (IAEA/NDS, ITER program). Based on this, 175-group neutron and 42-group photon neutron-photon coupled multi-group working library HENDL1.0/MG used for discrete ordinate Sn method transport calculation (such as ANISN code) and a compact ENDF form (ACE), continuous energy structure (pointwise) neutron cross section library HENDL1.0/MC for Monte Carlo method transport simulation (as MCMP code) can be attainable with the current group constants processing system NJOY and transport cross section preparation code TRANSX referring to the Vitamin-J energy group structure. In addition, two special bases i.e. transmutation (burnup) library BURNUP. DAT and response function library RESPONSE.DAT, have been also made for fuel cycle calculation and reactivity analyses of nuclear reactor. The relevant sample testing, benchmark checking and primary confirmation are also carried out to assess the validity of multi-purpose data library HENDL1.0. (authors)

  18. Investigations of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong

    1999-12-01

    The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D

  19. International collaboration in the development of materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelinckx, S.

    1988-01-01

    International collaboration in the field of fusion physics research has become a tradition since many years. There are good reasons for this. Fusion physics experiments require progressively larger and more expensive machines. The construction of a major fusion device is beyond the possibility of single nations, except for the largest ones. Moreover it is desirable to test several fundamentally different design options. It would therefore be unreasonable to duplicate major fusion physics experiments. The necessity to pool and coordinate efforts in this area has therefore been recognized since many years and not only within the European community, but even on a global scale. The situation is somewhat different in the area of fusion materials research. In a number of areas of materials research 'big machines' are not required and meaningful research is within the reach of even small countries, moreover it can be done in decentralized fashion. It should nevertheless be noted that the number of properties to be studied and the number of materials options to be evaluated is so extensive that even here excessive duplication would be harmful. (orig.)

  20. Quasi-linear absorption of lower hybrid waves by fusion generated alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbato, E.; Santini, F.

    1991-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves are expected to be used in a steady state reactor to produce current and to control the current profile and the stability of internal modes. In the ignition phase, however, the presence of energetic alpha particles may prevent wave-electron interaction, thus reducing the current drive efficiency. This is due to the very high birth energy of the alpha particles that may absorb much of the lower hybrid wave power. This unfavourable effect is absent at high frequencies (∼ 8 GHz for typical reactor parameters). Nevertheless, because of the technical difficulties involved in using such high frequencies, it is very important to investigate whether power absorption by alpha particles would be negligible also at relatively low frequencies. Such a study has been carried out on the basis of the quasi-linear theory of wave-alpha particle interaction, since the distortion of the alpha distribution function may enhance the radiofrequency absorption above the linear level. New effects have been found, such as local alpha concentration and acceleration. The model for alpha particles is coupled with a 1-D deposition code for lower hybrid waves to calculate the competition in the power absorption between alphas and electrons as the waves propagate into the plasma core for typical reactor (ITER) parameters. It is shown that at a frequency as low as 5 GHz, power absorption by alpha particles is negligible for conventional plasma conditions and realistic alpha particle concentrations. In more ''pessimistic'' and severe conditions, negligible absorption occurs at 6 GHz. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880 degrees C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000 degrees C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures

  2. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): A Low-Cost Fusion Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Siemon, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Simple transport-based scaling laws are derived to show that a density and time regime intermediate between conventional magnetic confinement and conventional inertial confinement offers attractive reductions in system size and energy when compared to magnetic confinement and attractive reductions in heating power and intensity when compared to inertial confinement. This intermediate parameter space appears to be readily accessible by existing and near term pulsed power technologies. Hence, the technology of the Megagauss conference opens up an attractive path to controlled thermonuclear fusion

  3. Development and verification of remote research environment based on 'Fusion research grid'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, Katsuyuki; Ozeki, Takahisa; Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Oshima, Takayuki; Sakata, Shinya; Sato, Minoru; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Kiyono, Kimihiro

    2008-01-01

    'Fusion research grid' is a concept that unites scientists and let them collaborate effectively against their difference in time zone and location in a nuclear fusion research. Fundamental technologies of 'Fusion research grid' have been developed at JAEA in the VizGrid project under the e-Japan project at the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). We are conscious of needs to create new systems that assist researchers with their research activities because remote collaborations have been increasing in international projects. Therefore we have developed prototype remote research environments for experiments, diagnostics, analyses and communications based on 'Fusion research grid'. All users can access these environments from anywhere because 'Fusion research grid' does not require a closed network like Super SINET to maintain security. The prototype systems were verified in experiments at JT-60U and their availability was confirmed

  4. Preliminary design and neutronic analysis of a laser fusion driven actinide waste burning hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Duderstadt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The laser fusion driven actinide waste burner (LDAB) system investigated uses partitioned fission power reactor generated actinide wastes dissolved in a molten tin alloy as feed material (or fuel). A novel fuel processing concept based on the high-temperature precipitation of ''actinide--nitrides'' from a liquid tin solution is proposed. This concept will allow for fission product removal to be performed entirely within the device at high burnup. No attempt has been made to optimize this system, but potential performance is impressive. The equilibrium LDAB design consumes 7.6 MT/y of actinide waste. This corresponds to the waste output from 136 light water reactors [1000 MW (electric)]. The mean life of an actinide atom in the LDAB is only 4.5 y; and actinides, once charged to the LDAB, might be reprocessed fewer times during irradiation than in previously proposed systems

  5. Development of Strategic Technology Road map for Establishing Safety Infrastructure of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B. S.; Cho, S. H.; Kam, S. C.; Kim, K. T.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Government established an 'Act for the Promotion of Fusion Energy Development (APFED)' and formulated a 'Strategy Promotion Plan for Fusion Energy Development.' KINS has carried out a safety review of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research), for which an application for use was received in 2002 and the license was issued in August 2007. With respect to the APFED, 'Atomic Energy Acts (AEAs)' shall apply in the fusion safety regulation. However the AEAs are not applicable because they aim for dealing with nuclear energy. In this regard, this study was planned to establish safety infrastructure for fusion energy and to develop technologies necessary for verifying the safety. The purpose of this study is to develop a 'Strategic Technology Roadmap (STR) for establishing safety infrastructure of the fusion energy', which displays the content and development schedule and strategy for developing the laws, safety goals and principles, and safety standards applicable for fusion safety regulation, and core technology required for safety regulation of fusion facilities

  6. A new microcolumn-type microchip for examining the expression of chimeric fusion genes using a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Naoyuki; Kishimoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Shuki; Kishii, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Akio

    2014-11-01

    We report a new type of microcolumn installed in a microchip. The architecture allows use of a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique to detect a messenger RNA (mRNA) chain as a target. Data are presented that demonstrate that the expression of a chimeric fusion gene can be detected. The microcolumn was filled with semi-transparent microbeads made of agarose gel that acted as carriers, allowing increased efficiency of the optical detection of fluorescence from the microcolumn. The hybrid between the target trapped on the microbeads and a probe DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye was detected by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence from the microcolumn directly. These results demonstrate an easy and simple method for determining the expression of chimeric fusion genes with no preamplification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  8. Role of fission-reactor-testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for testing when fusion reactors become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and thus should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, we investigated radiation damage to magnet insulators. This work is now continuing with the use of an improved test capsule. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, we explored a conceptual design for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire First Wall/Blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  9. Some applications of fission-based testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-10-01

    The testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for fusion testing when they do become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, work was performed on the irradiation of magnet insulators. This work is continuing with an improved test environment. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, a conceptual design is presented for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire wall/blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  10. Village power hybrid systems development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Green, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States); Lilley, A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mott, L. [Northern Power Systems, Moretown, VT (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The energy demand in developing countries is growing at a rate seven times that of the OECD countries, even though there are still 2 billion people living in developing countries without electricity. Many developing countries have social and economic development programs aimed at stemming the massive migration from the rural communities to the overcrowded, environmentally problematic, unemployment-bound urban centers. To address the issue of providing social, educational, health, and economic benefits to the rural communities of the developing world, a number of government and nongovernment agencies are sponsoring pilot programs to install and evaluate renewable energy systems as alternatives to line extension, diesels, kerosene, and batteries. The use of renewables in remote villages has yielded mixed results over the last 20 years. However, recently, photovoltaics, small wind turbines, and microhydro system shave gained increasing recognition as reliable, cost-effective alternatives to grid extension and diesel gensets for village-electricity applications. At the same time, hybrid systems based on combinations of PV/wind/batteries/diesel gensets have proven reliable and economic for remote international telecommunications markets. With the growing emphasis on environmentally and economically sustainable development of international rural communities, the US hybrid industry is responding with the development and demonstration of hybrid systems and architectures that will directly compete with conventional alternatives for village electrification. Assisting the US industry in this development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on a program of collaborative technology development and technical assistance in the area of hybrid systems for village power. Following a brief review of village-power hybrid systems application and design issues, this paper presents the present industry development activities of three US suppliers and the NREL.

  11. Final Report (1994 to 1996) Diagnostic of the Spatial and Velocity Distribution of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Fusion Reactor using Beat-wave Generated Lower Hybrid Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The alpha particles in a fusion reactor play a key role in the sustaining the fusion reaction. It is the heating provided by the alpha particles that help a fusion reactor operating in the ignition regime. It is, therefore, essential to understand the behavior of the alpha population both in real space and velocity space in order to design the optimal confinement device for fusion application. Moreover, the alphas represent a strong source of free energy that may generate plasma instabilities. Theoretical studies has identified the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) as an instability that can be excited by the alpha population in a toroidal device. Since the alpha has an energy of 3.5 MeV, a good confinement device will retain it in the interior of the plasma. Therefore, alpha measurement system need to probe the interior of a high density plasma. Due to the conducting nature of a plasma, wave with frequencies below the plasma frequency can not penetrate into the interior of the plasma where the alphas reside. This project uses a wave that can interact with the perpendicular motion of the alphas to probe its characteristics. However, this wave (the lower hybrid wave) is below the plasma frequency and can not be directly launched from the plasma edge. This project was designed to non-linearly excite the lower hybrid in the interior of a magnetized plasma and measure its interaction with a fast ion population

  12. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  13. A Combined Weighting Method Based on Hybrid of Interval Evidence Fusion and Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of system and lack of expertise, epistemic uncertainties may present in the experts’ judgment on the importance of certain indices during group decision-making. A novel combination weighting method is proposed to solve the index weighting problem when various uncertainties are present in expert comments. Based on the idea of evidence theory, various types of uncertain evaluation information are uniformly expressed through interval evidence structures. Similarity matrix between interval evidences is constructed, and expert’s information is fused. Comment grades are quantified using the interval number, and cumulative probability function for evaluating the importance of indices is constructed based on the fused information. Finally, index weights are obtained by Monte Carlo random sampling. The method can process expert’s information with varying degrees of uncertainties, which possesses good compatibility. Difficulty in effectively fusing high-conflict group decision-making information and large information loss after fusion is avertible. Original expert judgments are retained rather objectively throughout the processing procedure. Cumulative probability function constructing and random sampling processes do not require any human intervention or judgment. It can be implemented by computer programs easily, thus having an apparent advantage in evaluation practices of fairly huge index systems.

  14. Developing multiplatform apps : using hybrid solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kristbergsson, Ellert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the process of developing multiplatform apps for mobile phones by discussing and comparing the different methods of developing apps for all platforms. The purpose is to ease decision making of smaller companies that are starting to develop their own product for smartphones. The paper analyses tools based on the Cordova framework and the Qt framework. The difference between how the frameworks deliver the code to the machine, Cordova compiles JavaScript...

  15. Development of large insulator rings for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Tobin, A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses research and development leading to the manufacture of large ceramic insulator rings for the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor). Material applications, fabrication approach and testing activities are highlighted

  16. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te)

  17. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  18. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  19. Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm for prediction and modeling of customer choice in the market. ... attempted to present a new method for the modeling and prediction of customer choice in the market using the combination of artificial intelligence and data mining.

  20. Situation and role of industrial fields in nuclear fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Gen-ichi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established the nuclear fusion technical committee in October, 1980, and has investigated the attitude of industrial fields in progressing nuclear fusion research and development and the measures to cooperate with national development plans. Corresponding to the new long term plan and the establishment of the basic policy for nuclear fusion research and development by Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in June, 1982, JAIF has settled the policy on the situation and role of industrial fields. In this report, first the necessity of firmly grasping the position of nuclear fusion research in atomic energy development is described, next, the present status of the research and development in Japan is reported, and it is mentioned that the role of manufacturers in reinforcing engineering has become more important in industrial fields. In the stage of the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor, the experiences in the engineering safety in fission reactors, environmental safety and system engineering will be utilized. Japanese industrial fields feature that they have made larger cooperation with national projects even in the research and development stage as compared to foreign countries. When the plan of next phase system will be promoted in the future, the cooperating methods in the past should be evaluated, investigated and improved, and the experiences in fast breeder reactors and advanced heavy water reactors should be referred to. Finally, the problems and the countermeasures in nuclear fusion development are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kayo [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Hartman, Philip S. [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ishii, Takamasa [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Suda, Hitoshi [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Akatsuka, Akira [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Shoyama, Tetsuji [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Miyazawa, Masaki [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Ishii, Naoaki, E-mail: nishii@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  2. A Fusion Neutron Source for Materials and Subcomponent Development and Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic-mirror based Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device in Novosibirsk Russia is developing the physics basis for a compact DT Neutron Source (DTNS) for fusion materials and subcomponent development as well as a driver for a fusion-fission driver for nuclear waste burn-up. The efficiency of this concept depends on electron temperature. This paper describes past experimental results as well as methods and prospects to further increase the electron temperature.

  3. An examination of the relationship between the federal government and private fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repici, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The institutional and political criteria, which must be satisfied as prerequisites to any realistic cooperation between the federal government and privately financed fusion engineering development, are examined. The transition of the federal magnetic fusion program from an aggressive development effort into a more science-oriented endeavor is presented as an opportunity for private initiative on an equal partnership basis with the government. Organizational mechanisms and policy changes are proposed that would facilitate such an industrial-governmental partnership

  4. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. 12-month progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Rao, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design and preliminary feasibility assessment for the hybrid blanket and power conversion system of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. Existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology is directly applicable to the Mirror Hybrid Reactor. There are a number of aspects of the present conceptual design that require further design and analysis effort. The blanket and power conversion system operating parameters have not been optimized. The method of supporting the blanket modules and the interface between these modules and the primary loop helium ducting will require further design work. The means of support and containment of the primary loop components must be studied. Nevertheless, in general, the conceptual design appears quite feasible

  5. Process development and tooling design for intrinsic hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, M.; Müller, R.; Drossel, W. G.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine the advantages of different material classes, are moving into the focus of lightweight applications. This development is amplified by their high potential for usage in the field of crash relevant structures. By the current state of the art, hybrid parts are mainly made in separate, subsequent forming and joining processes. By using the concept of an intrinsic hybrid, the shaping of the part and the joining of the different materials are performed in a single process step for shortening the overall processing time and thereby the manufacturing costs. The investigated hybrid part is made from continuous fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic reinforcement structure is integrated. The connection between these layered components is realized by a combination of adhesive bonding and a geometrical form fit. The form fit elements are intrinsically generated during the forming process. This contribution regards the development of the forming process and the design of the forming tool for the single step production of a hybrid part. To this end a forming tool, which combines the thermo-forming and the metal forming process, is developed. The main challenge by designing the tool is the temperature management of the tool elements for the variothermal forming process. The process parameters are determined in basic tests and finite element (FE) simulation studies. On the basis of these investigations a control concept for the steering of the motion axes and the tool temperature is developed. Forming tests are carried out with the developed tool and the manufactured parts are analysed by computer assisted tomography (CT) scans.

  6. Biomagnetic effects: a consideration in fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.

    1976-02-01

    Fusion as a power source is receiving an increasing amount of attention. Several designs have been proposed and the feasibility of each alternative is being studied. As we move closer to a working design, attention can be paid to potential biological hazards. Large magnetic fields and the emission of tritium and lithium are unique to some fusion reactor designs. The results of a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the biological effects of magnetic fields alone and in combination with ionizing radiation are summarized in this report. The purpose of the review is to help identify areas where additional biomedical research is needed for establishing guidelines for reactor design and operation. 64 references

  7. Theory and code development for evaluation of tritium retention and exhaust in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Inai, Kensuke [Univ. of Tokushima, Institute of Technology and Science, Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Kawashima, Hisato; Hoshino, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Toma, Mitsunori [Keio Univ., Faculty of Science and Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Gakushi; Ashikawa, Naoko; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ito, Atsushi; Kato, Daiji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tanaka, Yasunori [Kanazawa Univ., College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Ono, Tadayoshi; Muramoto, Tetsuya [Okayama Univ. of Science, Faculty of Informatics, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Kenmotsu, Takahiro [Doshisha Univ., Faculty of Life and Medical Science, Kiyotanabe, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    As a part of the grant-in-aid for scientific research on priority areas entitled 'frontiers of tritium researches toward fusion reactors', coordinated three research programs on the theory and code development for evaluation of tritium retention and exhaust in fusion reactor have been conducted by the A02 team. They include: (1) Tritium transport in fusion plasmas and the adsorption and desorption property of tritium in plasma-facing components. (2) Behavior of dusts in fusion plasmas and their adsorption property of tritium. (3) Development of computer codes to simulate tritium retention in and release from plasma-facing materials. In order to study these issues, considerable effort has been paid to the development of computer codes and the database system. (J.P.N.)

  8. Theory and code development for evaluation of tritium retention and exhaust in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Inai, Kensuke; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Kawashima, Hisato; Hoshino, Kazuo; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Toma, Mitsunori; Tomita, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Gakushi; Ashikawa, Naoko; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ito, Atsushi; Kato, Daiji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ono, Tadayoshi; Muramoto, Tetsuya; Kenmotsu, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the grant-in-aid for scientific research on priority areas entitled 'frontiers of tritium researches toward fusion reactors', coordinated three research programs on the theory and code development for evaluation of tritium retention and exhaust in fusion reactor have been conducted by the A02 team. They include: (1) Tritium transport in fusion plasmas and the adsorption and desorption property of tritium in plasma-facing components. (2) Behavior of dusts in fusion plasmas and their adsorption property of tritium. (3) Development of computer codes to simulate tritium retention in and release from plasma-facing materials. In order to study these issues, considerable effort has been paid to the development of computer codes and the database system. (J.P.N.)

  9. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  10. Development of large components for the fusion reactor vacuum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinic, D.; Lorrain, C.

    1986-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities appointed in mid-1983 the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH to investigate whether large vacuum components for use in the fusion machine can be built. The following individual targets have been defined for studies under this project: - Elaboration of technical specifications for large components. - Investigation of the feasibility. - Specification of the tests required and planning of a testing facility. The plasma chamber pumping system is essentially concerned

  11. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Addendum 1. Alternate concepts. 12-month progress report addendum, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Dee, J.B.; Backus, G.A.; Culver, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor study several alternate concepts were considered for various reactor components. Several of the alternate concepts do appear to exhibit features with potential advantage for use in the mirror hybrid reactor. These are described and should possibly be investigated further in the future

  12. Development of materials of low activation for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    Unlike nuclear fission, in nuclear fusion, it is a feature that activated products are not formed, but this merit is to be lost if the structural materials of the equipment are activated by generated neutrons. Accordingly, the elements which are activated by neutrons must be excluded from the structural materials in nuclear fusion reactors and fusion experiment apparatuses. As the result of evaluating the materials for low induced activation, aluminum alloys are the most promising. Aluminum alloys have also excellent properties in gas release, the thermal stress of first walls due to the temperature distribution, vaporizing quantity at the time of disruption and so on. However, in the existing aluminum alloys, the lowering of strength above 150 deg C is remarkable, and when the aluminum walls of vacuum vessels are too thick, the rate of tritium breeding may lower. The Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, carried out the total design of a tokamak made of an aluminum alloy for the first time in the world. In this paper, the properties of the aluminum alloy and the feasibility of its industrial manufacture are described, and the course of improving this alloy is pointed out. Improved 5083 alloy and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li alloy were investigated. The industrial manufacture of large plates with this Al-Mg-Li alloy is possible now. (Kako, I.)

  13. System study methodology development and potential utilization for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerassi, H.; Rouillard, J.; Leger, D.; Sarto, S.; Zappellini, G.; Gambi, G.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this new methodology is to combine systemics with heuristics for engineering applications. The system method considers as a whole a set of dynamically interacting elements, organized for tasks. Heuristics tries to describe the rules to apply in scientific research. This methodology is a powerful tool for evaluating the options, compared with conventional analytical methods as a higher number of parameters can be taken into account, with a higher quality standard while comparing the possible options. The system method takes into account interacting data or random relationships by means of simulation modelling. Thus, a dynamical approach can be deduced and a sensitivity analysis can be performed for a very high number of options and basic data. This method can be limited to a specific objective such as a fusion reactor safety analysis, taking into account other major constraints such as the economical environment. The sophisticated architecture of a fusion reactor includes a large number of interacting systems. The new character of the fusion domain and the wide spectrum of the possible options strongly increase the advantages of a system study as a complete safety analysis can be defined before starting with the design. (orig.)

  14. Development of target capsules for muon catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Jones, S.E.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of Muon Catalyzed Fusion experiments has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility to determine how many fusion reactions one muon would catalyze under various temperature, pressure, contamination, and tritium concentration conditions. Target capsules to contain deuterium and tritium at elevated temperatures and pressures were engineered for a maximum temperature of 540 K (512 0 F) and a maximum pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig). Experimental data collected with these capsules indicated that the number of fusion reactions per muon continued to increase with temperature up to the 540-K design limit. Theory had indicated that the reaction rate should peak at approximately 540 K, but this was not confirmed during the experiments. A second generation of capsules which have a maximum design temperature of 800 K (980 0 F) and a maximum design pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig) has now been engineered. These new capsules will be used to further study the muon catalysis rate versus deuterium-tritium mixture temperature

  15. Progress in the development of methodology for fusion safety systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.K.; Cambi, G.; Ciattaglia, S.; Fujii-e, Y.; Seki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The development of fusion safety systems-study methodology, including the aspects of schematic classification of overall fusion safety system, qualitative assessment of fusion system for identification of critical accident scenarios, quantitative analysis of accident consequences and risk for safety design evaluation, and system-level analysis of accident consequences and risk for design optimization, by a consortium of international efforts is presented. The potential application of this methodology into reactor design studies will facilitate the systematic assessment of safety performance of reactor designs and enhance the impacts of safety considerations on the selection of design configurations

  16. The da Vinci robotic surgical assisted anterior lumbar interbody fusion: technical development and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, William J; Peppelman, Walter C; DiMarco, Luciano A

    2013-02-15

    Technique development to use the da Vince Robotic Surgical System for anterior lumbar interbody fusion at L5-S1 is detailed. A case report is also presented. To evaluate and develop the da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic anterior lumbar stand-alone interbody fusion procedure. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure associated with potential morbidity related to the surgical approach. The da Vinci robot provides intra-abdominal dissection and visualization advantages compared with the traditional open and laparoscopic approach. The surgical techniques for approach to the anterior lumbar spine using the da Vinci robot were developed and modified progressively beginning with operative models followed by placement of an interbody fusion cage in the living porcine model. Development continued to progress with placement of fusion cage in a human cadaver, completed first in the laboratory setting and then in the operating room. Finally, the first patient with fusion completed using the da Vinci robot-assisted approach is presented. The anterior transperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine is accomplished with enhanced visualization and dissection capability, with maintenance of pneumoperitoneum using the da Vinci robot. Blood loss is minimal. The visualization inside the disc space and surrounding structures was considered better than current open and laparoscopic techniques. The da Vinci robot Surgical System technique continues to develop and is now described for the transperitoneal approach to the anterior lumbar spine. 4.

  17. Hybrid stage I palliation for hypo-plastic left heart condition without a hybrid suite: Suggestions for developing nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anuradha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hybrid procedures are performed in modern, spacious, and highly equipped hybrid suites in developed countries. Organizing such expensive suites in countries with an emerging economy is difficult from both a financial and logistics point of view. We share our experience of safely performing a Hybrid stage I palliation procedure for Aortic atresia with ventricular septal defect on a 2-month-old infant weighing 3.35 kg using minimal resources in a conventional catheterization laboratory.

  18. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  19. A Study on Establishing National Technology Strategy of Fusion Energy Development: Combining PEST-SWOT Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Han Soo; Choi, Won Jae; Tho, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Yup; Kim, In Chung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion, the joining of light nuclei of hydrogen into heavier nuclei of helium, has potential environmental, safety and proliferation characteristics as an energy source. It can also, provide an adequate amount of fuel to power civilization for a long time compared to human history. It is, however, more challenging to convert to an energy source than nuclear fission. To overcome this, Korea enacted a law to promote the development of fusion as an energy source in 2007. In accordance with this law, the government will establish a promotion plan to develop fusion energy, including policy goals, a framework, strategies, infrastructure, funding, human resources, international cooperation and etc. This will be reviewed every five years. This paper is focused on the combining PEST (political, economic, social and technological) method with SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis, which is a prerequisite to form national fusion energy technology strategy

  20. Technological forecasting a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettert, Plinio G.; Oliveira, Wagner S.; Aquino, Afonso R.

    2009-01-01

    With base in the introduction in long time of the nuclear fusion inside of a system of viable energy, taking in consideration economic factors, would imply on investment in a long period. The objective of this project utilizing the method of the Delphi technique is the technological forecast a long time of the scientific-technological development of the nuclear fusion and its impact. This research project will be carried through different stages of improvement of variables. A questionnaire based on information and analysis of the literature validated for specialists in nuclear fusion becomes this project a tool in the elaboration future of a database contends variables on the theme nuclear fusion and its perspectives. The database will be composed for the answers and suggestions obtained, with exploratory and extrapolatory elements, on the theme a great number of specialists involving in the nuclear fusion area. The database is analyzed for the configuration of variables that represent elements as scientific-technological factors, economical, political, social and environmental among others. As final result of the research with the Delphi technique, different scenes obtained with the variables will be indicated by convergent factors or not on the approached perspectives. The analysis of the data will be possible through of improve of statistical analysis tools. This is the first analyzes of the answers. The questionnaire was validated with nuclear fusion specialists from the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil and the Center of Nuclear Fusion of the Technical University of Lisbon in Portugal. (author)

  1. The European fusion research and development programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion R and D programme is a well integrated and co-ordinated programme a good example of a European Research Area. Its goal is 'the joint creation of prototype reactors for power stations to meet the needs of society: operational safety, environmental compatibility, economic viability'. The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach to fusion energy and supports 21 associated laboratories and a range of experimental and fusion technology facilities. The paper will briefly describe this programme and how it is organised and implemented. Its success and that of other national programmes has defined the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in fusion R and D. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, as well as the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and long-term fusion reactor technology R and D are carried out under the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). Finally, the potential advantages of fusion as an energy source will be presented. (author)

  2. Elise - The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.; Deadeick, F.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the main features of Elise, a future electric-focused accelerator proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research Program is to develop accelerators for fusion energy production. The Elise accelerator would be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and would be designed to be extendible so as to meet this goal. (TEC). 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Fusion power research and development program. Volume IV. 5-year program, budget and milestone summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Budget data are given for each of the tokamak systems, mirror systems, and high density plasma systems for the years 1976 through 1982. All major facilities currently under ERDA contract are included. In addition, budget data are given for the development and technology program consisting of the following; (1) magnetic systems, (2) plasma engineering, (3) fusion reactor materials, (4) fusion systems engineering, (5) environment and safety, and (6) applied plasma physics

  4. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  5. System study methodology. Development and potential utilization for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerassi, H.; Rouillard, J.; Leger, D.; Zappellini, G.; Gambi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this new methodology is to combine systemics with heuristics for engineering applications. The system method considers as a whole a set of dynamically interacting elements, organized for tasks. Heuristics tries to explicit the rules to apply in scientific research. This methodology is a powerful tool to evaluate the options to be made, compared with conventional analytical methods as a higher number of parameters can be taken into account, with higher quality standard while comparing the possible options. The system method takes into account interacting data or random relationships, by means of simulation modelling. Thus, a dynamical approach can be deduced and a sensitivity analysis can be performed for a very high number of options and basic data. Experimental values collection, analysis of the problem, search of solutions, sizing of the installation from defined functions, cost evaluation (planning and operating) and ranking of the options as regard all the constraints are the main points considered for the system's application. This method can be limited to a specific objective such as a fusion reactor safety analysis. The possibility of taking into account all the options, possible accidents, quality assurance, exhaustivity of the safety analysis, identification of the residual risk and modelisation of the results are the main advantages of this approach. The sophisticated architecture of a fusion reactor includes a large number of interacting systems. The new character of the fusion domain and the wide spectrum of the possible options strongly increase the advantages of a system study as a complete safety analysis can be defined before starting with the design

  6. The novel role of fungal intracellular laccase: used to screen hybrids between Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima by protoplasmic fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Zhang, Weiguo; Hu, Kaihui

    2012-08-01

    Laccase has been proved important in decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), oxidation of 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, lignin degradation and fruiting-body formation. The decolorization of RBBR by laccase was firstly used to screen protoplast fusants. Fusants were obtained by protoplast fusion between the strains of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima, and two fusants (IM1 and IIIM5) were screened on PDA medium containing RBBR. These fusants were significant higher in laccase activity than H. marmoreus, nearly 413 and 395 times, respectively. Their hyphal growth rates were also remarkable higher than H. marmoreus, nearly 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed these fusants contained the laccase, and the molecular mass of the laccase was consistent with the laccase of C. maxima, nearly 62 kDa. The pileus color of the IM1 and IIIM5 also showed partial recombined characteristics comparing to the parental strains, while biological efficiency ratios were prominent higher than that of H. marmoreus, up to 14.58 and 10.87 %, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA bands of fusants not only were similar to parental bands, but presented new non-parental bands. Using the Unweighted pair-group method together with mathematic averages method to gain a dendrogram, in which the fusants showed intra-cluster variations. Significantly, H. marmoreus was the dominant parent, while C. maxima were distant from the fusants. The differences among IM1, IIIM5 and H. marmoreus, and the similarities among IM1, IIIM5 and C. maxima indicated IM1 and IIIM5 were somatic hybrids of H. marmoreus and C. maxima. Accordingly, it is feasible to use laccase to screen fusants of H. marmoreus and C. maxima.

  7. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  8. Fusion technology development. Annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    In FY97, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, International and Technology Division, of the US Department of Energy. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 4) and RF Technology (Section 5). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA's fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, we carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and we conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. We continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry

  9. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  10. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  11. Perspectives in the development of hybrid bifunctional antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Zunino, Franco

    2015-08-15

    In spite of the development of a large number of novel target-specific antitumour agents, the single-agent therapy is in general not able to provide an effective durable control of the malignant process. The limited efficacy of the available agents (both conventional cytotoxic and novel target-specific) reflects not only the expression of defence mechanisms, but also the complexity of tumour cell alterations and the redundancy of survival pathways, thus resulting in tumour cell ability to survive under stress conditions. A well-established strategy to improve the efficacy of antitumour therapy is the rational design of drug combinations aimed at achieving synergistic effects and overcoming drug resistance. An alternative strategy could be the use of agents designed to inhibit simultaneously multiple cellular targets relevant to tumour growth/survival. Among these novel agents are hybrid bifunctional drugs, i.e. compounds resulting by conjugation of different drugs or containing the pharmocophores of different drugs. This strategy has been pursued using various conventional or target-specific agents (with DNA damaging agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors as the most exploited compounds). A critical overview of the most representative compounds is provided with emphasis on the HDAC inhibitor-based hybrid agents. In spite of some promising results, the actual pharmacological advantages of the hybrid agents remain to be defined. This commentary summarizes the recent advances in this field and highlights the pharmacological basis for a rational design of hybrid bifunctional agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Prospective conceptual qualification of hybrid centrifugation/distillator for 6LI nuclear fusion technology scaled supply demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedano, L.; Herranz, J. L.; Casado, J. L.; Castro, P.; Xiberta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The change in the demand for exploitation of lithium as a resource appears during the last decade, related to the development of the ion-Li batteries market and with the requirements of Nuclear Fusion fuels (deuterium and lithium) as coming energy option. A prospective analysis of synergistic demands of both markets, in its technical and in its economic aspects appears of prospective interest. The civil market 6 Li/ 7 Li enrichment demand is analyzed. Specific technological developments permitting on-line production according to demand is discussed. A [centrifugation /thermal diffusion / combined distillation] technique is selected and qualified as technologically viable option for scaled production of litiated-forms. A conceptual design of a production plant is finally proposed according to the new technical capability.

  13. Latest results and developments from the Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Rabel; Andruczyk, Daniel; Jeckell, Zachary Jon; Shone, Andrew John; Johnson, Daniel Scott; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David N.; The Hidra Team

    2017-10-01

    The Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a five-period, l = 2, m = 5, toroidal fusion device operated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). It has a major radius R0 = 0.72 m and minor radius a = 0.19 m. Initial heating is achieved with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at an on-axis magnetic field of B0 = 0.087 T which can go as high as B0 = 0.5 T. HIDRA will mainly be used as a classical stellarator, but can also run as a tokamak. This allows for both steady-state and transient regime operations. Experiments on HIDRA will primarily tackle the issue of plasma-material interactions (PMI) in fusion, and focus on developing innovative plasma facing component (PFC) technologies. Currently, research on flowing liquid lithium PFCs meant to be tested inside the machine in real-time operation, is being carried on. The first experiments run on HIDRA started in early 2016 in the low field region. Now, HIDRA is also capable of running in the high field zone, allowing for more interesting experiments and meaningful outcomes. Here, we present some of the initial results coming from the machine.

  14. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kingo; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori.

    1996-01-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI's pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author)

  15. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kingo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori

    1996-03-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI`s pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author).

  16. Inertial confinement fusion research and development studies. Final report, October 1979-August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullis, R.; Finkelman, M.; Leng, J.; Luzzi, T.; Ojalvo, I.; Powell, E.; Sedgley, D.

    1980-08-01

    These Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and development studies were selected for structural, thermal, and vacuum pumping analyses in support of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept development. An additional task provided an outlined program plan for an ICF Engineering Test Facility, using the HYLIFE concept as a model, although the plan is generally applicable to other ICF concepts. The HYLIFE is one promising type of ICF concept which features a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets surround the fusion reaction to protect the first structural wall (FSW) of the vacuum chamber by absorbing the fusion energy, and to act as the tritium breeder. The fusion energy source is a deuterium-tritium pellet injected into the chamber every second and driven by laser or heavy ion beams. The studies performed by Grumman have considered the capabilities of specific HYLIFE features to meet life requirements and the requirement to recover to preshot conditions prior to each subsequent shot. The components under investigation were the FSW which restrains the outward motion of the liquid lithium, the nozzle plate which forms the falling jet array, the graphite shield which is in direct top view of the fusion pellet, and the vacuum pumping system. The FSW studies included structural analysis, and definition of an experimental program to validate computer codes describing lithium motion and the resulting impact on the wall

  17. Development of fusion fuel cycles: Large deviations from US defense program systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, James Edward, E-mail: james.klein@srnl.doe.gov; Poore, Anita Sue; Babineau, David W.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • All tritium fuel cycles start with a “Tritium Process.” All have similar tritium processing steps. • Fusion tritium fuel cycles minimize process tritium inventories for various reasons. • US defense program facility designs did not minimize in-process inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Fusion energy research is dominated by plasma physics and materials technology development needs with smaller levels of effort and funding dedicated to tritium fuel cycle development. The fuel cycle is necessary to supply and recycle tritium at the required throughput rate; additionally, tritium confinement throughout the facility is needed to meet regulatory and environmental release limits. Small fuel cycle development efforts are sometimes rationalized by stating that tritium processing technology has already been developed by nuclear weapons programs and these existing processes only need rescaling or engineering design to meet the needs of fusion fuel cycles. This paper compares and contrasts features of tritium fusion fuel cycles to United States Cold War era defense program tritium systems. It is concluded that further tritium fuel cycle development activities are needed to provide technology development beneficial to both fusion and defense programs tritium systems.

  18. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  19. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  20. The development of hybrid vehicles for the Indian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhera, R.; Srinivas, A. [Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd., Mumbai (India); Ellinger, R.; Sattler, M. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    The passenger vehicle market in India continues to witness a steady growth rate and expected to do so in the future. While the growth rate is primarily driven by the conventional Internal Combustion based engines, Indian automotive industry is exploring various technological options to comply imminent regulations, remain competitive, reduce emissions and ownership cost. Based on the road trials conducted in various parts of India and subsequent analysis of the traffic characteristics, Hybrid Electric Vehicle promises to be appropriate technology for the near future so as to improve fuel efficiency, performance and reduced emissions. Mahindra and Mahindra has established a clear roadmap for development of HEV. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) are seen as a major technology route in order to fulfill future automotive demands with regard to fuel efficiency, emissions, performance and drivability. Mahindra and Mahindra has therefore set-up a clear strategy and roadmap for the development and implementation of HEV's in their product portfolio. The development of hybrid electrical vehicle is also confronted by numerous technical challenges such as Thermal Management, Safety Concept, durability requirements and Noise vibration and Harshness. Also the cost-effectiveness needs to be ensured so as to have a bright market penetration and a viable business. This lecture covers the passenger vehicle sales statistics in India, prevailing traffic characteristics in various types of roads, environmental boundaries and challenges encountered for Indian Market. (orig.)

  1. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  2. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  3. Development of Radiation-Hardening Ceramic Composites for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don Steiner

    2004-01-01

    This Progress Report describes work performed as a collaborative effort between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This research is focused in four areas considered to be critical issues for using SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) as structural materials in a fusion environment: (1) Calculation of the critical dose and temperature for amorphization of SiC by using the TRIM computer code to analyze ORNL and literature data; (2) Measurement of irradiation-induced creep in monolithic SiC or stoichiometric SiC fibers; (3) Determining the effects of high-temperature irradiation on monolithic SiC as part of ORNL's METS experiment; and (4) Gauging the effectiveness of polymer impregnation pyrolysis in improving SiC/SiC composite hermicity. Progress in each area is described, as well as plans for next year

  4. A strategic plan of Korea for developing fusion energy beyond ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, M.; Na, Y.S.; Han, J.H.; Cho, S.Y.; Seo, H.T. [National Fusion Research Center, Daejeon (Korea); Hong, B.G.; Kim, Y.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea); Park, S.R. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea)

    2007-07-01

    Since Korea joined ITER as they were developing a fully super-conducting tokamak, KSTAR, the national agenda for developing fusion energy was renewed and focused on the clear mission - developing a self-reliance program for a fusion demonstration device. A new technical roadmap was developed toward self-reliance of technologies for constructing a fusion power plant in the similar time window as in EU, Japan and US. This looks tough and formidable but Korea would take advantage of their well-established nuclear technologies in power plant design, construction and operation. The Government and the Legislature recognized importance of this effort by establishing a special law for supporting it practically and for giving it a high priority in their R and D agenda. Under this favorable environment, various scenarios for finding the most effective and efficient path to achieve the goal were reviewed. Some of the features of the results of this review are presented. (orig.)

  5. Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fusion is a reaction to form a compound nucleus. It plays an important role in several circumstances in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics, such as synthesis of superheavy elements and nucleosynthesis in stars. Here we discuss two recent theoretical developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The first topic is a generalization of the Wong formula for fusion cross sections in a single-channel problem. By introducing an energy dependence to the barrier parameters, we show that the generalized formula leads to results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation, even for light symmetric systems such as 12C+12C, for which fusion cross sections show an oscillatory behavior. We then discuss a semi-microscopic modeling of heavy-ion fusion reactions, which combine the coupled-channels approach to the state-of-the-art nuclear structure calculations for low-lying collective motions. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 40Ca+58Ni systems, and discuss the role of anharmonicity of the low-lying vibrational motions.

  6. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  7. Fusion reaction product diagnostics in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    A diagnostic method was developed to look for the charged fusion products from the D(D,p)T-reactions in the divertor tokamak ASDEX. With a semi-conductor detector it was possible to evaluate the ion temperature in thermal plasmas from the proton energy spectra as well as from the triton spectra. In lower-hybrid wave heated plasmas non-thermal (fast) ions were observed. These ions create fusion products with a characteristically different energy spectrum. (orig.)

  8. Development and assessment of the CONTAIN hybrid flow solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A new gravitational head formulation for the treatment of stratified conditions has been developed for CONTAIN 1.2, a control volume code used primarily for the analyses of postulated accidents in nuclear power plants. The new CONTAIN formulation of gravitational heads, termed the hybrid formulation, is described. This method of calculating stratified conditions is compared with the old, average-density formulation used in code versions prior to CONTAIN 1.2. Both formulations are assessed in this report with experimental data from three large-scale experiments in which stratified conditions formed by injection of a buoyant gas were observed. In general, the hybrid formulation gives a substantially higher degree of stratification than the old formulation. For stable, fully developed stratifications, the hybrid formulation also gives much better agreement with the measured degree of stratification than the old formulation. In addition, the predicted degree of stratification is robust and not sensitive to nodalization, provided a set of nodalization guidelines are followed. However, for stratification behavior controlled by special physics not modeled in CONTAIN, such as momentum convection, plume entrainment, or bulk molecular diffusion, one should not expect good agreement with experiment unless special measures to accommodate the missing physics are taken

  9. Development of the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheol U; Choi, Hyeun Seok; Han, Chang Soo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type is developed. A pneumatic has the advantage of good compliance, high payload-to-weight and payload-to-volume ratios, high speed and force capabilities. Using pneumatic actuators which have low stiffness, the service robot can guarantee safety. By suggesting a new serial-parallel hybrid type for the service robot which separates into positioning motion and orienting motion, we can achieve large workspace and high strength-to-moving-weight ratio at the same time. A sliding mode controller can be designed for tracking the desired output using the Lyapunov stability theory and structural properties of pneumatic servo systems. Through many experiments of circular trajectory, the pneumatic service robot is evaluated and verified

  10. Development of the Synarcual in the Elephant Sharks (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes: Implications for Vertebral Formation and Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerina Johanson

    Full Text Available The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea, within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage. Examination of early developmental stages indicates that in the Batoidea and the 'Placodermi', individual vertebrae developed normally and only later become incorporated into the synarcual, implying regular somite segmentation and vertebral development. Here we show that in the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii, uniform and regular vertebral segmentation also occurs, with anterior individual vertebra developing separately with subsequent fusion into a synarcual. Vertebral elements forming directly behind the synarcual continue to be incorporated into the synarcual through growth. This appears to be a common pattern through the Vertebrata. Research into human disorders, presenting as cervical fusion at birth, focuses on gene misexpression studies in humans and other mammals such as the mouse. However, in chondrichthyans, vertebral fusion represents the normal morphology, moreover, taxa such Leucoraja (Batoidea and Callorhinchus (Holocephali are increasingly used as laboratory animals, and the Callorhinchus genome has been sequenced and is available for study. Our observations on synarcual development in three major groups of early jawed vertebrates indicate that fusion involves heterotopic cartilage and perichondral bone/mineralised cartilage developing outside the regular

  11. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Kavka, Tetyana; Bertolissi, Gabriele; Ctibor, Pavel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2013), s. 744-755 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/702; GA TA ČR TA01010300 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * tungsten * copper * inert gas shrouding * water-argon plasma torch * gas shroud * hybrid plasma torch * influence of spray parameters * nuclear fusion * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.491, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11666-013-9895-x.pdf

  12. Symbiotic molten-salt systems coupled with accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) or inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder (IHMSB) and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of breeder systems are proposed. One is the combined system of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB) and Molten-Salt Converter Reactor (MSCR), and the other is the combined system of Inertial-confined Fusion Hybrid Molten-Salt Breeder (IHMSB) and modified MSCR. Both apply the molten-fluorides and have technically deep relations. AMSB would be much simpler and have already high technical feasibility. This will become economical the Th breeder system having a doubling time shorter than ten years and distributing any size of power stations MSCR. (orig.) [de

  13. Recent developments in IFE safety and tritium research and considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Susana; Anklam, Tom; Meier, Wayne; Campbell, Patrick; Babineau, Dave; Becnel, James; Taylor, Craig; Coons, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The safety characteristics and at risk inventories in an IFE facility are discussed. • The primary nuclear hazard is the potential exposure of workers and/or the public to tritium and/or neutronically activated products. • Recent technology developments in tritium processing are key for minimization of inventories. • Initial safety studies indicate that hazards associated to the use of liquid lithium can be appropriately managed. • Simulation of worst-case scenarios indicate that the accident consequences are limited and below the limit for public evacuation. - Abstract: Over the past five years, the fusion energy group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress in the area of safety and tritium research for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Focus has been driven towards the minimization of inventories, accident safety, development of safety guidelines and licensing considerations. Recent technology developments in tritium processing and target fill have had a major impact on reduction of tritium inventories in the facility. A safety advantage of inertial fusion energy using indirect-drive targets is that the structural materials surrounding the fusion reactions can be protected from target emissions by a low-pressure chamber fill gas, therefore eliminating plasma-material erosion as a source of activated dust production. An important inherent safety advantage of IFE when compared to other magnetic fusion energy (MFE) concepts that have been proposed to-date (including ITER), is that loss of plasma control events with the potential to damage the first wall, such as disruptions, are non-conceivable, therefore eliminating a number of potential accident initiators and radioactive in-vessel source term generation. In this paper, we present an overview of the safety assessments performed to-date, comparing results to the US DOE Fusion Safety Standards guidelines and the recent lessons-learnt from ITER safety and

  14. Recent developments in IFE safety and tritium research and considerations for future nuclear fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Susana, E-mail: reyes20@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Anklam, Tom; Meier, Wayne; Campbell, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Babineau, Dave; Becnel, James [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Taylor, Craig; Coons, Jim [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The safety characteristics and at risk inventories in an IFE facility are discussed. • The primary nuclear hazard is the potential exposure of workers and/or the public to tritium and/or neutronically activated products. • Recent technology developments in tritium processing are key for minimization of inventories. • Initial safety studies indicate that hazards associated to the use of liquid lithium can be appropriately managed. • Simulation of worst-case scenarios indicate that the accident consequences are limited and below the limit for public evacuation. - Abstract: Over the past five years, the fusion energy group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress in the area of safety and tritium research for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Focus has been driven towards the minimization of inventories, accident safety, development of safety guidelines and licensing considerations. Recent technology developments in tritium processing and target fill have had a major impact on reduction of tritium inventories in the facility. A safety advantage of inertial fusion energy using indirect-drive targets is that the structural materials surrounding the fusion reactions can be protected from target emissions by a low-pressure chamber fill gas, therefore eliminating plasma-material erosion as a source of activated dust production. An important inherent safety advantage of IFE when compared to other magnetic fusion energy (MFE) concepts that have been proposed to-date (including ITER), is that loss of plasma control events with the potential to damage the first wall, such as disruptions, are non-conceivable, therefore eliminating a number of potential accident initiators and radioactive in-vessel source term generation. In this paper, we present an overview of the safety assessments performed to-date, comparing results to the US DOE Fusion Safety Standards guidelines and the recent lessons-learnt from ITER safety and

  15. The Radiological and Thermal Characteristics of Fission Waste from a Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LIFE) and Implications for Repository Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.F.; Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Latkowski, J.; Kramer, K.

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of a Laser Inertial-confinement Fusion Engine (LIFE) to drive a hybrid fusion-fission system that can generate electrical power and/or burn nuclear waste. The system uses the neutrons from laser driven ICF to produce tritium and to drive nuclear reactions in a subcritical fission blanket. The fusion neutron source obviates the need for a self-sustaining chain reaction in the fission blanket. Either fissile or fertile could be used as fission fuel, thus eliminating the need for isotopic enrichment. The 'driven' system potentially allows very high levels of burnup to be reached, extracting a large fraction of the available energy in the fission fuel without the need for reprocessing. In this note, we discuss the radionuclide inventory of a depleted uranium (DU) fuel burned to greater than 95% FIMA (Fissions per Initial heavy Metal Atom), the implications for thermal management of the resulting waste, and the implications of this waste for meeting the dose standards for releases from a geological repository for high-level waste. The fission waste discussed here would be that produced by a LIFE hybrid with a 500-MW fusion source. The fusion neutrons are multiplied and moderated by a sequence of concentric shells of materials before encountering the fission fuel, and fission in this region is largely due to thermal neutrons. The fission blanket consists of 40 metric tons (MT) of DU, assumed to be in the form of TRISO-like UOC fuel particles embedded in 2-cm-diameter graphite pebbles. (It is recognized that TRISO-based fuel may not reach the high burnup of the fertile fuel considered here, and other fuel options are being investigated. We postulate the existence of a fuel that can reach >95% FIMA so that the waste disposal implications of high burnup can be assessed.) The engine and plant design considered here would receive one load of fission fuel and produce ∼2 GWt of power (fusion + fission) over its 50- to 70-year lifetime. Neutron and

  16. The newly developed Toyota plug-in hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Toshifumi; Ichinose, Hiroki [Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to the automobile's concerns, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which use clean electric energy, and HV, with it's high environmental potential and user- friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles, such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an affordable EV range without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV two years later. PHVs have the potential to become popular as a realistic solution towards sustainable mobility by renewable electricity usage in the future. (orig.)

  17. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kießling, R; Ihlemann, J; Riemer, M; Drossel, W-G; Scharf, I; Lampke, T; Sharafiev, S; Pouya, M; Wagner, M F-X

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces. (paper)

  18. Development of a solar-hydrogen hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, P.J.; Gamboa, S.A.; Vejar, Set; Campos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The details of the development of a PV-hydrogen hybrid energy system is presented. An arrangement of photovoltaic modules (125 W/module) was established to provide 9 kW installed power in a three-phase configuration at 127 Vrms/phase. A 5 kW fuel cell system (hydrogen/oxygen) operate as a dynamic backup of the photovoltaic system. The autonomous operation of the hybrid power system implies the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis using an electrolyzer of 1 kW power. The electrical energy used to produce hydrogen is supplied from solar panels by using 1kW of photovoltaic modules. The photovoltaic modules are installed in a sun-tracker arrangement for increasing the energy conversion efficiency. The hydrogen is stored in solar to electric commercial metal hydride based containers and supplied to the fuel cell. The hybrid system is monitored by internet and some dynamic characteristics such as demanding power, energy and power factor could be analyzed independently from the system. Some energy saving recommendations has been implemented as a pilot program at CIE-UNAM to improve the efficient use of clean energy in normal operating conditions in offices and laboratories. (author)

  19. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  20. Development of Transcriptional Fusions to Assess Leptospira interrogans Promoter Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252

  1. Development of transcriptional fusions to assess Leptospira interrogans promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.

  2. Recent developments in the design of conceptual fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribe, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    Since the first round of conceptual fusion reactor designs in 1973 - 1974, there has been considerable progress in design improvement. Two recent tokamak designs of the Wisconsin and Culham groups, with increased plasma beta and wall loading (power density), lead to more compact reactors with easier maintenance. The Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor has undergone considerable upgrading in the design of the first wall insulator and blanket. In addition, a conceptual homopolar energy storage and transfer system has been designed. In the case of the mirror reactor, there are design changes toward improved modular construction and ease of handling, as well as improved direct converters. Conceptual designs of toroidal-multiple-mirror, liner-compression, and reverse-field pinch reactors are also discussed. A design is presented of a toroidal multiple-mirror reactor that combines the advantages of steady-state operation and high-aspect ratio. The liner-compression reactor eliminates a major problem of radiation damage by using a liquid-metal first wall that also serves as a neutron-thermalizing blanket. The reverse-field pinch reactor operates at higher beta, larger current density and larger aspect ratio than a tokamak reactor. These properties allow the possibility of ignition by ohmic heating alone and greater ease of maintenance

  3. Development and testing ov danadium alloys for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    V base alloys have advantages for fusion reactor first-wall and blanket structure. To screen candidate alloys and optimize a V-base alloy, physical and mechanical properties of V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti- Si alloys were studied before and after irradiation in Li environment in fast fission reactors. V-4Cr-4Ti containing 500-1000 wppM Si and <1000 wppM O+N+C was investigated as the most promising alloy, and more testing is being done. Major results of the work are presented in this paper. The reference V-4Cr-4Ti had the most attractive combination of the mechanical and physical properties that are prerequisite for first-wall and blanket structures: good thermal creep, good tensile strength/ductility, high impact energy, excellent resistance to swelling, and very low ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after irradiation. The alloy was highly resistant to irradiation-induced embrittlement in Li at 420-600 C, and the effects of dynamically charged He on swelling and mechanical properties were insignificant. However, several important issues remain unresolved: welding, low-temperature irradiation, He effect at high dose and high He concentration, irradiation creep, and irradiation performance in air or He. Initial results of investigation of some of these issues are also given.

  4. Characterization of chromosome instability in interspecific somatic hybrids obtained by X-ray fusion between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and S. brevidens Phil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehér, A.; Preiszner, J.; Litkey, Z.; Csanádi, G; Dudits, D.

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. and S. brevidens Phil. have been obtained via the fusion of protoplasts from potato leaves and from cell suspension culture of S. brevidens. The wild Solanum species served as donor after irradiation of its protoplasts with a lethal X-ray dose (200 Gy). Selection of the putative hybrids was based on the kanamycin-resistance marker gene previously introduced into the genome of Solanum brevidens by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Thirteen out of the 45 selected clones exhibited reduced morphogenic potential. The morphological abnormalities of the regenerated plantlets were gradually eliminated during the extended in vitro culture period. Cytological investigations revealed that the number of chromosomes in the cultured S. brevidens cells used as protoplast source ranged between 28-40 instead of the basic 2n=24 value. There was a high degree of aneuploidy in all of the investigated hybrid clones, and at least 12 extra chromosomes were observed in addition to the potato chromosomes (2n=48). Interand intraclonal variation and segregation during vegetative propagation indicated the genetic instability of the hybrids, which can be ascribed to the pre-existing and X-ray irradiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in the donor S. brevidens cells. The detection of centromeric chromosome fragments and long, poly-constrictional chromosomes in cytological preparations as well as non-parental bands in Southern hybridizations with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed extensive chromosome rearrangements in most of the regenerated clones. On the basis of the limited number of RFLP probes used, preferential loss of S. brevidens specific markers with a non-random elimination pattern could be detected in hybrid regenerants

  5. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos

  6. Software development infrastructure for the HYBRID modeling and simulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, Aaron S.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Kim, Jong Suk; Rabiti, Cristian; Greenwood, M. Scott

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the HYBRID modeling and simulation project is to assess the economic viability of hybrid systems in a market that contains renewable energy sources like wind. The idea is that it is possible for the nuclear plant to sell non-electric energy cushions, which absorb (at least partially) the volatility introduced by the renewable energy sources. This system is currently modeled in the Modelica programming language. To assess the economics of the system, an optimization procedure is trying to find the minimal cost of electricity production. The RAVEN code is used as a driver for the whole problem. It is assumed that at this stage, the HYBRID modeling and simulation framework can be classified as non-safety “research and development” software. The associated quality level is Quality Level 3 software. This imposes low requirements on quality control, testing and documentation. The quality level could change as the application development continues.Despite the low quality requirement level, a workflow for the HYBRID developers has been defined that include a coding standard and some documentation and testing requirements. The repository performs automated unit testing of contributed models. The automated testing is achieved via an open-source python script called BuildingsP from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. BuildingsPy runs Modelica simulation tests using Dymola in an automated manner and generates and runs unit tests from Modelica scripts written by developers. In order to assure effective communication between the different national laboratories a biweekly videoconference has been set-up, where developers can report their progress and issues. In addition, periodic face-face meetings are organized intended to discuss high-level strategy decisions with management. A second means of communication is the developer email list. This is a list to which everybody can send emails that will be received by the collective of the developers and managers

  7. Software development infrastructure for the HYBRID modeling and simulation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, Aaron S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenwood, M. Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the goals of the HYBRID modeling and simulation project is to assess the economic viability of hybrid systems in a market that contains renewable energy sources like wind. The idea is that it is possible for the nuclear plant to sell non-electric energy cushions, which absorb (at least partially) the volatility introduced by the renewable energy sources. This system is currently modeled in the Modelica programming language. To assess the economics of the system, an optimization procedure is trying to find the minimal cost of electricity production. The RAVEN code is used as a driver for the whole problem. It is assumed that at this stage, the HYBRID modeling and simulation framework can be classified as non-safety “research and development” software. The associated quality level is Quality Level 3 software. This imposes low requirements on quality control, testing and documentation. The quality level could change as the application development continues.Despite the low quality requirement level, a workflow for the HYBRID developers has been defined that include a coding standard and some documentation and testing requirements. The repository performs automated unit testing of contributed models. The automated testing is achieved via an open-source python script called BuildingsP from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. BuildingsPy runs Modelica simulation tests using Dymola in an automated manner and generates and runs unit tests from Modelica scripts written by developers. In order to assure effective communication between the different national laboratories a biweekly videoconference has been set-up, where developers can report their progress and issues. In addition, periodic face-face meetings are organized intended to discuss high-level strategy decisions with management. A second means of communication is the developer email list. This is a list to which everybody can send emails that will be received by the collective of the developers and managers

  8. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  9. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  10. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  11. Diagnostics Development towards Steady State Operation in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burhenn, R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Dreier, H.; Endler, M.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Koenig, R.; Kornejev, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Laux, M.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Pasch, E.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Biel, W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is being presently under construction and is already equipped with superconducting coil systems and principally is capable of quasi-continuous operation. However, W7-X is faced with new enhanced technical requirements which have to be met by plasma facing components as well as the diagnostic systems in general. Depending on the available heating power, the continuous heat flux to plasma facing components during long pulse operation might lead to unacceptable local thermal overload and necessitates sufficient but often complicate active cooling precautions. Fusion devices with electron cyclotron frequency heating (ECRH) are concerned with significant stray radiation, depending on the chosen heating scheme and the plasma parameters. The required shielding is often not compatible with optimal UHV-consistent design and high intensity throughput. For machine safety, diagnostics are required which are able to identify enhanced plasma wall interaction on a fast time scale in order to prevent damage in time. For W7-X, video camera systems covering most of the inner wall, fast IR-camera systems with coating-resistant pinhole-optics for the observation of the divertor surface temperature and spectrometers with large spectral survey covering relevant spectral lines of all intrinsic impurities with sufficient spectral resolution and sensitivity are necessary. In combination with energy integrating but spatially resolving diagnostics like bolometers and soft-X cameras slow impurity accumulation phenomena on a time scale much larger than flat-top times typically achieved in short-pulse operation can be identified and a radiative plasma collapse possibly be avoided by counteractive measures. Longer port dimensions due to thermal insulation of the cryogenic coil system and high density operation with strong density gradients necessitate the choice of shorter wavelengths for interferometer laser beams. This complicates the avoidance of fringe

  12. Report of the summative evaluation by the advisory committee on fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) set up an Advisory Committee on Fusion Research and Development in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations. The Advisory Committee on Fusion Research and Development evaluated the adequacy of the plans of fusion research and development to be succeeded from JAERI to a new research institute which will be established by integration of JAERI and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The Advisory Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside the JAERI conducted its activities from June 2004 to August 2004. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Advisory Committee meeting which was held on July 23, 2004, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on December 1, 2004. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Fusion Research and Development. (author)

  13. Status and prospects for SiC-SiC composite materials development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, A.; Fenici, P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are very attractive for fusion applications because of their low afterheat and low activation characteristics coupled with excellent high temperature properties. These composites are relatively new materials that will require material development as well as evaluation of hermiticity, thermal conductivity, radiation stability, high temperature strength, fatigue, thermal shock, and joining techniques. The radiation stability of SiC-SiC composites is a critical aspect of their application as fusion components and recent results will be reported. Many of the non-fusion specific issues are under evaluation by other ceramic composite development programs, such as the US national continuous fiber ceramic composites.The current development status of various SiC-SiC composites research and development efforts is given. Effect of neutron irradiation on the properties of SiC-SiC composite between 500 and 1200 C are reported. Novel high temperature properties specific to ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are discussed. The chemical stability of SiC is reviewed briefly. Ongoing research and development efforts for joining CMC materials including SiC-SiC composites are described. In conclusion, ongoing research and development efforts show extremely promising properties and behavior for SiC-SiC composites for fusion applications. (orig.)

  14. Development of seismic tomography software for hybrid supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexandr; Serdyukov, Alexandr; Duchkov, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomography is a technique used for computing velocity model of geologic structure from first arrival travel times of seismic waves. The technique is used in processing of regional and global seismic data, in seismic exploration for prospecting and exploration of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and in seismic engineering for monitoring the condition of engineering structures and the surrounding host medium. As a consequence of development of seismic monitoring systems and increasing volume of seismic data, there is a growing need for new, more effective computational algorithms for use in seismic tomography applications with improved performance, accuracy and resolution. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to use modern high performance computing systems, such as supercomputers with hybrid architecture that use not only CPUs, but also accelerators and co-processors for computation. The goal of this research is the development of parallel seismic tomography algorithms and software package for such systems, to be used in processing of large volumes of seismic data (hundreds of gigabytes and more). These algorithms and software package will be optimized for the most common computing devices used in modern hybrid supercomputers, such as Intel Xeon CPUs, NVIDIA Tesla accelerators and Intel Xeon Phi co-processors. In this work, the following general scheme of seismic tomography is utilized. Using the eikonal equation solver, arrival times of seismic waves are computed based on assumed velocity model of geologic structure being analyzed. In order to solve the linearized inverse problem, tomographic matrix is computed that connects model adjustments with travel time residuals, and the resulting system of linear equations is regularized and solved to adjust the model. The effectiveness of parallel implementations of existing algorithms on target architectures is considered. During the first stage of this work, algorithms were developed for execution on

  15. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various sub-types are discussed (admitting that dictionary research has neglected their study,with the aim of determining overall trends and implications, particularly with regard to the possibility of their further development with the means of information technology.

  16. Isolation of probes specific to human chromosomal region 6p21 from immunoselected irradiation-fusion gene transfer hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragoussis, J.; Jones, T.A.; Sheer, D.; Shrimpton, A.E.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Trowsdale, J.; Ziegler, A.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid cell line (R21/B1) containing a truncated human chromosome 6 (6pter-6q21) and a human Y chromosome on a hamster background was irradiated and fused to A23 (TK-) or W3GH (HPRT-) hamster cells. Clones containing expressed HLA class I genes (4/40) were selected using monoclonal antibodies. These clones were recloned and analyzed with a panel of probes from the HLA region. One hybrid (4G6) contained the entire HLA complex. Two other hybrids (4J4 and 4H2) contained only the HLA class I region, while the fourth hybrid (5P9) contained HLA class I and III genes in addition to other genes located in the 6p21 chromosomal region. In situ hybridization showed that the hybrid cells contained more than one fragment of human DNA. Alu and LINE PCR products were derived from these cells and compared to each other as well as to products from two somatic cell hybrids having the 6p21 region in common. The PCR fragments were then screened on conventional Southern blots of the somatic cell hybrids to select a panel of novel probes encompassing the 6p21 region. In addition, the origin of the human DNA fragments in hybrid 4J4 was determined by regional mapping of PCR products

  17. Development of 'low activation superconducting wire' for an advanced fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Y.; Yamada, S.; Sagara, A.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Matsuda, K.; Taniguchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the D-T burning plasma reactor beyond ITER such as DEMO and fusion power plants assuming the steady-state and long time operation, it will be necessary to consider carefully induced radioactivity and neutron irradiation properties on the all components for fusion reactors. The decay time of the induced radioactivity can control the schedule and scenarios of the maintenance and shutdown on the fusion reactor. V 3 Ga and MgB 2 compound have shorter decay time within 1 years and they will be desirable as a candidate material to realize 'low activation and high magnetic field superconducting magnet' for advanced fusion reactor. However, it is well known that J c -B properties of V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are lower than that of the Nb-based A15 compound wires, so the J c -B enhancements on the V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are required in order to apply for an advanced fusion reactor. We approached and succeeded to developing the new process in order to improve J c properties of V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires. In this paper, the recent activities for the J c improvements and detailed new process in V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are investigated. (author)

  18. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  19. Progress in ICRH and lower hybrid launcher development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency methods of heating and non-inductive current drive have become well established and are likely to be part of any next-step Tokamak programme. The present state of development of antennae for ion cyclotron heating and recent developments to enhance the effectiveness of fast wave current drive systems are reviewed. The performance achieved by present systems enables the provision of an ICRH system for next step devices within the existing technology limits. The main Lower Hybrid current drive systems are also reviewed. Present operating limits suggest that the design power density at the grill in large multijunction launchers must be somewhat reduced due to peaking of the electric field. The resulting launcher for a next step machine based on present technology is a large and highly complex device. Development of recent proposals such as the rod array or the hyperguide, in parallel with necessary improvements in the current drive efficiency, would make Lower Hybrid a more attractive method of non-inductive current drive for next step machines. (Author)

  20. Automatic recognition of 3D GGO CT imaging signs through the fusion of hybrid resampling and layer-wise fine-tuning CNNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guanghui; Liu, Xiabi; Zheng, Guangyuan; Wang, Murong; Huang, Shan

    2018-06-06

    Ground-glass opacity (GGO) is a common CT imaging sign on high-resolution CT, which means the lesion is more likely to be malignant compared to common solid lung nodules. The automatic recognition of GGO CT imaging signs is of great importance for early diagnosis and possible cure of lung cancers. The present GGO recognition methods employ traditional low-level features and system performance improves slowly. Considering the high-performance of CNN model in computer vision field, we proposed an automatic recognition method of 3D GGO CT imaging signs through the fusion of hybrid resampling and layer-wise fine-tuning CNN models in this paper. Our hybrid resampling is performed on multi-views and multi-receptive fields, which reduces the risk of missing small or large GGOs by adopting representative sampling panels and processing GGOs with multiple scales simultaneously. The layer-wise fine-tuning strategy has the ability to obtain the optimal fine-tuning model. Multi-CNN models fusion strategy obtains better performance than any single trained model. We evaluated our method on the GGO nodule samples in publicly available LIDC-IDRI dataset of chest CT scans. The experimental results show that our method yields excellent results with 96.64% sensitivity, 71.43% specificity, and 0.83 F1 score. Our method is a promising approach to apply deep learning method to computer-aided analysis of specific CT imaging signs with insufficient labeled images. Graphical abstract We proposed an automatic recognition method of 3D GGO CT imaging signs through the fusion of hybrid resampling and layer-wise fine-tuning CNN models in this paper. Our hybrid resampling reduces the risk of missing small or large GGOs by adopting representative sampling panels and processing GGOs with multiple scales simultaneously. The layer-wise fine-tuning strategy has ability to obtain the optimal fine-tuning model. Our method is a promising approach to apply deep learning method to computer-aided analysis

  1. Alloy development for fast induced radioactivity decay for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of a fusion reactor, the structural material of the first wall and blanket structure will become highly radioactive from activation by the high-energy fusion neutrons. A difficult radioactive waste management problem will be involved in the disposal of this material after the service lifetime is complete. One way to minimize the management problem is the use of structural materials where the radioactive isotopes in the irradiated material decay to levels that allow for simplified disposal techniques. We are exploring how ferritic and austenitic steels could be developed to meet this objective

  2. Development of heavy ion induction linear accelerators as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Meuth, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a continuing study in the USA of the feasibility of an induction linac fusion driver, which would accelerate multiple heavy-ion beams through a sequence of pulsed transformers and amplify the beam current during acceleration. The driver cost could be $200/Joule or less and the cost of electricity in the range of .050-.055$/kWhr. As a next stage of development to assess the feasibility of this approach the authors propose an Induction Linac Systems Experiment. This will test some of the technology and multiple-beam manipulations necessary for a fusion driver

  3. Development of heavy ion induction linear accelerators as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.

    1988-06-01

    There is a continuing study in the USA of the feasibility of an induction linac fusion driver, which would accelerate multiple heavy-ion beams through a sequence of pulsed transformers and amplify the beam current during acceleration. The driver cost could be $200/Joule or less and the cost of electricity in the range of .050-.055$/kWhr. As a next stage of development to assess the feasibility of this approach we propose an ''Induction Linac Systems Experiment''. This will test some of the technology and multiple-beam manipulations necessary for a fusion driver. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Fusion welding of Fe-added lap joints between AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy by hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiao-dong; Liu, Li-ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Hybrid Laser-TIG fusion welding technique was used for joining Mg to Al alloys. → Laser defocusing amount determined penetration depth inside Al alloy of joints. → The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed Mg-Al intermetallics greatly in joints. → A maximum joint strength with optimum thickness of Fe interlayer was obtained. → Excessive addition of Fe interlayer was adverse for the strength improvement. -- Abstract: AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy were lap joined together with the addition of Fe interlayer by fusion welding of hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique. The influence of location of laser focal spot (LFS) on joint penetration depth and that of the depth on joint strength were investigated. The results showed that when the LFS was just on the surface of Al plate, the deepest penetration could be obtained, which contributed to the improvement of shear strength of Fe-added joints, but not to the elevation of the strength of Mg/Al direct joints. The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed massive production of Mg-Al intermetallics but produced Fe-Al intermetallics in the fusion zone of the joints, whose micro-hardness was extremely high and was also adverse for the enhancement of joint shear strength. The effect of Fe-interlayer thickness on the joint shear strength was also examined, and the maximum shear strength of Fe-added joint could achieve 100 MPa with 0.13 mm thick Fe interlayer. The fracture modes of 0.07 and 0.13 mm Fe-interlayer-added joints were both quasi-cleavage, while those of direct and 0.22 mm interlayer-added joints were completely cleavage. The theoretical shear strength of the Fe-added joints was also discussed.

  5. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm 3 GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a 22 Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that 18 F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging

  6. Basic study of cold fusion. 1. The development of excess heat measurement system in electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Tomonari

    1994-01-01

    We have an opportunity ripe to investigate the cold fusion phenomena. In order to declare the subjects to be examined, the precision calorimetry system was developed to try to reproduce the phenomena. The electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode was conducted based on the thought that it is important to confirm the cold fusion phenomena. For precision excess power measurement, the closed cell with recombiner and flow-calorimetry were adopted. The obtained accuracy for the excess power measurement of the system was ±0.2 W at up to 9 W of applied power. This is enough for the excess power reported as the cold fusion phenomena. For farther investigation, measurement of loading ratio of deuterium in the palladium cathode, maintenance of high deuterium loading and analysis of the palladium cathode are to be conducted. (author)

  7. Development of vanadium base alloys for fusion first-wall/blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Matsui, H.; Votinov, S.; VanWitzenburg, W.

    1994-01-01

    Vanadium alloys have been identified as a leading candidate material for fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Certain vanadium alloys exhibit favorable safety and environmental characteristics, good fabricability, high temperature and heat load capability, good compatibility with liquid metals and resistance to irradiation damage effects. The current focus is on vanadium alloys with (3-5)% Cr and (3-5)% Ti with a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy as the leading candidate. Preliminary results indicate that the crack-growth rates of certain alloys are not highly sensitive to irradiation. Results from the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) which simulates fusion relevant helium/dpa ratios are similar to results from neutron irradiated material. This paper presents an overview of the recent results on the development of vanadium alloys for fusion first wall/blanket applications

  8. A New Developed GIHS-BT-SFIM Fusion Method Based On Edge and Class Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of image fusion (or sometimes pan sharpening is to produce a single image containing the best aspects of the source images. Some desirable aspects are high spatial resolution and high spectral resolution. With the development of space borne imaging sensors, a unified image fusion approach suitable for all employed imaging sources becomes necessary. Among various image fusion methods, intensity-hue-saturation (IHS and Brovey Transforms (BT can quickly merge huge amounts of imagery. However they often face color distortion problems with fused images. The SFIM fusion is one of the most frequently employed approaches in practice to control the tradeoff between the spatial and spectral information. In addition it preserves more spectral information but suffer more spatial information loss. Its effectiveness is heavily depends on the filter design. In this work, two modifications were tested to improve the spectral quality of the images and also investigating class-based fusion results. First, a Generalized Intensity-Hue-Saturation (GIHS, Brovey Transform (BT and smoothing-filter based intensity modulation (SFIM approach was implemented. This kind of algorithm has shown computational advantages among other fusion methods like wavelet, and can be extended to different number of bands as in literature discussed. The used IHS-BT-SFIM algorithm incorporates IHS, IHS-BT, BT, BT-SFIM and SFIM methods by two adjustable parameters. Second, a method was proposed to plus edge information in previous GIHS_BT_SFIM and edge enhancement by panchromatic image. Adding panchromatic data to images had no much improvement. Third, an edge adaptive GIHS_BT_SFIM was proposed to enforce fidelity away from the edges. Using MS image off edges has shown spectral improvement in some fusion methods. Fourth, a class based fusion was tested, which tests different coefficients for each method due to its class. The best parameters for vegetated areas was k1 = 0.6, k2

  9. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations

  10. Development of resonance ionization spectroscopy system for fusion material surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Satoh, Yasushi; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) system is now under development aiming at in-situ observation and analysis neutral particles emitted from fusion material surfaces under irradiation of charged particles and neutrons. The basic performance of the RIS system was checked through a preliminary experiment on Xe atom detection. (author)

  11. Present status of design, research and development of nuclear fusion reactors and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Seven years have elapsed since the publication of ''Progress of nuclear fusion research and perspective toward the development of power reactors'' by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in August, 1976. During this period, the research and development of nuclear fusion have changed from plasma physics to reactor technology, being conscious of the realization of fusion reactors. There are the R project in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, and the design and construction of JT-60 in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, to put it concretely. Now the research and development taking the economical efficiency into account are adopted. However, the type of fusion reactors is not reduced to tokamak type, accordingly the research and development to meet the diverse possibilities are forwarded. The progress of tokamak reactor research, core plasma design, nuclear design and shielding design, thermal structure design, the design of superconducting magnets, disassembling and repair, safety, economical efficiency, the conceptual design of other types than tokamak and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  13. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B J

    2006-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R and D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)

  14. First-wall and blanket engineering development for magnetic-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.; Herman, H.; Maroni, V.; Turner, L.; Clemmer, R.; Finn, P.; Johnson, C.; Abdou, M.

    1981-01-01

    A number of programs in the USA concerned with materials and engineering development of the first wall and breeder blanket systems for magnetic-fusion power reactors are described. Argonne National Laboratory has the lead or coordinating role, with many major elements of the research and engineering tests carried out by a number of organizations including industry and other national laboratories

  15. Post-doctoral research work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.

    1992-05-01

    This is a research report report on the work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan, involving study of Beam Emission Spectroscopy. It describes the use of a fast neutral lithium beam (8 KeV) to measure the density profile in a Compact Helical Device. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  17. Development of a hybrid pneumatic-power vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Many complex technologies have been developed and applied to improve the energy efficiency and exhaust emission of an engine under different driving conditions. The overall thermal efficiency of an internal-combustion engine, however, can be maintained at only about 20-30%, with aggravated problems in the design and development, such as overall difficulty, excessive time consumption or excessively high cost. For electric cars, there is still no major technological breakthrough for the rapid recharging of a large capacity battery and detection of remaining power in it. Although all currently available hybrid-power engines are able to lower the amount of exhaust emissions and the fuel consumption of the engine, they are still unable to achieve a stable and optimal running condition immediately after ignition; hence the engine's thermal-efficiency remains low. To solve the aforementioned problems, an innovative concept - a hybrid pneumatic power-system (HPPS), which stores 'flow work' instead of storing electrochemical energy of the battery - is introduced. This innovative power system not only ensures that the internal-combustion ensures optimally but also recycles the exhaust flow to propel the vehicle. The optimization of the internal-combustion and recycling of the exhaust energy can increase the vehicle's efficiency from an original 15% to 33%, an overall increase of 18%

  18. Process algebras for hybrid systems : comparison and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadim, U.

    2008-01-01

    Our research is about formal speci¯cation and analysis of hybrid systems. The formalism used is process algebra. Hybrid systems are systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behaviour. An example of a hybrid system is a digital controller controlling a physical device such as present in

  19. Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Thomas M.

    1994-07-01

    Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

  20. Recent developments in engineering and technology concepts for prospective tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The tokamak has become the most developed magnetic fusion system and it appears likely that break-even and possibly ignition will first be demonstrated in existing machines of this type. Yet larger tokamaks could also demonstrate the essential technologies for the production of useful power. World-wide, well over a hundred tritium-breeder/heat-removal blanket concepts have been devised and preliminary engineering design studies undertaken, but the effort deployed on breeding and power recovery systems has been very small compared with that assigned to plasma research and development. The European Communities' NET (Next European Torus) project may offer an opportunity to redress this imbalance. The NET pre-design stage now in progress for some three years has selected many of the best features of plasma and nuclear design from the world's total efforts in these fields, and the NET concept is described in this paper as exemplifying where magnetic fusion power reactor technology stands today. It is concluded that although there are numerous more advanced types of magnetic confinement fusion reactor at early stages of their physics development, the tokamak offers the best opportunity for the early demonstration of fusion power

  1. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.; Aoto, K.

    2007-01-01

    Future fusion reactors or systems and Generation IV fission reactors are designed and developed in worldwide programmes mostly involving the same partners to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to meet the future energy needs beyond 2030. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactors or systems will be designed for helium and liquid metal cooling and higher temperatures similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches might create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in support of common technologies. (orig.)

  2. Synergies in the design and development of fusion and generation IV fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Carre, F.; Knebel, J.U.; Aoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    Future fusion reactor and Generation IV fission reactor systems are designed and developed in worldwide programmes to investigate and assess their potential for realisation and contribution to the future energy needs beyond 2030 mostly involving the same partners. Huge scientific and financial effort is necessary to meet these objectives. First programmes have been launched in Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for fission and in the Broader Approach for fusion reactor system development. Except for the physics basis for the energy source, future fusion and fission reactors, in particular those with fast neutron core, face similar design issues and development needs. Therefore, the call for the identification of synergies became evident. Beyond ITER cooled by water, future fusion reactor systems will be designed for high-temperature helium and liquid metal cooling but also water including supercritical water and molten salt similar to those proposed for some of the six fission reactor concepts in GIF with their diverse coolants. Beside materials developments which are not discussed in this paper, design and performance of components and systems related to the diverse coolants including lifetime and maintenance aspects might offer significant potentials for synergies. Furthermore, the use of process heat for applications in addition to electricity production as well as their safety approaches can create synergistic design and development programmes. Therefore, an early identification of possible synergies in the relevant programmes should be endorsed to minimise the effort for future power plants in terms of investments and resources. In addition to a general overview of a possible synergistic work programme which promotes the interaction between fusion and fission programmes towards an integrated organisation of their design and R and D programmes, some specific remarks will be given for joint design tools, numerical code systems and joint experiments in

  3. Developement of technologies for nuclear fusion at the Karlsruhe Research Center. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Dammertz, G.; Glugla, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Komarek, P.; Mack, A.

    2002-01-01

    The planned ITER plant needs plasma heating powers of approx. 70-150 MW. Work performed at the Karlsruhe Research Center under this heading mainly comprises the development of microwave oscillators (gyrotrons) and their use for an electron cyclotron resonance heating system and for non-inductive plasma current operation. The plasma, which is approx. 100 million C hot, is confined in a 'magnetic cage' so as to avoid any contact with the wall structures of the vacuum vessel. Building up a magnetic field of this magnitude requires field strengths of at least 2-5 tesla in the plasma; field strengths of 11-13 tesla at the magnet coils are required for future fusion plants, such as ITER. Consequently, the development of the required future superconducting magnet coils enjoys high priority. The blanket, i.e. the enclosure around the combustion chamber of a fusion reactor, plays a major role in the design of a future fusion power plant. Blanket concepts meeting technical requirements are being developed and studied. A blanket must meet three requirements: It must convert the neutron energy into heat, breed the tritium fuel by nuclear reactions, and shield the magnets from neutron and gamma radiations. The fuel cycle of fusion reactors is determined by the gaseous phase of the two hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. In general, hydrogen handling technologies have been developed to a high level, but can be transferred to the handling of deuterium and radioactive tritium only to a very limited extent. Consequently, the necessary development work is carried out. The state of the plasma, also with respect to its purity, is a factor of special importance, as impurities will cause the plasma to dissolve and thus the fusion reaction to break down. Primary vacuum pumps, another area of activity of the Karlsruhe Research Center, first must evacuate the reactor vessel and then, during operation, maintain the necessary atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  4. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  5. Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-02

    The agenda of the meeting was developed to address, in turn, the following major areas: specific problem areas in nuclear energy systems for application of fusion-fission concepts; current and proposed fusion-fission programs in response to the identified problem areas; target costs and projected benefits associated with fusion-fission energy systems; and technical problems associated with the development of fusion-fission concepts. The greatest emphasis was placed on the characteristics of and problems, associated with fuel producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  6. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    During this period work has encompassed: (a) development of electropotential drop techniques to monitor the growth of cracks in steel specimens for a variety of specimen geometries; (b) micromechanical modeling of fracture using finite element calculations of crack and notch-tip stress and strain fields; (3) examining helium effects on radiation damage in austenitic and ferritic stainless steels; (4) analysis of the degradation of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of using these steels in ITER; (5) development of an integrated approach to integrity assessment; and (6) development of advanced methods of measuring fracture properties

  7. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed

  8. Electron-beam-fusion progress report, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    Research progress is reported for the following areas: (1) Proto I, (2) Proto II, (3) EBFA, (4) power flow, (5) contract progress reports, (6) progress in the Sandia program, (7) repetitively operated pulse generator development, (8) electron beam power from inductive storage, (9) fusion target design, (10) beam physics research, (11) power flow, (12) heavy ion fusion, (13) particle beam source development, (14) beam target interaction and target response studies, (15) diagnostic development, and (16) hybrid systems

  9. Hardware in the loop platform development for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, E. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Fowler, E.; Stevens, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation simulation system designed to evaluate hybrid control strategies. The system was designed to reduce development costs and improve the safety of hybrid vehicle control systems. Model-based design processes for power trains typically include a series of processes to assess the real time and physical limitations of control systems prior to in-vehicle testing. The study used a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery; a 67 kW 3-phase induction traction motor; and, a high voltage DC-DC converter within a fuel cell Chevrolet Equinox. Two physical vehicle controllers were used to interface with the virtual vehicle simulation in real time. System performance was monitored with a supervisory computer. A software in the loop (SIL) process was conducted to assess torque control and regenerative braking algorithm validation. An analysis of the controller code showed that a Simulink-native integrator block was updating too slowly. A custom integration term calculation was written. The charge control was then validated and tuned. It was concluded that use of the HIL system mitigated the risk of component damage through the identification and correction of unstable control logic. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Development of a multi-mode hybrid electric bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmans, M.J. [Overland Custom Coach, Thorndale, ON (Canada); Bland, C. [BET Services Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an energy efficient, low floor, 28 foot hybrid electric bus for use as an airport shuttle bus or other specialized transit operations. A multi-mode concept was also adopted to include the capability of operating in battery-only drive, engine-only drive or a range of hybrid electric drive modes. The electric drivetrain was powered by a battery pack or a combination of a battery pack and an internal combustion engine-powered electric generator. The participating companies in this project include Overland Custom Coach, BET Services Inc., Siemens and Transport Canada. The technical feasibility study was described with reference to duty cycles, performance issues, vehicle weight, mechanical drive issues, brakes, suspension, powertrain cooling, heating, ventilation, electrical system, batteries and control system. The commercial feasibility was also described in terms of capital and operating costs. Results of the prototype tests validate the possibilities of zero or reduced emission transit in real world applications. 25 tabs., 32 figs.

  11. Development and characterisation of hybrid polysaccharide membranes for dehydration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Inês T; Huertas, Rosa M; Torres, Cristiana A V; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Crespo, João G

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and characterisation of new hybrid polysaccharide (FucoPol) membranes. These membranes were prepared by incorporation of a SiO 2 network homogeneously dispersed by using a sol-gel method with GPTMS as a crosslinker silica precursor. They were further crosslinked with CaCl 2 for reinforcement of mechanical properties and improvement of their permeation performance. They were characterised in terms of their structural, mechanical and thermal properties. They presented a dense and homogeneous structure, resistant to deformation, with a Tg of 43 °C and a thermal decomposition between 240 and 251 °C. The hybrid FucoPol membranes were tested for ethanol dehydration by pervaporation and also for nitrogen dehydration. They exhibited high water selectivity values, similar to PERVAP ® 4101, however they lost their stability when exposed to solutions of 10.0 wt.% water in ethanol. In contrast, these membranes were stable when applied in N 2 dehydration, leading to reproducible performance and very high water selectivities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent developments in fusion first wall, blanket, and shield technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This brief overview of first wall, blanket and shield technology reviews the changes and trends in important design issues in first wall, blanket and shield design and related technology from the 1970's to the 1980's. The emphasis is on base technology rather than either systems engineering or materials development. The review is limited to the two primary confinement systems, tokamaks and mirrors, and production of electricity as the primary goal for development

  13. Perspective on the fusion-fission energy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, R.C.; Perry, R.T.; Teofilo, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    A concept which has potential for near-term application in the electric power sector of our energy economy is combining fusion and fission technology. The fusion-fission system, called a hybrid, is distinguished from its pure fusion counterpart by incorporation of fertile materials (uranium or thorium) in the blanket region of a fusion machine. The neutrons produced by the fusion process can be used to generate energy through fission events in the blanket or produce fuel for fission reactors through capture events in the fertile material. The performance requirements of the fusion component of hybrids is perceived as being less stringent than those for pure fusion electric power plants. The performance requirements for the fission component of hybrids is perceived as having been demonstrated or could be demonstrated with a modest investment of research and development funds. This paper presents our insights and observations of this concept in the context of why and where it might fit into the picture of meeting our future energy needs. A bibliography of hybrid research is given

  14. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  15. NIMROD: A Customer Focused, Team Driven Approach for Fusion Code Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, H. M.; Schnack, D. D.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code that will be used for the analysis of existing fusion experiments, prediction of operational limits, and design of future devices. An approach called Integrated Product Development (IPD) is being used for the development of NIMROD. It is a dramatic departure from existing practice in the fusion program. Code development is being done by a self-directed, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional team that consists of experts in plasma theory, experiment, computational physics, and computer science. Customer representatives (ITER, US experiments) are an integral part of the team. The team is using techniques such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Pugh Concept Selection, Rapid Prototyping, and Risk Management, during the design phase of NIMROD. Extensive use is made of communication and internet technology to support collaborative work. Our experience with using these team techniques for such a complex software development project will be reported.

  16. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, R.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a ≥ 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of ∼50 separated in time by ∼0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments

  17. Roles of plasma neutron source reactor in development of fusion reactor engineering: Comparison with fission reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi; Kawabe, Takaya

    1995-01-01

    The history of development of fusion power reactor has come to a turning point, where the main research target is now shifting from the plasma heating and confinement physics toward the burning plasma physics and reactor engineering. Although the development of fusion reactor system is the first time for human beings, engineers have experience of development of fission power reactor. The common feature between them is that both are plants used for the generation of nuclear reactions for the production of energy, nucleon, and radiation on an industrial scale. By studying the history of the development of the fission reactor, one can find the existence of experimental neutron reactors including irradiation facilities for fission reactor materials. These research neutron reactors played very important roles in the development of fission power reactors. When one considers the strategy of development of fusion power reactors from the points of fusion reactor engineering, one finds that the fusion neutron source corresponds to the neutron reactor in fission reactor development. In this paper, the authors discuss the roles of the plasma-based neutron source reactors in the development of fusion reactor engineering, by comparing it with the neutron reactors in the history of fission power development, and make proposals for the strategy of the fusion reactor development. 21 refs., 6 figs

  18. Recent diagnostic development for inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.J.; Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.N. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require sophisticated diagnostics with temporal resolution measured in tens of picoseconds and spatial resolutions measured in microns. The Los Alamos ICF Program is currently supporting a number of diagnostics on the Nova and Triden laser facilities, and is developing new diagnostics for use on the Omega laser facility. New systems and technologies are being developed for use on the National Ignition Facility, which is expected to be operational early in the next decade.

  19. Pulsed-power-supply development for fusion applications: special research support agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is a final summary describing research and development work carried out by the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) for the Department of Energy during calendar years 1978, 1979, and 1980. The general purpose of this special research support program was to conduct research on pulsed power supply development for fusion applications in the areas of homopolar generators (HPGs), tokamak ohmic heating stuides, switching, and pulse compression technology

  20. Recent diagnostic development for inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require sophisticated diagnostics with temporal resolution measured in tens of picoseconds and spatial resolutions measured in microns. The Los Alamos ICF Program is currently supporting a number of diagnostics on the Nova and Triden laser facilities, and is developing new diagnostics for use on the Omega laser facility. New systems and technologies are being developed for use on the National Ignition Facility, which is expected to be operational early in the next decade

  1. Development of a swelling equation for 20%-CW 316 in a fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in the development of swelling correlations for AISI 316 in fusion environments are discussed. A set of void and bubble-swelling correlations has been developed which incorporates the limited available data from EBR-II and HFIR irradiations. It appears that at high fluences helium may play a minor role in the determination of total swelling over a considerable temperature range

  2. Current status of research and development on remote maintenance for fusion components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing attention to remote maintenance of nuclear fusion reactors. Remote maintenance is planned in ITER tokamak to keep the health of in-vessel components like blankets and divertors. In this article, current status of the development in the remote maintenance equipments and methods, especially for ITER tokamak are reviewed. The newly developed vehicle type and boom type maintenance devices, manipulator, and transfer cask are illustrated. (J.P.N.)

  3. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  4. Non-electrical uses of thermal energy generated in the production of fissile fuel in fusion--fission reactors: a comparative economic parametric analysis for a hybrid with or without synthetic fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technologic quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plant, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission--fusion--synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion--fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. Assuming an electricity cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per power unit of 4.2 to 6 $/GJ (132 to 189 k$/MWty) for the fission--fusion complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ (47 to 95 k$/MWty) for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production net cost (i.e., revenue = cost) varies between 6.5 and 8.6 $/GJ. These costs can compete with those obtained by other processes (natural gas reforming, resid partial oxidation, coal gasification, nuclear fission, solar electrolysis, etc.). This study points out a potential use of the fusion--fission hybrid other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation

  5. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  6. Development of neutral beams for fusion plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, H.H.; Pyle, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A state-of-the-art account of neutral beam technology at the LBL/LLNL and ORNL facilities is given with emphasis on positive-ion-based systems. The advances made in the last few years are elaborated and problem areas are identified. The ORNL program has successfully completed the neutral injection systems for PLT, ISX-B, and most recently, PDX and the ISX-B upgrade. All of these are high current (60 to 100 A), medium energy (40 to 50 keV) systems. This program is also engaged in the development of a reactor-grade advanced positive ion system (150 to 200 kV/100 A/5 to 10 s) and a multimegawatt, long pulse (30 s) heating system for ISX-C. In a joint program, LBL and LLNL are developing and testing neutral beam injection systems based on the acceleration of positive ions for application in the 80- to 160-keV range on MFTF-B, D-III, TFTR/TFM, ETF, MNS, etc. A conceptual design of a 160-keV injection system for the German ZEPHYR project is in progress at LBL/LLNL and independently at ORNL. The laboratories are also engaged in the development of negative-ion-based systems for future applications at higher energies

  7. Development of neutral beams for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselton, H.H.; Pyle, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A state-of-the-art account of neutral beam technology at the LBL/LLNL and ORNL facilities is given with emphasis on positive-ion-based systems. The advances made in the last few years are elaborated and problem areas are identified. The ORNL program has successfully completed the neutral injection systems for PLT, ISX-B, and most recently, PDX and the ISX-B upgrade. All of these are high current (60 to 100 A), medium energy (40 to 50 keV) systems. This program is also engaged in the development of a reactor-grade advanced positive ion system (150 to 200 kV/100 A/5 to 10 s) and a multimegawatt, long pulse (30 s) heating system for ISX-C. In a joint program, LBL and LLNL are developing and testing neutral beam injection systems based on the acceleration of positive ions for application in the 80- to 160-keV range on MFTF-B, D-III, TFTR/TFM, ETF, MNS, etc. A conceptual design of a 160-keV injection system for the German ZEPHYR project is in progress at LBL/LLNL and independently at ORNL. The laboratories are also engaged in the development of negative-ion-based systems for future applications at higher energies.

  8. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    Worldwide demand for power, and in particular electricity, is growing. Increasing population, expanding dependence on electrical devices, as well as the development of emerging nations, has created significant challenges for the power production. Compounding the issue are concerns over pollution, natural resource supplies, and political obstacles in troubled parts of the world. Many believe that investment in renewable energy will solve the expected energy crisis; however, renewable energy has many shortfalls. Consequently, additional sources of energy should be explored to provide the best options for the future. Electricity from fusion power offers many advantages over competing technologies. It can potentially produce large amounts of clean energy, without the serious concerns of fission power plant safety and nuclear waste. Fuel supplies for fusion are plentiful. Fusion power plants can be operated as needed, without dependence on location, or local conditions. However, there are significant challenges before fusion can be realized. Many factors currently limit the effectiveness of fusion power, which prevents a commercial power plant from being feasible. Scientists in many countries have built, and operate, experimental fusion plants to study the fusion process. The leading examples are magnetic confinement reactors known as tokamaks. At present, reactor gain is near unity, where the fusion power output is nearly the same as the power required to operate the reactor. A tenfold increase in gain is what reactors such as ITER hope to achieve, where 50 MW will be used for plasma heating, magnetic fields, and so forth, with a power output of 500 MW. Before this can happen, further research is required. Loss of particle and energy confinement is a principal cause of low performance; therefore, increasing confinement time is key. There are many causes of thermal and particle transport that are being researched, and the prime tools for conducting this research are

  9. Thought-action fusion as a causal factor in the development of intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Spaan, V

    1999-03-01

    Thought-action fusion refers to the tendency to treat thoughts and actions as equivalents. Some authors (e.g., Rachman, 1997; Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 793-802) have suggested that thought-action fusion plays a role in the etiology of obsessive intrusions. The present study sought to test this idea. Subjects (n = 19) in the experimental condition underwent a bogus EEG recording session. They were informed that the apparatus was able to pick up the word 'apple' and that thoughts of that word could result in the administration of electrical shocks to another person. After having spent 15 minutes in the EEG laboratory, experimental subjects and controls (n = 26) completed a short questionnaire containing items about characteristics of the target thought (e.g., frequency, aversiveness). Results indicate that thought-action fusion, indeed, promotes intrusive thinking in that it results in a higher frequency of target thoughts, more discomfort, and more resistance. Thus, the current findings support the idea that thought-action fusion may contribute to the development of obsessive intrusions.

  10. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  11. Rational design of an EGF-IL18 fusion protein: Implication for developing tumor therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Peng Ying; Meng Zhefeng; Jin Liqin; Lu Yongsui; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine. This protein has a role in regulating immune responses and exhibits significant anti-tumor activities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor that plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. It was proposed that a targeted delivery of IL-18 by generation of IL-18-EGF fusion protein might decrease adverse effects and result in enhancing cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study, a fusion protein, consisting of EGFR binding domain fused to human IL-18 mature peptide via a linker peptide of (Gly 4 Ser) 3, was constructed and expressed in the insect cell line Sf9 using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. We showed that the purified recombinant fusion protein induced similar levels of IFN-γ to that of native IL-18 protein in human PBMC in the presence of ConA. Furthermore, EGF receptor competitive test in human epithelial cancer A431 cell line showed that EGF-IL18 fusion protein can specifically bind with EGFR by competing with native EGF protein. These suggest that this rationally designed protein can be further developed as novel tumor therapeutics

  12. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Park, H. R.; Jang, B. S.; Roh, C. H.; Eom, H. S.; Choi, N. H.; Seol, M. A.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, H. M.; Park, M. K.; Shin, H. J.; Ryu, D. K.; Oh, W. J.; Kim, S. H; Yee, S. T.

    2012-04-15

    1. Objectives Establishment of modelling of degenerative aging using radiation technology Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model 2. Project results Establishment of the modeling of degenerative aging using radiation technology - The systematic study on the comparison of radiation-induced degeneration and natural aging process in animals and cells confirmed the biological similarity between these two degeneration models - The effective biomarkers were selected for the modelling of degenerative aging using radiation (10 biomarkers for immune/hematopoiesis, 1 for oxidative stress, 6 for molecular signaling, 3 for lipid metabolism) - The optimal irradiation condition was established for the modelling of degerative aging (total 5Gy with fractionation by over 10 times, lapse of over 4 months) - The molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced degeneration were studied including chronic inflammation (lung), inflammation-related lipid metabolism disturbance, mitochondria biogenesis and dynamics - The radiation degenerative model was evaluated with previously known natural substances (resveratrol, EGCG, etc) Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model - After the screening of about 800 natural herb extracts, 5 effective substances were selected for aging modulation. - 3 candidate compositions were selected from 20 compositions made from effective substances by in vitro evaluation (WAH2, WAH6, WAH7) - 1 composition (WAH6) was selected as the best aging modulator by in vivo evaluation in radiation-induced aging models and degenerative disease models. 3. Expected benefits and plan of application The modelling of degenerative aging using radiation can facilitate the aging research by providing the useful cell/animal models for aging research A large economic benefits are expected by the commercialization of developed aging modulators (over 10 billion KW in 2015.

  13. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, S. K.; Park, H. R.; Jang, B. S.; Roh, C. H.; Eom, H. S.; Choi, N. H.; Seol, M. A.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, H. M.; Park, M. K.; Shin, H. J.; Ryu, D. K.; Oh, W. J.; Kim, S. H; Yee, S. T.

    2012-04-01

    1. Objectives Establishment of modelling of degenerative aging using radiation technology Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model 2. Project results Establishment of the modeling of degenerative aging using radiation technology - The systematic study on the comparison of radiation-induced degeneration and natural aging process in animals and cells confirmed the biological similarity between these two degeneration models - The effective biomarkers were selected for the modelling of degenerative aging using radiation (10 biomarkers for immune/hematopoiesis, 1 for oxidative stress, 6 for molecular signaling, 3 for lipid metabolism) - The optimal irradiation condition was established for the modelling of degerative aging (total 5Gy with fractionation by over 10 times, lapse of over 4 months) - The molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced degeneration were studied including chronic inflammation (lung), inflammation-related lipid metabolism disturbance, mitochondria biogenesis and dynamics - The radiation degenerative model was evaluated with previously known natural substances (resveratrol, EGCG, etc) Development of aging modulators using radiation degenerative aging model - After the screening of about 800 natural herb extracts, 5 effective substances were selected for aging modulation. - 3 candidate compositions were selected from 20 compositions made from effective substances by in vitro evaluation (WAH2, WAH6, WAH7) - 1 composition (WAH6) was selected as the best aging modulator by in vivo evaluation in radiation-induced aging models and degenerative disease models. 3. Expected benefits and plan of application The modelling of degenerative aging using radiation can facilitate the aging research by providing the useful cell/animal models for aging research A large economic benefits are expected by the commercialization of developed aging modulators (over 10 billion KW in 2015

  14. Expression of hybrid fusion protein (Cry1Ac::ASAL) in transgenic rice plants imparts resistance against multiple insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddupally, Dayakar; Tamirisa, Srinath; Gundra, Sivakrishna Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2018-05-31

    To evolve rice varieties resistant to different groups of insect pests a fusion gene, comprising DI and DII domains of Bt Cry1Ac and carbohydrate binding domain of garlic lectin (ASAL), was constructed. Transgenic rice lines were generated and evaluated to assess the efficacy of Cry1Ac::ASAL fusion protein against three major pests, viz., yellow stem borer (YSB), leaf folder (LF) and brown planthopper (BPH). Molecular analyses of transgenic plants revealed stable integration and expression of the fusion gene. In planta insect bioassays on transgenics disclosed enhanced levels of resistance compared to the control plants. High insect mortality of YSB, LF and BPH was observed on transgenics compared to that of control plants. Furthermore, honeydew assays revealed significant decreases in the feeding ability of BPH on transgenic plants as compared to the controls. Ligand blot analysis, using BPH insects fed on cry1Ac::asal transgenic rice plants, revealed a modified receptor protein-binding pattern owing to its ability to bind to additional receptors in insects. The overall results authenticate that Cry1Ac::ASAL protein is endowed with remarkable entomotoxic effects against major lepidopteran and hemipteran insects. As such, the fusion gene appears promising and can be introduced into various other crops to control multiple insect pests.

  15. Development of actively cooled divertor plates for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Satoh, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of high thermal resistant divertor plates using the brazing technique has been conducted. Uni-directional carbon-fiber-reinforced-carbon (CFC) has been selected as the surface material because of its high thermal conductivity and mechanical strength, while copper-alloy has been chosen as the base plate because of its high thermal conductivity. Brazing materials on CFC were examined and applied to the divertor element samples (25mm x 25mm x 35mm). Then, the samples were exposed to a high heat flux electron beam. It was found that the fabricated samples can withstand repetitive thermal shocks of 30MW/m{sup 2} x 2sec for more than 500 times. Using the developed method, two types of partial divertor models were fabricated and tested. It was shown that the models have sufficient structural integrity against thermal shocks of 9MW/m{sup 2} x 3sec-14MW/m{sup 2} x 4sec for up to 1200 times. The thermal analyses suggested that the models could withstand the steady-state heat flux of 12.6MW/m{sup 2}. In addition, the thermal stress analyses showed that the structural modification could reduce the thermal stress on the models. (orig.).

  16. Workshop summaries for the third US/USSR symposium on fusion-fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    Workshop summaries on topics related to the near-term development requirements for fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors are presented. The summary topics are as follows: (1) external factors, (2) plasma engineering, (3) ICF hybrid reactors, (4) blanket design, (5) materials and tritium, and (6) blanket engineering development requirements

  17. Magnetic fusion energy and computers. The role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the structure and uses of the MFE Network and presents a compilation of future computing requirements. Its primary emphasis is on the role of supercomputers in fusion research. One of its key findings is that with the introduction of each successive class of supercomputer, qualitatively improved understanding of fusion processes has been gained. At the same time, even the current Class VI machines severely limit the attainable realism of computer models. Many important problems will require the introduction of Class VII or even larger machines before they can be successfully attacked

  18. Development of plasma facing components for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Fujiya, Y.; Inoue, M.; Morimoto, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The divertor structure and fabrication process have been investigated, including the structures of the divertor elements and support, fundamental brazing techniques, brazing of large divertor tiles and fabrication method of large divertor modules. Using direct brazing, a partial divertor module with large CFC tiles was fabricated and tested. It was shown that the model had sufficient structural integrity against thermal shocks of {approximately}17MW/m{sup 2} {times} 4 sec for up to 1,600 times. A fabrication technique for large and complex-shaped divertor module has been developed and successfully applied to a 1m-long linear and 0.8m-long curved divertor modules. In addition, preliminary investigation of direct brazing of beryllium to the copper substrate has been conducted. It was found that the bending strength of the bonded materials was around 40 MPa. Furthermore, boron coating on the CFC and Mo has been examined. Using the boron ion implantation technique, boron ions were implanted to the CFC and Mo plates prior to the boron atoms deposition. The samples fabricated with this method were found to have a sufficient thermal shock resistance.

  19. Neutrons and fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi

    1991-01-01

    The strategy of the devolopment of the fusion reactor has been compared with the history of the development of the fission reactor. More than 50 neutron reactors (neutron sources for research and development of reactor components and materials, and for Pu production) have been constructed and operated before the introduction of demonstration power reactors. This fact suggests us to introduce a new path of neutron reactor in the strategy of the development of fusion power reactor in addition to the orthodox approach which goes through the break-even, self-ignition, ETR, and DEMO. One of the benefits of the introduction of such neutron reactor or into the strategy of the fusion reactor development has been studied numerically. The results demonstrate that the introduction of fission-fusion hybrid reactor in 2030, can save ∝20% of natural uranium by 2100 in Japan, in comparison with the case when the fast breeder reactor is introduced in 2030. This saving is recognized large enough to justify earlier construction of the fusion neutron reactor. (orig.)

  20. Development of Modulators Against Degenerative Aging Using Radiation Fusion Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U.; Park, H. R.

    2010-04-15

    In this study, we selected final 20 biomarkers for the degenerative aging to develop radiation aging modeling, and validated a few of selected markers to utilize them in the screening of aging modulators. To select the biomarkers of the degenerative aging, 4 categories of aging-related markers (immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, signaling molecule, lipid metabolism) were comparatively analyzed in irradiated and normally aged biosystems (cell lines or mice). In result, most of the biomarkers showed similar changes by irradiation and normal aging. Regarding the immune/hematopoiesis, the decline of immune cell functions (lymphocyte, NK cell) and Th1/Th2 imbalance, and decreased antigen-presenting of dendritic cells were observed and 10 biomarkers were selected in this category. mtDNA deletion was selected for the oxidative damage marker, 6 biomarkers including p21 and p-FOXO3a for signaling molecule biomarkers, and 3 biomarkers including the adipose tissue weight were selected for lipid metabolism. In addition, the various radiation application conditions by single/factionated irradiation and the periods after the irradiation were investigated for the optimal induction of changes of biomarker, which revealed that total 5Gy of 10 or more fractionated irradiations and 4 months or greather period were observed to be optimal. To found the basis for the screening of natural aging modulators, some selected aging biomarkers were validated by their inhibition by well-known natural agents (EGCG, HemoHIM, etc) in aged cell or mouse model. Additionally, by evaluating the reductive efficacy of 5 natural agents on the degeneration of skin and reproductive organs induced by radiation and chemicals (cyclophosphamide, etc), we established the base for the screening of degenerative diseases by various factors