WorldWideScience

Sample records for fusion experimental capabilities

  1. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility: experimental capabilities and test matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the experimental capabilities of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) and reference material specimen test matrices. The description of the experimental capabilities and the test matrices has been updated to match the current single test cell facility ad assessed experimenter needs. Sufficient detail has been provided so that the user can plan irradiation experiments and conceptual hardware. The types of experiments, irradiation environment and support services that will be available in FMIT are discussed

  2. FMEF/experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.A.; Dronen, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), under construction at the Hanford site north of Richland, Washington, will be one of the most modern facilities offering irradiated fuels and materials examination capabilities and fuel fabrication development technologies. Scheduled for completion in 1984, the FMEF will provide examination capability for fuel assemblies, fuel pins and test pins irradiated in the FFTF. Various functions of the FMEF are described, with emphasis on experimental data-gathering capabilities in the facility's Nondestructive and Destructive examination cell complex

  3. Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system

  4. Validating Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) predictive capability using perturbed capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark; Magelssen, Glenn; Tregillis, Ian; Hsu, Scott; Bradley, Paul; Dodd, Evan; Cobble, James; Flippo, Kirk; Offerman, Dustin; Obrey, Kimberly; Wang, Yi-Ming; Watt, Robert; Wilke, Mark; Wysocki, Frederick; Batha, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Achieving ignition on NIF is a monumental step on the path toward utilizing fusion as a controlled energy source. Obtaining robust ignition requires accurate ICF models to predict the degradation of ignition caused by heterogeneities in capsule construction and irradiation. LANL has embarked on a project to induce controlled defects in capsules to validate our ability to predict their effects on fusion burn. These efforts include the validation of feature-driven hydrodynamics and mix in a convergent geometry. This capability is needed to determine the performance of capsules imploded under less-than-optimum conditions on future IFE facilities. LANL's recently initiated Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) conducted at Rochester's Omega facility are providing input for these efforts. Recent simulation and experimental results will be shown.

  5. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  6. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  7. Neural network fusion capabilities for efficient implementation of tracking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshan, Malur K.; Amoozegar, Farid

    1997-03-01

    The ability to efficiently fuse information of different forms to facilitate intelligent decision making is one of the major capabilities of trained multilayer neural networks that is now being recognized. While development of innovative adaptive control algorithms for nonlinear dynamical plants that attempt to exploit these capabilities seems to be more popular, a corresponding development of nonlinear estimation algorithms using these approaches, particularly for application in target surveillance and guidance operations, has not received similar attention. We describe the capabilities and functionality of neural network algorithms for data fusion and implementation of tracking filters. To discuss details and to serve as a vehicle for quantitative performance evaluations, the illustrative case of estimating the position and velocity of surveillance targets is considered. Efficient target- tracking algorithms that can utilize data from a host of sensing modalities and are capable of reliably tracking even uncooperative targets executing fast and complex maneuvers are of interest in a number of applications. The primary motivation for employing neural networks in these applications comes from the efficiency with which more features extracted from different sensor measurements can be utilized as inputs for estimating target maneuvers. A system architecture that efficiently integrates the fusion capabilities of a trained multilayer neural net with the tracking performance of a Kalman filter is described. The innovation lies in the way the fusion of multisensor data is accomplished to facilitate improved estimation without increasing the computational complexity of the dynamical state estimator itself.

  8. Sub-barrier fusion: An experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a review of the current status of the experimental study of heavy-ion fusion at sub-barrier energies. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of the experimentally observed quantities with theoretical expectations. Results of measurements of the spin distributions of the composite systems formed following fusion are critically examined with a view to understanding the large discrepancies between theory and experiment which exist for some systems. 20 refs., 14 figs

  9. LAMPF II capabilities from an experimenter's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    LAMPF II has been proposed to extend the intensity frontier of nuclear and particle physics from about 1 GeV to 45 GeV. It is reviewed here with emphasis on capabilities of the experimental facilities. Major accelerator features, costs, and the choice of energy and current are also discussed. 5 refs., 16 figs

  10. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  11. Experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, W.R.; Clark, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities based upon the use of liquid mercury samples designed to represent metal components containing discontinuities. A brief summary of past work with mercury modeling and a detailed discussion of recent experiments designed to further evaluate the technique are presented. The main disadvantages of the mercury modeling concept are that mercury is toxic and must be handled carefully, liquid mercury can only be used to represent nonferromagnetic materials, and wetting and meniscus problems can distort the effective size of artificial discontinuities. Artificial discontinuities placed in a liquid mercury sample can be used to represent discontinuities in solid metallic structures. Discontinuity size and type cannot be characterized from phase angle and signal amplitude data developed with a surface scanning, pancake-type eddy current probe. It is concluded that the mercury model approach can greatly enhance the overall understanding and applicability of eddy current inspection techniques

  12. ITER: the first experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a multiphased project, at present proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community, the Government of Japan, the Government of the USA and the Government of Russia (''the parties''). The project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention which has been brought to a high level of development and progress in all major fusion programs throughout the world.The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for commercial energy production and to test technologies for a demonstration fusion power plant. During the extended performance phase of ITER, it will demonstrate the characteristics of a fusion power plant, producing more than 1500MW of fusion power.The objective of the engineering design activity (EDA) phase is to produce a detailed, complete and fully integrated engineering design of ITER and all technical data necessary for the future decision on the construction of ITER.The ITER device will be a major step from present fusion experiments and will encompass all the major elements required for a fusion reactor. It will also require the development and the implementation of major new components and technologies.The inside surface of the plasma containment chamber will be designed to withstand temperature of up to 500 C, although normal operating temperatures will be substantially lower. Materials will have to be carefully chosen to withstand these temperatures, and a high neutron flux. In addition, other components of the device will be composed of state-of-the-art metal alloys, ceramics and composites, many of which are now in the early stage of development of testing. (orig.)

  13. Innovative safety ideas for fusion experimental machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Gouge, M.; Piet, S.J.; Merrill, B.J.; Holland, D.F.; Sze, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout the early stages of design of fusion experimental devices, such as ITER, safety experts have worked with designers to incorporate safety features into the design. Recent efforts have focused on passive safety features. Although designs of near-term fusion machines may appear consistent with expected regulatory requirements, the safety characteristics can potentially be more attractive. Here, a variety of suggestions that appear promising in terms of improving safety are given. These include new concepts, innovative technologies, further support of past concepts, and possible modification to operating scenarios. Some technical discussion on the feasibility of the proposals is provided. The ideas are generally conceptual at this stage and require further assessment and development work. However, each has the potential for enhancing the safety of experimental devices. 33 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors

  15. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors.

  16. Management of Waste from the Fusion Experimental Breeder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    <正> Fusion breeder might be an essential intermediate application of fusion energy at earlier term, which has the potential to provide plenty of commercial fissile fuel. Based on fusion physics and technologies available at present and in near future, the realistic Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB-E was designed. The obiectives of the FEB-E are to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of

  17. Conceptual design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, T.; Fujisawa, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) have been performed. The FER has an objective of achieving selfignition and demonstrating engineering feasibility as a next generation tokamak to JT-60. Various concepts of the FER have been considered. The reference design is based on a double-null divertor. Optional design studies with some attractive features based on advanced concepts such as pumped limiter and RF current drive have been carried out. Key design parameters are; fusion power of 440 MW, average neutron wall loading of 1MW/m 2 , major radius of 5.5m, plasma minor radius of 1.1m, plasma elongation of 1.5, plasma current of 5.3MA, toroidal beta of 4%, toroidal field on plasma axis of 5.7T and tritium breeding ratio of above unity

  18. Collective Thomson scattering capabilities to diagnose fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) is a versatile technique for diagnosing fusion plasmas. In particular, experiments on diagnosing the ion temperature and fast ion velocity distribution have been executed on a number of fusion devices. In this article the main aim is to describe the technique...

  19. Radiation environment of fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Seiji; Seki, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    Next step device (experimental reactor), which is planned to succeed the large plasma experimental devices such as JT-60, JET and TFTR, generates radiation (neutron + gamma ray) during its operation. Radiation (neutronic) properties of the material are basis for the study on neutron utilization (energy recovery and tritium breeding), material selection (irradiation damage and lifetime evaluation) and radiation safety (personnel exposure and radiation waste). It is necessary, therefore, to predict radiation behaviour in the reactor correctly for the engineering design of the reactor. This report describes the outline of the radiation environment of the reactor based on the information obtained by the neutronic and shielding design calculation of the fusion experimental reactor (FER). (author)

  20. Experimental approaches to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Fujii-e, Y.; Yamaki, T.

    1986-01-01

    As a feasibility study on heavy-ion-beam induced inertial fusion (HIF) approach, a conceptual plant design called HIBLIC-I has been worked out since 1982. The characteristic features of this design are summarized. To experimentally confirm them and prove them at least in principle, considerations are made on possible experimental programs to give substantial information on these critical phenomena. In HIBLIC-I, an accelerator complex is adopted as driver system to provide 6 beams of 208 Pb +1 ions at 15 GeV, which will be simultaneously focussed on a single shell, three layered target. The target is designed to give an energy gain of 100, so that the total beam energy of 4 MJ with 160 TW power may release 400 MJ fusion energy. A reactor chamber is cylindrical with double-walled structure made of HT-9. There are three layers of liquid Li flow inside the reactor. The innermost layer forms a Li curtain which is effective to recover the residual cavity pressure. A thick upward flow serves as coolant and tritium breeder. Tritium will be recovered by yttrium gettering system. A driver system is operated at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and supplies beams for 10 reactor chambers. Then the plant yield of fusion power becomes 4000 MWt, corresponding a net electric output of 1.5 GW. Experimental programs related to HIBLIC-I is described and discussed, including those for heavy-ion-beam experiments and proposals for lithium curtain by electron beam to clarify the key phenomena in HIBLIC-I cavity. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report describes the engineering conceptual design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which is to be built as a next generation tokamak machine. This design covers overall reactor systems including MHD equilibrium analysis, mechanical configuration of reactor, divertor, pumped limiter, first wall/breeding blanket/shield, toroidal field magnet, poloidal field magnet, cryostat, electromagnetic analysis, vacuum system, power handling and conversion, NBI, RF heating device, tritium system, neutronics, maintenance, cooling system and layout of facilities. The engineering comparison of a divertor with pumped limiters and safety analysis of reactor systems are also conducted. (author)

  2. Canadian capabilities in fusion fuels technology and remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This report describes Canadian expertise in fusion fuels technology and remote handling. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) was established and is funded by the Canadian government, the province of Ontario and Ontario Hydro to focus on the technology necessary to produce and manage the tritium and deuterium fuels to be used in fusion power reactors. Its activities are divided amongst three responsibility areas, namely, the development of blanket, first wall, reactor exhaust and fuel processing systems, the development of safe and reliable operating procedures for fusion facilities, and, finally, the application of these developments to specific projects such as tritium laboratories. CFFTP also hopes to utilize and adapt Canadian developments in an international sense, by, for instance, offering training courses to the international tritium community. Tritium management expertise is widely available in Canada because tritium is a byproduct of the routine operation of CANDU reactors. Expertise in remote handling is another byproduct of research and development of of CANDU facilities. In addition to describing the remote handling technology developed in Canada, this report contains a brief description of the Canadian tritium laboratories, storage beds and extraction plants as well as a discussion of tritium monitors and equipment developed in support of the CANDU reactor and fusion programs. Appendix A lists Canadian manufacturers of tritium equipment and Appendix B describes some of the projects performed by CFFTP for offshore clients

  3. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A conceptual design study (option C) has been carried out for the fusion experimental reactor (FER). In addition to design of the tokamak reactor and associated systems based on the reference design specifications, feasibility of a water-shield reactor concept was examined as a topical study. The design study for the reference tokamak reactor has produced a reactor concept for the FER, along with major R D items for the concept, based on close examinations on thermal design, electromagnetics, neutronics and remote maintenance. Particular efforts have been directed to the area of electromagnetics. Detailed analyses with close simulation models have been performed on PF coil arrangements and configurations, shell effects of the blanket for plasma position unstability, feedback control, and eddy currents during disruptions. The major design specifications are as follows; Peak fusion power 437 MW Major radius 5.5 m Minor radius 1.1 m Plasma elongation 1.5 Plasma current 5.3 MA Toroidal beta 4 % Field on axis 5.7 T (author)

  4. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) being developed at JAERI as a next generation tokamak to JT-60 has a major mission of realizing a self-ignited long-burning DT plasma and demonstrating engineering feasibility. During FY82 and FY83 a comprehensive and intensive conceptual design study has been conducted for a pulsed operation FER as a reference option which employs a conventional inductive current drive and a double-null divertor. In parallel with the reference design, studies have been carried out to evaluate advanced reactor concepts such as quasi-steady state operation and steady state operation based on RF current drive and pumped limiter, and comparative studies for single-null divertor/pumped limiter. This report presents major results obtained primarily from FY83 design studies, while the results of FY82 design studies are described in previous references (JAERI-M 83-213--216). (author)

  5. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Conceptual Design of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) of which the objective will be to realize self-ignition with D-T reaction is reported. Mechanical Configurations of FER are characterized with a noncircular plasma and a double-null divertor. The primary aim of design studies is to demonstrate fissibility of reactor structures as compact and simple as possible with removable torus sectors. The structures of each component such as a first-wall, blanket, shielding, divertor, magnet and so on have been designed. It is also discussed about essential reactor plant system requirements. In addition to the above, a brief concept of a steady-state reactor based on RF current drive is also discussed. The main aim, in this time, is to examine physical studies of a possible RF steady-state reactor. (author)

  6. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  7. Collection of experimental data for fusion neutronics benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Yamamoto, Junji; Ichihara, Chihiro; Ueki, Kotaro; Ikeda, Yujiro.

    1994-02-01

    During the recent ten years or more, many benchmark experiments for fusion neutronics have been carried out at two principal D-T neutron sources, FNS at JAERI and OKTAVIAN at Osaka University, and precious experimental data have been accumulated. Under an activity of Fusion Reactor Physics Subcommittee of Reactor Physics Committee, these experimental data are compiled in this report. (author)

  8. External events analysis for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    External events are those off-normal events that threaten facilities either from outside or inside the building. These events, such as floods, fires, and earthquakes, are among the leading risk contributors for fission power plants, and the nature of fusion facilities indicates that they may also lead fusion risk. This paper gives overviews of analysis methods, references good analysis guidance documents, and gives design tips for mitigating the effects of floods and fires, seismic events, and aircraft impacts. Implications for future fusion facility siting are also discussed. Sites similar to fission plant sites are recommended. 46 refs

  9. Maximum neutron yeidls in experimental fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-02-01

    The optimal performances of 12 types of fusion devices are compared with regard to neutron production rate, neutrons per pulse, and fusion energy multiplication, Q/sub p/ (converted to the equivalent value in D-T operation). The record values in all categories are held by the beam-injected tokamak plasma, followed by other beam-target systems. The achieved values of Q/sub p/ for nearly all laboratory plasma fusion devices (magnetically or inertially confined) are found to roughly satisfy a common empirical scaling, Q/sub p/ approx. 10 -6 E/sub in//sup 3/2/, where E/sub in/ is the energy (in kilojoules) injected into the plasma during one or two energy confinement times, or the total energy delivered to the target for inertially confined systems. Fusion energy break-even (Q/sub p/ = 1) in any system apparently requires E/sub in/ approx. 10,000 kJ

  10. Overview on Fusion Nuclear Technology Experimental Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Kysela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021018. ISSN 2332-8983 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * corrosion * thermohydraulic * LiPb * HHF * ITER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  11. Review for 'Nattoh' model and experimental findings during cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    A review is described for the Nattoh model that provides the framework of the mechanisms of cold fusion. The model classifies the reactions into two categories: fundamental and associated reactions. The former involves the new 'hydrogen-catalyzed' fusion reaction and the chain-reactions of hydrogens. And extremely exciting physics are involved in the latter. Furthermore experimental findings are described. (author)

  12. Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices

  13. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: Physics issues, capabilities and physics program plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Present status and understanding of the principal plasma-performance determining physics issues that affect the physics design and operational capabilities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER EDA Agreement and Protocol 2 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1994)] are presented. Emphasis is placed on the five major physics-basis issues emdash energy confinement, beta limit, density limit, impurity dilution and radiation loss, and the feasibility of obtaining partial-detached divertor operation emdash that directly affect projections of ITER fusion power and burn duration performance. A summary of these projections is presented and the effect of uncertainties in the physics-basis issues is examined. ITER capabilities for experimental flexibility and plasma-performance optimization are also described, and how these capabilities may enter into the ITER physics program plan is discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  15. The Penning fusion experiment-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, M. M.; Umstadter, K. R.; Barnes, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Penning fusion experiment (PFX) studies the feasibility of using a Penning trap as a fusion confinement device. Such use would require spatial and/or temporal compression of the plasma to overcome the Brillouin density limit imposed by the nonneutrality of Penning trap plasmas. In an earlier experiment, we achieved enhanced plasma density at the center of a pure, electron plasma confined in a hyperbolic, Penning trap by inducing spherically convergent flow in a nonthermal plasma. The goal of this work is to induce similar flow in a positive ion plasma confined in the virtual cathode provided by a spherical, uniform density electron plasma. This approach promises the greatest flexibility in operating with multi-species plasmas (e.g. D + /T + ) or implementing temporal compression schemes such as the Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere of Nebel and Barnes. Here, we report on our work to produce and diagnose the necessary electron plasma

  16. The FENIX [Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental] test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Chaplin, M.R.; Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International EXperimental Magnet Facility (FENIX), under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a significant step forward in meeting the testing requirements necessary for the development of superconductor for large-scale, superconducting magnets. A 14-T, transverse field over a test volume of 150 x 60 x 150 mm in length will be capable of testing conductors the size of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Proposed conductors for ITER measure ∼35 mm on one side and will operate at currents of up to 40 kA at fields of ∼14 T. The testing of conductors and associated components, such as joints, will require large-bore, high-field magnet facilities. FENIX is being constructed using the existing A 2o and A 2i magnets from the idle MFTF. The east and west A 2 pairs will be mounted together to form a split-pair solenoid. The pairs of magnets will be installed in a 4.0-m cryostat vessel located in the HFTF building at LLNL. Each magnet is enclosed in its own cryostat, the existing 4.0-m vessel serving only as a vacuum chamber. 4 refs., 8 figs

  17. Role of fission-reactor-testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for testing when fusion reactors become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and thus should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, we investigated radiation damage to magnet insulators. This work is now continuing with the use of an improved test capsule. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, we explored a conceptual design for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire First Wall/Blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  18. Some applications of fission-based testing capabilities in the development of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Takata, M.L.; Watts, K.D.

    1981-10-01

    The testing of fusion materials and components in fission reactors will be increasingly important in the future due to the near-term lack of fusion engineering test devices, and the long-term high demand for fusion testing when they do become available. Fission testing is capable of filling many gaps in fusion reactor design information, and should be aggressively pursued. EG and G Idaho has investigated the application of fission testing in three areas, which are discussed in this paper. First, work was performed on the irradiation of magnet insulators. This work is continuing with an improved test environment. Second, a study was performed which indicated that a fission-suppressed hybrid blanket module could be effectively tested in a reactor such as the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), closely reproducing the predicted performance in a fusion environment. Finally, a conceptual design is presented for a fission-based Integrated Test Facility (ITF), which can accommodate entire wall/blanket (FW/B) modules for testing in a nuclear environment, simultaneously satisfying many of the FW/B test requirements. This ITF can provide a cyclic neutron/gamma flux, as well as the necessary module support functions

  19. FFTF reload core nuclear design for increased experimental capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Bennett, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In anticipation of continued growth in the FTR experimental irradiations program, the enrichments for the next batches of reload driver fuel to be manufactured have been increased to provide a substantially enlarged experimental reactivity allowance. The enrichments for these fuel assemblies, termed ''Cores 3 and 4,'' were selected to meet the following objectives and constraints: (1) maintain a reactor power capability of 400 MW (based on an evaluation of driver fuel centerline melting probability at 15 percent overpower); (2) provide a peak neutron flux of nominally 7 x 10 15 n/cm 2 -sec, with a minimum acceptable value of 95 percent of this (i.e., 6.65 x 10 15 n/cm 2 -sec); and (3) provide the maximum experimental reactivity allowance that is consistent with the above constraints

  20. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  1. Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY87FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor(FER) which has been proposed to be the next step fusion device has been conducted by JAERI Reactor System Laboratory since 1982 and by FER design team since 1984. This is the final report of the FER design team program and describes the results obtained in FY1987 (partially in FY1986) activities. The contents of this report consist of the reference design which is based on the guideline in FY1986 by the Subcomitees set up in Nuclear Fusion Council of Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the Low-Physics-Risk reactor design for achieving physics mission more reliably and the system study of FER design candidates including above two designs. (author)

  2. Remote maintenance for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Takeda, Nobukazu

    2000-01-01

    Here was introduced on maintenance of reactor core portion operated by remote control among maintenance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) begun on its design since 1988 under international cooperation of U.S.A., Europe, Russia and Japan. Every appliances constructing the reactor core portion is necessary to carry out all of their inspection and maintenance by using remote controlled apparatus because of their radiation due to neutron generated by DT combustion of plasma. For engineering design activity (EDA) in ITER, not only design and development of the remote control appliances but also design under consideration of remote maintenance for from structural design of maintained objective appliances to access method to appliances, transportation and preservation method of radiated matters, and out-reactor maintenance in a hot cell, is now under progress. Here were also reported on basic concept on maintenance and conservation of ITER, maintenance design of diverter and blanket with high maintenance frequency and present state on development of maintenance appliances. (G.K.)

  3. Conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, T.; Kaneko, J.; Nakazawa, M.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron measurement in fusion experimental reactors is very important for burning plasma diagnostics and control, monitoring of irradiation effects on device components, neutron source characterization for in-situ engineering tests, etc. A conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor has been made, which consists of a neutron yield monitor, a neutron emission profile monitor and a 14-MeV spectrometer. Each of them is based on a unique idea to meet the required performances for full power conditions assumed at ITER operation. Micro-fission chambers of 235 U (and 238 U) placed at several poloidal angles near the first wall are adopted as a promising neutron yield monitor. A collimated long counter system using a 235 U fission chamber and graphite neutron moderators is also proposed to improve the calibration accuracy of absolute neutron yield determination

  4. Design study of blanket structure for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Design study of the blanket structure for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) has been carried out. Studied here were fabrication and testing of the blanket structure (blanket cells, blanket rings, piping and blanket modules), assembly and disassembly of the blanket module, and monitering and testing technique. Problems in design and fabrication of the blanket structure could be revealed. Research and development problems for the future were also disclosed. (author)

  5. Neutron spectrometer for DD/DT burning ratio measurement in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Keisuke; Naoi, Norihiro; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Nishitani, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    The most feasible fuels for a fusion reactor are D (Deuterium) and T (Tritium). DD and/or DT fusion reaction or nuclear burning reaction provides two kinds of neutrons, DD neutron and DT neutron, respectively. DD/DT burning ratio, which can be estimated by DD/DT neutron ratio in the burning plasma, is essential for burn control, alpha particle emission rate monitoring and tritium fuel cycle estimation. Here we propose a new neutron spectrometer for the absolute DD/DT burning ratio measurement. The system consists of a Proton Recoil Telescope (PRT) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. We have conducted preliminary experiments with a prototype detector and a DT neutron beam (φ20 mm) at the Fusion Neutronics Source, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), to assess its basic performance. The detection efficiency obtained by the experiment is consistent with the calculation results in PRT, and sufficient energy resolution for the DD/DT neutron discrimination has been achieved in PRT and TOF. The validity of the Monte Carlo calculation has also been confirmed by comparing the experimental results with the calculation results. The design consideration of this system for use in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has shown that this system is capable of monitoring the line-integrated DD/DT burning ratio for the plasma core line of sight with the required measurement accuracy of 20% in the upper 4 decades of the ITER operation (fusion power: 100 kW-700 MW). (author)

  6. Attenuation capability of low activation-modified high manganese austenitic stainless steel for fusion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, M.M. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El-kameesy, S.U.; El-Fiki, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ghali, S.N. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El Shazly, R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Saeed, Aly, E-mail: aly_8h@yahoo.com [Nuclear Power station Department, Faculty of Engineering, Egyptian-Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement stainless steel alloys to be used in fusion reactors. • Structural, mechanical, attenuation properties of investigated alloys were studied. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results has been achieved. • The developed alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactors. - Abstract: Low nickel-high manganese austenitic stainless steel alloys, SSMn9Ni and SSMn10Ni, were developed to use as a shielding material in fusion reactor system. A standard austenitic stainless steel SS316L was prepared and studied as a reference sample. The microstructure properties of the present stainless steel alloys were investigated using Schaeffler diagram, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. Mainly, an austenite phase was observed for the prepared stainless steel alloys. Additionally, a small ferrite phase was observed in SS316L and SSMn10Ni samples. The mechanical properties of the prepared alloys were studied using Vickers hardness and tensile tests at room temperature. The studied manganese stainless steel alloys showed higher hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength than SS316L. On the other hand, the manganese stainless steel elongation had relatively lower values than the standard SS316L. The removal cross section for both slow and total slow (primary and those slowed down in sample) neutrons were carried out using {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. Gamma ray attenuation parameters were carried out for different gamma ray energy lines which emitted from {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th radioactive sources. The developed manganese stainless steel alloys had a higher total slow removal cross section than SS316L. While the slow neutron and gamma rays were nearly the same for all studied stainless steel alloys. From the obtained results, the developed manganese stainless steel alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactor system with low activation based on the short life

  7. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  8. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s -1 using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s -1 using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.)

  9. First preliminary design of an experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    A preliminary design of a tokamak experimental fusion reactor to be built in the near future is under way. The goals of the reactor are to achieve reactor-level plasma conditions for a sufficiently long operation period and to obtain design, construction and operational experience for the main components of full-scale power reactors. This design covers overall reactor system including plasma characteristics, reactor structure, blanket neutronics, shielding, superconducting magnets, neutral beam injector, electric power supply system, fuel circulating system, reactor cooling system, tritium recovery system and maintenance scheme. The main design parameters are as follows: the reactor fusion power 100 MW, torus radius 6.75 m, plasma radius 1.5 m, first wall radius 1.75 m, toroidal magnet field on axis 6 T, blanket fertile material Li 2 O, coolant He, structural material 316SS and tritium breeding ratio 0.9. (auth.)

  10. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  11. Experimental studies of tritium barrier concepts for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroni, V.A.; Van Deventer, E.H.; Renner, T.A.; Pelto, R.H.; Wierdak, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ongoing experimental studies at ANL aimed at the development of methods to reduce tritium migration in fusion reactor systems currently include (1) work on the development of multilayered metal composites and impurity-coated refractory metals as barriers to tritium permeation in elevated temperature (greater than 300 0 C) structures and (2) investigations of the kinetics of tritium trapping reactions in inert gas purge streams under conditions that emulate fusion reactor environments. Significant results obtained thus far are (1) demonstration of greater than 50-fold reductions in the hydrogen permeability of stainless steel structures by using stainless steel-clad composites containing an intermediate layer of a selected copper alloy and (2) verification that surface-oxide coatings lead to greater than 100-fold reductions in the hydrogen permeability of vanadium, but that severe oxygen penetration and embrittlement of the vanadium occur at temperatures in the range from 300 to 800 0 C and under conditions of extremely low oxygen potential. Other considerations pertaining to the large-scale use of metal composites in fusion reactors are discussed, and progress in efforts to demonstrate the fabricability of metal composites is reviewed. Also presented are results of studies of the efficiencies of (1) CuO and CuO--MnO 2 beds in converting HT to HTO and (2) magnesium metal beds in converting HTO to HT

  12. Remote welding and cutting techniques for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ishide, T.; Oda, Y.; Nagaoka, E.; Ue, K.; Kamei, H.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques has been conducted to examine their suitability for remote maintenance systems in future fusion experimental reactors. Using a hybrid beam coupling system, two laser beams of 500W and 740W powers were successfully combined to provide a 1,240W beam power. The combined laser was transmitted through the optical fiber for cutting and welding. The transmission loss for the beams is in the range of 13% to 14%, which is low. As for plasma gouging, the shallow gouging made a groove measuring 10 mm in width and 4 mm in depth on the stainless steel plates at a traversing speed of 75 cm/min, while the deep gouging made a groove of 12 mm in width and 7.5 mm in depth at a traversing speed of 50 cm/min. In addition, it was found that the shallow gouging did not leave byproducts from the material, providing a clean surface. Based on the findings, it is shown that the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques can be us3ed for remote welding and cutting in future fusion experimental reactors

  13. Remote welding and cutting techniques for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ishide, T.; Oda, Y.; Nagaoka, E.; Ue, K.; Kamei, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Experimental investigation of the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques has been conducted to examine their suitability for remote maintenance systems in future fusion experimental reactors. Using a hybrid beam coupling system, two laser beams of 500W and 740W powers were successfully combined to provide a 1,240W beam power. The combined laser was transmitted through the optical fiber for cutting and welding. The transmission loss for the beams is in the range of 13% to 14%, which is low. As for plasma gouging, the shallow gouging made a groove measuring 10 mm in width and 4 mm in depth on the stainless steel plates at a traversing speed of 75 cm/min, while the deep gouging made a groove of 12 mm in width and 7.5 mm in depth at a traversing speed of 50 cm/min. In addition, it was found that the shallow gouging did not leave byproducts from the material, providing a clean surface. Based on the findings, it is shown that the YAG laser cutting/welding and plasma gouging techniques can be us3ed for remote welding and cutting in future fusion experimental reactors.

  14. Second preliminary design of JAERI experimental fusion reactor (JXFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kiyoshi; Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Yamato, Harumi

    1979-06-01

    Second preliminary design of a tokamak experimental fusion reactor to be built in the near future has been performed. This design covers overall reactor system including plasma characteristics, reactor structure, blanket neutronics radiation shielding, superconducting magnets, neutral beam injector, electric power supply system, fuel recirculating system, reactor cooling and tritium recovery systems and maintenance scheme. Safety analyses of the reactor system have been also performed. This paper gives a brief description of the design as of January, 1979. The feasibility study of raising the power density has been also studied and is shown as appendix. (author)

  15. The Orphee reactor current status and proposed enhancement of experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breant, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report provides a description of the Orphee reactor, together with a rapid assessment of its experimental and research capabilities. The plans for enhancing the reactor's experimental capabilities are also presented. (author)

  16. Electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiji; Toyoda, Masahiko; Inoue, Masahiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Yoshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    The development of electrical insulation and conduction coating methods that can be applied to large components of fusion experimental devices has been investigated. A thermal spraying method is used to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components because of its applicability for large surfaces. The insulation material chosen was Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr were chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel substrates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the substrate, thermal shock resistance, electrical resistance, dielectric breakdown voltage, and thermal conductivity. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed adequate frictional properties. The spraying method was tested on a 100- x 1000-mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces of experimental fusion devices. 9 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiji; Toyoda, Masahiko; Inoue, Masahiko; Abe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Yoshio

    1996-01-01

    The development of electrical insulation and conduction coating methods that can be applied to large components of fusion experimental devices has been investigated. A thermal spraying method is used to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components because of its applicability for large surfaces. The insulation material chosen was Al 2 O 3 , while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr were chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel substrates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the substrate, thermal shock resistance, electrical resistance, dielectric breakdown voltage, and thermal conductivity. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed adequate frictional properties. The spraying method was tested on a 100- x 1000-mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces of experimental fusion devices. 9 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. During two years from 1984 to 1985 FER concept was reviewed and redesigned. This report is the summary of the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in 1984 and 85. In the first year FER concept was discussed again and its frame work was reestablished. According to the new frame work the major reactor components of FER were designed. In the second year the whole plant system design including plant layout plan was conducted as well as the more detailed design analysis of the reactor conponents. The newly established frame for FER design is as follows: 1) Plasma : Self-ignition. 2) Operation scenario : Quasi-steady state operation with long burn pulse. 3) Neutron fluence on the first wall : 0.3 MWY/M 2 . 4) Blanket : Non-tritium breeding blanket with test modules for breeding blanket development. 5) Magnets : Superconducting Magnets. (author)

  19. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Masao; Mizoguchi, Tadanori

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of the reactor configuration/structure design for the fusion experimental reactor (FER) performed in FY 1986. The design was intended to meet the physical and engineering mission of the next step device which was decided by the subcommittee on the next step device of the nuclear fusion council. The objectives of the design study in FY 1986 are to advance and optimize the design concept of the last year because the recommendation of the subcommittee was basically the same as the design philosophy of the last year. Six candidate reactor configurations which correspond to options C ∼ D presented by the subcommittee were extensively examined. Consequently, ACS reactor (Advanced Option-C with Single Null Divertor) was selected as the reference configuration from viewpoints of technical risks and cost performance. Regarding the reactor structure, the following items were investigated intensively: minimization of reactor size, protection of first wall against plasma disruption, simplification of shield structure, reactor configuration which enables optimum arrangement of poloidal field coils. (author)

  20. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryusei; Kashihara, Shin-ichiro; Itoh, Shin-ichi

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the results of conceptual design study on plant systems for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER). Design studies for FER plant systems have been continued from FY85, especially for design modifications made in accordance with revisions of plasma scaling parameters and system improvements. This report describes 1) system construction, 2) site and reactor building plan, 3) repaire and maintenance system, 4) tritium circulation system, 5) heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, 6) tritium clean-up system, 7) cooling and baking system, 8) waste treatment and storage system, 9) control system, 10) electric power system, 11) site factory plan, all of which are a part of FY86 design work. The plant systems described in this report generally have been based on the FY86 FER (ACS Reactor) which is an one of the six candidates for FER. (author)

  1. Manipulator system for remote maintenance of fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Munakata, Tadashi; Murakami, Shin; Kondoh, Mitsunori.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the conceptual design for a rail-mounted vehicle type remote maintenance system for the fusion experimental reactor (FER), which will be the first D-T burning reactor in Japan. We have fabricated a 1/5-scale model and confirmed the feasibility of the design. In this system, a rail is deployed into the vessel and supported at four horizontal ports. A vehicle then moves along the rail and handles in-vessel components with manipulators. The advantages of this concept are the high stiffness and high reliability of the rail, and the high mobility of the vehicle for efficient maintenance operations. In the FER, this concept is considered to be the first option for in-vessel maintenance. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system and the feasibility study using the 1/5-scale model. (author)

  2. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the study on safety for FER(Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. This report consists of two chapters. The first chapter of this report summaries the FER system and describes FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including the purification, isotope separation system and storage system. Here, probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA. (author)

  3. Developing sustainable business experimentation capability : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weissbrod, Ilka; Bocken, N.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This research paper shows how a firm pursues innovation activities for economic, social and environmental value creation in the context of time sensitivity. We make a conceptual link between lean startup thinking, triple bottom line value creation, and organizational capabilities. The case study

  4. CONTEXT-CAPTURE MULTI-VALUED DECISION FUSION WITH FAULT TOLERANT CAPABILITY FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wu; Shigeru Shimamoto

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are usually utilized to perform decision fusion of event detection. Current decision fusion schemes are based on binary valued decision and do not consider bursty contextcapture. However, bursty context and multi-valued data are important characteristics of WSNs. One on hand, the local decisions from sensors usually have bursty and contextual characteristics. Fusion center must capture the bursty context information from the sensors. On the other hand, in pract...

  5. Thought-shape fusion in anorexia nervosa: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomsky, Adam S; de Silva, Padmal; Todd, Gillian; Treasure, Janet; Murphy, Tara

    2002-10-01

    Cognitive biases and cognitive distortions have been implicated as important factors in the development and maintenance of many disorders. The concept of thought-shape fusion (TSF) in eating disorders was developed by Shafran, Teachman, Kerry, and Rachman (British Journal of Clinical Psychology 38 (1999) 167) as a variant of thought-action fusion, described by Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Journal of Anxiety Disorders 10 (1996) 379). TSF occurs when thinking about eating certain types of food increases a person's estimate of their shape and/or weight, elicits a perception of moral wrongdoing, and/or makes the person feel fat. Shafran et al. (1999) examined both the psychometric and experimental properties of TSF in an undergraduate sample. This paper reports an extension of this work to a clinical group (N=20) of patients with anorexia nervosa. After completing a set of relevant questionnaires, participants were asked to think about a food which they considered extremely fattening. They were then asked to write out the sentence, "I am eating--.", inserting the name of the fattening food in the blank. After being asked to rate their anxiety, guilt, feelings about their weight, morality, etc., participants were given the opportunity to neutralize their statement in any way they chose. The majority of the participants neutralized in ways consistent with the findings of Shafran et al. (1999). The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-behavioural formulations of eating disorders, and of the influence of cognitive biases and cognitive distortions on the processing of information relevant to food, weight and shape in anorexia nervosa.

  6. IFMIF [International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility], an accelerator-based neutron source for fusion components irradiation testing: Materials testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1988-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proposed as an advanced accelerator-based neutron source for high-flux irradiation testing of large-sized fusion reactor components. The facility would require only small extensions to existing accelerator and target technology originally developed for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility. At the extended facility, neutrons would be produced by a 0.1-A beam of 35-MeV deuterons incident upon a liquid lithium target. The volume available for high-flux (>10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-s) testing in IFMITF would be over a liter, a factor of about three larger than in the FMIT facility. This is because the effective beam current of 35-MeV deuterons on target can be increased by a factor of ten to 1A or more. Such an increase can be accomplished by funneling beams of deuterium ions from the radio-frequency quadruple into a linear accelerator and by taking advantage of recent developments in accelerator technology. Multiple beams and large total current allow great variety in available testing. For example, multiple simultaneous experiments, and great flexibility in tailoring spatial distributions of flux and spectra can be achieved. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Experimental results on advanced inertial fusion schemes obtained within the HiPER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Santos, Jorge J.; Schurtz, Guy; Hulin, Sebastien; Ribeyre, Xavier; Nicolai, Philippe; Vauzour, Benjamin; Dorchies, Fabien; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Honrubia, Javier; Antonelli, Luca; Morace, Alessio; Volpe, Luca; Nazarov, Wiger; Pasley, John; Richetta, Maria; Lancaster, Kate; Spindloe, Christopher; Tolley, Martin; Neely, David; Kozlova, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, Bedrich; Wolowski, Jerzy; Badziak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted within the Work Package 10 (fusion experimental programme) of the HiPER project. The aim of these experiments was to study the physics relevant for advanced ignition schemes for inertial confinement fusion, i.e. the fast ignition and the shock ignition. Such schemes allow to achieve a higher fusion gain compared to the indirect drive approach adopted in the National Ignition Facility in United States, which is important for the future inertial fusion energy reactors and for realising the inertial fusion with smaller facilities. (authors)

  8. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Mizuno, Makoto; Araki, Masanori; Uede, Taisei; Okano, Kunihiko.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of applicability studies for the negative ion-based neutral beam injector to the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The operation scenario of FER has been proposed to adopt the neutral injection method as one of candidates, which has three functions of heating, current drive and profile control. One of the fundamental requirements is the tangential injection of the neutral beam. For neutral beam injectors, three port sections are available. Supposing to adopt the beam line with the straight long neutralizer which has been designed in JAERI, the geometrical arrangement was determined so as to avoid any trouble to the reactor structure. The conceptual study for major components which compose the beam line system was carried out including the estimation of the neutron streaming. The power supply system was studied also and the work was concentrated on the acceleration power supply which requires the output voltage of 500 kV and fast cut-off time. A basic concept, in which a inverter with a AC switch is used and the frequency of the supplied AC line is increased was proposed. In these works, the configuration of the neutral beam injection system was detailed and it was shown that the beam line seems to be well implemented with the geometrical constraints related to the reactor configuration. (author)

  9. Remote maintenance design for Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Iida, H.; Nishio, S.; Tone, T.; Aota, T.; Iwamoto, T.; Niikura, S.; Nishizawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Design of Fusion Experimental Reactor, FER, has been conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1981. Two typical reactors can be classified in general from the viewpoints of remote maintenance among four design concepts of FER. In the case of the type 1 FER, the torus module consists of shield structure and blanket, and the connective joints between toruses provided at the outer region of the reactor. As for the type 2 FER, the shield structure is joined with the vacuum cryostat, and only the blanket module is allowed to move, but connection between toruses are located in the inner region of the reactor. Comparing type 1 with type 2 FER, this paper describes on the remote maintenance of FER including reactor configurations, work procedures, remote systems/equipments, repairing facility and future R and D problems. Reviewing design studies and investigation for the existing robotics technologies, R and D for FER remote maintenance technology should be performed under the reasonable long-term program. The main items of remote technology required to start urgently are multi-purpose manipulator system with performance of dextrousity, tele-viewing system which reduces operator fatigue and remote tests for commercially available components

  10. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Ishigaki, Yukio; Ozaki, Akira; Yamane, Minoru.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of the capacity estimation for the electrical power system on the typical two candidates for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) which were picked out through the process of '86 FER scoping studies. Main concern in the electrical systems is coil power supplies which have a capacity of about 1 GW, and this is dominated by poloidal coil power supplies. Then, studies to reduce the converter capacity are concentrated on the poloidal coil power system in relation to the sypplying poloidal flux at the initial phase of plasma ramp-up. A quench protection circuit was proposed on the toroidal coil power supply. On the position control power supply, a circuit with reasonable functions was proposed. Under these system studies, general specifications were determined and the capacity of each power supply unit was estimated. On the poloidal coil power supply system, the accumulated capacity of converters amounted to 885 MW for the one candidate and 782 MW for another. (author)

  11. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  12. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kunihiko; Okano, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Kazuhiro.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the results of a conceptual study on the RF system in the typical candidates for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), which were picked out through the '86FER scoping studies. According to the FER operation scenario, three RF systems, that is, ICRF (heating), LHRF (current drive and heating), ECRF (auxiliary heating) were studied. Main concern in these RF systems is the launcher, which may be so designed that required power match the geometrical constraints of the reactor. Then studies were concentrated on the launcher configuration. A prug-in concept of the launcher was adopted in each system and vacancies except transmission space were filled with water. The ICRF launcher had the 2 x 2 loop arrays antenna and the faraday shield area of 1.5 m x 1 m to provide a power of 20 MW. The LHRF launcher had the grillantenna with 28 x 8 open waveguides, and included multi junction-type power splitters which were connected to 56 transmission wave guides. The grild was designed to have two functions of current drive and heating, and provide a power of 20 MW each. The ECRF launcher had a boundle of open wave guides which a reflection mirror each, and three plain mirrors. Assuming a oscillator unit size of 200 kW, it had 40 oversized wave guides to provide a power of 3 MW. (author)

  13. Stress analysis of blanket vessel for JAERI experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, K.; Minato, A.

    1979-01-01

    A blanket structure of JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) consists of about 2,300 blanket cells with round cornered rectangular cross sections (twelve slightly different shapes) and is placed in a vacuum vessel. Each blanket vessel is a double-walled thin-shell structure made of Type 316 stainless steel with a spherical domed surface at the plasma side. Ribs for coolant channel are provided between inner and outer walls. The blanket cell contains Li 2 O pebbles and blocks for tritium breeding and stainless steel blocks for neutron reflection. A coolant is helium gas at 10 kgf/cm 2 (0.98 MPa) and its inlet and outlet temperatures are 300 0 C and 500 0 C. The maxima of heat flux and nuclear heating rate at the first wall are 12 W/cm 2 and 2 W/cc. A design philosophy of the blanket structure is based on high tritium breeding ratio and more effective shielding performance. The thin-shell vessel with a rectangular cross section satisfies the design philosophy. We have designed the blanket structure so that the adjacent vessels are mutually supporting in order to decrease the large deformation and stress due to internal pressure in case of the thin-shell vessel. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Identification and selection of initiating events for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the current approaches used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to identify and select accident initiating events for study in either probabilistic safety analysis or PRA. Current methods directly apply to fusion facilities as well as other types of industries, such as chemical processing and nuclear fission. These identification and selection methods include the Master Logic Diagram, historical document review, system level Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and others. A combination of the historical document review, such as Safety Analysis Reports and fusion safety studies, and the Master Logic Diagram with appropriate quality assurance reviews, is suggested for standardizing US fusion PRA effects. A preliminary set of generalized initiating events applicable to fusion facilities derived from safety document review is presented as a framework to start from for the historical document review and Master Logic Diagram approach. Fusion designers should find this list useful for their design reviews. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Identification and selection of initiating events for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the current approaches used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to identify and select accident initiating events for study in either probabilistic safety analysis or PRA. Current methods directly apply to fusion facilities as well as other types of industries, such as chemical processing and nuclear fission. These identification and selection methods include the Master Logic Diagram, historical document review, system level Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and others. A combination of the historical document review, such as Safety Analysis Reports and fusion safety studies, and the Master Logic Diagram with appropriate quality assurance reviews, is suggested for standardizing U.S. fusion PRA efforts. A preliminary set of generalized initiating events applicable to fusion facilities derived from safety document review is presented as a framework to start from for the historical document review and Master Logic Diagram approach. Fusion designers should find this list useful for their design reviews. 29 refs., 1 tab

  17. Conceptual design studies of experimental and demonstration fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Since 1973 the FINTOR Group has been involved in conceptual design studies of TOKAMAK-type fusion reactors to precede the construction of a prototype power reactor plant. FINTOR-1 was the first conceptual design aimed at investigating the main physics and engineering constraints on a minimum-size (both dimensions and thermal power) tokamak experimental reactor. The required plasma energy confinement time as evaluated by various power balance models was compared with the values resulting from different transport models. For the reference design, an energy confinement time ten times smaller than neoclassical was assumed. This also implied a rather high (thermally stable) working temperature (above 20 keV) for the reactor. Other relevant points of the design were: circular plasma cross section, single-null axisymmetric divertor; lithium breeder, stainless steel structures, helium coolant; modular blanket and shield structure; copper-stabilized, superconducting Nb-Ti toroidal field and divertor coils; vertical field and transformer coils inside the toroidal coils; vacuum-tight containment vessel. Solutions involving air and iron transformer cores were compared. These assumptions led to a minimum size reactor with a thermal power of about 100MW and rather large dimensions (major radius of about 9m) similar to those of full-scale power reactors considered in other conceptual studies. The FINTOR-1 analysis was completed by the end of 1976. In 1977 a conceptual design of a Demonstration Power Reactor Plant (FINTOR-D) was started. In this study the main working assumptions differing from those of FINTOR-1 are: non-circular plasma cross section; plasma confinement compatible with trapped ion instabilities; cold (gas) blanket sufficient for wall protection (no divertor); wall loading between 1-3MW/m 2 and thermal power of a few GW. (author)

  18. Cryogenic structures of superconducting coils for fusion experimental reactor 'ITER'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Iguchi, Masahide; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shimamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes both structural materials and structural design of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil and Central Solenoid (CS) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). All the structural materials used in the superconducting coil system of the ITER are austenitic stainless steels. Although 316LN is used in the most parts of the superconducting coil system, the cryogenic stainless steels, JJ1 and JK2LB, which were newly developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Japanese steel companies, are used in the highest stress area of the TF coil case and the whole CS conductor jackets, respectively. These two materials became commercially available based on demonstration of productivity and weldability of materials, and evaluations of 4 K mechanical properties of trial products including welded parts. Structural materials are classified into five grades depending on stress distribution in the TF coil case. JAEA made an industrial specification for mass production based on the ITER requirements. In order to simplify quality control in mass production, JAEA has used materials specified in the material section of 'Codes for Fusion Facilities - Rules on Superconducting Magnet Structure (2008)' issued by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) in October 2008, which was established using an extrapolation method of 4 K material strengths from room temperature strength and chemical compositions developed by JAEA. It enables steel suppliers to easily control the quality of products at room temperature. JAEA has already started actual production with several manufacturing companies. The first JJ1 product to be used in the TF coil case and the first JK2LB jackets for CS were completed in October and September 2013, respectively. (author)

  19. Critical safety function guidelines for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    As fusion experiments proceed toward deuterium-tritium operation, more attention is being given to public safety. This paper presents the four classes of functions that fusion experiments must provide to assure safe, stable shutdown and retention of radionuclides. These functions are referred to as critical safety functions (CSFs). Selecting CSFs is an important step in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). An example of CSF selection and usage for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is also presented. 10 refs., 6 figs

  20. Critical safety function guidelines for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    As fusion experiments proceed toward deuterium-tritium operation, more attention is being given to public safety. This paper presents the four classes of functions that fusion experiments must provide to assure safe, stable shutdown and retention of radionuclides. These functions are referred to as critical safety functions (CSFs). Selecting CSFs is an important step in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). An example of CSF selection and usage for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is also presented

  1. Extending the capabilities of the DIII-D Plasma Control System for worldwide fusion research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Xiao, B.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Gates, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent enhancements which have been made to the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) in order to further extend its usefulness as a shared tool for worldwide fusion research. The PCS developed at General Atomics is currently being used in a number of fusion research experiments worldwide, including the DIII-D Tokamak Facility in San Diego, and most recently the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. A number of enhancements have been made to support the ongoing needs of the DIII-D Tokamak in addition to meeting the needs of other PCS users worldwide. Details of the present PCS hardware and software architecture along with descriptions of the latest enhancements will be given.

  2. Experimental Study on Bioluminescence Tomography with Multimodality Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Lv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the influence of a priori information on the nonuniqueness problem of bioluminescence tomography (BLT, the multimodality imaging fusion based BLT experiment is performed by multiview noncontact detection mode, which incorporates the anatomical information obtained by the microCT scanner and the background optical properties based on diffuse reflectance measurements. In the reconstruction procedure, the utilization of adaptive finite element methods (FEMs and a priori permissible source region refines the reconstructed results and improves numerical robustness and efficiency. The comparison between the absence and employment of a priori information shows that multimodality imaging fusion is essential to quantitative BLT reconstruction.

  3. Present activities for the preparation of a Japanese draft of structural design guidelines for the experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, K.; Muto, Y.; Takatsu, H.; Hada, K.; Koizumi, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Arai, T.; Ohkawa, Y.; Shimakawa, T.; Aoto, K.; Shiraishi, H.; Takagi, T.; Miki, N.; Takahashi, S.; Sato, K.; Takemasa, F.; Kasaba, M.; Kudough, F.; Fujita, J.; Kajiura, S.; Kinoshita, S.

    1996-01-01

    Since November 1990, systematic research has been carried out in preparation for a Japanese draft of structural design guidelines for the experimental fusion reactor. This report summarizes the major results of the work and the status of these efforts. A classification of components and definition of operating conditions are proposed on the basis of the ITER-CDA design, in the light of the safety characteristics of the fusion reactor and relevant conventions for the existing fission reactor design code. Specific issues regarding the structural design of the experimental fusion reactor are discussed based on the experimental and analytical work. The validity of the existing structural design method is confirmed for the use of irradiated 316 SS, irrespective of the significant reduction in uniform elongation capability caused by heavy neutron irradiation. Further important phenomena are treated such as magnetic damping, magnetic stiffness and fracture due to electromagnetic forces. Finally, the issues concerned with welding and non-destructive examinations are discussed with relevance to component classification. (orig.)

  4. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  5. Experimental laser fusion devices and related vacuum problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Campbell, D.E.; Glaros, S.S.; Hurley, C.A.; Kobierecki, M.W.; McFann, C.B. Jr.; Monjes, J.A.; Patton, H.G.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Laser fusion experiments require hard vacuum in the laser-beam spatial filters, target chambers and for target diagnostics instruments. Laser focusing lenses and windows, and target alignment windows must hold vacuum without optical distortion, and must be protected from target debris. The vacuum must be sufficient to prevent residual gas breakdown in focused laser light, avoid arcing at high voltage terminals, minimize contamination and melting of cryogenic targets, and prevent adsorption of the target's microfusion radiation before it reaches the diagnostics instruments

  6. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156±6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  7. Development step toward fusion power plant and role of experimental reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, Ryouji; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Okano, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is going into the experimental reactor stage, and the thermal energy from the fusion reaction will be generated in a plant scale through the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project. The remaining critical issue toward the realization of fusion energy is to map out the development strategy. Recently early realization approach as for the fusion energy development is being discussed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. This approach implies that the devices for a Demo reactor and a proto-type reactor as seen in the fast breeder reactor are combined into a single device in order to advance the fusion energy development. On the other hand, a clear development road map for fusion energy hasn't been suggested yet, and whether that early realization approach is feasible or not is still ambiguous. In order to realize the fusion energy as an user-friendly energy system, the suggestion of the development missions and the road map from the user-side point of view is instructive not only to Japanese but also to other country's development policy after the ITER project. In this report, first of all, the development missions from the user's point of view have been structured. Second, the development target required to demonstrate net electric generation and to introduce the fusion energy into the market is investigated, respectively. This investigation reveals that the completion of the ITER reference operation gives the outlook toward the demonstration of net electric generation and that the completion of the ITER advanced operation gives the possibility to introduce the fusion energy into the market. At last, the electric demonstration power plant Demo-CREST and the commercial power plant CREST are proposed to construct the development road map for fusion energy. (author)

  8. Experimental studies on cold fusion and hydrogen-metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locou, P.

    2007-01-01

    The cold fusion is a nuclear fusion realized in pervading conditions of temperature and pressure. My own process is parallel to that of the team of the University of Los Angeles, but shaped in 1996 within my personal and private Laboratory: A small cylinder in which we replace the air by some deuterium to the gas state in - 33 d egree (the deuterium is some hydrogen with a neutron, which we find in quantity in the sea water). We introduce a crystal there, extremely rare - the property of which is to emit continuously one thousand times dose of successful energy and it during several years without outside pyro, natural excitement - electric - that is it creates an electric field in the slightest change in temperature. We carry then the whole in + 7 d egree, what generates in some seconds a 200 000 volt electric field, an intense enough field to separate the pits of the deuterium of their electrons and to admit them to collide with those of the crystal. There is a fusion of protons between them (positive particles of the pit (core)) and a emission of neutrons, which do not merge. It is this emission which serves for measuring the quantity of energy produced by the fusion (merger). We so managed to produce some energy in unlimited quantity, allowing us to feed our installation with electric current in total autarky, and to reduce so our costs of functioning to divers domains. This crystal is exceptional in its applications and to give it the name would return has to break our current headway: the thorough problem, in this current period of takeover by the financial bodies of the possible patents, brought to us to the biggest caution as regards our results. And, as we look for no outside financing, we do not need to submit ourselves to the requirements lauded by the scientific Community, only our results are strictly estimated. For example we can make estimate our bars or patches of Hydrogen - Metal: a simple spectroscopy in YEW will give as result, only, the element H

  9. Simulation and high performance computing-Building a predictive capability for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.I.; Coelho, R.; Coster, D.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Imbeaux, F.; Guillerminet, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Tokamak Modelling Task Force (ITM-TF) is developing an infrastructure where the validation needs, as being formulated in terms of multi-device data access and detailed physics comparisons aiming for inclusion of synthetic diagnostics in the simulation chain, are key components. As the activity and the modelling tools are aimed for general use, although focused on ITER plasmas, a device independent approach to data transport and a standardized approach to data management (data structures, naming, and access) is being developed in order to allow cross-validation between different fusion devices using a single toolset. Extensive work has already gone into, and is continuing to go into, the development of standardized descriptions of the data (Consistent Physical Objects). The longer term aim is a complete simulation platform which is expected to last and be extended in different ways for the coming 30 years. The technical underpinning is therefore of vital importance. In particular the platform needs to be extensible and open-ended to be able to take full advantage of not only today's most advanced technologies but also be able to marshal future developments. As a full level comprehensive prediction of ITER physics rapidly becomes expensive in terms of computing resources, the simulation framework needs to be able to use both grid and HPC computing facilities. Hence data access and code coupling technologies are required to be available for a heterogeneous, possibly distributed, environment. The developments in this area are pursued in a separate project-EUFORIA (EU Fusion for ITER Applications) which is providing about 15 professional person year (ppy) per annum from 14 different institutes. The range and size of the activity is not only technically challenging but is providing some unique management challenges in that a large and geographically distributed team (a truly pan-European set of researchers) need to be coordinated on a fairly detailed

  10. Information Fusion and Extraction Priorities for Australia’s Information Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    also been in response to the global threats of terrorism and the utilisation of weapons of mass destruction or long-range ballistic missiles by...missiles and weapons of mass destruction by rogue states [4]. Accordingly, “maintaining first-rate intelligence capabilities, developing a comprehensive...number of customised views. For example, temporal data based on a particular activity may be displayed in a variety of modes on a grid or clock face

  11. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  12. Hefei experimental hybrid fusion-fission reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Lijian; Luan Guishi; Xu Qiang

    1992-03-01

    A new concept of hybrid reactor is introduced. It uses JET-like(Joint European Tokamak) device worked at sub-breakeven conditions, as a source of high energy neutrons to induce a blanket fission of depleted uranium. The solid breeding material and helium cooling technique are also used. It can produce 100 kg of 239 Pu per year by partial fission suppressed. The energy self-sustained of the fusion core is not necessary. Plasma temperature is maintained by external 20 MW ICRF (ion cyclotron resonance frequency) and 10 MW ECRF (electron cyclotron resonance frequency) heating. A steady state plasma current at 1.5 Ma is driven by 10 MW LHCD (lower hybrid current driven). Plasma density will be kept by pellet injection. ICRF can produce a high energy tail in ion distribution function and lead to significant enhancement of D-T reaction rate by 2 ∼ 5 times so that the neutron source strength reaches to the level of 1 x 10 19 n/s. This system is a passive system. It's power density is 10 W/cm 3 and the wall loading is 0.6 W/cm 2 that is the lower limitation of fusion and fission technology. From the calculation of neutrons it could always be in sub-critical and has intrinsic safety. The radiation damage and neutron flux distribution on the first wall are also analyzed. According to the conceptual design the application of this type hybrid reactor earlier is feasible

  13. Early history of experimental inertial confinement fusion and diagnostics in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanke; Jiang Shao'en; Ding Yongkun

    2014-01-01

    The early history of China's research on experimental laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and diagnostics technology is reviewed. The long and difficult path started from scratch, from learning the basics, looking up the literature and copying experiments, to independent research and development of comprehensive experimental facilities. This article fills a gap in the history of China's ICF experimental and diagnostics research. (authors)

  14. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system with data fusion capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Robotic missions will increasingly involve sending autonomous and semiautonomous vehicles into unstructured work environments. Mission success will often depend on the ability to accurately map scenes, to combine information from a variety of sensor types, to convey the three-dimensional (3-D) characteristics of these spaces to operators, and to construct geometric model task planning and collision avoidance. To meet these needs, an interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system (ICERVS) has been developed with general-purpose capabilities for data visualization and geometric modeling. ICERVS has been augmented with software that enables fusing data from multiple mapping sensors and poses to reduce the error effects in individual data sets and improve the mapping accuracy of a work space

  15. FENIX [Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental]: A test facility for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] and other new superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Patrick, R.E.; Miller, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International eXperimental (FENIX) Test Facility which is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a 76-t set of superconducting magnets housed in a 4-m-diameter cryostat. It represents a significant step toward meeting the testing needs for the development of superconductors appropriate for large-scale magnet applications such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The magnet set is configured to allow radial access to the 0.4-m-diameter high-field region where maximum fields up to 14 T will be provided. The facility is fitted with a thermally isolated test well with a port to the high-field region that allows insertion and removal of test conductors without disturbing the cryogenic environment of the magnets. It is expected that the facility will be made available to magnet developers internationally, and this paper discusses its general design features, its construction, and its capabilities

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of high heat flux components for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori

    1993-03-01

    In this report, the experimental and analytical results concerning the development of plasma facing components of ITER are described. With respect to developing high heat removal structures for the divertor plates, an externally-finned swirl tube was developed based on the results of critical heat flux (CHF) experiments on various tube structures. As the result, the burnout heat flux, which also indicates incident CHF, of 41 ± 1 MW/m 2 was achieved in the externally-finned swirl tube. The applicability of existing CHF correlations based on uniform heating conditions was evaluated by comparing the CHF experimental data with the smooth and the externally-finned tubes under one-sided heating condition. As the results, experimentally determined CHF data for straight tube show good agreement, for the externally-finned tube, no existing correlations are available for prediction of the CHF. With respect to the evaluation of the bonds between carbon-based material and heat sink metal, results of brazing tests were compared with the analytical results by three dimensional model with temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties. Analytical results showed that residual stresses from brazing can be estimated by the analytical three directional stress values instead of the equivalent stress value applied. In the analytical study on the separatrix sweeping for effectively reducing surface heat fluxes on the divertor plate, thermal response of the divertor plate has been analyzed under ITER relevant heat flux conditions and has been tested. As the result, it has been demonstrated that application of the sweeping technique is very effective for improvement in the power handling capability of the divertor plate and that the divertor mock-up has withstood a large number of additional cyclic heat loads. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  17. Recent experimental results in sub- and near-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnoli, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Stefanini, Alberto M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Recent advances obtained in the field of near and sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the results obtained in the last decade, and focus is mainly on the experimental work performed concerning the influence of transfer channels on fusion cross sections and the hindrance phenomenon far below the barrier. Indeed, early data of sub-barrier fusion taught us that cross sections may strongly depend on the low-energy collective modes of the colliding nuclei, and, possibly, on couplings to transfer channels. The coupled-channels (CC) model has been quite successful in the interpretation of the experimental evidences. Fusion barrier distributions often yield the fingerprint of the relevant coupled channels. Recent results obtained by using radioactive beams are reported. At deep sub-barrier energies, the slope of the excitation function in a semi-logarithmic plot keeps increasing in many cases and standard CC calculations overpredict the cross sections. This was named a hindrance phenomenon, and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. Recent theoretical developments suggest that this effect, at least partially, may be a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. The hindrance may have far-reaching consequences in astrophysics where fusion of light systems determines stellar evolution during the carbon and oxygen burning stages, and yields important information for exotic reactions that take place in the inner crust of accreting neutron stars. (orig.)

  18. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Thomas, Robert E.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, ηprop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and ηprop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons

  19. Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER/ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Haruyuki; Saigusa, Mikio; Saitoh, Yasushi

    1991-06-01

    Conceptual design of the Ion Cyclotron Wave (ICW) system for FER and Japanese contribution to the conceptual design of the ITER ICW system are presented. A frequency range of the FER ICW system is 50-85 MHz, which covers 2ω cT heating, current drive by transit time magnetic pumping (TTMP) and 2ω cD heating. Physics analyses show that the FER and the ITER ICW systems are suitable for the central ion heating and the burn control. The launching systems of the FER ICW system and the ITER high frequency ICW system are characterized by in-port plug and ridged-waveguide-fed 5x4 phased loop array. Merits of those systems are (1) a ceramic support is not necessary inside the cryostat and (2) remote maintenance of the front end part of the launcher is relatively easy. Overall structure of the launching system is consistent with radiation shielding, cooling, pumping, tritium safety and remote maintenance. The launcher has injection capability of 20 MW in the frequency range of 50-85 MHz with the separatrix-antenna distance of 15 cm and steep scrape-off density profile of H-mode. The shape of the ridged waveguide is optimized to provide desired frequency range and power handling capability with a finite element method. Matching between the current strap and the ridged waveguide is satisfactorily good. Thermal analysis of the Faraday shield shows that high electric conductivity low Z material such as beryllium should be chosen for a protection tile of the Faraday shield. Thick Faraday shield is necessary to tolerate electromagnetic force during disruptions. R and D needs for the ITER/FER ICW systems are identified and gain from JT-60/60U ICRF experiments and operations are indicated in connection with them. (author)

  20. Design, calculation and experimental studies for liquid metal system main parameters in support of the liquid lithium fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinski, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a Liquid Lithium Fusion Reactor and the first experimental results were presented at the 16th IAEA Conference on Fusion Energy. During the past two years theoretical estimations have been made, and calculated and experimental results have been obtained in confirmation of this concept and supporting its progress. The main results of this work are given in the paper. (author)

  1. Design, calculation and experimental studies for liquid metal system main parameters in support of the liquid lithium fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinski, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept of a Liquid Lithium Fusion Reactor and the first experimental results were presented at the 16th IAEA Conference on Fusion Energy. During the past two years theoretical estimations have been made, and calculated and experimental results have been obtained in confirmation of this concept and supporting its progress. The main results of this work are given in the paper. (author)

  2. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  3. Conceptual design study of quasi-steady state fusion experimental reactor (FEQ-Q), part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 JER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. The results of the following design items are included; core plasma, reactor structure, reactor core components, magnets. (author)

  4. Conceptual design study of quasi-steady state fusion experimental reactor (FER-Q), part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 FER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. The results of the following design items are included: heating/current drive system, plasma position control, power supply, diagnostics, neutronics, blanket test module, repair and maintenance and safety. (author)

  5. Remote experimental site concept for diagnostic collaborations in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.

    1991-08-01

    The next generation of tokamaks, ITER or BPX, will be characterized by an even greater emphasis on joint operation and experimentation. With anticipation of an increased number and diversity of collaborations, especially in the area of diagnostics, we are preparing for such shared facilities by developing a systematic approach to remote, joint physics operation involving experimental teams at several locations. The local area network of computers used for control and data acquisition on present and future experiments can be extended over a wide area network to provide a mechanism for remote operation of subsystems (e.g. diagnostics) required for physics experiments. The technology required for high bandwidth (≥45Mbps) connections between multiple sites either exists or will be available over the next few years. With the rapid development of high performance workstations, network interfaces, distributed computing, and video conferencing, we can proceed with the development of a system of control and analysis sites to provide for consistent, efficient, and continuing collaborations. Early establishment of such sites could also enhance existing joint design and development efforts

  6. Detection capability of a pulsed Ground Penetrating Radar utilizing an oscilloscope and Radargram Fusion Approach for optimal signal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    In scientific research pulsed radars often employ a digital oscilloscope as sampling unit. The sensitivity of an oscilloscope is determined in general by means of the number of digits of its analog-to-digital converter and the selected full scale vertical setting, i.e., the maximal voltage range displayed. Furthermore oversampling or averaging of the input signal may increase the effective number of digits, hence the sensitivity. Especially for Ground Penetrating Radar applications high sensitivity of the radar system is demanded since reflection amplitudes of buried objects are strongly attenuated in ground. Hence, in order to achieve high detection capability this parameter is one of the most crucial ones. In this paper we analyze the detection capability of our pulsed radar system utilizing a Rohde & Schwarz RTO 1024 oscilloscope as sampling unit for Ground Penetrating Radar applications, such as detection of pipes and cables in the ground. Also effects of averaging and low-noise amplification of the received signal prior to sampling are investigated by means of an appropriate laboratory setup. To underline our findings we then present real-world radar measurements performed on our GPR test site, where we have buried pipes and cables of different types and materials in different depths. The results illustrate the requirement for proper choice of the settings of the oscilloscope for optimal data recording. However, as we show, displaying both strong signal contributions due to e.g., antenna cross-talk and direct ground bounce reflection as well as weak reflections from objects buried deeper in ground requires opposing trends for the oscilloscope's settings. We therefore present our Radargram Fusion Approach. By means of this approach multiple radargrams recorded in parallel, each with an individual optimized setting for a certain type of contribution, can be fused in an appropriate way in order to finally achieve a single radargram which displays all

  7. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory's assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made

  8. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.).

  9. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Inoue, M.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al 2 O 3 has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.)

  10. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  11. Integrated assessment of thermal hydraulic processes in W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas.kaliatka@lei.lt; Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The model of Ingress of Coolant Event experiment facility was developed using the RELAP5 code. • Calculation results were compared with Ingress of Coolant Event experiment data. • Using gained experience, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X facility was developed. • Performed analysis approved pressure increase protection system for LOCA event. - Abstract: Energy received from the nuclear fusion reaction is one of the most promising options for generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future. However, physical and technical problems existing in this technology are complicated. Several experimental nuclear fusion devices around the world have already been constructed, and several are under construction. However, the processes in the cooling system of the in-vessel components, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system of nuclear fusion devices are not widely studied. The largest amount of radioactive materials is concentrated in the vacuum vessel of the fusion device. Vacuum vessel is designed for the vacuum conditions inside the vessel. Rupture of the in-vessel components of the cooling system pipe may lead to a sharp pressure increase and possible damage of the vacuum vessel. To prevent the overpressure, the pressure increase protection system should be designed and implemented. Therefore, systematic and detailed experimental and numerical studies, regarding the thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system, are important and relevant. In this article, the numerical investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes in cooling systems of in-vessel components, vacuum vessels and pressure increase protection system of fusion devices is presented. Using the experience gained from the modelling of “Ingress of Coolant Event” experimental facilities, the numerical model of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experimental fusion device was developed. The integrated analysis of the

  12. Experimental test of the background rejection, through imaging capability, of a highly segmented AGATA germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncel, M.; Recchia, F.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of highly segmented germanium detectors as well as the algorithms to identify the position of the interaction within the crystal opens the possibility to locate the γ-ray source using Compton imaging algorithms. While the Compton-suppression shield, coupled to the germanium detector in conventional arrays, works also as an active filter against the γ rays originated outside the target, the new generation of position sensitive γ-ray detector arrays has to fully rely on tracking capabilities for this purpose. In specific experimental conditions, as the ones foreseen at radioactive beam facilities, the ability to discriminate background radiation improves the sensitivity of the gamma spectrometer. In this work we present the results of a measurement performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming the evaluation of the AGATA detector capabilities to discriminate the origin of the γ rays on an event-by-event basis. It will be shown that, exploiting the Compton scattering formula, it is possible to track back γ rays coming from different positions, assigning them to specific emitting locations. These imaging capabilities are quantified for a single crystal AGATA detector.

  13. Some manufacture and installation problems in experimental assemblies for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Rappe, G.; Hoare, F.; McDonald, J.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing problems encountered when developing specialised items of fusion apparatus are only solved after much experimentation and a good deal of trial and error. After the experiment is built such problems may be forgotten and are often not recorded so that subsequent workers in the same field may start with no past experience on which to build. The paper therefore highlights some of the manufacturing problems which have been solved during the construction of some of the experimental apparatus at Culham

  14. Li2O-pebble type tritium breeding blanket for fusion experimental reactor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Iida, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yoshihisa

    1984-01-01

    The fusion experimental reactor is the next stage device in Japan, which is planned to be constructed following the critical plasma experimental device JT-60 being constructed at present. The breeding blanket installed in nuclear fusion reactors is one of most important structures, and it is required to satisfy the fundamental performance of producing and continuously recovering tritium as the nuclear fusion fuel, and other requirement in good coordination. The Li 2 O pebble type breeding blanket that Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has examined is the concept for resolving the problems of the mass transfer and thermal stress cracking of Li 2 O, which are important in blanket design. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of this breeding blanket are discussed from the viewpoint of the breeding and continuous recovery of tritium, the ease of manufacture and the maintenance of soundness. The breeding blanket is composed of breeding region, tritium purge region, cooling region, plasma stabilizing conductors and blanket container. Li 2 O is excellent in its tritium breeding performance and heat conductivity. The functions required for the breeding blanket, the fundamental structure, the examples of breeding blanket concept, the selection of breeding blanket concept, the characteristics of Li 2 O pebble type blanket and its future prospect are described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa R Sankavaram

    Full Text Available It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss.In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei.Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord.This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy for spinal cord

  16. Strong neutron sources - How to cope with weapon material production capabilities of fusion and spallation neutron sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, M.; Franceschini, G.; Liebert, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate the potential and relevance for weapon material production in future fusion power plants and spallation neutron sources (SNS) and sketch what should be done to strengthen these technologies against a non-peaceful use. It is shown that future commercial fusion reactors may have military implications: first, they provide an easy source of tritium for weapons, an element that does not fall under safeguards and for which diversion from a plant could probably not be detected even if some tritium accountancy is implemented. Secondly, large fusion reactors - even if not designed for fissile material breeding - could easily produce several hundred kg Pu per year with high weapon quality and very low source material requirements. If fusion-only reactors will prevail over fission-fusion hybrids in the commercialization phase of fusion technology, the safeguard challenge will be more of a legal than of a technical nature. In pure fusion reactors (and in most SNS) there should be no nuclear material present at any time by design. The presence of undeclared nuclear material would indicate a military use of the plant. This fact offers a clear-cut detection criterion for a covert use of a declared facility. Another important point is that tritium does not fall under the definition of 'nuclear material', so a pure fusion reactor or a SNS that do not use nuclear materials are not directly falling under any international non-proliferation treaty requirements. Non-proliferation treaties have to be amended to take into account that fact. (A.C.)

  17. Feasibility study of teleoperational maintenance using real-time simulator for experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Oka, Kiyoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance manipulator for the experimental fusion reactor has long vertical and horizontal telescopic booms to access the neutral beam injector of the fusion reactor. Due to this boom structure, the vibration and deflection of the manipulator are the critical issues for the accurate operation. A real-time simulation system was constructed to evaluate the maneuverability of the manipulator under these vibration and deflection. In this simulation system, the dynamic behavior of the flexible manipulator is calculated synchronized with the real-time control input of the human operator. A vibration and position compensation method was adapted to improve the maneuverability. Through the evaluation using the real-time simulation system, it was verified that the manipulator is maneuverable by using vibration and position compensation. (author)

  18. Parametric and alternative studies for fusion experimental reactor (FER) (FY 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 FER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. This report includes the following parametric and alternative studies for the FER reference design: 1) parametric studies concerning with core plasma magnets, and operation scenario and power supply, 2) tritium breeding blanket, 3) the study for the steady state operation FER, 4) OTHERS. (AUTHOR)

  19. Development of Capabilities for New Experimental Studies on the Elasticity and Rheology of Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, R.; Weidner, D.; Whitaker, M. L.; Chen, H.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Key mineralogical components of the mid-mantle of the Earth have historically been difficult to obtain elasticity data on because they either cannot be recovered to ambient conditions (e.g. calcium silicate perovskite) or back-transform during experimental preparation (e.g. magnesium silicate perovskite). Recently the conditions of the mid-mantle (14+ GPa, 1500+ K) and even of the lower mantle (24+ GPa, 1800+ K) have become reachable using multi-anvil apparatuses (MAA) with in-situ synchrotron x-ray capabilities, but the capabilities of these facilities have not yet fully matured. Examples include that reaching such pressures typically results in samples that are too small for ultrasonics, the few ultrasonics experiments done at these conditions have extremely limited x-ray visibility, and rheological experiments that apply differential stress have not been done at these conditions on large volume samples. The pressure reachable in a Large Volume Press (LVP) is limited by the properties of available ultra-hard (UH) materials such as tungsten carbide (WC) and x-ray transparent polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and cubic boron nitride (cBN). A key factor is the interaction of 1st stage anvils and anvils of UH materials; obtaining WC anvils of larger size is prohibitive in both capability and cost, and anvils of hardened steel are limited in the tonnage that can be applied before damage occurs. Other complications include the difference in compressibility between WC and PCD/cBN anvils and the availability of WC with simultaneous high compressive strength (pressure gain per tonnage) and high transverse rupture strength (lower chance of blowout and reusability). The DT25 press to be used at the new NSLS-II beamline XPD-D is a Kawaii-style LVP MAA which accepts 25 mm UH 2nd-stage anvils and has the capability to apply a differential load while at extreme conditions. We report on our development of techniques to do new and expanded experiments at lower mantle conditions

  20. Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the cold fusion of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown the apparent existence of the cold fusion/chemical synthesis of protons and electrons into neutrons (plus neutrinos), much along Rutherford's original conception. These findings have received indirect, yet significant experimental confirmations in Bose-Einstein correlations, superconductivity and other fields to warrant additional studies. In this paper we present a quantitative theoretical study of the apparent tendency of all massive particles to form a bound state at small distances which is enhanced at low energy. The study is centrally dependent on the isominkowskian geometrization of the expected nonlocal interactions due to total mutual penetrations, and their causal description via the isopoincare symmetry. The cold fusion considered is then made possible by isorenormalizations of the 'intrinsic' characteristics of particles originating from the contact-nonhamiltonian character of the internal nonlocal effects. This latter feature illustrates the reasons why the cold fusion considered is simply beyond the descriptive capacities of relativistic quantum mechanics, but it is fully predicted by its isotopic covering. 23 refs

  1. General description of preliminary design of an experimental fusion reactor and the future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    Recently, the studies on plasma physics has progressed rapidly, and promising experimental data emerged successively. Especially expectation mounts high that Tokamak will develop into power reactors. In Japan, the construction of large plasma devices such as JT-60 of JAERI is going to start, and after several years, the studies on plasma physics will come to the end of first stage, then the main research and development will be directed to power reactors. The studies on the design of practical fusion reactors have been in progress since 1973 in JAERI, and the preliminary design is being carried out. The purposes of the preliminary design are the clarification of the concept of the experimental reactor and the requirements for the studies on core plasma, the examination of the problems for developing main components and systems of the reactor, and the development of design technology. The experimental reactor is the quasi-steady reactor of 100 MW fusion reaction output, and the conditions set for the design and the basis of their setting are explained. The outline of the design, namely core plasma, blankets, superconductive magnets and the shielding with them, vacuum wall, neutral particle injection heating device, core fuel supply and exhaust system, and others, is described. In case of scale-up the reactor structural material which can withstand neutron damage must be developed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Preliminary study on power balance in the plasma of an experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Yamato, Harumi

    1976-03-01

    The preliminary study on power balance in the plasma is described in the first-stage design of an experimental fusion reactor. The purpose is to show the ranges of plasma parameters for the design output of about 100 MW with an injection power less than 50 MW. The impurity is permitted to the extent of Zsub(eff) -- 5 to meet the design requirement. Influences of the uncertainty in scaling law on the power output and injection power are discussed, and also possibility of the self-ignition. (auth.)

  3. Some considerations on a plasma in the JAERI experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, T.; Yamato, H.; Maki, K.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of the plasma characteristics for the JAERI tokamak experimental fusion reactor is reported. In order to make the reactor compact, the self-sustaining condition has been removed. Stationary heating by 200 keV neutral deuteron beam to maintain the power balance is applied expecting the power amplification by the TCT effect. The main parameters determined are power output of 100 MW, toroidal field on axis of 6 T, aspect ratio of 4.5 and major radius of 6.75 m. The results of the plasma power balance, fueling by means of the gas blanket scheme, power stabilization with feedback and the start-up are presented

  4. Development of a remote handling system for replacement of armor tiles in the Fusion Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, J.; Kakudate, S.; Oka, K.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    The armor tiles of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) planned by JAERI are categorized as scheduled maintenance components, since they are damaged by severe heat and particle loads from the plasma during operation. A remote handling system is thus required to replace a large number of tiles rapidly in the highly activated reactor. However, the simple teaching-playback method cannot be adapted to this system because of deflection of the tiles caused by thermal deformation and so on. We have developed a control system using visual feedback control to adapt to this deflection and an end-effector for a single arm. We confirm their performance in tests. (orig.)

  5. On experimental determination of characteristics of nuclear fusion reactions from mu-molecular resonance states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Pen'kov, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Charge-nonsymmetrical deuterium-helium muon complexes (dμHe) are studied. A method is proposed for experimentally determining the rates of nuclear fusion reactions in dμHe molecules in the J=1 and J=0 states (J is the orbital moment of the system) and the partial rates for radiative decay of these complexes in these states. Experiments are supposed to be carried out at meson factories with gaseous and cryogenic targets filled with a mixture of deuterium and helium

  6. Source term evaluation for accident transients in the experimental fusion facility ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virot, F.; Barrachin, M.; Cousin, F. [IRSN, BP3-13115, Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    We have studied the transport and chemical speciation of radio-toxic and toxic species for an event of water ingress in the vacuum vessel of experimental fusion facility ITER with the ASTEC code. In particular our evaluation takes into account an assessed thermodynamic data for the beryllium gaseous species. This study shows that deposited beryllium dusts of atomic Be and Be(OH){sub 2} are formed. It also shows that Be(OT){sub 2} could exist in some conditions in the drain tank. (authors)

  7. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Busquets-Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation (1.14 g/day on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N=9 or placebo groups (N=7 in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  8. Experimental study of electron temperature gradient influence on impurity turbulent transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding impurity transport is a key to an optimal regime for a future fusion device. In this thesis, the theoretical and experimental influence of the electron temperature gradient R/L Te on heavy impurity transport is analyzed both in Tore Supra and ASDEX Upgrade. The electron temperature profile is modified locally by heating the plasma with little ECRH power deposited at two different radii. Experimental results have been obtained with the impurity transport code (ITC) which has been completed with a genetic algorithm allowing to determine the transport coefficient profiles with more accuracy. Transport coefficient profiles obtained by a quasilinear gyrokinetic code named QuaLiKiz are consistent with the experimental ones despite experimental uncertainties on gradients. In the core dominated by electron modes, the lower R/L Te the lower the nickel diffusion coefficient. The latter tends linearly to the neoclassical level when the instability threshold is approached. The experimental threshold is in agreement with the one computed by QuaLiKiz. Further out, where the plasma is dominated by ITG, which are independent of R/L Te , both experimental and simulated results show no modification in the diffusion coefficient profile. Furthermore, the convection velocity profile is not modified. This is attributed to a very small contribution of the thermodiffusion (1/Z dependence) in the total convection. On ASDEX, the preliminary results, very different from the Tore Supra ones, show a internal transport barrier for impurities located at the same radius as the strong ECRH power deposit. (author) [fr

  9. Generation of thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of a pure explosion. Part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derentowicz, H.; Kaliski, S.; Wolski, J.; Ziolkowski, Z.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the generation of a thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of explosion. The experimental set is based on a quasi-spherical experiment in which a polyethylene layer is shot into a conic region hollowed out in a golden target and filled with deuterium gas. The speeding-up system is based on shooting the conic liner onto the surface of the Cu cone in which the Mach wave is generated and propagates along the cone axis leading to an implosion velocity of the polyethylene layer of the order of (4 - 5).10 6 cm/s. This affords a 10 3 -multiple compression of the D 2 gas (p 0 approximately 1.2 atm) and a neutron emission of the order of 3.10 7 from a mass of about 10 -7 g. This result is in full agreement with theoretical estimates. This is the first published and documented experiment in which a neutron stream of thermonuclear fusion was obtained by means of a pure explosion. (author)

  10. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within ±10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the 92 Mo(n, 2n) 91g Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the 138 Ba(n, 2n) 137m Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  11. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within {+-}10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the {sup 92}Mo(n, 2n){sup 91g}Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the {sup 138}Ba(n, 2n){sup 137m}Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  12. Experimental measurement of the 12C+16O fusion cross sections at astrophysical energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X.; Tan, W. P.; Beard, M.; deBoer, R. J.; Gilardy, G.; Jung, H.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Robertson, D.; Setoodehnia, K.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Vande Kolk, B.; Wiescher, M.; de Souza, R.; Hudan, S.; Singh, V.; Tang, X. D.; Uberseder, E.

    2018-05-01

    The total cross sections of the 12C+16O fusion have been experimentally determined at low energies to investigate the role of this reaction during late stellar evolution burning phases. A high-intensity oxygen beam was produced by the 5MV pelletron accelerator at the University of Notre Dame impinging on a thick ultra-pure graphite target. Protons and γ-rays were measured simultaneously in the center-of-mass energy range from 3.64 to 5.01 MeV, using strip silicon and HPGe detectors. Statistical model calculations were employed to interpret the experimental results. A new broad resonance-like structure is observed for the 12C+16O reaction, and a decreasing trend of its S-factor towards low energies is found.

  13. Numerical and experimental study of Ti6Al4V components manufactured using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, J.; Mindt, H.-W.; Düchting, J.; Schleifenbaum, J.H.; Megahed, M.

    2017-01-01

    Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of titanium alloys is an interesting manufacturing route for many applications requiring high material strength combined with geometric complexity. Managing powder bed fusion challenges, including porosity, surface finish, distortions and residual stresses of as-built material, is the key to bringing the advantages of this process to production main stream. This paper discusses the application of experimental and numerical analysis towards optimizing t...

  14. Experimental measurement of 12C+16O fusion at stellar energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X.; Tan, W. P.; Beard, M.; deBoer, R. J.; Gilardy, G.; Jung, H.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Robertson, D.; Setoodehnia, K.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Vande Kolk, B.; Wiescher, M.; deSouza, R. T.; Hudan, S.; Singh, V.; Tang, X. D.; Uberseder, E.

    2017-10-01

    The total cross section of the 12C+16O fusion reaction has been measured at low energies to investigate the role of this reaction during late stellar evolution burning phases. A high-intensity oxygen beam, produced by the 5 MV pelletron accelerator at the University of Notre Dame, impinged on a thick, ultrapure graphite target. Protons and γ rays were simultaneously measured in the center-of-mass energy range from 3.64 to 5.01 MeV for singles and from 3.73 to 4.84 MeV for coincidence events, using silicon and Ge detectors. Statistical model calculations were employed to interpret the experimental results. The emergence of a new resonance-like broad structure and a decreasing trend in the S -factor data towards lower energies (opposite to previous data) are found for the 12C+16O fusion reaction. Based on these results the uncertainty range of the reaction rate within the temperature range of late stellar burning environments is discussed.

  15. Advanced Simulation Capability for Turbopump Cavitation Dynamics Guided by Experimental Validation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerical cavitation modeling capability is critical in the design of liquid rocket engine turbopumps, feed lines, injector manifolds and engine test facilities....

  16. Increasing the magnetic-field capability of the magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system using an inductively coupled coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.; Davies, J. R.; Fiksel, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Zabir, E.; Betti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetized high energy density physics (HEDP) is a very active and relatively unexplored field that has applications in inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasma science, and basic plasma physics. A self-contained device, the Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System, MIFEDS [G. Fiksel et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016105 (2015)], was developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics to conduct magnetized HEDP experiments on both the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75 (2006) and L. J. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005)] laser systems. Extremely high magnetic fields are a necessity for magnetized HEDP, and the need for stronger magnetic fields continues to drive the redevelopment of the MIFEDS device. It is proposed in this paper that a magnetic coil that is inductively coupled rather than directly connecting to the MIFEDS device can increase the overall strength of the magnetic field for HEDP experiments by increasing the efficiency of energy transfer while decreasing the effective magnetized volume. A brief explanation of the energy delivery of the MIFEDS device illustrates the benefit of inductive coupling and is compared to that of direct connection for varying coil size and geometry. A prototype was then constructed to demonstrate a 7-fold increase in energy delivery using inductive coupling.

  17. Reconnaissance blind multi-chess: an experimentation platform for ISR sensor fusion and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J.; Richardson, Casey L.; Kain, Sean M.; Stankiewicz, Paul G.; Guseman, Paul R.; Schreurs, Blake A.; Dunne, Jeffrey A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces the game of reconnaissance blind multi-chess (RBMC) as a paradigm and test bed for understanding and experimenting with autonomous decision making under uncertainty and in particular managing a network of heterogeneous Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors to maintain situational awareness informing tactical and strategic decision making. The intent is for RBMC to serve as a common reference or challenge problem in fusion and resource management of heterogeneous sensor ensembles across diverse mission areas. We have defined a basic rule set and a framework for creating more complex versions, developed a web-based software realization to serve as an experimentation platform, and developed some initial machine intelligence approaches to playing it.

  18. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental study of CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications by hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xunzhong; Tao Jie; Liu Hongbing; Li Ming

    2010-01-01

    The integral hydroforming process to prepare CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications was evaluated by means of numerical simulation. The paper firstly investigated the effect of different paths on the protrusion height and distribution of thickness thinning rate of T-shapes. Then, it discussed that the friction coefficient between die and tube blank played an important role in manufacturing high quality T-shapes. Subsequently, the practical hydroforming was performed based on the simulation results with the aid of special lubrication coatings with friction coefficient 0.07. It is obviously indicated that the simulation results agree well with the experimental ones in geometry size and wall thickness distribution. The results indicate that the numerical simulation guides the practical hydroforming of CLAM tube effectively and determines the actual cold forming process parameters rapidly. The sound CLAM T-shapes with proper geometry size and thickness distribution can be obtained by the optimal hydroforming process. (authors)

  20. A proposed safety assurance method and its application to the fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, T.; Seki, Y.; Inabe, T.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Importance categorization and hazard identification methods have been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor. A parameter, the system index, is introduced in the categorization method. The relative importance of systems with safety functions can be classified by the largeness of the system index and whether or not the system acts as a boundary for radioactive materials. This categorization can be used as the basic principle in determining structure design assessment, seismic design criteria etc. For the hazard identification the system time energy matrix is proposed, where the time and spatial distributions of hazard energies are used. This approach is formulated more systematically than an ad-hoc identification of hazard events and it is useful to select design basis events which are employed in the assessment of safety designs. (orig.)

  1. Modelling of the edge of a fusion plasma towards ITER and experimental validation on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemaut, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The conditions required for fusion can be obtained in tokamaks. In most of these machines, the plasma wall-interaction and the exhaust of heating power are handled in a cavity called divertor. However, the high heat flux involved and the limitations of the materials of the plasma facing components (PFC) are problematic. Many researches are done this field in the context of ITER which should demonstrate 500 MW of DT fusion power during ∼ 400 s. Such operations could bring the heat flux on the PFC too high to be handled. Its reduction to manageable levels relies on the divertor detachment involving the reduction of the particle and heat fluxes on the PFC. Unfortunately, this phenomenon is still difficult to model. The aim of this PhD is to use the modelling of JET experiments with EDGE2D-EIRENE to make some progress in the understanding of the detachment. The simulations reproduce the observed detachment in C and Be/W environments. The distribution of the radiation is well reproduced by the code for C but with some discrepancies in Be/W. The comparison between different sets of atomic physics processes shows that ion-molecule elastic collisions are responsible for the detachment seen in EDGE2D-EIRENE. This process provides good neutral confinement in the divertor and significant momentum losses at low temperature, when the plasma is recombining. Comparison between EDGE2D-EIRENE and SOLPS4.3 shows similar detachment trends but the importance of the ion-molecule elastic collisions is reduced in SOLPS4.3. Both codes suggest that any process capable of improving the neutral confinement in the divertor should help to improve the modelling of the detachment. (author) [fr

  2. Experimental study of deceleration process of traveling wave direct energy converter for advanced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Hormasa; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takada, Kousuke; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Advanced fusion is attractive in the view point of utilization of high efficiency direct energy conversion from fusion produced ions. Deuterium-helium-3 reaction is the most possible, however, the energy of created fast proton is so enormous that conventional electro-static converters cannot be applied. Use of a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC), the principle of which was inverse process of a linear accelerator, was proposed for recovering energy of the fast protons. In order to realize the TWDEC, the authors are continuing experimental study by employing a small-scale simulator. A TWDEC consists of a modulator and a decelerator. Fast proton beam extracted from a reactor is introduced in the modulator where radio frequency (RF) electrostatic field modulate the beam velocity, and hence, the protons are bunched and density-modulated in the downstream. The density-modulated protons flow into the decelerator where a number of electrodes connected to a transmission circuit are axially aligned. The flowing protons induce RF current which creates RF traveling voltage on the electrodes. The RF traveling field between aligned electrodes decelerates the protons, thus their energy is recovered into RF power. In this paper, deceleration process of TWDEC is experimentally examined. In our experimental simulator, because of the small beam current, the induced potential, i.e. the deceleration field is so weak that the beam cannot be decelerated. Thus, we examined the process by dividing into two: one was induction of the deceleration field by the modulated beam, which was called as passive decelerator. The other was energy recovery through interaction between the deceleration field and the modulated beam. In this latter experiment, the deceleration field was supplied externally, and we called this as active decelerator. As for the active decelerator mode, we performed higher beam energy experiment than previous one. As the beam energy increases, the divergence of

  3. Experimental Investigation of Muon-Catalyzed $dt$ Fusion in Wide Ranges of $D/T$ Mixture Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bom, V R; Demin, D L; van Eijk, C W E; Faifman, M P; Filchenkov, V V; Golubkov, A N; Grafov, N N; Grishenchkin, S K; Gritsaj, K I; Klevtsov, V G; Konin, A D; Kuryakin, A V; Medved', S V; Musyaev, R K; Perevozchikov, V V; Rudenko, A I; Sadetsky, S M; Vinogradov, Yu I; Yukhimchuk, A A; Yukhimchuk, S A; Zinov, V G; Zlatoustovskii, S V

    2004-01-01

    A vast program of the experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed $dt$ fusion was performed at the JINR Phasotron. Parameters of the $dt$ cycle were obtained in a wide range of $D/T$ mixture conditions: temperatures of $20\\div 800$ K, densities of $0.2\\div1.2$ LHD and tritium concentrations of $15\\div 86\\%$. The results obtained are summarized.

  4. Basic experiments during loss of vacuum event (LOVE) in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Seki, Yasushi

    1993-01-01

    If a loss of vacuum event (LOVE) occurs due to damage of the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor, some chemical reactions such as a graphic oxidation and a buoyancy-driven exchange flow take place after equalization of the gas pressure between the inside and outside of the vacuum vessel. The graphite oxidation would generate inflammable carbon monoxide and release tritium retained in the graphite. The exchange flow through the breaches may transport the carbon monoxide and tritium out of the vacuum vessel. To add confidence to the safety evaluations and analyses, it is important to grasp the basic phenomena such as the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation. Experiments of the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation were carried out to obtain the exchange flow rate and the rate constant for the carbon monoxide combustion, respectively. These experimental results were compared with existing correlations. The authors plan a scaled-model test and a full-scale model test for the LOVE

  5. Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaghi, T.; Miya, K.; Yamada, H.; Takagi, T.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a magnetic fusion reactor was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Deformations of straight and torus type helical coils were caused due to static electromagnetic forces in the liquid helium cryostat and were analysed with the finite element computer code made here. Despite of a large scatter of experimental data due to a non-uniform friction force between the helical coil and the torus of stainless steel, the numerical results are very close to the mean value of the data. Numerical analysis of the force distribution acting on the helical coils was also performed for a Heliotron's coil system to characterize its nature. The force could be categorized conveniently as an extensional force, a tangential force and a toroidal force which correspond respectively to the kind of forces acting on toroidal field coils. Additionally, the effect of mechanical constraint on the magnetomechanical behavior is discussed and shows that the location of the constraint significantly affects the stress distributions in the coils. (orig.)

  6. Optimization design study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willem Janssens, Ir.; Crutzen, Y.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Matera, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design optimization study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion devices is both an answer to the actual problems encountered in the multilayer divertor proposals and an illustration of a rational modelling philosophy and optimization strategy for the development of a new divertor structure. Instead of using mechanical attachment or metallurgical bonding of the protective material to the heat sink as in most actual divertor concepts, the so-called brush divertor in this study uses an array of unidirectional fibers penetrating in both the protective armor and the underling composite heat sink. Although the approach is fully concentrated on the divertor performance, including both a description of its function from the theoretical point of view and an overview of the problems related to the materials choice and evaluation, both the approach followed in the numerical modelling and the judgment of the results are thought to be valid also for other applications. Therefore the spin-off of the study must be situated in both the technological progress towards a feasible divertor solution, which introduces no additional physical uncertainties, and in the general area of the thermo-mechanical finite-element modelling on both macro-and microscale. The brush divertor itself embodies the use, and thus the modelling, of advanced materials such as tailor-made metal matrix composites and dispersion strengthened metals, and is shown to offer large potential advantages, demanding however and experimental validation under working conditions. It is clearly indicated where the need originates for an integrated experimental program which must allow to verify the basic modelling assumptions in order to arrive at the use of numerical computation as a powerful and realistic tool of structural testing and life-time prediction

  7. Review of the general atomic experimental fusion power reactor initial conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Sager, P.H. Jr.; Harder, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objective of the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) is to provide the necessary interface between physics experiments and the first demonstration power plants. Since economically viable tokamak-type reactors may well have to be very high Q devices (ratio of fusion power out to power into the plasma), it will be essential for a tokamak demonstration reactor to operate at or near ignition conditions. Thus, it is believed that one of the primary objectives of the EPR must be to fully model the behavior of a D-T burning plasma required in the reactor of a demonstration plant. Therefore, a major objective of the EPR should be to achieve ignition conditions. In addition to demonstrating the ability to ignite and control a D-T plasma, it is also desirable that the EPR should produce, or at least demonstrate the ability to produce, a small amount of net electrical power. These objectives should be accomplished at a reasonable cost; this implies achieving a sufficiently high β (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure). It is believed that noncircular cross section tokamaks offer the best chance of realizing these objectives. Consequently, noncircular cross sections are a major design feature of the General Atomic EPR

  8. Review of the conceptual design of a Doublet fusion experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a two-year, conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) are presented. For this study, the primary objectives of the EPR are to obtain plasma ignition conditions and produce net electrical power. The design features a Doublet plasma configuration with a major radius of 4.5 m. The average plasma beta is 10 percent which yields a thermonuclear power level of 410 MW during a 105-sec burn period. With a duty factor of 0.84, the gross electrical output is 124 MW(e) while the net output is 37 MW(e). The design features a 25-cm-thick, helium-cooled, modular, stainless-steel blanket with a 1-cm-thick, silicon carbide first wall. Sufficient shielding is provided to permit contact maintenance outside the shield envelope within 24 hr after shutdown. An overall plant concept has been developed including a superheated steam cycle power conversion system. Preliminary cost estimates and construction schedules have also been developed. 3 refs

  9. Experimental evaluation of torsional fatigue strength of welded bellows and application to design of fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sonobe, Tadashi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Mizuno, Gen-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Torsional fatigue strength of the welded bellows was evaluated experimentally, aiming the application to a port of a fusion device. The welded bellows revealed elastic torsional buckling and spiral distorsion even under a small angle of torsion. Twisting load never leads the welded bellows to fracture easily so far as the angle of torsion is not excessively large, and the welded bellows has the torsional fatigue strength much larger than that expected so far. Two formulae were proposed to evaluate the stress of the welded bellows under the forced angle of torsion; shearing stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling does not occur and the axial bending stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling occurs. And the results of the torsional fatigue experiments showed that the former is reasonably conservative and simulates the actual behavior of the welded bellows better than the latter in the high cycle fatigue region and vice versa in the low cycle fatigue region from the viewpoint of the mechanical design. The present evaluation method of the torsional fatigue strength was applied to the welded bellows for the port of the JT-60 vacuum vessel and its structural integrity was confirmed under the design load condition. (author)

  10. Design study of a neutral beam injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Design study has been made of a 200 kV, 45 MW D 0 neutral beam injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) covering the following: determination of the ion source specifications, design of components such as ion source with extraction electrodes, energy converter, cryopump and cooling system, and estimations of the energy conversion efficiency, overall power efficiency and total power required for operation of the NBI system, and also a hydrogen isotope separation method using cryo-sorption pumps. Optimizations and parameter studies of the neutralizing cell length, gas flow rate, operating pressure of ion sources, total pumping speed and pressure of energy converters are made in the design study based on reactor plasma requirements. Hollow cathode ion sources are proposed because of the extended operation time at low gas pressure (about 4.5 x 10 -3 Torr) and the high gas efficiency (40%). Life of the extraction electrodes is determined by blistering due to deuterium ions. Fast neutron radiation damage is relatively small. In-line direct converters with grounded recovery electrodes and neutralizing cells floated at negative potential -190 kV are used to recover residual deuterium ion energy without interrupting the neutral beam trajectories. Energy conversion efficiency of 80% and overall power efficiency of about 40% are obtained. (auth.)

  11. Experimental fusion power reactor conceptual design study. Final report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-12-01

    This document is the final report which describes the work carried out by General Atomic Company for the Electric Power Research Institute on a conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) and an overall EPR facility. The primary objective of the two-year program was to develop a conceptual design of an EPR that operates at ignition and produces continuous net power. A conceptual design was developed for a Doublet configuration based on indications that a noncircular tokamak offers the best potential of achieving a sufficiently high effective fuel containment to provide a viable reactor concept at reasonable cost. Other objectives included the development of a planning cost estimate and schedule for the plant and the identification of critical R and D programs required to support the physics development and engineering and construction of the EPR. This volume contains the following sections: (1) reactor components, (2) auxiliary systems, (3) operations, (4) facility design, (5) program considerations, and (6) conclusions and recommendations

  12. Experimental fusion power reactor conceptual design study. Final report. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-12-01

    This document is the final report which describes the work carried out by General Atomic Company for the Electric Power Research Institute on a conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) and an overall EPR facility. The primary objective of the two-year program was to develop a conceptual design of an EPR that operates at ignition and produces continuous net power. A conceptual design was developed for a Doublet configuration based on indications that a noncircular tokamak offers the best potential of achieving a sufficiently high effective fuel containment to provide a viable reactor concept at reasonable cost. Other objectives included the development of a planning cost estimate and schedule for the plant and the identification of critical R and D programs required to support the physics development and engineering and construction of the EPR. This volume contains the following appendices: (1) tradeoff code analysis, (2) residual mode transport, (3) blanket/first wall design evaluations, (4) shielding design evaluation, (5) toroidal coil design evaluation, (6) E-coil design evaluation, (7) F-coil design evaluation, (8) plasma recycle system design evaluation, (9) primary coolant purification design evaluation, (10) power supply system design evaluation, (11) number of coolant loops, (12) power conversion system design evaluation, and (13) maintenance methods evaluation

  13. Design study of an armor tile handling manipulator for the Fusion Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, K.; Honda, T.; Satoh, K.; Terakado, T.; Kondoh, M.; Sasaki, N.; Munakata, T.; Murakami, S.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual design of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), which is a D-T burning reactor following on JT-60 in Japan, has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In FER, a rail-mounted vehicle concept is planned to be adopted for in-vessel maintenance, such as maintenance of divertor plates and armor tiles. Advantages of this concept are the high stiffness of the rail as a base structure for maintenance and the high mobility of the vehicle along the rail. Twin armor tile handling manipulators installed on both sides of the vehicle have been designed. The respective manipulators for armor tile handling have 8 degrees of freedom in order to have access to any place of the first wall and to go through the horizontal port by operating manipulator joints. If the two types of manipulators for divertor plates and armor tiles are installed on the vehicle and the divertor handling manipulator carries a case filled with armor tiles, the replacement time of armor tiles will be reduced. In FER, moreover, maintenance of armor tiles, which is a scheduled maintenance, is planned to be carried out by the autonomous control using position sensors etc. In order to accumulate the data base for the development of the autonomous control of the manipulator in armor tile maintenance, the present paper describes basic mechanical characteristics (stress, deflection and natural frequency) of the armor tile handling manipulator calculated by static stress and dynamic eigenvalue analyses. (orig.)

  14. Development of dust removal system using static electricity for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Ueda, Shuzo; Kurihara, Ryoichi

    1997-11-01

    Tests to collect and transport metallic and non-metallic dust particles have been conducted using static electricity in a vacuum environment to investigate the applicability of a static electricity dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors. The dust particles are charged by electrostatic induction, floated and collected due to the Coulomb force generated by the AC electric field. They are then transported due to the gradient force induced by the electric curtain of the non-uniform travelling-wave electric field. Using a fully insulated electrode with a single-phase AC voltage up to 15 kV, aluminum and carbon dust were successfully collected. The highest collection rates for the aluminum and carbon dust were around 30 and 2 g/min, respectively. The linear-type electrodes, using as high as 22 kV of the three-phase AC voltage, transported aluminum dust up to an angle of 60deg. Applying a guide electrode to the linear-type electrode, the transportation rate was approximately doubled and almost constant at every angle, including a 90deg angle. The system transported aluminum dust up to the rate of 13 g/min. The influence of the 0.15 T magnetic field on the dust collection and transportation efficiencies was found to be negligible. (author)

  15. Development of dust removal system using static electricity for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji; Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Ueda, Shuzo; Kurihara, Ryoichi.

    1997-01-01

    Tests to collect and transport metallic and non-metallic dust particles have been conducted using static electricity in a vacuum environment to investigate the applicability of a static electricity dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors. The dust particles are charged by electrostatic induction, floated and collected due to the Coulomb force generated by the AC electric field. They are then transported due to the gradient force induced by the electric curtain of the non-uniform travelling-wave electric field. Using a fully insulated electrode with a single-phase AC voltage up to 15 kV, aluminum and carbon dust were successfully collected. The highest collection rates for the aluminum and carbon dust were around 30 and 2 g/min, respectively. The linear-type electrodes, using as high as 22 kV of the three-phase AC voltage, transported aluminum dust up to an angle of 60deg. Applying a guide electrode to the linear-type electrode, the transportation rate was approximately doubled and almost constant at every angle, including a 90deg angle. The system transported aluminum dust up to the rate of 13 g/min. The influence of the 0.15 T magnetic field on the dust collection and transportation efficiencies was found to be negligible. (author)

  16. Experimental investigation on the relationship between sluice caisson shape of tidal power plant and the water discharge capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Soo; Oh, Sang-Ho; Yi, Jin-Hak; Park, Woo-Sun [Coastal Engineering and Ocean Energy Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea); Cho, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Duk-Gu; Ahn, Suk-Jin [Technology Research and Development Institute, Hyein E and C Co. Ltd., Seoul 157-861 (Korea); Eom, Hyun-Min [Global Environment System Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research/KMA, Seoul 156-720 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The change of water discharge capability of the sluice caisson of tidal power plant according to the change of geometrical shape of the sluice caisson was investigated by performing laboratory experiments. The major design parameters that constitute general shape of the sluice caisson were deduced and a total of 32 different shapes of sluice caisson models were subjected to the hydraulic experiments. For every sluice caisson model, the water discharge capability was estimated with five different flow rates and three different water level conditions. The experiments were carried out in an open channel flume with a great care to measure flow rate and water level accurately, which are key physical quantities in estimating the water discharge capability of the sluice caisson models. By analyzing the experimental results, influence of the respective design parameters on the performance of the sluice caisson was examined and the general guidelines to enhance the water discharge capability were suggested. The discharge coefficient of the best sluice caisson model ranged from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on the experimental conditions, which is far higher than the values that were adopted in the past feasibility studies in Korea. (author)

  17. Experimental tests of the new plastic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capabilities EJ-299-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, D., E-mail: davide.cester@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Stevanato, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pino, F. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, 1080 A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-21

    We have studied the prototype of a new plastic scintillator material (EJ-299-33) engineered for gamma-neutron discrimination. Energy and time resolutions as well as pulse shape discrimination capability have been compared with those of standard plastic and liquid scintillators. EJ-299-33 characteristics are somewhat poorer compared to standard scintillators. However, results obtained with the new plastic material suggest its possible use in basic research (time-of-flight measurements) as well as in Homeland Security applications (neutron/gamma monitoring device)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    and discussion presented in the paper will be useful for thorough understanding of the MIM and CIM processes and to select the right material and process for the right application or even to combine metal and ceramic materials by molding to produce metal–ceramic hybrid components.......The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does...

  19. Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.

  20. The multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW: an overview on experimental capabilities, instrumentation and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Manera, A.; Pietruske, H.; Schuetz, P.; Weiss, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    A new multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW (TwO Phase FLOW) was built and put into operation at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf in 2002 and 2003. Since then, it has been mainly used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena and the development and validation of models of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes in the frame of the German CFD initiative. The advantage of TOPFLOW consists in the combination of a large scale of the test channels with a wide operational range both of the flow velocities as well as of the system pressures and temperatures plus finally the availability of a special instrumentation that is capable in high spatial and temporal resolving two phase flow phenomena, for example the wire-mesh sensors. (orig.)

  1. Experimental study of fast electron transport in the framework of fast ignition for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauzour, B.

    2012-01-01

    The framework of this PhD thesis is the validation of the fast ignition scheme for the nuclear fusion by inertial confinement. It consists in the experimental study of the various processes involved in fast electron beams propagation, produced by intense laser pulses (10 19 W.cm -2 ), through dense matter either solid or compressed. In this work we present the results of three experiments carried out on different laser facilities in order to generate fast electron beams in various conditions and study their propagation in different states of matter, from the cold solid to the warm and dense plasma.The first experiment was performed with a high intensity contrast on the UHI100 laser facility (CEA Saclay). The study of fast electron energy deposition inside thin aluminium targets highlights a strong target heating at shallow depths, where the collective effects are predominant, thus producing a steep temperature profile between front (300 eV) and rear (20 eV) sides over 20μm thickness. A numerical simulation of the experiment shows that this temperature gradient induces the formation of a shock wave, breaking through the rear side of the target and thus leading to increase the thermal emission. The experimental chronometry of the shock breakthrough allowed validating the model of the collective transport of electrons.Two other experiments were dedicated to the study of fast electron beam propagation inside compressed targets. In the first experiment on the LULI2000 laser facility, the plane compression geometry allowed to precisely dissociate the energy losses due to resistive effects from those due to the collisional ones. By comparing our experimental results with simulations, we observed a significative increase of the fast electron beam energy losses with the compression and the target heating to temperatures close to the Fermi temperature. The second experiment, performed in a cylindrical geometry, demonstrated a fast electron beam guiding phenomenon due to

  2. Investigation on welding and cutting methods for blanket support legs of fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokami, Ikuhide; Nakahira, Masataka; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1996-07-01

    A toroidally-and poloidally-divided modular blanket has been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor, such as ITER, to enhance its maintainability as well as improve its fabricability. The blanket module, typically the size of 1 m wide, 1-2 m high and 0.4 m deep and the weight of 4 ton, will be supported by support legs which are extruded from back of the module and connected to a 70-100 mm thick strong back plate. The support leg has to withstand large electromagnetic force during plasma disruption and provide the way for in-situ module replacement by remote handling. For the connection method of the support leg to the back plate, a welding approach has been investigated here in terms of its high reliability against the large electromagnetic loads. For the welding approach, the support leg needs to be 70 mm thick, and the working space for welding/cutting heads are limited to 100 mm x 150 mm adjacent to the support leg. Based on a comparison of several welding methods, e.g. NGTIG, NGMIG and laser, NGTIG has been selected as a reference due to its well-established technology and the least R and D required. As for the cutting method, a plasma cutting has been given the highest priority to be pursued because of its compactness and high speed. Through preliminary design studies, the possibility of small welding/cutting heads that will work in the limited space has been shown, and maintenance route for in-situ module replacement with pre-and postfixture of the module has been investigated. Also preliminary R and Ds have resulted in; 1)the welding distortion is predictable according to the shape of weld groove and adjustable to meet the placement requirement of the module first wall, 2)the plasma cut surface can be rewelded without machining, 3)the welding/cutting time will meet the requirement of maintenance time. (author)

  3. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  4. Conceptual design and technology development of containment structure in Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Sato, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Fushiki; Kanamori, Naokazu; Koizumi, Koichi; Abe, Tetsuya; Hosobuchi, Hideo; Tada, Eisuke; Yamada, Masao.

    1991-05-01

    A conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) containment structure and its associated R and D activities, conducted from '89 to '90, are described. The FER containment structure system which mainly consists of a vacuum vessel, shielding structures, in-vessel replaceable components, ports, a cooling pipe system, has been developed to fullfil the required function. As an initial stage of R and D activities, the elemental technologies common to a tokamak reactor have been developed. Among them, a locking mechanism for supporting in-vessel replaceable components and a technique for insulation/conduction are described. For the locking mechanism, a caulking cotter driven by hydraulic pressure has been employed. Three kinds of hydraulic driving mechanism have been manufactured by trial: a 'piston jack' type, a 'bellows' type and a 'flexible tube' type. In the latter type, the stroke is obtained by changing the cross section of the flexible tube from a flat racetrack shape to a fat shape by hydraulic pressure. As the result of preliminary performance test, the shape of 'flexible tube' has been found to be improved. For the insulation coating, Al 2 O 3 has been selected as the material and a plasma spray method has been applied as the coating procedure. For the conduction coating, Cr 3 C 2 has been selected as the material and JET-KOTE method has been applied as the coating procedure. Both methods have been successfully developed and have been confirmed to be applicable the actual machine. A one fifth scale model has been fabricated in order to verify the design feasibility, mainly geometrical consistency. Then some design modifications were found to be needed for some of the components based on the manufacturing experience. (author)

  5. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  6. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  7. HYDROïD humanoid robot head with perception and emotion capabilities :Modeling, Design and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer eAlfayad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the HYDROïD humanoid robot project, this paper describes the modeling and design of an electrically actuated head mechanism. Perception and emotion capabilities are considered in the design process. Since HYDROïD humanoid robot is hydraulically actuated, the choice of electrical actuation for the head mechanism addressed in this paper is justified. Considering perception and emotion capabilities leads to a total number of 15 degrees of freedom for the head mechanism which are split on four main sub-mechanisms: the neck, the mouth, the eyes and the eyebrows. Biological data and kinematics performances of human head are taken as inputs of the design process. A new solution of uncoupled eyes is developed to possibly address the master-slave process that links the human eyes as well as vergence capabilities. Modeling each sub-system is carried out in order to get equations of motion, their frequency responses and their transfer functions. The neck pitch rotation is given as a study example. Then, the head mechanism performances are presented through a comparison between model and experimental results validating the hardware capabilities. Finally, the head mechanism is integrated on the HYDROïD upper-body. An object tracking experiment coupled with emotional expressions is carried out to validate the synchronization of the eye rotations with the body motions.

  8. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  9. Analysis of the accident with the coolant discharge into the plasma vessel of the W7-X fusion experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ušpuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.; Kaliatka, T., E-mail: tadas@mail.lei.lt

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • The accident with water ingress into the plasma vessel in Wendelstein nuclear fusion device W7-X was analyzed. • The analysis of the processes in the plasma vessel and ventilation system was performed using thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 Mod3.3 code. • The suitability of pressure increase prevention system was assessed. • All analyses results will be used for the optimization of W7-X design and to ensure safe operation of this nuclear fusion device. -- Abstract: Fusion is the energy production technology, which could potentially solve problems with growing energy demand of population in the future. Starting 2007, Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) is a member of European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization. LEI is cooperating with Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Germany) in the frames of EFDA project by performing safety analysis of fusion device W7-X. Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator facility currently being built in Greifswald, Germany, which shall demonstrate that in the future energy could be produced in such type of fusion reactors. In this paper the safety analysis of 40 mm inner diameter coolant pipe rupture in cooling circuit and discharge of steam–water mixture through the leak into plasma vessel during the W7-X no-plasma “baking” operation mode is presented. For the analysis the model of W7-X cooling system (pumps, valves, pipes, hydro-accumulators, and heat exchangers) and plasma vessel was developed by employing system thermal-hydraulic state-of-the-art RELAP5 Mod3.3 code. This paper demonstrated that the developed RELAP5 model enables to analyze the processes in divertor cooling system and plasma vessel. The results of analysis demonstrated that the proposed burst disc, connecting the plasma vessel with venting system, opens and pressure inside plasma vessel does not exceed the limiting 1.1 × 10{sup 5} Pa absolute pressure. Thus, the plasma vessel remains intact after loss

  10. Experimental coherent X-ray diffractive imaging: capabilities and limitations of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The investigations pursued during this work were focused on the testing of the applicability of the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging(CXDI)-method in the hard X-ray regime and different measurements were carried out at photon energies between 7 keV and 10 keV. The samples investigated were lithographically prepared two-dimensional gold structures with a size ranging from 3 μm to 10 μm as well as a cluster of gold spheres with a lateral extension of about 3.5 μm. Continuous diffraction patterns were recorded in small angle scattering geometry. In some of the measurements a scattering signal up to the edge of the detector could be measured which corresponds to a lateral resolution of about 30 nm. For certain samples it was possible to reconstruct the object from the measured diffraction data. Since the scattered intensity of non-periodic objects is weak at large scattering angles, the available photon flux is finally the main limitation of the method with regard to the achievable resolution. The experimental data were used to get an estimate of photon flux required for sub-nanometer resolution. The ptychographic iterative phase retrieval algorithm proposed by J. M. Rodenburg et al. (2004) was implemented and tested on simulated diffraction data. Additionally, a genetic algorithm has been developed and implemented for phase retrieval. This algorithm is very different from state-of-the-art algorithms and allows to introduce further experimentally important parameters such as a certain illumination function and partial coherence of the X-ray light. (orig.)

  11. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  12. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  13. Experimental study on the supercritical startup and heat transport capability of a neon-charged cryogenic loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuandong; Lin, Guiping; He, Jiang; Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Hongxing; Miao, Jianyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A neon-charged CLHP integrated with a G-M cryocooler was designed and investigated. • The CLHP can realize the supercritical startup with an auxiliary heat load of 1.5 W. • Maximum heat transport capability of the CLHP was 4.5 W over a distance of 0.6 m. • There existed an optimum auxiliary heat load to expedite the supercritical startup. • There existed an optimum charged pressure to reach the largest heat transfer limit. - Abstract: Neon-charged cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can realize efficient cryogenic heat transport in the temperature range of 30–40 K, and promises great application potential in the thermal control of future space infrared exploration system. In this work, extensive experimental studies on the supercritical startup and heat transport capability of a neon-charged CLHP integrated with a G-M cryocooler were carried out, where the effects of the auxiliary heat load applied to the secondary evaporator and charged pressure of the working fluid were investigated. Experimental results showed that the CLHP could successfully realize the supercritical startup with an auxiliary heat load of 1.5 W, and there existed an optimum auxiliary heat load and charged pressure of the working fluid respectively, to achieve the maximum temperature drop rate of the primary evaporator during the supercritical startup. The CLHP could reach a maximum heat transport capability of 4.5 W over a distance of 0.6 m corresponding to the optimum charged pressure of the working fluid; however, the heat transport capability decreased with the increase of the auxiliary heat load. Furthermore, the inherent mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed in the experiments were analyzed and discussed, to provide a better understanding from the theoretical view.

  14. Experimental Products Development Team (EPDT) Supporting New AWIPS . Part 2; Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Experimental Products Development Team (EPDT) was formed within NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center to create training for development of plug-ins to extend the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) version 2. The broader atmospheric science community had a need for AWIPS II development training being created at SPoRT and EPDT was expanded to include other groups who were looking for training. Since the expansion of the group occurred, EPDT has provided AWIPS II development training to over thirty participants spanning a wide variety of groups such as NWS Systems Engineering Center, NWS Meteorological Development Laboratory, and several NOAA Cooperative Institutes. Participants within EPDT solidify their learning experience through hands-on learning and by participating in a "code-sprint" in which they troubleshoot existing and develop plug-ins. The hands-on learning workshop is instructor lead with participants completing exercises within the AWIPS II Development Environment. During the code sprints EPDT groups work on projects important to the community and have worked on various plug-ins such as an RGB image recipe creation tool, and an mPing (crowd sourced precipitation type reporting system) ingest and display. EPDT has developed a well-defined training regime which prepares participants to fully develop plug-ins for the extendible AWIPS II architecture from ingest to the display of new data. SPoRT has hosted 2 learning workshops and 1 code sprint over the last two years, and continues to build and shape the EPDT group based on feedback from previous workshops. The presentation will provide an overview of EPDT current and future activities, and best practices developed within EPDT.

  15. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 31. Theoretical and experimental aspects of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The main topics covered by the Conference are: possibility of controlled fusion and status of the research programmes in different countries (USSR, Germany, USA, UK); theoretical aspects of plasma physics; experimental aspects of plasma physics

  16. Experimental and analytical investigations to air and steam ingress into the vacuum vessel of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruessenberg, A.K.

    1996-12-01

    The basic fusion safety objective is the development of fusion power plants with features that protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defence against radiological and other hazards. The most important specific principle is the establishment of three sequential levels of defence, characterized in priority order by prevention, protection and mitigation. The safety conscious selection of materials as one prevention feature gives the basis for the work described in this report. In order to protect the metallic first wall of fusion reactors from direct interaction with the plasma an extra armour is foreseen. Carbon offers the features low atomic number, high melting point, high thermal conductivity and good mechanical stability up to high temperatures making it to a favourite armour material. Looking on the safety behaviour of fusion reactors it has to be noted that carbon is unstable against oxidizing media like oxygen and steam at high temperatures und carbon has a high sorption capacity for radiologically important tritium. And tritium used as intermediate fuel in the actual reactor concepts is the one form radioactivity is present in fusion reactors. Accidents like loss of vacuum (LOVA) will lead to an air ingress into the vacuum vessel, oxidation of the hot carbon and a partial mobilization of the sorbed tritium. In a similar manner loss of coolant into vacuum (LOCIV) will lead to a water/steam ingress into the vacuum vessel, also accompanied by carbon oxidation and tritium release. (orig.)

  17. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors II: Thermal analysis during plasma disruptions for international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Maki, K.; Okazaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of a fusion reactor [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity] during plasma disruptions have been analyzed by using a comprehensive safety analysis code for nuclear fusion reactors. The erosion depth due to disruptions for the armor of the first wall depends on the current quench time of disruptions occurring in normal operation. If it is possible to extend the time up to ∼50 ms, the erosion depth is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the erosion depth of the divertor is ∼570 μm for only one disruption, which is determined only by the thermal flux during the thermal quench. This means that the divertor plate should be exchanged after about nine disruptions. Counter-measures are necessary for the divertor to relieve disruption influences. As other scenarios of disruptions, beta-limit disruptions and vertical displacement events were also investigated quantitatively. 13 refs., 5 figs

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Ti6Al4V Components Manufactured Using Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jonas; Mindt, Hans-Wilfried; Düchting, Jan; Schleifenbaum, Johannes Henrich; Megahed, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of titanium alloys is an interesting manufacturing route for many applications requiring high material strength combined with geometric complexity. Managing powder bed fusion challenges, including porosity, surface finish, distortions and residual stresses of as-built material, is the key to bringing the advantages of this process to production main stream. This paper discusses the application of experimental and numerical analysis towards optimizing the manufacturing process of a demonstration component. Powder characterization including assessment of the reusability, assessment of material consolidation and process window optimization is pursued prior to applying the identified optima to study the distortion and residual stresses of the demonstrator. Comparisons of numerical predictions with measurements show good correlations along the complete numerical chain.

  19. The library of evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for fusion application (SaBa). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvenigorodskij, A.G.; Zherebtsov, V.A.; Lazarev, L.M.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Generalov, L.N.; Taova, S.M.; Kamskaya, E.V.; Marshalkina, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic version of the evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for thermonuclear applications (SaBa) was prepared on the base of handbook 'Nuclear Physics Constants for Thermonuclear Fusion', INDC(CCP)-326/L+F, Vienna, 1991. Data on 100 channels for 52 reactions are presented in the Library. Program code was performed using the object-oriented programming environment Borland C ++ Builder for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. Optimal set of data processing procedures and friendly interface provide remarkable possibilities for the active use of this program for various applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It is available online (http:/www-nds.iaea.or.at/reports/data/saba/disk1.zip, ../disk2.zip, ../disk3.zip, on CD-ROM or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  20. Experimental lumbar spine fusion with novel tantalum-coated carbon fiber implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Woo, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    the possibility of coating a biocompatible metal layer on top of the carbon fiber material, to improve its biological performance. Tantalum was chosen because of its bone compatibility, based on our previous studies. A novel spinal fusion cage was fabricated by applying a thin tantalum coating on the surface...

  1. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  2. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  3. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  4. Influence of INCONEL 625 composition on the activation characteristics of the vacuum vessel of experimental fusion tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambi, G.; Cepraga, D.G.; Boeriu, S.; Maganzani, I.

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive inventory, the decay heat and the contact dose rate of permanent components such as the vacuum vessel of two experimental fusion tokamaks, the compact IGNITOR-ULT and the ITER-EDA fusion machines, are evaluated by using the ENEA-Bologna integrated methodology. The vacuum vessel material considered is the INCONEL 625. The neutron flux is calculated using the VITAMIN-C 171-group library, based on EFF-2 data and the 1-D transport code XSDRNPM in the S 8 -P 3 approximation. The ANITA-2 code, using updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EAF-3 and IRDF90 evaluation files is used for activation calculations. The fusion neutron source has been normalised to a neutron first wall load of 2 MW/m 2 and 1 MW/m 2 for IGNITOR-ULT and ITER, respectively. The material irradiation have been described by multistep time histories, resulting in the designed total fluence. Variations in the composition of INCONEL 625 have been assessed and their impact on the activation characteristics are discussed, also from the point of view of waste disposal. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  6. Analysis of Consequences in the Loss-of-Coolant Accident in Wendelstein 7-X Experimental Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uspuras, E., E-mail: algis@mail.lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installations Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Fusion is the energy production technology, which could potentially solve problems with growing energy demand of population in the future. Starting 2007, Lithuanian energy institute (LEI) is a member of European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization. LEI is cooperating with Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Germany) in the frames of EFDA project by performing safety analysis of fusion device W7-X. Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator facility currently being built in Greifswald, Germany, which shall demonstrate that in the future energy could be produced in such type of fusion reactors. The W7-X facility divertor cooling system consists of two coolant circuits: the main cooling circuit and the so-called 'baking' circuit. Before plasma operation, the divertor and other invessel components must be heated up in order to 'clean' the surfaces by thermal desorption and the subsequent pumping out of the released volatile molecules. The rupture of pipe, providing water for the divertor targets during the 'baking' regime is one of the critical failure events, since primary and secondary steam production leads to a rapid increase of the inner pressure in the plasma (vacuum) vessel. Such initiating event could lead to the loss of vacuum condition up to overpressure of the plasma vessel, damage of in-vessel components and bellows of the ports. In this paper the safety analysis of 40 mm inner diameter coolant pipe rupture in cooling circuit and discharge of steam-water mixture through the leak into plasma vessel during the W7-X no-plasma 'baking' operation mode is presented. For the analysis the model of W7-X cooling system (pumps, valves, pipes, hydro-accumulators, and heat exchangers) and plasma vessel was developed by employing system thermal-hydraulic state-of-the-art RELAP5 Mod 3.3 code. This paper demonstrated, that the developed RELAP5 model allows to analyze the processes in divertor cooling system and plasma vessel

  7. Development of Experimental Icing Simulation Capability for Full-Scale Swept Wings: Hybrid Design Process, Years 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Gustavo; Bragg, Mike; Triphahn, Chris; Wiberg, Brock; Woodard, Brian; Loth, Eric; Malone, Adam; Paul, Bernard; Pitera, David; Wilcox, Pete; hide

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the key results from the first two years of a program to develop experimental icing simulation capabilities for full-scale swept wings. This investigation was undertaken as a part of a larger collaborative research effort on ice accretion and aerodynamics for large-scale swept wings. Ice accretion and the resulting aerodynamic effect on large-scale swept wings presents a significant airplane design and certification challenge to air frame manufacturers, certification authorities, and research organizations alike. While the effect of ice accretion on straight wings has been studied in detail for many years, the available data on swept-wing icing are much more limited, especially for larger scales.

  8. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J. (eds.)

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  9. Experimental results on advanced inertial fusion schemes obtained within the HiPER project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Honrubia, J.; Antonelli, L.; Morace, A.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J.J.; Schurtz, G.; Hulin, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, P.; Vauzour, B.; Dorchies, F.; Nazarov, W.; Pasley, J.; Richetta, M.; Lancaster, K.; Spindloe, C.; Tolley, M.; Neely, D.; Kozlová, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, Bedřich; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-10 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Workshop and Summer School on Towards Fusion Energy /10./. Kudowa Zdroj, 12.06.2011-18.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : advanced ignition schemes * fast ignition * shock ignition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012

  10. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  11. Experimental study of potential structure in a spherical IEC fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y.; Miley, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    The spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) concept is designed to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward towards the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid. The converging ions create a high-density plasma core where a high fusion rate occurs. In addition, under proper conditions, the ion and electron flows create a space-charge induced double potential well (a negative potential well nested inside a positive potential well). This structure traps high-energy ions within the virtual anode created by the double potential, providing a high fusion density in the trap volume. The present experiment was designed to verify double potential well formation and trapping by a measurement of the radial birth profile of energetic (3-MeV) protons produced by D-D fusion reactions in a deuterium discharge. This experiment was designed to operate at high perveance (0.4 to 1.4 mA/kV 3/2 ), where formation of a double well is predicted theoretically. Additional steps to aid well formation included: use of the unique Star mode of operation to obtain ion beam focusing down to approximately 1.6 H the ballistic limit and the incorporation of a second electrically floating grid (in addition to the focusing/accelerating cathode grid) to reduce the ion radial energy spread to 0.34 mA/kV 3/2 . As the perveance increased, the depth of the double well also increased. At the maximum perveance studied, 1.38 mA/kV 3/2 (corresponding to 80 mA and 15 kV), the negative potential well depth, corresponding to the measured proton-rate density, was estimated to be 22%--27% of the applied cathode voltage. This represents the first conclusive demonstration of double well formation in an SIEC, since prior measurements by other researchers typically yielded marginal or negative results

  12. Experimental demonstration of ion extraction from magnetic thrust chamber for laser fusion rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoya; Yamamoto, Naoji; Morita, Taichi; Edamoto, Masafumi; Nakashima, Hideki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Mori, Yoshitaka; Johzaki, Tomoyuki

    2018-05-01

    A magnetic thrust chamber is an important system of a laser fusion rocket, in which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into vehicle thrust by a magnetic field. To investigate the plasma extraction from the system, the ions in a plasma are diagnosed outside the system by charge collectors. The results clearly show that the ion extraction does not strongly depend on the magnetic field strength when the energy ratio of magnetic field to plasma is greater than 4.3, and the magnetic field pushes back the plasma to generate a thrust, as previously suggested by numerical simulation and experiments.

  13. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  14. Development of fatigue life criteria for experimental fusion reactor first-wall structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Esztegar, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to the rational design of fusion reactor first-wall structures against fatigue crack growth is proposed. The approach is motivated by microstructural observations of fatigue crack growth enhancement in uniruniradiated materials due to volumetric damage ahead of a propagating crack. Examples are cited that illustrate the effect of mean stress on void nucleation and coalescence, which represent the dominant form of volumetric damage at low temperature, and of grain boundary sliding and creep cavitation, which are the dominant volumetric damage mechanisms at high temperature. The analogy is then drawn between these forms of fatigue crack growth enhancement and those promoted by irradiation exposure in the fusion reactor environment, such as helium embrittlement and atomic displacement. An enhanced strain range is suggested as a macroscopic measure of the reduction in fatigue life due to the higher fatigue crack growth rates. The enhanced strain range permits a separation of volumetric and cyclic effects, and assists in the assignment of rational design factors to each effect. A series of experiments are outlined which should provide the numerical values of the parameters for the enhanced strain range. (orig.)

  15. Activation calculation and environmental safety analysis for fusion experimental breeder (FEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiming, Feng [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China)

    1996-04-01

    An activation calculation code FDKR and decay chain data library AFDCDLIB are used to calculate the radioactivity, decay heat, dose rate and biological hazard potential (BHP) form activation products, actinides and fission products in a Fusion Experiment Breeder (FEB). The code and library are introduced briefly, and calculation results and decay curves of related hazards after one year operation with 150 MW fusion power are given. The total radioactivity inventory, decay heat and BHP are 5.74 x 10{sup 20} Bq, 8.34 MW and 4.08 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 3} of air, respectively, at shutdown. Results obtained show that the first wall of FEB can meet the nuclear waste disposal criteria for the NRC 10 CFR61 Class C after a few weeks from shutdown. The inventory of important actinides for the fuel reprocessing, such as {sup 232}U and {sup 237}Np were also calculated. It was shown that their concentrations do not excess the limit value of environmental safety required. (9 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.).

  16. Quantum chemistry calculation and experimental study on coal ash fusion characteristics of coal blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yushuang; Zhang Zhong-xiao; Wu Xiao-jiang; Li Jie; Guang Rong-qing; Yan Bo [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The coal ash fusion characteristics of high fusibility coal blending with two low fusibility coals respectively were studied. The data were analyzed using quantum chemistry methods and experiment from micro-and macro-molecular structures. The results show that Ca{sup 2+}, as the electron acceptor, easily enters into the lattice of mullite, causing a transition from mullite to anorthite. Mullite is much more stable than anorthite. Ca{sup 2+} of anorthite occupies the larger cavities with the (SiO{sub 4}){sup 4-} tetrahedral or (AlO{sub 4}){sup 5-} tetrahedral rings respectively. Ca atom linked O weakens Si-O bond, leading ash fusion point to reduce effectively. The chemistry, reactivity sites and bond-formation characteristics of minerals can well explain the reaction mechanism refractory minerals and flux ash melting process at high temperature. The results of experiment are agreed with the theory analysis by using ternary phase diagrams and quantitative calculation. 27 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of experimentally observed hydrogenic fractionation on inertial confinement fusion ignition target performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Wittman, M. D.; Harding, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The need of cryogenic hydrogenic fuels in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition targets has been long been established. Efficient implosion of such targets has mandated keeping the adiabat of the main fuel layer at low levels to ensure drive energies are kept at reasonable minima. The use of cryogenic fuels helps meet this requirement and has therefore become the standard in most ICF ignition designs. To date most theoretical ICF ignition target designs have assumed a homogeneous layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel kept slightly below the triple point. However, recent work has indicated that, as cryogenic fuel layers are formed inside an ICF capsule, isotopic dissociation of the tritium (T), deuterium (D), and DT takes place leading to a 'fractionation' of the final ice layer. This paper will numerically investigate the effects that various scenarios of fractionation have on hot-spot formation, ignition, and burn in ICF ignition target designs

  18. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2004-01-01

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm 2 was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm 2 of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl - was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm 2 , sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source

  19. Transient temperature response of in-vessel components due to pulsed operation in tokamak fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akio; Tone, Tatsuzo

    1985-12-01

    A transient temperature response of the in-vessel components (first wall, blanket, divertor/limiter and shielding) surrounding plasma in Tokamak Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) has been analysed. Transient heat load during start up/shut down and pulsed operation cycles causes the transient temperature response in those components. The fatigue lifetime of those components significantly depends upon the resulting cyclic thermal stress. The burn time affects the temperature control in the solid breeder (Li 2 O) and also affects the thermo-mechanical design of the blanket and shielding which are constructed with thick structure. In this report, results of the transient temperature response obtained by the heat transfer and conduction analyses for various pulsed operation scenarios (start up, shut down, burn and dwell times) have been investigated in view of thermo-mechanical design of the in-vessel components. (author)

  20. Experimental measurement of oil–water two-phase flow by data fusion of electrical tomography sensors and venturi tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yinyan; Deng, Yuchi; Zhang, Maomao; Yu, Peining; Li, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Oil–water two-phase flows are commonly found in the production processes of the petroleum industry. Accurate online measurement of flow rates is crucial to ensure the safety and efficiency of oil exploration and production. A research team from Tsinghua University has developed an experimental apparatus for multiphase flow measurement based on an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor, an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensor, and a venturi tube. This work presents the phase fraction and flow rate measurements of oil–water two-phase flows based on the developed apparatus. Full-range phase fraction can be obtained by the combination of the ECT sensor and the ERT sensor. By data fusion of differential pressures measured by venturi tube and the phase fraction, the total flow rate and single-phase flow rate can be calculated. Dynamic experiments were conducted on the multiphase flow loop in horizontal and vertical pipelines and at various flow rates. (paper)

  1. First phase plan for experimental study of heavy-ion inertial fusion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toshiyuki; Okamura, Masahiro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Kouichi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Itoh, Takashi; Okada, Masashi; Takahashi, Yousuke; Ishii, Yasuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the basic experiment plan of driver for heavy-ion inertial fusion by heavy-ion linac [1-3] system and the heavy-ion cooler synchrotron. As the first phase of planning, we will improve old heavy-ion accelerator system that accelerate small intensity around Cl ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/4 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. The injector of the system will exchange from the 1.6 MV Peletron Tandem accelerator to an RFQ type linac with an ECR heavy-ion source. According to building up the power sources of RF and focusing magnet, then it is able to accelerate intense around Xe ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/6 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. At the next stage of it, we will construct a heavy-ion cooler synchrotron having magneticrigidity of 3 or 6 Tm and begin to study about HIF driver. (author)

  2. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  3. Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huke, A.; Heide, P.; Czerski, K.; Ruprecht, G.; Targosz, N.; Zebrowski, W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent measurements of the reaction 2 H(d,p) 3 H in metallic environments at very low energies performed by different experimental groups point to an enhanced electron screening effect. However, the resulting screening energies differ strongly for diverse host metals and different experiments. Here, we present new experimental results and investigations of interfering processes in the irradiated targets. These measurements inside metals set special challenges and pitfalls that make them and the data analysis particularly error prone. There are multiparameter collateral effects that are crucial for the correct interpretation of the observed experimental yields. They mainly originate from target surface contaminations owing to residual gases in the vacuum as well as from inhomogeneities and instabilities in the deuteron density distribution in the targets. To address these problems an improved differential analysis method beyond the standard procedures has been implemented. Profound scrutiny of the other experiments demonstrates that the observed unusual changes in the reaction yields are mainly due to deuteron density dynamics simulating the alleged screening energy values. The experimental results are compared with different theoretical models of the electron screening in metals. The Debye-Hueckel model that has been previously proposed to explain the influence of the electron screening on both nuclear reactions and radioactive decays can be clearly excluded

  4. Characterization of HIP bonded DS-Cu/SS316L joints for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, Moriyasu; Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Abe, Tetsuya; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-02-01

    A shielding blanket design in a fusion reactor such as ITER has been proposed to be a modular structure integrated with the first wall. In view of the fabrication, HIP(Hot Isostatic Pressing) method has been proposed for the joining of dispersion strengthened copper (DS-Cu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) at the first wall. Characterization of DS-Cu in HIP joints bonded at three different temperatures has been performed placing emphasis on metallurgical quality at the interfacial region of some hundred {mu}m by means of conventional observation and testing techniques. SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) observation of these joints before and after intergranular corrosion to DS-Cu have shown that in two joints HIPed at 1253K and 1303K some voids of 1-4{mu}m exist in the vicinity to the interface, while in the other one HIPed at 1323K there is no void and the joint reveals good bondability. And in all the joints grain boundary has been developed parallel to the interface. SEM observation of DS-Cu grains have shown that in a joint at 1323K the grains have slightly coarsened to the size larger than as-received DS-Cu by a factor of 2, despite the hardness of that remains as as-received DS-Cu. While in the other two joints grain remains as large as as-received DS-Cu. EPMA(Electron Prove Microscopic Analysis) of aluminium in DS-Cu has shown that in all the joints accumulation of alumina has occurred in the vicinity to the interface and the length of the accumulated region increases as the increase of the HIP temperature and reaches up to 50{mu}m from the interface at 1323K. Vickers hardness test have shown that in a joint bonded at 1323K the hardness decreases to the level of an oxygen free copper in the vicinity to the interface, implying that the distribution of alumina has changed. From these experiments, it can be concluded that the joint at 1323K has exhibited the highest performance in terms of bondability. (J.P.N.)

  5. Experimental study of the initial conditions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the ablation front in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, Barthelemy

    2015-01-01

    Numerous designs and experiments in the domain of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) show that, in both direct and indirect drive approaches, one of the main limitations to reach the ignition is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI). It may lead to shell disruption and performance degradation of spherically imploding targets. Thus, the understanding and the control of the initial conditions of the RTI is of crucial importance for the ICF program. In this thesis, we present an experimental and theoretical study of the initial conditions of the ablative RTI in direct drive, by means of two experimental campaigns performed on the OMEGA laser facility (LLE, Rochester). The first campaign consisted in studying the laser-imprinted ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) which starts at the beginning of the interaction and seeds the ablative RTI. We set up an experimental configuration that allowed to measure for the first time the temporal evolution of the laser-imprinted ablative RMI. The experimental results have been interpreted by a theoretical model and numerical simulations performed with the hydrodynamic code CHIC. We show that the best way to control the ablative RMI is to reduce the laser intensity inhomogeneities. This can be achieved with targets covered by a layer of a low density foam. Thus, in the second campaign, we studied for the first time the effect of underdense foams on the growth of the ablative RTI. A layer of low density foam was placed in front of a plastic foil, and the perturbation was imprinted by an intensity modulated laser beam. Experimental data are presented: backscattered laser energy, target dynamic obtained by side-on self emission measurement, and face-on radiographs showing the effect of the foams on the target areal density modulations. These data were interpreted using the CHIC code and the laser-plasma interaction code PARAX. We show that the foams noticeably reduce the amplitude of the laser intensity inhomogeneities and the

  6. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  7. Experimental fusion excitation functions and derived barrier distributions for heavy ion systems involving prolate and oblate target nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions spanning the entire barrier region in 1 MeV energy steps for the two systems 40 Ca + 192 Os, 194 Pt are presented. The results of fission fragment angular distribution measurements for fusion-fission of 40 Ca + 197 Au at several projectile energies within the barrier region are also presented. The fusion data is of high enough precision to allow for extraction of the distribution of fusion barriers from the second differential of the product of E and σ. Basic coupled channels calculations which are in quite good agreement with the data are shown and discussed

  8. Fusion reactors - types - problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitter, K.H.

    1979-07-01

    A short account is given of the principles of fusion reactions and of the expected advantages of fusion reactors. Descriptions are presented of various Tokamak experimental devices being developed in a number of countries and of some mirror machines. The technical obstacles to be overcome before a fusion reactor could be self-supporting are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. The TRIDENT laser at LANL: New “dial-a-contrast” and high-contrast experimental capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flippo K.A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL has served for more than 20 years as an important tool in inertial confinement fusion (ICF and Material Dynamics research. An energy and power upgrade of the short-pulse beam line to 100J / 200 TW was made in 2007 and contrast improvements have been made continually since. The combination of this powerful new short-pulse beamline with the two flexible long pulse beamlines, and a total of three different target areas, makes Trident a highly flexible and versatile research tool for high energy density laboratory plasma (HEDLP research. The newest “Dial-a-Contrast” (DaC features are described, along with nominal performance of the laser at the presently available highest contrast.

  10. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak (fusion) experimental power reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of ''Conceptual Studies of Toroidal Field Magnets for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor'' performed for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge Operations. Two conceptual coil designs are developed. One design approach to produce a specified 8 Tesla maximum field uses a novel NbTi superconductor design cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. For a highest practicable field design, a unique NbSn 3 conductor is used with forced-flow, single-phase liquid helium cooling to achieve a 12 Tesla peak field. Fabrication requirements are also developed for these approximately 7 meter horizontal bore by 11 meter vertical bore coils. Cryostat design approaches are analyzed and a hybrid cryostat approach selected. Structural analyses are performed for approaches to support in-plane and out-of-plane loads and a structural approach selected. In addition to the conceptual design studies, cost estimates and schedules are prepared for each of the design approaches, major uncertainties and recommendations for research and development identified, and test coil size for demonstration recommended

  11. Accuracy evaluation of the current data and method applied to shielding design of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Seki, Yasushi

    1988-06-01

    Shielding benchmarking study of the current data and method applied to the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) was performed. First, neutron and gamma ray fluxes were calculated by the one-dimensional S N code using various cross section libraries and the continuous energy Monte Carlo code. The results were compared in terms of the S N /MC ratio. The worst ratios are about 0.5 and 0.25 for neutron flux and gamma ray flux, respectively. Next, the analytical calculations of the iron sphere transmission experiment of 14 MeV neutrons were performed to examine the accuracy of cross section data of iron, which is the most important material of shield. The E/C ratio is larger than 2 even if the continuous energy Monte Carlo code was used. Thirdly, the influence of geometrical representation of the shield was investigated by comparing the homogeneous model and the heterogeneous model (alternating layers of SS316 and water). As a result, it was made clear that the homogeneous model underestimates neutron flux by a factor of 2. Finally, the necessity of benchmark experiment and improvement of cross section library was pointed out as the further R and D issues. (author)

  12. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  13. Enhancement of the power system efficiency using the hybrid-type harmonic filters for a KSTAR nuclear fusion experimental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Hansang; Park, Byungju; Jang, Gilsoo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The low power factor and power quality problems are occurred by the operation of the PF facility in KSTAR system. We model the power system of KSTAR system including the PF facility. We show a method of the filter insertion to improve the problem and conduct the simulations to verify our method. - Abstract: The KSTAR system, which includes a large amount of nonlinear load, is a relatively high reactive power consumption load which injects harmonic currents into the power system which could result in the possibility for a power system perturbation to occur in the transmission lines, affecting nearby customers. In order to maintain the power quality and power factor in the inner system of the KSTAR system and the adjacent distribution lines, the assessment of the effect of the DC power supply in the KSTAR system is required for appropriate countermeasures to be put in place. In this paper, on the basis of a preliminary inspection of the power system near a KSTAR system, the simulation of a compensating device is performed for the prevention of abnormal voltage variations caused by a large amount of reactive and nonlinear load. In addition, through the comparison of the pre- and post-application of compensation devices in the actual power system, it is verified that a stable operation of the KSTAR nuclear fusion experimental system can be achieved.

  14. NUCLEAR HEATING IN LIF DOSEMETERS IN A FUSION NEUTRON FIELD, TRIAL OF DIRECT COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecki, Wladyslaw; Obryk, Barbara

    2017-09-29

    The results of nuclear heating measured by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-LiF) in a Cu block irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons are presented. The integral Cu experiment relevant for verification of copper nuclear data at neutron energies characteristic for fusion facilities was performed in the ENEA FNG Laboratory at Frascati. Five types of TLDs were used: highly photon sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N), 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-7) and standard, lower sensitivity LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-N), 7LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-7) and 6LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-6). Calibration of the detectors was performed with gamma rays in terms of air-kerma (10 mGy of 137Cs air-kerma). Nuclear heating in the Cu block was also calculated with the use of MCNP transport code Nuclear heating in Cu and air in TLD's positions was calculated as well. The nuclear heating contribution from all simulated by MCNP6 code particles including protons, deuterons, alphas tritons and heavier ions produced by the neutron interactions were calculated. A trial of the direct comparison between experimental results and results of simulation was performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Experimental study of the influence of partner structure in the fusion of the almost symmetrical systems; Etude experimentale de l`influence de la structure des partenaires dans la fusion de systemes presque symetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodel-Le Lay, Christelle [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-04

    The cross-sections for the formation of evaporation residues in {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr reactions with {sup 150}Nd and {sup 130,136}Xe isotopes were measured for excitation energies of the compound nuclei ({sup 216,220,222}Th) varied from 7 MeV to 70 MeV, at the linear accelerator UNILAC of the nuclear facility GSI, Darmstadt (Germany). After de-excitation by evaporation (xn,pxn and {alpha}xn), the residual nuclei are separated from the primary beam and from spurious reaction products by the velocity filter SHIP and implanted into a silicon localization detector. Their subsequent decay via alpha particles with characteristic energies allows us to identify them and to deduce their yields. Experimental fusion-evaporation excitation functions are compared with those leading to the same compound nuclei obtained with other projectile and target combinations and with those calculated with a code developed at GSI. This code allows us to evaluate the evolution of the fission probability as a function of the incident energy for each system. The variation of cross-sections and of the fusion probability is studied as a function of the macroscopic and microscopic variables of the partners. For the synthesis of super-heavy elements, these results demonstrate quantitatively the interest in using partners of fusion with closed shell structures and rich in neurons (the fusion cross-section increases by a factor of 9 for a complementary pair of neutrons). On the other hand, closed shell compound nuclei do not influence the fusion cross-section. It will be worth synthesizing isotopes approaching the predicted stability region, nuclei with Z greater than 110 using neutron rich projectiles coming from secondary beams. (author) 104 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Finite element modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The present report studies the brittle fracture in high-chromium reduced activation tempered martensitic steels foreseen as structural materials for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Developing the adequate materials that can withstand the severe irradiation conditions of the burning plasma in a fusion reactor is one of the major challenges to be solved in order to make profit from the great advantages of thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. High-chromium tempered martensitic steels such as F82H and the most advanced version Eurofer97 are among the main candidate materials for structural applications in future fusion power plants due to low irradiation-induced swelling, good mechanical and thermal properties, and reasonably fast radioactive decay. Drawback of this kind of steels is irradiation embrittlement, which is manifested by a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift to higher temperatures after irradiation. The laboratory specimen fracture data has to be transferred to real components in order to assess the performance of these steels in the different operating and transient conditions they could find during the operation life of a fusion reactor. The specimen geometry effects and specimen size effects on measured fracture toughness need to be properly understood, taken into account and predicted with an appropriate model. The microstructure of Eurofer97 and F82H has been characterized and compared by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to identify microstructural features that could play a role in the measured fracture toughness. Both steels have similar but slightly different chemical composition and final heat treatments but the prior austenitic grain size measured in F82H is approximately 8 times larger than in Eurofer97. The alloying element tantalum is added to stabilize the austenite grain size. In Eurofer97 it forms carbides of an

  17. RCC-MRx: Design and construction rules for mechanical components in high-temperature structures, experimental reactors and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The RCC-MRx code was developed for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), research reactors (RR) and fusion reactors (FR-ITER). It provides the rules for designing and building mechanical components involved in areas subject to significant creep and/or significant irradiation. In particular, it incorporates an extensive range of materials (aluminum and zirconium alloys in response to the need for transparency to neutrons), sizing rules for thin shells and box structures, and new modern welding processes: electron beam, laser beam, diffusion and brazing. The RCC-MR code was used to design and build the prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) developed by IGCAR in India and the ITER Vacuum Vessel. The RCC-Mx code is being used in the current construction of the RJH experimental reactor (Jules Horowitz reactor). The RCC-MRx code is serving as a reference for the design of the ASTRID project (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), for the design of the primary circuit in MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) and the design of the target station of the ESS project (European Spallation Source). Contents of the 2015 edition of the RCC-MRx code: Section I General provisions; Section II Additional requirements and special provisions; Section III Rules for nuclear installation mechanical components: Volume I: Design and construction rules: Volume A (RA): General provisions and entrance keys, Volume B (RB): Class 1 components and supports, Volume C (RC): Class 2 components and supports, Volume D (RD): Class 3 components and supports, Volume K (RK): Examination, handling or drive mechanisms, Volume L (RL): Irradiation devices, Volume Z (Ai): Technical appendices; Volume II: Materials; Volume III: Examinations methods; Volume IV: Welding; Volume V: Manufacturing operations; Volume VI: Probationary phase rules

  18. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  19. A framework of region-based dynamic image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; QIN Zheng; LIU Yu

    2007-01-01

    A new framework of region-based dynamic image fusion is proposed. First, the technique of target detection is applied to dynamic images (image sequences) to segment images into different targets and background regions. Then different fusion rules are employed in different regions so that the target information is preserved as much as possible. In addition, steerable non-separable wavelet frame transform is used in the process of multi-resolution analysis, so the system achieves favorable characters of orientation and invariant shift. Compared with other image fusion methods, experimental results showed that the proposed method has better capabilities of target recognition and preserves clear background information.

  20. An experimentally verified model for estimating the distance resolution capability of direct time of flight 3D optical imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, K Q K; Fisher, E M D; Walton, A J; Underwood, I

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new statistical model for time-resolved photon detection in a generic single-photon-sensitive sensor array. The model is validated by comparing modelled data with experimental data collected on a single-photon avalanche diode sensor array. Data produced by the model are used alongside corresponding experimental data to calculate, for the first time, the effective distance resolution of a pulsed direct time of flight 3D optical imaging system over a range of conditions using four peak-detection algorithms. The relative performance of the algorithms is compared. The model can be used to improve the system design process and inform selection of the optimal peak-detection algorithm. (paper)

  1. Experimental study of angular neutron flux spectra on a slab surface to assess nuclear data and calculational methods for a fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1988-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to interpret the results of integral experiments for fusion neutronics research. The measurement is described of the angular neutron flux on a restricted area of slab assemblies with D-T neutron bombardment by using the time-of-flight (TOF) method with an NE213 neutron detector over an energy range from 0.05 to 15 MeV. A two bias scheme was developed to obtain an accurate detection efficiency over a wide energy range. The detector-collimator response function was introduced to define the restricted surface area and to determine the effective measured area. A series of measurements of the angular neutron flux on slabs of fusion blanket materials, i.e., Be, C, and Li 2 O, as functions of neutron leaking angle and slab thickness have been performed to examine neutron transport characteristics in bulk materials. The calculational analyses of the experimental results have been also carried out by using Monte Carlo neutron transport codes, i.e., MORSE-DD and MCNP. The existing nuclear data files, i.e., JENDL-3PR1, -3PR2, ENDF/B-IV and -V were tested by comparing with the experimental results. From the comparisons, the data on C and 7 Li in the present files are fairly sufficient. Those on beryllium, however, is insufficient for the estimation of high threshold reactions such as tritium production in a fusion reactor blanket design. It is also found that the total and elastic cross sections are more important for accurate predictions of neutronic parameters at deep position. The comparisons between the measured and calculated results provide information to understand the results of the previous integral experiments for confirmation of accuracy of fusion reactor designs. (author)

  2. Experimental investigations of the large deflection capabilities of a compliant parallel mechanism actuated by shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, M; Nagarajan, T; Singaperumal, M

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the coupled effect of the force developed by the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and the force required for the large deflection of an elastica member in a compliant parallel mechanism. The compliant mechanism developed in house consists of a moving platform mounted on a superelastic pillar and three SMA wire actuators to manipulate the platform. A three-axis MEMS accelerometer has been mounted on the moving platform to measure its tilt angle. Three miniature force sensors have been designed and fabricated out of cantilever beams, each mounted with a pair of strain gauges, to measure the force developed by the respective actuators. The force sensors are highly sensitive and cost effective compared to commercially available miniature force sensors. Calibration of the force sensors has been accomplished with known weights, and for the three-axis MEMS accelerometer a rotary base has been considered which is usually used in optical applications. The calibration curves obtained, with R-squared values between 0.9997 and 1.0, show that both the tilt and force sensors considered are most appropriate for the respective applications. The mechanism fixed with the sensors and the drivers for the SMA actuators is integrated with a National Instrument's data acquisition system. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical results and it was found that the relative error is less than 2%. This is a preliminary study in the development of a mechanism for eye prosthesis and similar applications

  3. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting

  4. Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS: An Integrated, Prioritized Work Plan for Diagnostic Development and Maintenance and Supporting Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS is an integrated prioritized work plan for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), program that is independent of individual National Security Enterprise Laboratories (Labs) requests or specific Subprograms being supported. This prioritized work plan is influenced by national priorities presented in the Predictive Capability Framework (PCF) and other strategy documents (Primary and Secondary Assessment Technologies Plans and the Plutonium Experiments Plan). This document satisfies completion criteria for FY 2010 MRT milestone No.3496: Document an integrated, prioritized work plan for diagnostic development, maintenance, and supporting capability. This document is an update of the 3-year NNSS plan written a year ago, September 21, 2009, to define and understand Lab requests for diagnostic implementation. This plan is consistent with Lab interpretations of the PCF, Primary Assessment Technologies, and Plutonium Experiment plans.

  5. Fusion energy division computer systems network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) is primarily involved in the investigation of problems related to the use of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. The Fusion Energy Division supports investigations of experimental fusion devices and related fusion theory. This memo provides a brief overview of the computing environment in the Fusion Energy Division and the computing support provided to the experimental effort and theory research

  6. Experimental study of the fusion dynamics of 32,34S + 197Au with quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, T.J.; Dasgupta, M.; Timmers, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The fusion dynamics of heavy systems, such as 64 Ni + 208 Pb, leading to the synthesis of super-heavy elements is presently not fully understood. Typical beam energies in such reactions are of the order or smaller than the Coulomb barrier height to minimize the excitation energy of the compound system and increase the survival probability of evaporation residues. It is known that at such energies the relative motion of projectile and target couples to internal degrees of freedom of the system, such as collective motion and particle transfer. This can give rise to a distribution of fusion barriers, which generally leads to an enhancement of the fusion cross-section below the Coulomb barrier. The important role of the individual degrees of freedom can be identified by extracting representations of the barrier distribution from fusion excitation functions. Complementary representations can be obtained from measurements of the quasi-elastic or elastic scattering excitation functions at backward angles. The sensitivity of the representations from scattering is limited to the lower energy part of the barrier distribution, which, however, may contain important signatures of positive Q-value neutron transfer channels. Neutron transfer may be a precursor of neutron flow and neck-formation, which are considered in macroscopic models of the fusion of heavy systems. In order to study the influence of neutron transfer in heavy fusion reactions, quasielastic scattering has been measured for 32 , 34 S + 197 Au at energies spanning the Coulomb barrier. The quasi-elastic yield, including inelastic and transfer reactions, was detected at 165 deg with a Si-surface barrier detector. The excitation functions have been normalized to Rutherford scattering, detected at 30 deg using an existing gas ionisation detector. Representations of the barrier distributions have been extracted and are compared with earlier measurements for 32 S + 208 Pb

  7. Recent progress in fusion gyrotron development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shively, J.F.; Stone, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The gyrotron, a microwave tube capable of producing high power output at millimeter wavelengths, has recently found applications for electron cyclotron resonance heating of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor experiments. This paper describes work in progress to develop a gyrotron oscillator to deliver 200 kW CW at 60 GHz (/lambda/sub //. 5 mm). A pulsed oscillator is described which produced over 200 kw peak power. A CW oscillator is under construction. The latest experimental results are presented

  8. Experimental evaluation of brazed molybdenum-graphite bonds for the divertor of the NET/ITER nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, I.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Kny, E.; Reheis, N.; Kneringer, G.; Bolt, H.

    1995-01-01

    Composites consisting of plasma-facing carbon material brazed to molybdenum (TZM) substrates are a promising system for the divertor of the Next European Torus (NET) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Isotropic graphite and a refractory metal (molybdenum or TZM, a high temperature alloy of molybdenum), two dissimilar substrate materials, yet closely matched in their thermal expansivities, were joined with the use of four different high-temperature brazes: Zr, 90Ni-10Ti, 90Cu- 10Ti, and 70Ag-27Cu-3Ti (compositions in wt%). A summary is given of experiments on mechanical strength, heat transfer capability, structural changes, and failure modes under high heat loads of brazed bonds. Tensile-strength tests on the brazing interface prove the suitability of the brazes up to their melting point. The expected enhancement in thermal contact compared with graphite is confirmed. Passively cooled tiles of dimensions 25 mm x 25 mm were subjected to thermal cycling in electron-beam simulations. Heat fluxes of up to 10 MW m -2 were applied. (author)

  9. Experimental evaluation of brazed molybdenum-graphite bonds for the divertor of the NET/ITER nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, Ivica; Linke, Jochen; Nickel, Hubertus; Kny, Erich; Reheis, Nikolaus; Kneringer, Guenther; Bolt, Harald

    1990-01-01

    Composites consisting of plasma-facing carbon material brazed to molybdenum (TZM) substrates are a promising system for the divertor of the Next European Torus (NET) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Isotropic graphite and a refractory metal (molybdenum or TZM, a high temperature alloy of molybdenum), two dissimilar substrate materials, yet closely matched in their thermal expansivities, were joined with the use of four different high-temperature brazes: Zr,90Ni-10Ti,90Cu-10Ti, and 70Ag-27Cu-3Ti(compositions in wt%). A summary is given of experiments on mechanical strength, heat transfer capability, structural changes, and failure modes under high heat loads of brazed bonds. Tensile-strength tests on the brazing interface prove the suitability of the brazes up to their melting point. The expected enhancement in thermal contact compared with graphite is confirmed. Passively cooled tiles of dimensions 25 mm x 25 mm were subjected to thermal cycling in electron-beam simulations. Heat fluxes of up to 10 MW m -2 were applied. (author)

  10. Material synergism fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankara Rao, K.B.; Raj, B.; Cook, I.; Kohyama, A.; Dudarev, S.

    2007-01-01

    In fission and fusion reactors the common features such as operating temperatures and neutron exposures will have the greatest impact on materials performance and component lifetimes. Developing fast neutron irradiation resisting materials is a common issue for both fission and fusion reactors. The high neutron flux levels in both these systems lead to unique materials problems like void swelling, irradiation creep and helium embitterment. Both fission and fusion rely on ferritic-martensitic steels based on 9%Cr compositions for achieving the highest swelling resistance but their creep strength sharply decreases above ∝ 823K. The use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is envisaged to increase the operating temperature of blanket systems in the fusion reactors and fuel clad tubes in fast breeder reactors. In view of high operating temperatures, cyclic and steady load conditions and the long service life, properties like creep, low cycle fatigue,fracture toughness and creepfatigue interaction are major considerations in the selection of structural materials and design of components for fission and fusion reactors. Currently, materials selection for fusion systems has to be based upon incomplete experimental database on mechanical properties. The usage of fairly well developed databases, in fission programmes on similar materials, is of great help in the initial design of fusion reactor components. Significant opportunities exist for sharing information on technology of irradiation testing, specimen miniaturization, advanced methods of property measurement, safe windows for metal forming, and development of common materials property data base system. Both fusion and fission programs are being directed to development of clean steels with very low trace and tramp elements, characterization of microstructure and phase stability under irradiation, assessment of irradiation creep and swelling behaviour, studies on compatibility with helium and developing

  11. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  12. Comparison of explicit calculations for n = 3 to 8 dielectronic satellites of the FeXXV Kα resonance line with experimental data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, V.; Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Park, H.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1991-12-01

    Dielectronic satellite spectra of the FeXXV Kα resonance line observed from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas have been compared with recent explicit calculations for the n = 3 to 8 dielectronic satellites as well as the earlier theoretical predictions, which were based on the 1/n 3 scaling law for n > 4 satellites. The analysis has been performed by least-squares fits of synthetic spectra to the experimental data. The synthetic spectra constructed from both theories are in good agreement with the observed data. However, the electron temperature values obtained from the fit of the present explicit calculations are in better agreement with independent measurements. 20 refs., 4 figs

  13. Keyhole formation and thermal fluid flow-induced porosity during laser fusion welding in titanium alloys: Experimental and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Perumal, Bama; Ward, R. Mark; Turner, Nathanael; Turner, Richard P.; Brooks, Jeffery W.; Basoalto, Hector C.

    2017-01-01

    High energy-density beam welding, such as electron beam or laser welding, has found a number of industrial applications for clean, high-integrity welds. The deeply penetrating nature of the joints is enabled by the formation of metal vapour which creates a narrow fusion zone known as a “keyhole”. However the formation of the keyhole and the associated keyhole dynamics, when using a moving laser heat source, requires further research as they are not fully understood. Porosity, which is one of a number of process induced phenomena related to the thermal fluid dynamics, can form during beam welding processes. The presence of porosity within a welded structure, inherited from the fusion welding operation, degrades the mechanical properties of components during service such as fatigue life. In this study, a physics-based model for keyhole welding including heat transfer, fluid flow and interfacial interactions has been used to simulate keyhole and porosity formation during laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The modelling suggests that keyhole formation and the time taken to achieve keyhole penetration can be predicted, and it is important to consider the thermal fluid flow at the melting front as this dictates the evolution of the fusion zone. Processing induced porosity is significant when the fusion zone is only partially penetrating through the thickness of the material. The modelling results are compared with high speed camera imaging and measurements of porosity from welded samples using X-ray computed tomography, radiography and optical micrographs. These are used to provide a better understanding of the relationship between process parameters, component microstructure and weld integrity.

  14. The HiPER project for inertial confinement fusion and some experimental results on advanced ignition schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Gizzi, L.A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Honrubia, J.; Antonelli, L.; Morace, A.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J.; Schurtz, G.; Hulin, S.; Kozlová, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 12 (2011), s. 1-13 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : HiPER Project * PALS * laser- plasma coupling * fast electrons * inertial fusion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011

  15. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, Jill [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Corones, James [Krell Inst., Ames, IA (United States); Batchelor, Donald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bramley, Randall [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jardin, Stephen [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Laub, Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lindl, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lokke, William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ross, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schnack, Dalton [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  16. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, Jill; Corones, James; Batchelor, Donald; Bramley, Randall; Greenwald, Martin; Jardin, Stephen; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Laub, Alan; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Lindl, John; Lokke, William; Rosenbluth, Marshall; Ross, David; Schnack, Dalton

    2002-01-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world's energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the

  17. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  18. A constitutive model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of fusion-relevant pebble beds and its application to the simulation of HELICA mock-up experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, G.; Maio, P.A. Di; Giammusso, R.; Tincani, A.; Orco, G. Dell

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the activities promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement on the technology of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module to be irradiated in one of the ITER equatorial ports, attention has been focused on the theoretical modelling of the thermo-mechanical constitutive behaviour of both beryllium and lithiated ceramics pebble beds, that are envisaged to act respectively as neutron multiplier and tritium breeder. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of the pebble beds and their nuclear performances in terms of tritium production depend on the reactor relevant conditions (heat flux and neutron wall load), the pebble sizes and the breeder cell geometries (bed thickness, pebble packing factor, bed overall thermal conductivity). ENEA-Brasimone and the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Palermo University have performed intense research activities intended to investigate fusion-relevant pebble bed thermo-mechanical behaviour by adopting both experimental and theoretical approaches. In particular, ENEA has carried out several experimental campaigns on small scale mock-ups tested in out-of-pile conditions, while DIN has developed a proper constitutive model that has been implemented on commercial FEM code, for the prediction of the thermal and mechanical performances of fusion-relevant pebble beds and for the comparison with the experimental results of the ENEA tests. In that framework, HELICA mock-up has been set-up and tested to investigate the behaviour of pebble bed in reactor-relevant geometries, providing useful data sets to be numerically reproduced by means of the DIN constitutive model, contributing to its assessment. The paper presents the constitutive model developed and the main experimental results of two test campaigns on HELICA mock-up carried out at HE-FUS 3 facility of ENEA Brasimone, the geometry of the mock-up, the adopted thermal and mechanical boundary conditions and the test operating conditions. The most

  19. An Overview of INEL Fusion Safety R&D Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. A.; Smolik, G. R.; Anderl, R. A.; Carmack, W. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1997-06-01

    The Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has the lead for fusion safety work in the United States. Over the years, we have developed several experimental facilities to provide data for fusion reactor safety analyses. We now have four major experimental facilities that provide data for use in safety assessments. The Steam-Reactivity Measurement System measures hydrogen generation rates and tritium mobilization rates in high-temperature (up to 1200°C) fusion relevant materials exposed to steam. The Volatilization of Activation Product Oxides Reactor Facility provides information on mobilization and transport and chemical reactivity of fusion relevant materials at high temperature (up to 1200°C) in an oxidizing environment (air or steam). The Fusion Aerosol Source Test Facility is a scaled-up version of VAPOR. The ion-implanta-tion/thermal-desorption system is dedicated to research into processes and phenomena associated with the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with fusion materials. In this paper we describe the capabilities of these facilities.

  20. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  1. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  2. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  3. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  4. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  5. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today's advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report

  6. A Novel Approach to Reinstating Tolerance in Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis Using a Targeted Fusion Protein, mCTA1–T146

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Consonni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reinstating tissue-specific tolerance has attracted much attention as a means to treat autoimmune diseases. However, despite promising results in rodent models of autoimmune diseases, no established tolerogenic therapy is clinically available yet. In the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG model several protocols have been reported that induce tolerance against the prime disease-associated antigen, the acetylcholine receptor (AChR at the neuromuscular junction. Using the whole AChR, the extracellular part or peptides derived from the receptor, investigators have reported variable success with their treatments, though, usually relatively large amounts of antigen has been required. Hence, there is a need for better formulations and strategies to improve on the efficacy of the tolerance-inducing therapies. Here, we report on a novel targeted fusion protein carrying the immunodominant peptide from AChR, mCTA1–T146, which given intranasally in repeated microgram doses strongly suppressed induction as well as ongoing EAMG disease in mice. The results corroborate our previous findings, using the same fusion protein approach, in the collagen-induced arthritis model showing dramatic suppressive effects on Th1 and Th17 autoaggressive CD4 T cells and upregulated regulatory T cell activities with enhanced IL10 production. A suppressive gene signature with upregulated expression of mRNA for TGFβ, IL10, IL27, and Foxp3 was clearly detectable in lymph node and spleen following intranasal treatment with mCTA1–T146. Amelioration of EAMG disease was accompanied by reduced loss of muscle AChR and lower levels of anti-AChR serum antibodies. We believe this targeted highly effective fusion protein mCTA1–T146 is a promising candidate for clinical evaluation in myasthenia gravis patients.

  7. Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  8. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  9. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO2-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO 2 -free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits

  10. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  11. Towards assembly completion and preparation of experimental campaigns of Wendelstein 7-X in the perspective of a path to a stellarator fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, T., E-mail: thomas.klinger@ipp.mpg.de; Baylard, C.; Beidler, C.D.; Boscary, J.; Bosch, H.S.; Dinklage, A.; Hartmann, D.; Helander, P.; Maßberg, H.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T.S.; Rummel, T.; Schauer, F.; Wegener, L.; Wolf, R.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction, is the key device for the proof of stellarator optimization principles. To establish the optimized stellarator as a serious candidate for a fusion reactor, reactor-relevant plasma parameters must be achieved in fully integrated steady-state scenarios. After more than 10 years of construction time, the completion of the device is now approaching rapidly (mid-2014). We discuss the most important lessons learned during the device assembly, first experiences with coming major work packages, and the physics program of the first two operation phases. The concept of a stellarator fusion power plant is outlined, too. Highlights: • The superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X is presented. • The optimized stellarator may be a serious candidate for a fusion reactor. • Reactor-relevant plasma parameters must be achieved in integrated steady-state scenarios. • We discuss the most important lessons learned during the device assembly. • We discuss first experiences with coming major work packages. • We discuss the physics program of the first two operation phases. • The concept of a stellarator fusion power plant is outlined. -- Abstract: The superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction, is the key device for the proof of stellarator optimization principles. To establish the optimized stellarator as a serious candidate for a fusion reactor, reactor-relevant dimensionless plasma parameters must be achieved in fully integrated steady-state scenarios. After more than 10 years of construction time, the completion of the device is now approaching rapidly (mid-2014). We discuss the most important lessons learned during the device assembly and first experiences with coming major work packages. Those are (a) assembly of about 2500 large, water-cooled, 3d-shaped in-vessel component elements; (b) assembly of in total 14

  12. Gossiping Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid

    Gossip-based protocols are now acknowledged as a sound basis to implement collaborative high-bandwidth content dissemination: content location is disseminated through gossip, the actual contents being subsequently pulled. In this paper, we present HEAP, HEterogeneity Aware gossip Protocol, where...... nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...... declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip...

  13. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplani, M; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Barbato, F; Antonelli, L; Poggi, L A; Ciparisse, J F; Salgado, L; Richetta, M; Gaudio, P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  14. Experimental study on the 300W class planar type solid oxide fuel cell stack: Investigation for appropriate fuel provision control and the transient capability of the cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Y; Brus, G; Szmyd, J S; Kimijima, S

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reports the experimental study on the dynamic behavior of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell stack consists of planar type cells with standard power output 300W. A Major subject of the present study is characterization of the transient response to the electric current change, assuming load-following operation. The present studies particularly focus on fuel provision control to the load change. Optimized fuel provision improves power generation efficiency. However, the capability of SOFC must be restricted by a few operative parameters. Fuel utilization factor, which is defined as the ratio of the consumed fuel to the supplied fuel is adopted for a reference in the control scheme. The fuel flow rate was regulated to keep the fuel utilization at 50%, 60% and 70% during the current ramping. Lower voltage was observed with the higher fuel utilization, but achieved efficiency was higher. The appropriate mass flow control is required not to violate the voltage transient behavior. Appropriate fuel flow manipulation can contribute to moderate the overshoot on the voltage that may appear to the current change. The overshoot on the voltage response resulted from the gradual temperature behavior in the SOFC stack module.

  15. Experimental study on the 300W class planar type solid oxide fuel cell stack: Investigation for appropriate fuel provision control and the transient capability of the cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y.; Brus, G.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2012-11-01

    The present paper reports the experimental study on the dynamic behavior of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cell stack consists of planar type cells with standard power output 300W. A Major subject of the present study is characterization of the transient response to the electric current change, assuming load-following operation. The present studies particularly focus on fuel provision control to the load change. Optimized fuel provision improves power generation efficiency. However, the capability of SOFC must be restricted by a few operative parameters. Fuel utilization factor, which is defined as the ratio of the consumed fuel to the supplied fuel is adopted for a reference in the control scheme. The fuel flow rate was regulated to keep the fuel utilization at 50%, 60% and 70% during the current ramping. Lower voltage was observed with the higher fuel utilization, but achieved efficiency was higher. The appropriate mass flow control is required not to violate the voltage transient behavior. Appropriate fuel flow manipulation can contribute to moderate the overshoot on the voltage that may appear to the current change. The overshoot on the voltage response resulted from the gradual temperature behavior in the SOFC stack module.

  16. Design of Fire/Gas Penetration Seals and fire exposure tests for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalluzzo, S.

    1983-01-01

    A Fire/Gas Penetration Seal is required in every penetration through the walls and ceilings into the Test Cell housing the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), as well as other adjacent areas to protect the TFTR from fire damage. The penetrations are used for field coil lead stems, diagnostics systems, utilities, cables, trays, mechanical devices, electrical conduits, vacuum liner, air conditioning ducts, water pipes, and gas pipes. The function of the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals is to prevent the passage of fire and products of combustion through penetrations for a period of time up to three hours and remain structurally intact during fire exposure. The Penetration Seal must withstand, without rupture, a fire hose water stream directed at the hot surface. There are over 3000 penetrations ranging in size from several square inches to 100 square feet, and classified into 90 different types. The material used to construct the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals consist of a single and a two-component room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber compound. Miscellaneous materials such as alumina silica refractory fibers in board, blanket and fiber forms are also used in the construction and assembly of the Seals. This paper describes some of the penetration seals and the test procedures used to perform the three-hour fire exposure tests to demonstrate the adequacy of the seals

  17. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. EDITORIAL: Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Because plasma-boundary physics encompasses some of the most important unresolved issues for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and future fusion power reactors, there is a strong interest in the fusion community for better understanding and characterization of plasma wall interactions. Chemical and physical sputtering cause the erosion of the limiters/divertor plates and vacuum vessel walls (made of C, Be and W, for example) and degrade fusion performance by diluting the fusion fuel and excessively cooling the core, while carbon redeposition could produce long-term in-vessel tritium retention, degrading the superior thermo-mechanical properties of the carbon materials. Mixed plasma-facing materials are proposed, requiring optimization for different power and particle flux characteristics. Knowledge of material properties as well as characteristics of the plasma material interaction are prerequisites for such optimizations. Computational power will soon reach hundreds of teraflops, so that theoretical and plasma science expertise can be matched with new experimental capabilities in order to mount a strong response to these challenges. To begin to address such questions, a Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion (PSIF) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 21 to 23 March, 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers in fusion related plasma wall interactions in order to address these topics and to identify the most needed and promising directions for study, to exchange opinions on the present depth of knowledge of surface properties for the main fusion-related materials, e.g., C, Be and W, especially for sputtering, reflection, and deuterium (tritium) retention properties. The goal was to suggest the most important next steps needed for such basic computational and experimental work to be facilitated

  19. Investigations of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong

    1999-12-01

    The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D

  20. Experimental pressure drop and heat transfer in square array rod bundle for fusion-fission hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, J.A.; Bhowmik, P.K. [Seoul National Univ., Gwanak Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, K.Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National Univ., Gwanak Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); PhiloSophia Inc., Gwanak Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The effects of grid spacer flow restriction on pressure drop are evaluated experimentally for a wide range of flow rates. The results are compared against predictions by using most well known correlations. The convective heat transfer coefficients are evaluated using ANSYS 12.1 for a 3x3 rod bundle for pure water and alumina nanofluid. It is observed that the experimental pressure drop falls within 10%~20% of the predictions. Heat transfer of the 4% alumina nanofluid increases about 18% over pure water under the same inlet flow condition. (author)

  1. Experimental pressure drop and heat transfer in square array rod bundle for fusion-fission hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, J.A.; Bhowmik, P.K.; Suh, K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of grid spacer flow restriction on pressure drop are evaluated experimentally for a wide range of flow rates. The results are compared against predictions by using most well known correlations. The convective heat transfer coefficients are evaluated using ANSYS 12.1 for a 3x3 rod bundle for pure water and alumina nanofluid. It is observed that the experimental pressure drop falls within 10%~20% of the predictions. Heat transfer of the 4% alumina nanofluid increases about 18% over pure water under the same inlet flow condition. (author)

  2. Benchmarking the cad-based attila discrete ordinates code with experimental data of fusion experiments and to the results of MCNP code in simulating ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M. Z.

    2007-01-01

    Attila is a newly developed finite element code based on Sn neutron, gamma, and charged particle transport in 3-D geometry in which unstructured tetrahedral meshes are generated to describe complex geometry that is based on CAD input (Solid Works, Pro/Engineer, etc). In the present work we benchmark its calculation accuracy by comparing its prediction to the measured data inside two experimental mock-ups bombarded with 14 MeV neutrons. The results are also compared to those based on MCNP calculations. The experimental mock-ups simulate parts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in-vessel components, namely: (1) the Tungsten mockup configuration (54.3 cm x 46.8 cm x 45 cm), and (2) the ITER shielding blanket followed by the SCM region (simulated by alternating layers of SS316 and copper). In the latter configuration, a high aspect ratio rectangular streaming channel was introduced (to simulate steaming paths between ITER blanket modules) which ends with a rectangular cavity. The experiments on these two fusion-oriented integral experiments were performed at the Fusion Neutron Generator (FNG) facility, Frascati, Italy. In addition, the nuclear performance of the ITER MCNP 'Benchmark' CAD model has been performed with Attila to compare its results to those obtained with CAD-based MCNP approach developed by several ITER participants. The objective of this paper is to compare results based on two distinctive 3-D calculation tools using the same nuclear data, FENDL2.1, and the same response functions of several reaction rates measured in ITER mock-ups and to enhance confidence from the international neutronics community in the Attila code and how it can precisely quantify the nuclear field in large and complex systems, such as ITER. Attila has the advantage of providing a full flux mapping visualization everywhere in one run where components subjected to excessive radiation level and strong streaming paths can be identified. In addition, the

  3. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  4. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  5. Design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In order to accurately measure the history of fusion reaction for experimental study of inertial confinement fusion, we advance the design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic system is composed of plastic scintillator and nose cone, an optical imaging system and the system of optic streak camera. Analyzing the capability of the system indicated that the instrument measured fusion reaction history at temporal resolution as low as 55ps and 40ps correspond to 2.45MeV DD neutrons and 14.03MeV DT neutrons. The instrument is able to measure the fusion reaction history at yields 1.5 x 10 9 DD neutrons, about 4 x 10 8 DT neutrons are required for a similar quality signal. (authors)

  6. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  7. Summary of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.

    2003-01-01

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion since the last IAEA meeting. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts, and the pursuit of integrated programs to develop fusion energy using lasers and ion beams. Two ignition facilities are under construction (NIF in the U.S. and LMJ in France) and both projects are progressing toward an initial experimental capability. The LIL prototype beamline for LMJ and the first 4 beams of NIF will be available for experiments in about 1 year. Ignition experiments are expected to begin in 7-9 years at both facilities. There is steady progress in the target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect drive ignition experiments on NIF and LMJ. Advanced target designs may lead to 5-10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch driven indirect drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets have been obtained at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko Petawatt facility. A broad based program to develop lasers and ions beams for IFE is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and Diode Pumped Solid-State lasers (DPSSL) are being developed in conjunction with dry-wall chambers and direct drive targets. Induction accelerators for heavy ions are being developed in conjunction with thick-liquid protected wall chambers and indirect-drive targets. (author)

  8. Force Structure. Joint Seabasing Would Benefit from a Comprehensive Management Approach and Rigorous Experimentation before Services Spend Billions on New Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... GAO's prior work showed that sound management practices for developing capabilities include involving top leadership, dedicating an implementation team, and establishing a communications strategy...

  9. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  10. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  11. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  12. Stockpile tritium production from fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century

  13. Synchrotron radiation and fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is approaching a stage where the capabilities of materials will be dictating the further progress and the time scale for the attainment of fusion power. EU has therefore funded the Fusion Energy Materials Science project Coordination Action (FEMaS - CA) with the intension to utilise the know-how in the materials community to help overcome the material science problems with the fusion related materials. The FEMaS project and some of the possible applications of synchrotron radiation for materials characterisation are described in this paper. (au)

  14. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  15. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  16. Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLooper, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion's safety and environmental potential

  17. On the role of delocalization in benzene: Theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of strained ring fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, Rudiger [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    When an important compound`s discovery dates back as far as 1825, one would imagine that every facet of its chemical and physical properties has been illuminated in the meantime. Benzene, however, has not ceased to challenge the chemist`s notion of structure and bonding since its first isolation by Michael Faraday. This report is divided into the following six chapters: 1. Aromaticity -- Criteria, manifestations, structural limitations; 2. The role of delocalization in benzene; 3. The thermochemical properties of benzocyclobutadienologs; 4. Ab initio study of benzenes fused to four-membered rings; 5. Non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and 6. Experimental details and input decks. 210 Refs.

  18. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networ....... Finally, the article discuss, how more long term action research methods could be integrated into the entrepreneurial processes and the possible impacts of such an implementation?...

  19. Experimental verification of integrated pressure suppression systems in fusion reactors at in-vessel loss-of-coolant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated ICE (Ingress-of-Coolant Event) test facility was constructed to demonstrate that the ITER safety design approach and design parameters for the ICE events are adequate. Major objectives of the integrated ICE test facility are: to estimate the performance of an integrated pressure suppression system; to obtain the validation data for safety analysis codes; and to clarify the effects of two-phase pressure drop at a divertor and the direct-contact condensation in a suppression tank. A scaling factor between the test facility and ITER-FEAT is around 1/1600. The integrated ICE test facility simulates the ITER pressure suppression system and mainly consists of a plasma chamber, vacuum vessel, simulated divertor, relief pipe and suppression tank. From the experimental results it was found quantitatively that the ITER pressure suppression system is very effective to reduce the pressurization due to the ICE event. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the analytical results of the TRAC-PF1 code can simulate the experimental results with high accuracy. (author)

  20. Experimental investigation of the confinement of d(3He,p)α and d(d,p)t fusion reaction products in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonheure, Georges; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.

    2012-01-01

    In ITER, magnetic fusion will explore the burning plasma regime. Because such burning plasma is sustained by its own fusion reactions, alpha particles need to be confined (Hazeltine 2010 Fusion Eng. Des. 7–9 85). New experiments using d(3He,p)α and d(d,p)t fusion reaction products were performed...... in JET. Fusion product loss was measured from MHD-quiescent plasmas with a charged particle activation probe installed at a position opposite to the magnetic field ion gradient drift (see figure 1)—1.77 m above mid-plane—in the ceiling of JET tokamak. This new kind of escaping ion detector (Bonheure et...... al 2008 Fusion Sci. Technol. 53 806) provides for absolutely calibrated measurements. Both the mechanism and the magnitude of the loss are dealt with by this research. Careful analysis shows measured loss is in quantitative agreement with predictions from the classical orbit loss model. However...

  1. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar Colome, J.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  2. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  3. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  4. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  5. Parâmetros operacionais no processamento de zeólitas desativadas por fusão com KHSO4 Experimental parameters for spent zeolites processing via fusion with KHSO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Aragão de Mendonça

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the determination of the optimal experimental conditions for processing spent commercial zeolites in order to recover lanthanide elements and eventually other elements. The process is based on the fusion of the sample with potassium hydrogenosulfate (KHSO4. Three experimental parameters were studied: temperature, reaction time and catalyst/flux mass ratio. After fusion the solid was dissolved in water and the amount of insoluble matter was used to determine the efficiency of the process. The optimized experimental parameters depend on the composition of the sample processed. Under such conditions the insoluble residue corresponds to SiO2. Lanthanide elements and aluminum present in solution were isolated by conventional precipitation techniques; the yields were at least 75 wt%. The final generated wastes correspond to neutral colorless solutions containing alkali chlorides/sulfates and solids that can be disposed of in industrial dumps.

  6. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  7. Economic, safety and environmental prospects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Holdren, J.P.; Sharafat, S.

    1990-01-01

    Controlled fusion energy is one of the long term, non-fossil energy sources available to mankind. It has the potential of significant advantages over fission nuclear power in that the consequences of severe accidents are predicted to be less and the radioactive waste burden is calculated to be smaller. Fusion can be an important ingredient in the future world energy mix as a hedge against environmental, supply or political difficulties connected with the use of fossil fuel and present-day nuclear power. Progress in fusion reactor technology and design is described for both magnetic and inertial fusion energy systems. The projected economic prospects show that fusion will be capital intensive, and the historical trend is towards greater mass utilization efficiency and more competitive costs. Recent studies emphasizing safety and environmental advantages show that the competitive potential of fusion can be further enhanced by specific choices of materials and design. The safety and environmental prospects of fusion appear to exceed substantially those of advanced fission and coal. Clearly, a significant and directed technology effort is necessary to achieve these advantages. Typical parameters have been established for magnetic fusion energy reactors, and a tokamak at moderately high magnetic field (about 7 T on axis) in the first regime of MHD stability (β ≤ 3.5 I/aB) is closest to present experimental achievement. Further improvements of the economic and technological performance of the tokamak are possible. In addition, alternative, non-tokamak magnetic fusion approaches may offer substantive economic and operational benefits, although at present these concepts must be projected from a less developed physics base. For inertial fusion energy, the essential requirements are a high efficiency (≥ 10%) repetitively pulsed pellet driver capable of delivering up to 10 MJ of energy on target, targets capable of an energy gain of about 100, reactor chambers capable of

  8. Contribution to the study of copper and copper-arsenic archaeo-metallurgy using light element analysis and experimental fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papillon, F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to try a direct reconstruction from ancient artefacts of the elaboration technology used in the dawning copper metallurgy. This word is based on both the light elements analysis and the carry out of the principles of physical metallurgy. However the study of an archaeological artefact necessitates the use of non destructive methods. A main aspect of this work consists in developing the most adequate metallographic technique and the methods for the determination of oxygen and carbon by ion beam analysis. Additionally experimental melting of copper and copper arsenic alloys were carried out in laboratory, under various temperature and atmosphere conditions, and 'on the field' in Archeodrome de Beaune, in order to reconstruct part of the prehistorical craftsmanship. The results of measurement are consistent with our general knowledge of oxido-reduction phenomena and the behaviour of copper and copper arsenic alloys s in agreement with the prediction of thermodynamics. The nuclear analysis of three ancient artefacts showed that the oxygen and carbon contents were closer to those of the Archeodrome than those of the laboratory. Further studies of the field should consider all parameters controlling the physical-chemistry of charcoal fire. (author)

  9. Welding and cutting characteristics of blanket/first wall module to back plate for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinichi; Osaki, Toshio; Koga, Shinji

    1996-01-01

    The first wall and the blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are used under severe conditions such as the neutron irradiation by plasma, surface thermal load, the electromagnetic force at the time of plasma disruption and others. Consequently, from the viewpoint of the necessity for disassembling and maintenance, those are divided into modules in toroidal and poloidal directions. In this study, as to the welding of the back plate and the legs supporting blanket modules, which are installed in a vacuum vessel, the characteristic test paying attention to the deformation at the time of welding was carried out, and the optimal welding conditions and the characteristics of welding deformation and others were clarified. Moreover, when water jet method was used for cutting the welded parts of the supporting legs, the properties of the cut parts, the time for cutting and others were examined. The performance required for the welded parts of blanket modules with back plate is shown. The basic test of welding conditions using plate models, partial model test and whole model test are reported. The test of water jet cutting for the maintenance of shielding blanket modules is described. (K.I.)

  10. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in the area of fusion energy include fuel handling, processing, and containment. These studies are closely coordinated with the ORNL Fusion Energy Division. Current experimental studies are concerned with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, the evaluation and development of techniques for recovering tritium (fuel) from either solid or liquid lithium containing blankets, and the use of deep beds of sorbents as roughing pumps and/or transfer operations. In addition, a small effort is devoted to the support of the ORNL design of The Next Step (TNS) in tokamak reactor development. The more applied studies--vacuum pump development and TNS design--are funded by the DOE/Magnetic Fusion Energy, and the more fundamental studies--blanket recovery and sorption in deep beds--are funded by the DOE/Basic Energy Sciences

  11. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results; Issledovaniya v oblasti upravlyaemogo yadernogo sinteza/sentyabr' 1965 g. obzor rezul'tatov ehksperimentov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  12. Pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  13. The experimental plan for cryogenic layered target implosions on the National Ignition Facility - The inertial confinement approach to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M. J.; Lindl, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Weber, S. V.; Atherton, L. J.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D; Collins, G. W.; Fair, J. E.; Fortner, R. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatchett, S. P.; Izumi, N.; Jacoby, B.

    2011-01-01

    Ignition requires precisely controlled, high convergence implosions to assemble a dense shell of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel with ρR>∼1 g/cm 2 surrounding a 10 keV hot spot with ρR ∼ 0.3 g/cm 2 . A working definition of ignition has been a yield of ∼1 MJ. At this yield the α-particle energy deposited in the fuel would have been ∼200 kJ, which is already ∼10 x more than the kinetic energy of a typical implosion. The National Ignition Campaign includes low yield implosions with dudded fuel layers to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel in a diagnostics rich environment. The fuel is a mixture of tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) with a density equivalent to DT. The fraction of D can be adjusted to control the neutron yield. Yields of ∼10 14-15 14 MeV (primary) neutrons are adequate to diagnose the hot spot as well as the dense fuel properties via down scattering of the primary neutrons. X-ray imaging diagnostics can function in this low yield environment providing additional information about the assembled fuel either by imaging the photons emitted by the hot central plasma, or by active probing of the dense shell by a separate high energy short pulse flash. The planned use of these targets and diagnostics to assess and optimize the assembly of the fuel and how this relates to the predicted performance of DT targets is described. It is found that a good predictor of DT target performance is the THD measurable parameter, Experimental Ignition Threshold Factor, ITFX ∼ Y x dsf 2.3 , where Y is the measured neutron yield between 13 and 15 MeV, and dsf is the down scattered neutron fraction defined as the ratio of neutrons between 10 and 12 MeV and those between 13 and 15 MeV.

  14. Feasibility study of the water Cherenkov detector as a D-T fusion power monitor in the system using neutron activation of flowing water. First experimental phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Yury M.; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo

    2003-09-01

    The technique of monitoring D-T neutrons using water flow is based on the reaction of the 16 O(n, p) 16 N. In order to significantly improve the D-T neutron monitoring system in the ITER reactor in comparison with the system that uses a γ-ray scintillation detector, a new approach was proposed. The basic idea of this approach is to utilize the Cherenkov light, produced by energetic β-particles from 16 N in water near the first wall of the fusion reactor, and then deliver the light by the optical fiber to the remote light detector. The proof of the principle experiment is divided into two phases. The main idea of the first experimental phase is to examine Cherenkov light measurements using a remotely located water and light detector. During the second phase the water radiator will be placed next to the neutron source, then the Cherenkov light will be transferred by an optical fiber to the remotely located light detector. For the purpose of the first experimental phase, a water Cherenkov detector was installed in the shielded measurement room. A closed water loop, with circulating water, was used to transport 16 N from the D-T source to the Cherenkov detector. The experiment was carried out at FNS/JAERI, with the accelerator set to a direct current mode, the source neutron yield around 2 x 10 11 n/s, and the water flowage approximately 2 m/s. The registered Cherenkov signal was identified as the light produced by β-particles from 16 N using the time decay and the energy spectra data. According to the present study, the water Cherenkov detector is very effective for measurements of the 16 N activity, due to high counting efficiency, absence of the scintillation detector and simplicity of the method. (author)

  15. Simulation of volumetrically heated pebble beds in solid breeding blankets for fusion reactors. Modelling, experimental validation and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Francisco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Breeder Units contains pebble beds of lithium orthosilicate (Li_4SiO_4) as tritium breeder material and beryllium as neutron multiplier. In this dissertation a closed validation strategy for the thermo-mechanical validation of the Breeder Units has been developed. This strategy is based on the development of dedicated testing and modeling tools, which are needed for the qualification of the thermo-mechanical functionality of these components in an out-of-pile experimental campaign. The neutron flux in the Breeder Units induces a nonhomogeneous volumetric heating in the pebble beds that must be mimicked in an out-of-pile experiment with an external heating system minimizing the intrusion in the pebble beds. Therefore, a heater system that simulates this volumetric heating has been developed. This heater system is based on ohmic heating and linear heater elements, which approximates the point heat sources of the granular material by linear sources. These linear sources represent ''linear pebbles'' in discrete locations close enough to relatively reproduce the thermal gradients occurring in the functional materials. The heater concept has been developed for the Li_4SiO_4 and it is based on a hexagonal matrix arrangement of linear and parallel heater elements of diameter 1 mm separated by 7 mm. A set of uniformly distributed thermocouples in the transversal and longitudinal direction in the pebble bed midplane allows a 2D temperature reconstruction of that measurement plane by means of biharmonic spline interpolation. This heating system has been implemented in a relevant Breeder Unit region and its proof-of-concept has been tested in a PRE-test Mock-Up eXperiment (PREMUX) that has been designed and constructed in the frame of this dissertation. The packing factor of the pebble bed with and without the heating system does not show significant differences, giving an indirect evidence of the low intrusion of the system. Such low intrusion has been confirmed by in

  16. Simulation of volumetrically heated pebble beds in solid breeding blankets for fusion reactors. Modelling, experimental validation and sensitivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Francisco Alberto

    2016-10-14

    The Breeder Units contains pebble beds of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder material and beryllium as neutron multiplier. In this dissertation a closed validation strategy for the thermo-mechanical validation of the Breeder Units has been developed. This strategy is based on the development of dedicated testing and modeling tools, which are needed for the qualification of the thermo-mechanical functionality of these components in an out-of-pile experimental campaign. The neutron flux in the Breeder Units induces a nonhomogeneous volumetric heating in the pebble beds that must be mimicked in an out-of-pile experiment with an external heating system minimizing the intrusion in the pebble beds. Therefore, a heater system that simulates this volumetric heating has been developed. This heater system is based on ohmic heating and linear heater elements, which approximates the point heat sources of the granular material by linear sources. These linear sources represent ''linear pebbles'' in discrete locations close enough to relatively reproduce the thermal gradients occurring in the functional materials. The heater concept has been developed for the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and it is based on a hexagonal matrix arrangement of linear and parallel heater elements of diameter 1 mm separated by 7 mm. A set of uniformly distributed thermocouples in the transversal and longitudinal direction in the pebble bed midplane allows a 2D temperature reconstruction of that measurement plane by means of biharmonic spline interpolation. This heating system has been implemented in a relevant Breeder Unit region and its proof-of-concept has been tested in a PRE-test Mock-Up eXperiment (PREMUX) that has been designed and constructed in the frame of this dissertation. The packing factor of the pebble bed with and without the heating system does not show significant differences, giving an indirect evidence of the low intrusion of the system. Such

  17. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  18. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  19. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  20. Fusion power and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in research towards the development of fusion power is reviewed. In the magnetic approach, the impressive advances made in Tokamak research in the past few years have bolstered the confidence that experimental Tokamak devices currently under construction will demonstrate the break-even condition or scientific feasibility of fusion power. Exciting and innovative ideas in mirror magnetic confinement are expected to culminate in high-Q devices which will make open-ended confinement a serious contender for fusion reactors. In the inertial confinement approach, conflicting pellet temperature requirements have placed severe constraints on useful laser intensities and wavelengths for laser-driven fusion. Relativistic electron beam fusion must solve critical focusing and pellet coupling problems, and the newly proposed heavy ion beam fusion, though feasible and attractive in principle, requires very high energy particles for which the accelerator technology may not be available for some time to come

  1. Inertial fusion sciences and applications 99: state of the art 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, Ch.; Hogan, W.J.; Tanaka, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the texts of the communications presented at the conference 'Inertial fusion sciences and applications' held in Paris in 1999. These proceedings are shared into five sessions: laser fusion physics, fusion with particle beams, fusion with implosions, inertial fusion energy, and experimental applications of inertial fusion. (J.S.)

  2. The big experimental manual of Free Energy. Cold Fusion - Tesla-Waves - Space-Quantum-Energy - a.o.; Das grosse Freie Energie Experimentier-Handbuch. Kalte Fusion - Tesla-Wellen - Raum-Quanten-Energie - u.v.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, P.; Chmela, H.; Wiedergut, W.

    2004-07-01

    The main topics of the lectures are: Experiments on cold fusion; Information on space-quantum energy; phenomena of rotating magnets; advanced electrostatic motors; generation of scalar waves; complex rotating fields and levitation from an advanced view; free energy converters. (GL)

  3. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  4. Cold fusion - todays situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the history of cold fusion is given. It is noted that it is not possible to draw any definite conclusions about all the experimental and theoretical details, but that some of the results presented do not seem to be reached according to the normal scientific methods. 6 figs

  5. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  6. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  7. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  8. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  9. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  10. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  11. Experimental study of gaseous lithium deuterides and lithium oxides. Implications for the use of lithium and Li2O as breeding materials in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.; Kudo, H.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to LiH, which has been studied extensively by optical spectroscopy, the existence of a number of other stable lithium hydrides has been predicted theoretically. By analysis of the saturated vapour over dilute solutions of the hydrogen isotopes in lithium, using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, all lithium hydrides predicted to be stable were found. Solutions of deuterium in lithium were used predominantly because of practical advantages for mass spectrometric measurements. The heats of dissociation of LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and Li 2 D 2 , and the binding energies of their singly charged positive ions were determined, and the constants of the gas/liquid equilibria were calculated. The existence of these lithium deuterides in the gas phase over solutions of deuterium in lithium leads to enrichment of deuterium in the gas above 1240 K. The enrichment factor, which increases exponentially with temperature and is independent of concentration for low concentrations of deuterium in the liquid, was determined by Rayleigh distillation experiments. It was found that it is thermodynamically possible to separate deuterium from lithium by distillation. One of the alternatives to the use of lithium in (D,T)-fusion reactors as tritium-breeding blanket material is to employ solid lithium oxide. This has a high melting point, a high lithium density and still favourable tritium-breeding properties. Because of its rather high volatility, an experimental study of the vaporization of Li 2 O was undertaken by mass spectrometry. It vaporizes to give lithium and oxygen, and LiO, Li 2 O, Li 3 O and Li 2 O 2 . The molecule Li 3 O was found as a new species. Heats of dissociation, binding energies of the various ions and the constants of the gas/solid equilibria were determined. The effect of using different materials for the Knudsen cells and the relative thermal stabilities of lithium-aluminium oxides were also studied. (author)

  12. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  13. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  14. The need for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris

    2005-01-01

    World energy use is predicted to double in the next 40 years. Currently 80% is provided by burning fossil fuels, but this is not sustainable indefinitely because (i) it is driving climate change, and (ii) fossil fuels will eventually be exhausted (starting with oil). The resulting potential energy crisis requires increased investment in energy research and development (which is currently very small on the scale of the $3 trillion p.a. energy market, and falling). The wide portfolio of energy work that should be supported must include fusion, which is one of the very few options that are capable in principle of supplying a large fraction of need. The case for fusion has been strengthened by recent advances in plasma physics and fusion technology that are reflected in the forthcoming European Fusion Power Plant Conceptual Study, which addresses safety and cost issues. The big questions are - How can we deliver fusion power as fast as possible? How long is it likely to take? I argue for a fast track programme, and describe a fast-track model developed at Culham, which is intended to stimulate debate on the way ahead and the resources that are needed

  15. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses international progress in fusion research during the last three years. Much of the technical progress has been achieved through international collaboration in magnetic fusion research. This progress has stimulated political interest in a multinational effort, aimed at designing and possibly constructing the world's first experimental fusion reactor. This interest was reflected in recent summit-level discussions involving President Mitterand, General Secretary Gorbachev, and President Reagan. Most recently, the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have decided to begin serious preparation for taking the next step toward practical fusion energy. These parties have agreed to begin the design and supporting R and D for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The initiation of this international program to prepare for a fusion test reactor is discussed

  16. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  17. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  18. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  19. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1992-01-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission processes have been performed for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The comparison between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. (orig.)

  20. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  1. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today`s advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report.

  2. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  3. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  4. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  5. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  6. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  7. Research into thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies carried out in close international cooperation in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic plasma confinement have achieved such progress towards higher plasma temperatures and densities, longer confinement times and, thus, increased fusion product, that emphasis now begins to be shifted from problems of physics to those of technology as a next major step is being prepared towards a large international project (ITER) to achieve thermonuclear burning. The generation and maintenance of a burning fusion plasma in an experimental physics phase will be followed by a phase of technical materials studies at high fluxes of fusion neutrons. These goals have been pursued since 1983 by an international study group at Garching working on the design of a Next European Torus (NET). Since May 1988, an international study group comprising ten experts each from the USSR, USA, Japan, and the European Community has begun to work on a design draft of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Garching under the auspices of IAEA. (orig.) [de

  8. Fusion Simulation Program Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  9. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  10. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  12. Fusion research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress

  13. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  14. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  15. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  16. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  17. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  18. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  19. Experimental study of fast electron transport and of the propagation of shock waves generated by laser in the framework of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, T.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents 3 experiments carried out within the framework of inertial fusion. The first experiment was devoted to the study of fast electron beam transport in a compressed target. The implosion of the target with a cylindrical geometry was carried out with the GEKKO XII laser facility (ILE Osaka, Japan). The fast electron beam was generated by the LFEX laser (∼10"1"9 W/cm"2) and its propagation through the compressed cylinder was observed with several X-ray diagnostics. This experiment showed the guiding effect of the electron beam resulting from self-generated magnetic fields. Furthermore, the results of this experiment were in good agreement with numerical simulations. Two other experiments were performed to study the propagation of strong shock waves created by lasers in a plasma. They were carried out with different laser systems. In the first experiment with the Gekko XII laser, we observed the creation and the propagation of two successive shock waves in an ablation plasma in CH and Be. The objective of characterizing the amplification of a transmitted shock by the collision of two counter-propagating shocks has been partially realized. The comparison of the experimental results with the hydrodynamic simulations enabled us to confirm an amplification of the shock by a factor 2 in pressure in the condition of this experiment. The shot with a Be target allowed the development and validation of the diagnostic method of X-ray radiography for shock wave propagation. The second experiment was performed with PHELIX GSI laser (Darmstadt, Germany). The purpose of this experiment was to study the generation of strong shocks. They were applied to study the equation of state of carbon in the WDM state. The condition of pressure and density for the carbon were obtained by deducing the pressure and the velocity of the shock wave chronometric diagnostics employed in this experiment. In this experiment, diamond was at the metallic liquid phase with a pressure

  20. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  1. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  2. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  3. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation program (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) - a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  4. Comparison of activation cross section measurements and experimental techniques for fusion reactor technology. Summary report of the IAEA specialists' meeting held in St. Petersburg, Russia, 7 to 9 September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1995-02-01

    The report contains the Summary of the IAEA Specialists' Meeting on ''Comparison of Activation Cross Section Measurements and Experimental Techniques for Fusion Reactor Technology''. The meeting was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) with co-operation and assistance of local organizers from the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, KRI, and held in St. Petersburg, Russia, from 7 to 9 September 1994. The aim of the meeting was to discuss and evaluate the preliminary results of the researches carried out in the framework of the international programme on Comparison of Activation Cross Section Measurements and Experimental Techniques for Fusion Reactor Technology coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section and to identify further measurements and actions of participating laboratories. The detailed conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are presented in Attachment 1 of the summary report. It was confirmed that for further comparison of experimental techniques the experimental groups at JAERI (Tokai, Japan), KRI (St. Petersburg, Russia), IPPE (Obninsk, Russia) and IEP (Debrecen, Hungary) will join in a collaborative program on comparing their measurement techniques and do measurements for reactions where discrepancies between their previous measurements exist. In cases where the JAERI results are the only existing data or deviate strongly from previous measurements, collaboration between KRI, IEP, IPPE and other institutions can consider measurements of these cross sections in order to clarify the situation. (author)

  5. Adaptive sensor fusion using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, D.S.; Adams, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Past attempts at sensor fusion have used some form of Boolean logic to combine the sensor information. As an alteniative, an adaptive ''fuzzy'' sensor fusion technique is described in this paper. This technique exploits the robust capabilities of fuzzy logic in the decision process as well as the optimization features of the genetic algorithm. This paper presents a brief background on fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms and how they are used in an online implementation of adaptive sensor fusion

  6. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as ''Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed

  7. Fusion barrier distributions - What have we learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study of nuclear fusion received a strong impetus from the realisation that an experimental fusion barrier distribution could be determined from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Experimental data for different reactions have shown in the fusion barrier distributions clear signatures of a range of nuclear excitations, for example the effects of static quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, single- and double-phonon states, transfer of nucleons, and high-lying excited states. The improved understanding of fusion barrier distributions allows more reliable prediction of fusion angular momentum distributions, which aids interpretation of fission probabilities and fission anisotropies, and understanding of the population of super-deformed bands for nuclear structure studies. Studies of the relationship between the fusion barrier distribution and the extra-push energy should improve our understanding of the mechanism of the extra-push effect, and may help to predict new ways of forming very heavy or super-heavy nuclei

  8. Considerations on the Construction of a Powder Bed Fusion Platform for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Aagaard; Nielsen, Karl-Emil; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    As the demand for moulds and other tools becomes increasingly specific and complex, an additive manufacturing approach to production is making its way to the industry through laser based consolidation of metal powder particles by a method known as powder bed fusion. This paper concerns a variety...... of design choices facilitating the development of an experimental powder bed fusion machine tool, capable of manufacturing metal parts with strength matching that of conventional manufactured parts and a complexity surpassing that of subtractive processes. To understand the different mechanisms acting...

  9. Design of a high-flux test assembly for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Vogel, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Fusion Material Test Facility (FMIT) will provide a high flux fusion-like neutron environment in which a variety of structural and non-structural materials irradiations can be conducted. The FMIT experiments, called test assemblies, that are subjected to the highest neutron flux magnitudes and associated heating rates will require forced convection liquid metal cooling systems to remove the neutron deposited power and maintain test specimens at uniform temperatures. A brief description of the FMIT facility and experimental areas is given with emphasis on the design, capabilities and handling of the high flux test assembly

  10. Is there hope for fusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025--2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Design and experimental testing of an adaptive shape-morphing tensegrity structure, with frequency self-tuning capabilities, using shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Filipe Amarante dos; Rodrigues, André; Micheletti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The present paper explores the capabilities of a tensegrity-inspired tower with regard to frequency tuning by shape morphing. To change the configuration of the proposed structure, shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuators are used. This actuation principle also takes advantage of the variation of the elastic modulus of SMAs associated with the martensitic transformation. The temperature modulation of the SMA wires is successfully achieved by Joule heating, through a proportional-integral-derivative controller, to change between a low-temperature shape and a high-temperature shape. The implementation of a short-time-Fourier-transform control algorithm allows for the correct identification of the dominant input frequency, associated with the dynamic excitation. This information is used to automatically change the configuration of the structure in order to shift its natural frequency away from that of the dynamic excitation. With this frequency tuning, one obtains a reduction of the accelerations throughout the structure up to about 80%. The good performance of the proposed control approach gives promising indications regarding the use of tensegrity systems, in combination with SMAs, for shape-morphing applications, and, in particular, for self-tuning structures. (paper)

  12. Experimental investigation of the confinement of d(He-3,p)alpha and d(d,p)t fusion reaction products in JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Wieslander, E.; Vidmar, T.; Vermaercke, P.; Von Thun, C.P.; Reich, M.; Jachmich, S.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan; Salmi, A.; Asunta, O.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Pinches, S.; Koslowski, R.; Nielsen, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 8 (2012), s. 083004 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * activation * diagnostics * fusion * confinement Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.734, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/52/8/083004?fromSearchPage=true

  13. Future with fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, F.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews several current approaches to the development of nuclear fusion power sources by the year 2000. First mentioned is the only project to develop a nonpolluting, radiation-free source by using only natural and nonradioactive isotopes (nuclei of deuterium, helium 3 and boron) as ''advanced'' fuels. This system will also be capable of direct conversion of the released energy into electricity. Next described is the PACER concept, in which thermonuclear burning of deuterium occurs in fusion explosion taking place underground (e.g., in a salt dome). The released energy is absorbed in high-pressure steam which is then piped to a surface heat exchanger to provide steam for a turbogenerator. After filtration, the steam is returned. The PACER system also produces fissionable fuel. The balance of the article reviews three ''magnetic fusion'' approaches. Tokamak, mirror and theta pinch systems utilize magnetic fields to confine a plasma for either pulsed or steady-state operation. The tokamak and theta pinch are toroidal in shape, while the mirror can be thought of as a magnetic field configuration of roughly tubular shape that confines the plasma by means of higher fields at the ends than at its center. The tokamak approach accounts for about 65 percent of the magnetic fusion research and development, while theta pinches and mirrors represent about 15 percent each. Refs

  14. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  15. Building the US National Fusion Grid: results from the National Fusion Collaboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Burruss, J.R.; Finkelstein, A.; Flanagan, S.M.; Foster, I.T.; Fredian, T.W.; Greenwald, M.J.; Johnson, C.R.; Keahey, K.; Klasky, S.A.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Papka, M.; Peng, Q.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Stevens, R.; Thompson, M.R.; Wallace, G.

    2004-01-01

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory Project is developing a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for all aspects of magnetic fusion research. The project is creating a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and making it available to more than 1000 fusion scientists in 40 institutions who perform magnetic fusion research in the United States. In particular, the project is developing and deploying a national Fusion Energy Sciences Grid (FusionGrid) that is a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The FusionGrid goal is to allow scientists at remote sites to fully participate in experimental and computational activities as if they were working at a common site thereby creating a virtual organization of the US fusion community. The project is funded by the USDOE Office of Science, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program and unites fusion and computer science researchers to directly address these challenges

  16. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  17. Fusion of Images from Dissimilar Sensor Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Khin

    2004-01-01

    Different sensors exploit different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; therefore a multi-sensor image fusion system can take full advantage of the complementary capabilities of individual sensors in the suit...

  18. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  19. Fusion energy research for ITER and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, Francesco; Laxaaback, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The achievement in the last two decades of controlled fusion in the laboratory environment is opening the way to the realization of fusion as a source of sustainable, safe and environmentally responsible energy. The next step towards this goal is the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which aims to demonstrate net fusion energy production on the reactor scale. This paper reviews the current status of magnetic confinement fusion research in view of the ITER project and provides an overview of the main remaining challenges on the way towards the realization of commercial fusion energy production in the second half of this century. (orig.)

  20. LHC Capabilities for Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushanko, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the charmonium and bottomonium resonances in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides crucial information on high-density QCD matter. First, the suppression of quarkonia production is generally agreed to be one of the most direct probes of quark-gluon plasma formation. The observation of anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression at the CERN-SPS and at RHIC is well established but the clarification of some important remaining questions requires equivalent studies of the $\\Upsilon$ family, only possible at the LHC energies. Second, the production of heavy-quarks proceeds mainly via gluon-gluon fusion processes and, as such, is sensitive to saturation of the gluon density at low-x in the nucleus. Measured departures from the expected vacuum quarkonia cross-sections in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC will thus provide valuable information not only on the thermodynamical state of the produced partonic medium, but also on the initial-state modifications of the nuclear parton distribution functions. The capabilities ...

  1. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  2. Fusion Power measurement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertalot, L.; Barnsley, R.; Krasilnikov, V.; Stott, P.; Suarez, A.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear fusion research aims to provide energy for the future in a sustainable way and the ITER project scope is to demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear fusion energy. ITER is a nuclear experimental reactor based on a large scale fusion plasma (tokamak type) device generating Deuterium - Tritium (DT) fusion reactions with emission of 14 MeV neutrons producing up to 700 MW fusion power. The measurement of fusion power, i.e. total neutron emissivity, will play an important role for achieving ITER goals, in particular the fusion gain factor Q related to the reactor performance. Particular attention is given also to the development of the neutron calibration strategy whose main scope is to achieve the required accuracy of 10% for the measurement of fusion power. Neutron Flux Monitors located in diagnostic ports and inside the vacuum vessel will measure ITER total neutron emissivity, expected to range from 1014 n/s in Deuterium - Deuterium (DD) plasmas up to almost 10{sup 21} n/s in DT plasmas. The neutron detection systems as well all other ITER diagnostics have to withstand high nuclear radiation and electromagnetic fields as well ultrahigh vacuum and thermal loads. (authors)

  3. Quasi-elastic scattering an alternative tool for mapping the fusion barriers for heavy-ion induced fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, B.R.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy element synthesis through heavy-ion induced fusion reaction is an active field in contemporary nuclear physics. Exact knowledge of fusion barrier is one of the essential parameters for planning any experiments for heavy element production. Theoretically there are many models available to predict the exact barrier. Though these models are successful for predicting the fusion of medium mass nuclei, it somehow fails for predicting the exact location of barrier for fusion of heavy nuclei. Experimental determination of barrier for such reactions is required for future experiments for the synthesis of heavy elements. Traditionally fusion barrier is determined taking a double derivative of fusion excitation function. However, such method is difficult in case of fusion of heavy nuclei due to its very low fusion/capture cross section and its experimental complications. Alternatively fusion barrier can be determined by measuring the quasi-elastic cross section at backward angles. This method can be applied for determining the fusion barrier for the fusion of heavy nuclei. Experimental determination of fusion barrier by different methods and comparison of the fusion excitation function and quasi-elastic scattering methods for the determination of fusion barrier are reviewed. At IUAC, New Delhi recently a program has been started for the measurement of fusion barrier through quasi-elastic scattering methods. The experimental facility and the first results of the experiments carried out with this facility are presented. (author)

  4. Fusion Simulation Project Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Arnold; Keyes, David

    2009-03-01

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved 46 physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from 21 institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a 3-day workshop in May 2007.

  5. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  6. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  7. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  8. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  9. Physics of mirror fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experimental results with the 2XIIB mirror machine at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory have demonstrated the stable confinement of plasmas at fusion temperatures and with energy densities equaling or exceeding that of the confining fields. The physics of mirror confinement is discussed in the context of these new results. Some possible approaches to further improving the confinement properties of mirror systems and the impact of these new approaches on the prospects for mirror fusion reactors are discussed

  10. National Fusion Collaboratory: Grid Computing for Simulations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2004-05-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory Project is creating a computational grid designed to advance scientific understanding and innovation in magnetic fusion research by facilitating collaborations, enabling more effective integration of experiments, theory and modeling and allowing more efficient use of experimental facilities. The philosophy of FusionGrid is that data, codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and communication tools should be thought of as network available services, easily used by the fusion scientist. In such an environment, access to services is stressed rather than portability. By building on a foundation of established computer science toolkits, deployment time can be minimized. These services all share the same basic infrastructure that allows for secure authentication and resource authorization which allows stakeholders to control their own resources such as computers, data and experiments. Code developers can control intellectual property, and fair use of shared resources can be demonstrated and controlled. A key goal is to shield scientific users from the implementation details such that transparency and ease-of-use are maximized. The first FusionGrid service deployed was the TRANSP code, a widely used tool for transport analysis. Tools for run preparation, submission, monitoring and management have been developed and shared among a wide user base. This approach saves user sites from the laborious effort of maintaining such a large and complex code while at the same time reducing the burden on the development team by avoiding the need to support a large number of heterogeneous installations. Shared visualization and A/V tools are being developed and deployed to enhance long-distance collaborations. These include desktop versions of the Access Grid, a highly capable multi-point remote conferencing tool and capabilities for sharing displays and analysis tools over local and wide-area networks.

  11. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  12. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  13. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  14. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  15. Fusion technology 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Libeyre, P.; Gentile, B. de; Tonon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Symposium On Fusion Technology (SOFT) is held every two years with the objective to set the stage for the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology which is being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. By decision of the International Organizing Committee, the 20. SOFT includes invited talks, and oral and poster contributions in the following topics: plasma facing components, plasma heating and current drive, plasma engineering and control, experimental systems and diagnostics, magnets and power supplies, fuel technologies, remote operation, blanket and shield technologies, safety and environment, and system engineering and future devices. This symposium differs from the previous ones of this series by the way the present proceedings are produced. In order to have the written material available to the participants and the community at the nearest to the conference event, the papers have been collected 2 months in advance and printed in the present books. The goal was to deliver them to each participant upon arrival to the conference centre. These books contain all the papers corresponding to poster presentation, and the abstracts of the oral contributions and invited papers. The papers corresponding to these presentations, both oral and invited, will be published in 1999, after a standard review process, in a supplement of Fusion Engineering and Design. (author)

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory laser-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of the Laser-Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are to produce well-diagnosed, high-gain, laser-driven fusion explosions in the laboratory and to exploit this capability for both military applications and for civilian energy production. In the past year we have made significant progress both theoretically and experimentally in our understanding of the laser interaction with both directly coupled and radiation-driven implosion targets and their implosion dynamics. We have made significant developments in fabricating the target structures. Data from the target experiments are producing important near-term physics results. We have also continued to develop attractive reactor concepts which illustrate ICF's potential as an energy producer

  17. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to 'address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction.' (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to 'include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction.' (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  18. Assessment of nucleonic methods and data for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudziak, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is provided of nucleonic methods, codes, and data necessary for a sound experimental fusion power reactor (EPR) technology base. Gaps in the base are identified and specific development recommendations are made in three areas: computational tools, nuclear data, and integral experiments. The current status of the first two areas is found to be sufficiently inadequate that viable engineering design of an EPR is precluded at this time. However, a program to provide the necessary data and computational capability is judged to be a low-risk effort

  19. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: An updated vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.; Giarrusso, J.; Davis, S.; Casper, T.

    1993-01-01

    This Fusion Computing Council perspective is written to present the primary of the fusion computing community at the time of publication of the report necessarily as a summary of the information contained in the individual sections. These concerns reflect FCC discussions during final review of contributions from the various working groups and portray our latest information. This report itself should be considered as dynamic, requiring periodic updating in an attempt to track rapid evolution of the computer industry relevant to requirements for magnetic fusion research. The most significant common concern among the Fusion Computing Council working groups is networking capability. All groups see an increasing need for network services due to the use of workstations, distributed computing environments, increased use of graphic services, X-window usage, remote experimental collaborations, remote data access for specific projects and other collaborations. Other areas of concern include support for workstations, enhanced infrastructure to support collaborations, the User Service Centers, NERSC and future massively parallel computers, and FCC sponsored workshops

  20. Collaborations in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow's standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today's collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper

  1. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  2. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  3. Fusion neutronics experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    UCLA has led the neutronics R ampersand D effort in the US for the past several years through the well-established USDOE/JAERI Collaborative Program on Fusion Neutronics. Significant contributions have been made in providing solid bases for advancing the neutronics testing capabilities in fusion reactors. This resulted from the hands-on experience gained from conducting several fusion integral experiments to quantify the prediction uncertainties of key blanket design parameters such as tritium production rate, activation, and nuclear heating, and when possible, to narrow the gap between calculational results and measurements through improving nuclear data base and codes capabilities. The current focus is to conduct the experiments in an annular configuration where the test assembly totally surrounds a simulated line source. The simulated line source is the first-of-a-kind in the scope of fusion integral experiments and presents a significant contribution to the world of fusion neutronics. The experiments proceeded through Phase IIIA to Phase IIIC in these line source simulation experiments started in 1989

  4. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation project (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W M

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP). The primary objective is to develop advanced software designed to use leadership-class computers for carrying out multiscale physics simulations to provide information vital to delivering a realistic integrated fusion simulation model with unprecedented physics fidelity. This multiphysics capability will be unprecedented in that in the current FES applications domain, the largest-scale codes are used to carry out first-principles simulations of mostly individual phenomena in realistic 3D geometry while the integrated models are much smaller-scale, lower-dimensionality codes with significant empirical elements used for modeling and designing experiments. The FSP is expected to be the most up-to-date embodiment of the theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing a reliable ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, the fusion energy science application goal to produce high-fidelity, whole-device modeling capabilities will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond, together with the associated multicore algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative device involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics

  5. Fusion research at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The historical roots of fusion research at Imperial College can be traced back to 1946 with the pioneering work of G.P. Thomson. At present research in fusion is carried out in several research groups with interdisciplinary work managed by the Centre for Fusion Studies. The principal research activity will be centred on a newly funded 5 TW pulsed power facility allowing an experimental and theoretical study of radiation collapse and fusion conditions in the dense Z-pinch. Laser-plasma studies relevant to inertial confinement are carried out using the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory's Central Laser Facility and the new ultra-short pulse (300 fs) laser facility at Imperial College. There is a significant collaboration on the Joint European Torus and the Next European Torus together with a continuation of a long association with Culham Laboratory. Several European collaborations funded by the Comission of the European Communities and other world-wide collaborations form an integral part of this university programme, which is by far the largest in the UK. After a sketch of the historical development of fusion activities, the current and future programme of fusion research at Imperial College is presented in each of the three broad areas: the Z-pinch, laser-driven inertial confinement fusion and tokamak and other conventional magnetic confinement schemes. A summary of the funding and collaborations is outlined. (author)

  6. Comparative assessment of world research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents a comparative assessment of the world's four major research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion, including a comparison of the capabilities in the Soviet Union, the European Community (Western Europe), Japan, and the United States. A comparative evaluation is provided in six areas: tokamak confinement; alternate confinement approaches; plasma technology and engineering; and fusion computations. The panel members are involved actively in fusion-related research, and have extensive experience in previous assessments and reviews of the world's four major fusion programs. Although the world's four major fusion efforts are roughly comparable in overall capabilities, two conclusions of this report are inescapable. First, the Soviet fusion effort is presently the weakest of the four programs in most areas of the assessment. Second, if present trends continue, the United States, once unambiguously the world leader in fusion research, will soon lose its position of leadership to the West European and Japanese fusion programs. Indeed, before the middle 1990s, the upgraded large-tokamak facilities, JT-60U (Japan) and JET (Western Europe), are likely to explore plasma conditions and operating regimes well beyond the capabilities of the TFTR tokamak (United States). In addition, if present trends continue in the areas of fusion nuclear technology and materials, and plasma technology and materials, and plasma technology development, the capabilities of Japan and Western Europe in these areas (both with regard to test facilities and fusion-specific industrial capabilities) will surpass those of the United States by a substantial margin before the middle 1990s

  7. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  8. Inertial confinement fusion research and development studies. Final report, October 1979-August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullis, R.; Finkelman, M.; Leng, J.; Luzzi, T.; Ojalvo, I.; Powell, E.; Sedgley, D.

    1980-08-01

    These Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and development studies were selected for structural, thermal, and vacuum pumping analyses in support of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept development. An additional task provided an outlined program plan for an ICF Engineering Test Facility, using the HYLIFE concept as a model, although the plan is generally applicable to other ICF concepts. The HYLIFE is one promising type of ICF concept which features a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets surround the fusion reaction to protect the first structural wall (FSW) of the vacuum chamber by absorbing the fusion energy, and to act as the tritium breeder. The fusion energy source is a deuterium-tritium pellet injected into the chamber every second and driven by laser or heavy ion beams. The studies performed by Grumman have considered the capabilities of specific HYLIFE features to meet life requirements and the requirement to recover to preshot conditions prior to each subsequent shot. The components under investigation were the FSW which restrains the outward motion of the liquid lithium, the nozzle plate which forms the falling jet array, the graphite shield which is in direct top view of the fusion pellet, and the vacuum pumping system. The FSW studies included structural analysis, and definition of an experimental program to validate computer codes describing lithium motion and the resulting impact on the wall

  9. Tomography of laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental programs exist in a number of laboratories throughout the world to test the feasibility of using powerful laser systems to drive the implosion of hydrogen isotope fuel to thermonuclear burn conditions. In a typical experiment multiple laser beams are focused onto a glass microshell (typically 50 μm to 200 μm diameter) filled with an equimolar D-T gas mixture. X-ray and particle emissions from the target provide important information about the hydrodynamic implosion of the glass shell and the associated compression and heating of the D-T fuel. Standard diagnostics for imaging such emissions are the grazing incidence reflection (GIR) x-ray microscope and the pinhole camera. Recently, a particular coded imaging technique, Zone Plate Coded Imaging (ZPCI), has been successfully used for x-ray and particle microscopy of laser fusion plasmas. ZPCI is highly attractive for investigating laser produced plasmas because it possesses a tomographic capability not shared by either the GIR or pinhole imaging techniques. This presentation provides a brief discussion of the tomographic potential of ZPCI. In addition, the first tomographic x-ray images (tomographic resolution approximately 74 μm) of a laser produced plasma are presented

  10. Prospects for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Ideally, a new energy source must be capable of displacing old energy sources while providing both economic opportunities and enhanced environmental benefits. The attraction of an essentially unlimited fuel supply has generated a strong impetus to develop advanced fission breeders and, even more strongly, the exploitation of nuclear fusion. Both fission and fusion systems trade a reduced fuel charge for a more capital-intensive plant needed to utilize a cheaper and more abundant fuel. Results from early conceptual designs of fusion power plants, however, indicated a capital intensiveness that could override cost savings promised by an inexpensive fuel cycle. Early warnings of these problems appeared, and generalized routes to more economically attractive systems have been suggested; specific examples have also recently been given. Although a direct reduction in the cost (and mass) of the fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, coils, and primary structure) most directly reduces the overall cost of fusion power, with the mass power density (MPD, ratio of net electric power to FPC mass, kWe/tonne) being suggested as a figure-of-merit in this respect, other technical, safety/environmental, and institutional issues also enter into the definition of and direction for improved fusion concepts. These latter issues and related tradeoffs are discussed

  11. Survey of fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.K.; Kang, H.D.; Oh, Y.K.; Lee, K.W.; In, S.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present object of the fusion research is to accomplish the scientific break even by the year of 1986. In view of current progress in the field of Fusion reactor development, we decided to carry out the conceptual design of Tokamak-type fusion reactor during the year of 82-86 in order to acquire the principles of the fusion devices, find the engineering problems and establish the basic capabilities to develop the key techniques with originality. In this year the methods for calculating the locations of the poloidal coils and distribution of the magnetic field, which is one of the most essential and complicated task in the fusion reactor design works, were established. Study on the optimization of the design method of toroidal field coil was also done. Through this work, we established the logic for the design of the toroidal field coil in tokamak and utilize this technique to the design of small compact tokamak. Apart from the development work as to the design technology of tokamak, accelerating column and high voltage power supply (200 KVDC, 100 mA) for intense D-T neutron generator were constructed and now beam transport systems are under construction. This device will be used to develop the materials and the components for the tokamak fusion reactor. (Author)

  12. Splenogonadal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion (SGF is a rare congenital non-malignant anomaly characterized by fusion of splenic tissue to the gonad, and can be continuous or discontinuous. Very few cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, and many patients who present with testicular swelling undergo unnecessary orchiectomy under the suspicion of testicular neoplasm. A 16-year-old boy presented with a left scrotal mass and underwent total excision of a 1.6-cm tumor without damaging the testis, epididymis or its accompanying vessels. Pathologic examination revealed SFG (discontinuous type. If clinically suspected before surgery, the diagnosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging, which shows uptake in both the spleen and accessory splenic tissue within the scrotum. Frozen section should be considered if there remains any doubt regarding the diagnosis during operation.

  13. Development of fusion safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Dinneen, G.A.; Herring, J.S.; DeLooper, J.; Levine, J.D.; Gouge, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

  14. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  15. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  16. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  17. RA research reactor - properties and experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Martinc, R.

    1978-01-01

    The brief survey of the Reactor RA exploitation experience, as well as the reactor equipment state, after 18 years of operation is presented. The results of efforts spent on reactor characteristics improvement in order to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation for next 15-20 years, are described [sr

  18. Grid computing and collaboration technology in support of fusion energy sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Science research in general and magnetic fusion research in particular continue to grow in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaborations between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. The simultaneous increase in wide area network speeds has made it practical to envision distributed working environments that are as productive as traditionally collocated work. In computing power, it has become reasonable to decouple production and consumption resulting in the ability to construct computing grids in a similar manner as the electrical power grid. Grid computing, the secure integration of computer systems over high speed networks to provide on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. For human interaction, advanced collaborative environments are being researched and deployed to have distributed group work that is as productive as traditional meetings. The DOE Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program initiative has sponsored several collaboratory projects, including the National Fusion Collaboratory Project, to utilize recent advances in grid computing and advanced collaborative environments to further research in several specific scientific domains. For fusion, the collaborative technology being deployed is being used in present day research and is also scalable to future research, in particular, to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor experiment that will require extensive collaboration capability worldwide. This paper briefly reviews the concepts of grid computing and advanced collaborative environments and gives specific examples of how these technologies are being used in fusion research today

  19. EURATOM strategy towards fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Research and development (Research and Development) activities in controlled thermonuclear fusion have been carried out since the 60's of the last century aiming at providing a new clean, powerful, practically inexhaustive, safe, environmentally friend and economically attractive energy source for the sustainable development of our society.The EURATOM Fusion Programme (EFP) has the leadership of the magnetic confinement Research and Development activities due to the excellent results obtained on JET and other specialized devices, such as ASDEX-Upgrade, TORE SUPRA, FTU, TCV, TEXTOR, CASTOR, ISTTOK, MAST, TJ-II, W7-X, RFX and EXTRAP. JET is the largest tokamak in operation and the single device that can use deuterium and tritium mixes. It has produced 16 MW of fusion power, during 3 seconds, with an energy amplification of 0.6. The next steps of the EFP strategy towards fusion energy are ITER complemented by a vigorous Accompanying Programme, DEMO and a prototype of a fusion power plant. ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor, is a large-scale project (35-year duration, 10000 MEuros budget), developed in the frame of a very broad international collaboration, involving EURATOM, Japan, Russia Federation, United States of America, Korea, China and India. ITER has two main objectives: (i) to prove the scientific and technical viability of fusion energy by producing 500 MW, during 300 seconds and a energy amplification between 10 and 20; and (ii) to test the simultaneous and integrated operation of the technologies needed for a fusion reactor. The Accompanying Programme aims to prepare the ITER scientific exploitation and the DEMO design, including the development of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). A substantial part of this programme will be carried out in the frame of the Broader Approach, an agreement signed by EURATOM and Japan. The main goal of DEMO is to produce electricity, during a long time, from nuclear fusion reactions. The

  20. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  1. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  2. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Model-Based Military Scenario Management for Defence Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gori, Ronnie; Chen, Pin; Pozgay, Angela

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper describes initial work towards the development of an information model that links scenario and capability related information, and the results of capability analysis and experimentation...

  4. What we miss in order to be able to design and build a commercially viable fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.

    1999-01-01

    The paper considers in a critical way the different areas in which work is required to provide sufficient information in view of designing a reliable and attractive fusion reactor. Four main areas of activity are considered: physics, technology, engineering, safety. In physics the trend is positive towards a better understanding of suitable plasma regimes to be confirmed through further experimentation on the operating machines. Engineering has already proven itself by the design and construction of a number of experimental machines. In addition a large data base obtained from design and operation of fission reactors is available. Safety is reaching very satisfactory results in the analysis of the impact of fusion on man and the environment. Where it is still a large unsolved problem is concerning materials capable of standing the harsh fusion environment for an adequate number of years. An intense neutron source is needed in order to allow the necessary developments [it

  5. Vacuum laser-produced plasma for analytical application in fusion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S; Caneve, L; Colao, F; Fantoni, R; Maddaluno, G

    2012-01-01

    LIBS is a well established tool for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructive characteristics and some capabilities for stratigraphy. In this work, the depth profiling capabilities of LIBS has been checked by determining the composition of multilayered samples simulating the plasma facing components fusion device covered with co-deposited impurity layers. A new experimental setup has been designed and realized in order to optimize the characteristics of a LIBS system working at low pressure and remotely.

  6. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    environment and conditions. Materials and materials technologies (fabrication, welding, joining) have to be fully qualified in front of a rigorous licensing process within the next decade. Therefore, materials development for DEMO is based on present technologies and knowledge with some reasonable extrapolation. The 9% Cr steel EUROFER steel is the primary EU candidate structural material. For increased thermal efficiency the temperature window of the structural materials needs to be enlarged. Various ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Fe-Cr-steels are candidates for higher temperature application. The large fraction of high energy neutrons in the fusion neutron spectrum results in gaseous transmutations (He and H) that are more than one order of magnitude higher than in fission. Even though fission based material test reactors are the essential and indispensable pillar of the current and future irradiation qualification programme, they can not provide sufficient data for a successful licensing process towards DEMO. For this reason, the construction and use of a facility called IFMIF, designed for simulating as closely a possible the fusion neutron spectrum, is mandatory. Meantime, and complimentary, an enhanced material science programme should increase knowledge and understanding of radiation effects. The focus of this programme for the next decade should be on the development and validation of predictive capabilities for modelling micro-structural evolution and mechanical properties of EUROFER-type steels under fusion reactor relevant conditions, addressing in particular the Helium issue. In a longer term perspective, this should result in the implementation of an integrated approach involving modelling and model-oriented experimental validation into a strategy of accelerated development and testing of candidate fusion materials, material systems and material technologies. (author)

  7. Photovoltaic AC fusion converter (PVAC). Design consideration and experimental evaluation; Taiyoko hatsuden denryoku/shoyo denryoku kongo sochi no hoshiki to seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Y. [Hachinohe National College of Technology, Aomori (Japan); Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University, of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The photovoltaic AC fusion converter (PVAC), of which cost reduction of the total system is possible, was developed. PVAC controls the supply of commercial power by preferentially supplying photovoltaic power to loads for realization of energy conservation. Further, setting the maximum output of solar cell less than the rated load, the system was made the one with no need of storage batteries. This system was realized in a hybrid of the conventional rectification technology and the stand-alone maximum power point tracking photovoltaic system technology. The solar cell input efficiency had been measured as 84% at maximum. Main losses are consumption power of power source, switching loss of inverter, and continuity loss of diode. Ninety-seven percent of the commercial power input efficiency was obtained. Main losses are consumption power of power source, continuity loss of diode bridge, and resistance loss of smoothing reactor. The effect of energy conservation by the use of PVAC was also admitted. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Experimental Determination of the Possible Deuterium - Deuterium Fusion Reaction Originated in a Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence System Using CDCL3 and D2 O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario; Florido, Pablo; Mayer, Roberto; Bonetto, Fabian

    2003-01-01

    We focus this work on the measurement of the possible Deuterium - Deuterium reaction in a SCBL (Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence) system.We measure the possible reaction at the bubble generation time and at the bubble collapse time. We use a Nd:YAG laser and CDCl 3 and D 2 O as a medium to generate the bubble. Since CDCl 3 accommodation coefficient is best than that of D 2 O, it is expected a greater collapse force than using D 2 O.To benefit the bubble collapse violence, we diminish the temperature of the liquids.To avoid false neutron detection, we developed a measuring system with high background reject using the characteristic experiment times.No neutrons attributable to Deuterium - Deuterium fusion reaction were measured

  9. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Live L. tarentolae Expressing KMP11-NTGP96-GFP Fusion as a Vaccine Candidate against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by L. infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid NASIRI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of live recombinant L. tarentolae expressing KMP11-NTGP96-GFP fusion as candidates for live engineered recombinant vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.Methods: KMP-11 and NT-GP96 genes cloned into the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and then into pEGFP-N1 expression vector. The KMP-11, NT-GP96 and GFP fused in pEGFP-N1 and subcloned into Leishmanian pLEXSY-neo vector. Finally this construct was transferred to L. tarentolae by electroporation. Tranfection was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, WESTERN blot, flowcytometry and RT-PCR. Protective efficacy of this construct was evaluated as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis. Parasite burden, humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed before and at 4 weeks after challenge.Results: KMP- NT-Gp96-GFP Fusion was cloned successfully into pLEXSY -neo vector and this construct successfully transferred to L. tarentolae. Finding indicated that immunization with L. tarentolae tarentolae-KMP11-NTGP96-GFP provides significant protection against visceral leishmaniasis and was able to induce an increased expression of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Following challenge, a reduced parasite load in the spleen of the KMP11-NTGP96-GFP immunized group was detected.Conclusion: The present study is the first to use a combination of a Leishmania antigen with an immunologic antigen in live recombinant L. tarentolae and results suggest that L. tarentolae-KMP11-NTGP96-GFP could be considered as a potential tool in vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis and this vaccination strategy could provide a potent rout for future vaccine development. 

  10. Overexpression of a Mycobacterium ulcerans Ag85B-EsxH Fusion Protein in Recombinant BCG Improves Experimental Buruli Ulcer Vaccine Efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E Hart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU vaccine design faces similar challenges to those observed during development of prophylactic tuberculosis treatments. Multiple BU vaccine candidates, based upon Mycobacterium bovis BCG, altered Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU cells, recombinant MU DNA, or MU protein prime-boosts, have shown promise by conferring transient protection to mice against the pathology of MU challenge. Recently, we have shown that a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing MU-Ag85A (BCG MU-Ag85A displayed the highest level of protection to date, by significantly extending the survival time of MU challenged mice compared to BCG vaccination alone. Here we describe the generation, immunogenicity testing, and evaluation of protection conferred by a recombinant BCG strain which overexpresses a fusion of two alternative MU antigens, Ag85B and the MU ortholog of tuberculosis TB10.4, EsxH. Vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH induces proliferation of Ag85 specific CD4+ T cells in greater numbers than BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A and produces IFNγ+ splenocytes responsive to whole MU and recombinant antigens. In addition, anti-Ag85A and Ag85B IgG humoral responses are significantly enhanced after administration of the fusion vaccine compared to BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. Finally, mice challenged with MU following a single subcutaneous vaccination with BCG MU-Ag85B-EsxH display significantly less bacterial burden at 6 and 12 weeks post-infection, reduced histopathological tissue damage, and significantly longer survival times compared to vaccination with either BCG or BCG MU-Ag85A. These results further support the potential of BCG as a foundation for BU vaccine design, whereby discovery and recombinant expression of novel immunogenic antigens could lead to greater anti-MU efficacy using this highly safe and ubiquitous vaccine.

  11. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  12. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  13. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the capability of laser fusion diagnostics is reviewed. Optical and infrared streak cameras provide one time resolution measurement capability of less than 10 ps, while x-ray streak cameras provide 15 ps time resolution in the range of about 1--30 keV presently. Time integrated spatial resolutions of 1 μm are provided with a variety of optical techniques. Ultraviolet holographic interferometry has measured electron densities above 10 21 cm -3 with 1 μm spatial resolution and 15 ps temporal resolution. X-ray microscopes provide 3 μm time integrated resolution and the x-ray streak pinhole camera has 6 μm spatial resolution. Development of the framing camera has thus far provided 50 μm spatial resolution with 125 ps frame duration and the third order reconstruction of zone plate images has provided 3 μm resolutions for alpha particles. Time integrated measurements of x-rays span the range shown. Finally, the new Shiva neutron spectrometer increases the energy resolution capability of that technique to 25 keV for 14-MeV neutrons. These combined capabilities provide a unique set of diagnostics for the detailed measurement of the interaction of laser light with targets and a subsequent performance of those targets

  14. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM

  15. Sub-Coulomb fusion with halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekou-Youmbi, V.; Sida, J.L.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Bazin, D.; Borcea, C.; Cabot, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lepine, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Mittig, W.; Pollacco, E.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Volant, C.; Yong Feng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear structure of halo nuclei may have strong influence on the fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies. The actual theoretical debate is briefly reviewed and sub-barrier fusion calculations for the system 11 Be+ 238 U are presented. An experimental program on sub-barrier fusion for the systems 7,9,10,11 Be+ 238 U is underway at GANIL. First results with 9 Be and 11 Be beams were obtained using the F.U.S.ION detector. Relative fission cross sections are presented. ((orig.))

  16. Fusion power from lunar resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in 3 He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of 3 He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce > 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 x 10 9 kg of 3 He. This fuel can supply >1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D- 3 He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought

  17. EBFA: pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; VanDevender, J.P.; Barr, G.W.; Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper will describe the EBFA I accelerator under construction for inertial confinement fusion studies with particle beams and will update previous publications concerning particle beam fusion accelerators. Previous information included Proto I, a triggered oil insulated 1 TW accelerator; Proto II, a water insulated 10 TW accelerator; and EBFA I, a 30 TW, 1 MJ accelerator. Some modifications to the original design have occurred. A new pulse-forming-line concept has been developed which increases the flexibility of the accelerator. The major problem of vacuum interface flashover has been solved by the use of long, magnetically-insulated, transmission lines. The first production module of EBFA I has been received, assembled, and is now undergoing extensive testing. The technology is extendable to at least a factor of ten above the projected EBFA capabilities of 30 TW and 1 MJ output. Progress on facilities associated with the Sandia Particle Beam fusion program is reported

  18. Fusion Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynants, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    A concise overview is given of the principles of inertial and magnetic fusion, with an emphasis on the latter in view of the aim of this summer school. The basis of magnetic confinement in mirror and toroidal geometry is discussed and applied to the tokamak concept. A brief discussion of the reactor prospects of this configuration identifies which future developments are crucial and where alternative concepts might help in optimising the reactor design. The text also aims at introducing the main concepts encountered in tokamak research that will be studied and used in the subsequent lectures

  19. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1991-04-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission process for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus have been performed. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The agreement between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. Somewhat bigger calculated times than the experimental ones in case of the C+Lu reaction at 16 MeV/nucleon may be a signal on the energy range applicability of the one-body dissipation model. (author)

  20. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  1. Validation of Shielding Analysis Capability of SuperMC with SINBAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chaobin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The shielding analysis capability of SuperMC was validated with the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD. The SINBAD was compiled by RSICC and NEA, it includes numerous benchmark experiments performed with the D-T fusion neutron source facilities of OKTAVIAN, FNS, IPPE, etc. The results from SuperMC simulation were compared with experimental data and MCNP results. Very good agreement with deviation lower than 1% was achieved and it suggests that SuperMC is reliable in shielding calculation.

  2. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant

  3. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  4. On Korean strategy and plan for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Choi, W-J.; Park, C.; Kim, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    In developing KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research), Korea had initiated a mid-entry strategy to catch up with the technologies required for the development of a fusion reactor, based on the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Upon joining ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), Korean government enacted a promotional law for the fusion energy development. Under this promotional law the national promotional plans for developing fusion energy have been established. The National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) developed the strategy and plan for a fusion DEMO program to realize the magnetic fusion energy. (author)

  5. On Korean strategy and plan for fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.J. [National Fusion Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, W-J. [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.C. [National Fusion Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In developing KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research), Korea had initiated a mid-entry strategy to catch up with the technologies required for the development of a fusion reactor, based on the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Upon joining ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), Korean government enacted a promotional law for the fusion energy development. Under this promotional law the national promotional plans for developing fusion energy have been established. The National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) developed the strategy and plan for a fusion DEMO program to realize the magnetic fusion energy. (author)

  6. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabiliti...

  7. Development of novel prime-boost strategies based on a tri-gene fusion recombinant L. tarentolae vaccine against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Saljoughian

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem in many countries. Although many antigens have been examined so far as protein- or DNA-based vaccines, none of them conferred complete long-term protection. The use of the lizard non-pathogenic to humans Leishmania (L. tarentolae species as a live vaccine vector to deliver specific Leishmania antigens is a recent approach that needs to be explored further. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of live vaccination in protecting BALB/c mice against L. infantum infection using prime-boost regimens, namely Live/Live and DNA/Live. As a live vaccine, we used recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinases (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB(-CTE as a tri-fusion gene. For DNA priming, the tri-fusion gene was encoded in pcDNA formulated with cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN acting as an adjuvant. At different time points post-challenge, parasite burden and histopathological changes as well as humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. Our results showed that immunization with both prime-boost A2-CPA-CPB(-CTE-recombinant L. tarentolae protects BALB/c mice against L. infantum challenge. This protective immunity is associated with a Th1-type immune response due to high levels of IFN-γ production prior and after challenge and with lower levels of IL-10 production after challenge, leading to a significantly higher IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio compared to the control groups. Moreover, this immunization elicited high IgG1 and IgG2a humoral immune responses. Protection in mice was also correlated with a high nitric oxide production and low parasite burden. Altogether, these results indicate the promise of the A2-CPA-CPB(-CTE-recombinant L. tarentolae as a safe live vaccine candidate against VL.

  8. Effect of breakup on near barrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, M.; Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Unstable neutron-rich nuclei having very weakly bound neutrons exhibit characteristic features such as a neutron halo extending to large radii, and a low energy threshold for breakup. These features may dramatically affect fusion and other reaction processes. It is well accepted that the extended nuclear matter distribution will lead to an enhancement in fusion cross-sections over those for tightly bound nuclei. The effect of couplings to channels which act as doorways to breakup is, however, controversial, with model predictions differing in the relative magnitudes of enhancement and suppression. To investigate the effect on fusion of couplings specific to unstable neutron-rich nuclei, it is necessary to understand (and then predict) the cross-sections expected for their stable counterparts. This requires knowledge of the energy of the average fusion barrier, and information on the couplings. Experimentally all this information can be obtained from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Such precision measurements of complete fusion cross-sections for 9 Be + 208 Pb and 6 Li, 7 Li + 209 Bi systems have been done at the Australian National University. The distribution of fusion barriers extracted from these data were used to reliably predict the expected fusion cross-sections. Comparison of the theoretical expectations with the experimentally measured cross-sections show conclusively that complete fusion, at above barrier energies, for all three systems is suppressed (by about 30%) compared with the fusion of more tightly bound nuclei. These measurements, in conjunction with incomplete fusion cross-sections, which were also measured, should encourage a complete theoretical description of fusion and breakup

  9. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system

  10. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  11. Dynamic capabilities, Marketing Capability and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roseli Wünsch Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to investigate the influence of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance and the role of marketing capabilities as a mediator in this relationship in the context of private HEIs in Brazil. As a research method we carried out a survey with 316 IES and data analysis was operationalized with the technique of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the dynamic capabilities have influence on organizational performance only when mediated by marketing ability. The marketing capability has an important role in the survival, growth and renewal on educational services offerings for HEIs in private sector, and consequently in organizational performance. It is also demonstrated that mediated relationship is more intense for HEI with up to 3,000 students and other organizational profile variables such as amount of courses, the constitution, the type of institution and type of education do not significantly alter the results.

  12. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics

  13. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  14. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  15. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze to the out......JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze...... to the outside for conceptual inspiration and methodological tools lends itself to a journalism studies that is a fusion cuisine of media, communication, and related scholarship. However, what happens when this object becomes as fragmented and multifaceted as the ways we study it? This essay addresses...

  16. The ITER fusion reactor and its role in the development of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy from nuclear fusion is the future source of sustained, full life-cycle environmentally benign, intrinsically safe, base-load power production. The nuclear fusion process powers our sun, innumerable other stars in the sky, and some day, it will power the Earth, its cities and our homes. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, represents the next step toward fulfilling that promise. ITER will be a test bed for key steppingstones toward engineering feasibility of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) in a single experimental step. It will establish the physics basis for steady state Tokamak magnetic containment fusion reactors to follow it, exploring ion temperature, plasma density and containment time regimes beyond the breakeven power condition, and culminating in experimental fusion self-ignition. (author)

  17. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  18. Measurements of fusion cross section for 12C +63,65 Cu systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, C.A. da.

    1987-01-01

    Cross-section measurements for nuclear fusion in the 12 C+ 63.65 Cu system, at 12 C energy range from 0.9 to 1.8 times the Coulomb barrier are presented. In order to detect and to obtain the mass identification of the evaporation residues following the fusion process, the time of flight method was adopted in conjunction with an eletrostatic deflector capable of separating the evaporation residues from the beam particles. The limitation and advantadges of this method of measurement are discussed. The excitation functions were analysed using the unidimensional barrier penetration model with different nuclear potentials. Theoretical fusion cross-section values obtained from this analysis were systematically smaller than our measured values, in the energy region below the Coulomb barrier. In order to discover which channel enhances the fusion cross-section in this region, a coupled channel calculation was performed, with the CCFUS code. The experimental data for the above reactions were compared with the systems 16.18 O+ 63.65 Cu, measured by our group. In this comparison, it was noted that the systems 12 C+ 63.65 Cu, have greater fusion cross section below the Coulomb barrier. The comparison of velocity spectra of the evaporated residues for the two systems shows that 12 C+ 63 Cu has a strong reaction channel that was not present in the 12 C+ 65 Cu system. (author) [pt

  19. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  20. A National Collaboratory To Advance The Science Of High Temperature Plasma Physics For Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Allen R.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  1. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  2. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  3. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  4. Inertial fusion: strategy and economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide convincing experimental evidence that the required high target gains are feasible. This will be the principal objective of the NOVA laser experiments. Implosions will be conducted with scaled targets which are nearly hydrodynamically equivalent to the high gain target implosions. Experiments which demonstrate high target gains will be conducted in the early nineties when multi-megajoule drivers become available. Efficient drivers will also be demonstrated by this time period. Magnetic fusion may demonstrate high Q at about the same time as inertial fusion demonstrates high gain. Beyond demonstration of high performance fusion, economic considerations will predominate. Fusion energy will achieve full commercial success when it becomes cheaper than fission and coal. Analysis of the ultimate economic potential of inertial fusion suggests its costs may be reduced to half those of fission and coal. Relative cost escalation would increase this advantage. Fusions potential economic advantage derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy (which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity)

  5. Helium cooling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.; Bourque, R.; Dahms, C.; Inamati, S.; Ryder, R.; Sager, G.; Schleicher, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide design experience and in coordination with the evolution of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the application of helium as a coolant for fusion appears to be at the verge of a transition from conceptual design to engineering development. This paper presents a review of the use of helium as the coolant for fusion reactor blanket and divertor designs. The concept of a high-pressure helium cooling radial plate design was studied for both ITER and PULSAR. These designs can resolve many engineering issues, and can help with reaching the goals of low activation and high performance designs. The combination of helium cooling, advanced low-activation materials, and gas turbine technology may permit high thermal efficiency and reduced costs, resulting in the environmental advantages and competitive economics required to make fusion a 21st century power source. ((orig.))

  6. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  7. What fusion means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Fusion can and will play an ever-increasing role in the energy balance once it has been brought on line. Taming of this technology and the maturing processes of engineering and economic feasibility will proceed at a rate which depends very strongly upon international and collective national wills to see it through. Large experimental devices, particularly of the tokamak type, are now being completed; their performance should give a very good idea of the scientific feasibility. The next-stage devices are at the pre-proposal and proposal stages but are not yet approved, even in principle. An improved general economic climate sustained for a few years would certainly help re-establish the momentum of world international efforts in fusion. This paper gives an overview of fusion research on a world scale and details of the particular aspects that Canada has chosen to pursue

  8. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, T.C.

    2000-04-01

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  9. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  10. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  11. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  12. Fusion plasma theory project summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.

  13. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  14. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  15. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  16. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  17. First experimental results of particle re-suspension in a low pressure wind tunnel applied to the issue of dust in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.rondeau@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Merrison, Jonathan; Iversen, Jens Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Storage Ring Facilities, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Peillon, Samuel; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Lemaitre, Pascal; Gensdarmes, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Chassefière, Eric [Laboratoire Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS), UMR 8148, Université Paris Sud, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The first experimental data of dust re-suspension performed by controlled airflow (in terms of airflow velocity and fluid density). • The effect of the surrounding pressure in the re-suspension mechanism. • The friction (shear velocity) reduction at low pressure in the transient regime (Knudsen number close to one). • The importance of the adhesion forces between particles in dust mobilization by clustering. • The fact that the existing re-suspension models of the relevant literature do not take into account this clustering phenomenon. - Abstract: During the normal operating condition of the future ITER tokamak, a massive production of dust in the toroidal vacuum vessel is expected. This dust, originating from the erosion of tungsten and beryllium internal walls of the torus by the plasma, would be mobilized to some extent during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA). For safety reasons, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction during such an event. Here, we provide preliminary experimental data of dust re-suspension obtained in the wind tunnel of the European Space Agency (ESA) at low pressures (300, 130 and 10 mbar). The experimentations were performed with multilayer deposits. We used two powders with a median diameter at 15.5 μm and 21.8 μm. A negative influence of the low pressure in the re-suspension mechanism is observed. For example, given a re-suspension fraction of 10%, increasing friction shear velocities are derived for decreasing absolute pressures: 300 mbar/0.66 m s{sup −1}; 130 mbar/1.08 m s{sup −1}; and 10 mbar/1.84 m s{sup −1}. In addition, we highlight the friction reduction for Kundsen numbers greater than 0.1 by an analysis of the airflow forces.

  18. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  19. Fusion hindrance in reactions with very heavy ions: Border between normal and hindered fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Caiwan; Li Qingfeng; Boilley, David; Shen Junjie; Abe, Yasuhisa

    2011-01-01

    The fusion hindrance in heavy-ion collisions is studied in the framework of the two-center liquid drop model. It appears that the neck and the radial degrees of freedom might both be hampered by an inner potential barrier on their path between the contact configuration to the compound nucleus. Heavy-ion reactions with and without the two kinds of fusion hindrance are classified through systematic calculations. It is found that the number of reactions without radial fusion hindrance is much smaller than that without neck fusion hindrance, and for both kinds of fusion hindrance the number of reactions without fusion hindrance at small mass-asymmetry parameter α is smaller than that at large α. In the formation of a given compound nucleus, if a reaction with α c is not hindered, then other reactions with α>α c are also not hindered, as is well known experimentally.

  20. Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  1. Helios, a 20 TW CO2 laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladish, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Since June 1978 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Helios CO 2 laser fusion facility has been committed to an experimental target program to investigate the feasibility of laser produced inertial confinement fusion. This system is briefly described, and preliminary experimental results are reported

  2. Patchy particles made by colloidal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhe; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or `patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems. Here we introduce a method, which we refer to as colloidal fusion, for fabricating functional patchy particles in a tunable and scalable manner. Using coordination dynamics and wetting forces, we engineer hybrid liquid-solid clusters that evolve into particles with a range of patchy surface morphologies on addition of a plasticizer. We are able to predict and control the evolutionary pathway by considering surface-energy minimization, leading to two main branches of product: first, spherical particles with liquid surface patches, capable of forming curable bonds with neighbouring particles to assemble robust supracolloidal structures; and second, particles with a faceted liquid compartment, which can be cured and purified to yield colloidal polyhedra. These findings outline a scalable strategy for the synthesis of patchy particles, first by designing their surface patterns by computer simulation, and then by recreating them in the laboratory with high fidelity.

  3. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  4. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  5. Fusion technology: The Iter fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the Iter international fusion experiment, in which the European Union, Japan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA cooperate, were begun in 1985, and construction work started in early 1994. These activities serve for the preparation of the design and construction documents for a research reactor in which a stable fusion plasma is to be generated. This is to be the basis for the construction of a fusion reactor for electricity generation. Preparatory work was performed in the Tokamak experiments with JET and TFTR. The fusion power of 1.5 GW will be attained, thus enabling Iter to keep a deuterium-tritium plasma burning. (orig.) [de

  6. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  7. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  8. Fusion enhancement in the reactions of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Baoan; Zhang Fengshou; Zhou Hongyu

    2009-01-01

    The neutron-rich fusion reactions are investigated systematically using the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. By studying the systematic dependence of fusion barrier on neuron excess, we find the enhancement of the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions that give the lowered static Coulomb barriers. The calculated fusion cross sections agree quantitatively with the experimental data. We further discuss the mechanism of the fusion enhancement of the cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions by analyzing the dynamical lowering of the Coulomb barrier that is attributed to the enhancement of the N/Z ratio at the neck region.

  9. Thermonuclear fusion: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Maisonnier, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    Thermonuclear Fusion holds great promises for becoming an important energy source for the future. Fusion research and development is undertaken in al major countries of the world. The European Community pursues fusion in a large programme which embraces all R and D in the field of magnetic confinement fusion in the Member States, and to which Sweden and Switzerland are fully associated. The long-term objective of the programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. The main R and D line of the Community Fusion Programme is fusion by toroidal magnetic confinement on the basis of the Tokamak concept. Some related concepts are also studied which possibly could offer advantages for a reactor, and keep-in-touch activities exist for other approaches. Several small and medium sized specialised devices in Associated Laboratories have been built by the Community Fusion Programme as well as the Joint European Torus (JET Joint Undertaking) which is the largest and the most successful fusion device in the world. Recently, fusion power in the megawatt range has been achieved in JET. The long timescale and the large effort needed for the development of fusion as an energy source have been important elements to foster international collaboration. Engineering Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are undertaken, under the auspices of the IAEA, by the European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The objective of ITER is to achieve self-sustained thermonuclear burn and its control under long-pulse operation and to provide basic data for the engineering of a demonstration fusion reactor. (author)

  10. Current Capability of Atomic Structure Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ki

    1993-01-01

    Current capability of atomic structure theory is reviewed, and advantages, disadvantages and major features of popular atomic structure codes described. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental data on transition energies and lifetimes of excited levels are presented to illustrate the current capability of atomic structure codes.

  11. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  12. Mechanical design and first experimental results of an upgraded technical PERMCAT reactor for tritium recovery in the fuel cycle of a fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, S., E-mail: stefan.welte@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany); Demange, D.; Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The PERMCAT process developed for the final clean-up stage of the Tokamak Exhaust Processing systems of the ITER tritium plant combines a catalytic reactor and a Pd/Ag permeator in a single component. A first generation technical PERMCAT has been successfully operated as part of the CAPER experiment at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several years. Various alternative PERMCAT mechanical designs were proposed and studied on small-scale prototypes. An upgraded technical PERMCAT reactor was designed, manufactured and commissioned with deuterium. A parallel arrangement of finger-type membranes inserted in a single catalyst bed design was chosen to simplify the geometry and the manufacturing while improving the robustness of the reactor. The component has been designed and manufactured to be fully tritium compatible and also fully compatible with both process and electrical connections of the previous PERMCAT to be replaced. The new PERMCAT mechanical design is more compact and easy to manufacture. This PERMCAT reactor was submitted to functional tests and experiments based on isotopic exchanges between H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2} to measure the processing performances. The first experimental results show decontamination factors versus flow rates better than all previously measured.

  13. Mechanical design and first experimental results of an upgraded technical PERMCAT reactor for tritium recovery in the fuel cycle of a fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welte, S.; Demange, D.; Wagner, R.

    2010-01-01

    The PERMCAT process developed for the final clean-up stage of the Tokamak Exhaust Processing systems of the ITER tritium plant combines a catalytic reactor and a Pd/Ag permeator in a single component. A first generation technical PERMCAT has been successfully operated as part of the CAPER experiment at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several years. Various alternative PERMCAT mechanical designs were proposed and studied on small-scale prototypes. An upgraded technical PERMCAT reactor was designed, manufactured and commissioned with deuterium. A parallel arrangement of finger-type membranes inserted in a single catalyst bed design was chosen to simplify the geometry and the manufacturing while improving the robustness of the reactor. The component has been designed and manufactured to be fully tritium compatible and also fully compatible with both process and electrical connections of the previous PERMCAT to be replaced. The new PERMCAT mechanical design is more compact and easy to manufacture. This PERMCAT reactor was submitted to functional tests and experiments based on isotopic exchanges between H 2 O and D 2 to measure the processing performances. The first experimental results show decontamination factors versus flow rates better than all previously measured.

  14. Nuclear fusion and neutron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sherstnev, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of providing development of the design of an experimental fusion reactor with necessary neutron-physical data are discussed. Isotope composition of spent fuel in the blanket of a hybride fusion reactor (HFR) is given. Neutron balance of the reactor with Li-blanket and neutron balance of the reactor with Pb-multiplier are disclosed. A simplified scheme of neutron and energy balance in the HFR blanket is given. Development and construction of the experimental power reactor is shown to become the nearest problem of the UTS program. Alongside with other complex physical and technical problems solution of this problem requires realization of a wide program of neutron-physical investigations including measurements with required accuracy of neutron cross sections, development of methodical, program and constant basis of neutron calculations and macroscopic experiments on neutron sources

  15. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  16. HFR irradiation testing of fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; von der Hardt, P.; Loelgen, R.; Scheurer, H.; Zeisser, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present and future role of the High Flux Reactor Petten for fusion materials testing has been assessed. For practical purposes the Tokamak-based fusion reactor is chosen as a point of departure to identify material problems and materials data needs. The identification is largely based on the INTOR and NET design studies, the reported programme strategies of Japan, the U.S.A. and the European Communities for technical development of thermonuclear fusion reactors and on interviews with several experts. Existing and planned irradiation facilities, their capabilities and limitations concerning materials testing have been surveyed and discussed. It is concluded that fission reactors can supply important contributions for fusion materials testing. From the point of view of future availability of fission testing reactors and their performance it appears that the HFR is a useful tool for materials testing for a large variety of materials. Prospects and recommendations for future developments are given

  17. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R

    2002-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  18. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), an advisory body to the International Atomic Energy Agency, reports on the current status of fusion; this report updates its 1978 status report. This report contains a General Overview and Executive Summary, and reports on all current approaches to fusion throughout the world; a series of technical reports is to be published elsewhere. This report is timely in that it not only shows progress which has occurred over the past, but interfaces with possible future devices, in particular the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose conceptual design phase is nearing completion. 5 refs, 6 figs

  19. Fusion the energy of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Fusion: The Energy of the Universe, 2e is an essential reference providing basic principles of fusion energy from its history to the issues and realities progressing from the present day energy crisis. The book provides detailed developments and applications for researchers entering the field of fusion energy research. This second edition includes the latest results from the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, CA, and the progress on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak programme at Caderache, France.

  20. Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical limitations to heavy ion fusion reaction are considered. The experimental signatures and the importance of a quasi-fission process are examined. The anaular distributions of fission fragments for the 32 S+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 238 U systems are presented. It is shown that the observations of quasi-fission for even rather ''light'' heavy ions poeess severe limitations on the fusion process. This result may consequently be responsible for the lack of success of the search for super heavy elements in heavy ion fusion reactions

  1. Fusion and reactions of exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Benítez A.M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Close to the drip lines, the scattering cross sections of halo nuclei show a different behaviour as compared to the tightly bound projectiles of the stability line. Several experiments carried out in the last decade have been dedicated to investigate the competition between transfer, breakup and fusion channels at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The rather complex scenario gives rise to conflicting conclusions concerning the effect of breakup and transfer on reaction dynamics and the sub-barrier fusion process. In this work we discuss recent experimental findings in fusion and reactions of 6He halo nucleus at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  2. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  3. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...

  4. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  5. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance...

  6. Telematics Options and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This presentation describes the data tracking and analytical capabilities of telematics devices. Federal fleet managers can use the systems to keep their drivers safe, maintain a fuel efficient fleet, ease their reporting burden, and save money. The presentation includes an example of how much these capabilities can save fleets.

  7. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding. (author)

  8. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  9. Nuclear data for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The meeting was organized in four sessions and four working groups devoted to the following topics: Requirements of nuclear data for fusion reactor technology (6 papers); Status of experimental and theoretical investigations of microscopic nuclear data (10 papers); Status of existing libraries for fusion neutronic calculations (5 papers); and Status of integral experiments and benchmark tests (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  10. Electron-beam-fusion progress report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Summaries of research work are given on electron sources, insulation problems, and power supplies. Some theoretical work is reported on fusion target design, self-consistent deposition and hydrodynamic calculations, analysis of x-ray pinhole data, diode code calculations, magnetically insulated diodes and transmission lines, ion sheath motion in plasma-filled diodes, relativistic distribution functions, macroscopic properties, and kinetic theory, heavy ion pulsed fusion, and collective ion acceleration. Some experimental work on targets, diode physics, and diagnostic developments is given

  11. The status of 'cold fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called 'cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological utility

  12. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  13. Final report on the Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Slough

    2009-09-08

    1 meter, and the time from the initiation of formation to the establishment of the final equilibrium was less than 10 microseconds. With some modification, each accelerator was made capable of producing FRCs suitable for the production of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment. Based on the initial FRC merging/compression results, the design and methodology for an experimental realization of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment can now be defined. A high density FRC plasmoid is to be formed and accelerated out of each IPA into a merging/compression chamber similar to the imploding liner at AFRL. The properties of the resultant FRC plasma (size, temperature, density, flux, lifetime) are obtained in the reevant regime of interest. The process still needs to be optimized, and a final design for implementation at AFRL must now be carried out. When implemented at AFRL it is anticipated that the colliding/merging FRCs will then be compressed by the liner. In this manner it is hoped that ultimately a plasma with ion temperatures reaching the 10 keV range and fusion gain near unity can be obtained.

  14. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  15. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  16. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  17. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  18. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  20. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques