WorldWideScience

Sample records for fusion applications viewgraphs

  1. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  2. NIFS workshop on application of micro-indentation technique to evaluation of mechanical properties of fusion materials. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Katoh, Yutai [eds.] [Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Branch, Inst. for Materials Research

    1996-11-01

    NIFS workshop on `Application of Micro-Indentation Technique to Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Fusion Materials` were help in Toki on October 9, 1996, as a part of the activity of NIFS collaborative research on `Advanced Technologies for Small-Volume Mechanical Property Testing of Fusion Reactor Materials`. The major topics at the workshop included the application of micro- (and nano-) indentation technique to evaluation of tensile stress-strain property, interfacial mechanical property of composite and joining materials and hardening of this layers in ion-irradiated materials. This report compiles the abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation. (author)

  3. Image fusion theories, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, HB

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theories, techniques and applications of image fusion. It examines in detail many real-life examples of image fusion, including panchromatic sharpening and ensemble color image segmentation.

  4. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  5. Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    SLL 80 676 copy 1 SAN D78-2306 Unlimited Release UC-21 aM* m ml 8 H Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications Research Progress...Printed Copy $6.00; Microfiche $3.00 Accession Number: 3885 Publication Date: Dec 01,1978 Title: Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications...Document: Archive, RRI, DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Laser Development Fusion Application Oscillator Amplifier Geometry Electron Beam Iodine Hydrogen

  6. MHD Simulations for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S.C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear fusion holds forth the promise of being a clean and safe solution to meet the world's energy demand in the foreseeable future without producing long-lived radioactive waste or weapons-grade material. The most mature configuration for magnetically confining a fusion plasma is the tokamak; a current carrying toroidal plasma characterized by strong externally produced magnetic fields. The temperatures, densities, and current will diffuse across the magnetic field lines at some rate, determining the confinement properties of the tokamak. The tokamak can also develop global instabilities if the current and/or pressure exceed certain instability thresholds. This set of lectures is aimed at describing analytical formulations and associated numerical methods for quantitatively describing both the slow (diffusive) motion associated with transport and the faster (wave-like) motion associated with instabilities. The former uses slow time scale ordering to remove the wave-like motion, and a time dependent field-aligned coordinate transformation to isolate the cross-field transport from the faster transport along the magnetic field lines. The latter uses a combination of high-order finite elements, a particular representation of the magnetic and velocity vector fields, and an implicit time advance algorithm with desirable properties. This paper is followed by the slides of the lectures. (author)

  7. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  8. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  9. Composite materials for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic matrix composites, CMCs, are being considered for advanced first-wall and blanket structural applications because of their high-temperature properties, low neutron activation, low density and low coefficient of expansion coupled with good thermal conductivity and corrosion behavior. This paper presents a review and analysis of the hermetic, thermal conductivity, corrosion, crack growth and radiation damage properties of CMCs. It was concluded that the leak rates of a gaseous coolant into the plasma chamber or tritium out of the blanket could exceed design criteria if matrix microcracking causes existing porosity to become interconnected. Thermal conductivities of unirradiated SiC/SiC and C/SiC materials are about 1/2 to 2/3 that of Type 316 SS whereas the thermal conductivity for C/C composites is seven times larger. The thermal stress figure-of-merit value for CMCs exceeds that of Type 316 SS for a single thermal cycle. SiC/SiC composites are very resistant to corrosion and are expected to be compatible with He or Li coolants if the O{sub 2} concentrations are maintained at the appropriate levels. CMCs exhibit subcritical crack growth at elevated temperatures and the crack velocity is a function of the corrosion conditions. The radiation stability of CMCs will depend on the stability of the fiber, microcracking of the matrix, and the effects of gaseous transmutation products on properties. 23 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fusion Based Safety Application for Pedestrian Detection with Danger Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Fernando; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José M.; García, Jesús; Llinas, James

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of: 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011). Chicago, Illinois, USA 5-8 July 2011. Road safety applications require the most reliable data. In recent years data fusion is becoming one of the main technologies for Advance Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) to overcome the limitations of isolated use of the available sensors and to fulfil demanding safety requirements. In this paper a real application of data fusion for road safety for pedestrian detection ...

  11. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1980-04-24

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  12. Development of coatings for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. E-mail: dalesmith@anl.gov; Konys, J.; Muroga, T.; Evitkhin, V

    2002-12-01

    Coatings have been proposed as the solution to critical materials constraints for most of the blanket concepts under development for fusion power applications. However, the international programs on coating development are focused primarily on electrically insulating coatings to mitigate the magneto-hydrodynamic pressure drop in self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concepts, and on tritium permeation barriers to reduce tritium permeation from Pb-Li into the water coolant in water-cooled Pb-Li concepts. Emphasis of the insulator coating development is on CaO and AlN coatings formed on vanadium alloys either in situ in lithium or by vapor deposition processes. The tritium barrier coating development is focused on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on aluminized martensitic steels by several processes. This paper presents an overview of the fundamental materials issues associated with the various coatings and the status of coating development for the various applications.

  13. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  14. A fusion reactor for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    A novel approach to fusion power that combines the favorable aspects of magnetic and inertial confinements has recently been proposed in the ''magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion'' (MICF) reactor. In contrast to conventional inertial confinement schemes, this approach relies on generating the needed plasma inside of a spherical shell by zapping the inside surface of a hollow pellet with an intense laser beam. Physical confinement is provided by the metallic shell that surrounds the deuterium-tritium fuel-coated inner surface, while very strong, plasma-generated magnetic fields provide the desired thermal insulation of the plasma from the surrounding surface. Because of these unique properties, the inertial confinement time can be increased by about two orders of magnitude relative to that of conventional inertial confinement schemes, with the result that truly impressive energy multiplication factors can result. Carbon dioxide lasers of hundreds of kilojoules may be readily employed for such reactors, and, since they are relatively efficient and can be chemically driven, these systems lend themselves nicely to such space applications as space-based power sources or rocket propulsion.

  15. Advances in multi-sensor data fusion: algorithms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiang; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Jingying

    2009-01-01

    With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1) Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2) Development of "algorithm fusion" methods; (3) Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme.

  16. Application of image fusion techniques in DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Xu, Jing

    2007-12-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an important technology in both medical diagnoses and interposal therapy, which can eliminate the interferential background and give prominence to blood vessels by computer processing. After contrast material is injected into an artery or vein, a physician produces fluoroscopic images. Using these digitized images, a computer subtracts the image made with contrast material from a series of post injection images made without background information. By analyzing the characteristics of DSA medical images, this paper provides a solution of image fusion which is in allusion to the application of DSA subtraction. We fuse the images of angiogram and subtraction, in order to obtain the new image which has more data information. The image that fused by wavelet transform can display the blood vessels and background information clearly, and medical experts gave high score on the effect of it.

  17. Recombinant CBM-fusion technology - Applications overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Carvalho, Vera; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are small components of several enzymes, which present an independent fold and function, and specific carbohydrate-binding activity. Their major function is to bind the enzyme to the substrate enhancing its catalytic activity, especially in the case of insoluble substrates. The immense diversity of CBMs, together with their unique properties, has long raised their attention for many biotechnological applications. Recombinant DNA technology has been used for cloning and characterizing new CBMs. In addition, it has been employed to improve the purity and availability of many CBMs, but mainly, to construct bi-functional CBM-fused proteins for specific applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the uses of CBMs recombinantly produced from heterologous organisms, or by the original host, along with the latest advances. Emphasis is given particularly to the applications of recombinant CBM-fusions in: (a) modification of fibers, (b) production, purification and immobilization of recombinant proteins, (c) functionalization of biomaterials and (d) development of microarrays and probes.

  18. Advances in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Algorithms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingying Fu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1 Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2 Development of “algorithm fusion” methods; (3 Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme.

  19. Multi-sensor image fusion and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Rick S

    2005-01-01

    Taking another lesson from nature, the latest advances in image processing technology seek to combine image data from several diverse types of sensors in order to obtain a more accurate view of the scene: very much the same as we rely on our five senses. Multi-Sensor Image Fusion and Its Applications is the first text dedicated to the theory and practice of the registration and fusion of image data, covering such approaches as statistical methods, color-related techniques, model-based methods, and visual information display strategies.After a review of state-of-the-art image fusion techniques,

  20. Bayesian information fusion networks for biosurveillance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Zaruhi R; Burkom, Howard S; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Lombardo, Joseph S

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces new information fusion algorithms to enhance disease surveillance systems with Bayesian decision support capabilities. A detection system was built and tested using chief complaints from emergency department visits, International Classification of Diseases Revision 9 (ICD-9) codes from records of outpatient visits to civilian and military facilities, and influenza surveillance data from health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR). Data anomalies were identified and distribution of time offsets between events in the multiple data streams were established. The Bayesian Network was built to fuse data from multiple sources and identify influenza-like epidemiologically relevant events. Results showed increased specificity compared with the alerts generated by temporal anomaly detection algorithms currently deployed by NCR health departments. Further research should be done to investigate correlations between data sources for efficient fusion of the collected data.

  1. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  2. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  3. Hydrogen isotope separation for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R., E-mail: robert.smith@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Whittaker, D.A.J.; Butler, B.; Hollingsworth, A.; Lawless, R.E.; Lefebvre, X.; Medley, S.A.; Parracho, A.I.; Wakeling, B. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Summary of the tritium plant, the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS), at JET. • Review of the Water Detritiation System (WDS) under construction. • Design of the new Material Detritiation Facility (MDF). • Review of problems in fusion related to metal/hydrogen system. - Abstract: The invited talk given at MH2014 in Salford ranged over many issues associated with hydrogen isotope separation, fusion machines and the hydrogen/metal systems found in the Joint European Torus (JET) machine located near Oxford. As this sort of talk does not lend itself well to a paper below I have attempted to highlight some of the more pertinent information. After a description of the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) a brief summary of isotope separation systems is described followed by descriptions of three major projects currently being undertaken by the Tritium Engineering and Science Group (TESG), the upgrade to the Analytical Systems (AN-GC) at the AGH, the construction of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) and a Material Detritiation Facility (MDF). Finally, a review of some of the challenges facing fusion with respect to metal/hydrogen systems is presented.

  4. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  5. Fusion Based Neutron Sources for Security Applications: Energy Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, S.; Seviour, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of neutrons for na- tional security. The majority of work on security focuses on the use of either sealed tube DT fusors or fission sources, e.g. Cf-252. Fusion reactions enable the energy of the neu- tron beam to be chosen to suit the application, rather than the application being chosen based on the available neu- tron beam energy. In this paper we discuss simulations of fusion reactions demonstrating the broad range of energies available and methods f...

  6. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  7. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  8. Technology applications for Magneto Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T.; Weber, T.; Gao, K.; Yoo, C.; Klarenbeek, J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe several technology advances that we believe will be helpful for Magneto Inertial Fusion (MIF) experiments. We are developing plasma guns to improve the startup and flux trapping for magnetized plasma field reversed configuration (FRC) targets for MIF compression. This should aid initial pre ionization, freezing in of bias flux, line tie each end to the middle to retard toroidal rotation, and provide end shorting of radial electric fields. We are also developing a novel magnetic field diagnostic that uses a tiny section of Terbium doped optical fiber as a Faraday rotation medium. The optical path and hardware is inexpensive and simple, and has a small form factor that will fit inside a MagLIF capsule, and can be radation hardened. Low noise, optically coupled magnetic field measurements will be possible for vacuum MaGLIF shots.

  9. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  10. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  11. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  12. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  13. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d' imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  14. The development of low activation ferritic steels for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Hishinuma, A.; Kohno, Y.; Shiba, K.; Sagara, A.

    1997-03-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R and D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progress as an activity of the International Energy Agency (IEA) fusion materials working group to verify the feasibility of using ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion by an extensive test program covering the most relevant technical issues for the qualification of a material for a nuclear application. The development of a comprehensive data base on the representative industrially processed reduced-activation steels of type 8-9Cr-2WVTa is underway for providing designers a preliminary set of material data for the mechanical design of components, e.g. for DEMO relevant blanket modules. The current design status of FFHR and SSTR utilizing low-activation ferritic steels is reviewed and future prospects are defined. (author)

  15. Review of LIBS application in nuclear fusion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Feng, Chun-Lei; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Ding, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear fusion has enormous potential to greatly affect global energy production. The next-generation tokamak ITER, which is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of energy production from fusion on a commercial scale, is under construction. Wall erosion, material transport, and fuel retention are known factors that shorten the lifetime of ITER during tokamak operation and give rise to safety issues. These factors, which must be understood and solved early in the process of fusion reactor design and development, are among the most important concerns for the community of plasma-wall interaction researchers. To date, laser techniques are among the most promising methods that can solve these open ITER issues, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate for online monitoring of the walls of current and next-generation (such as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a widely used technique for various applications. It has been considered recently as a promising tool for analyzing plasma-facing components in fusion devices in situ. This article reviews the experiments that have been performed by many research groups to assess the feasibility of LIBS for this purpose.

  16. Non-electric applications for magneto-inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the generation of commercial electric power, there are several other applications for an intense pulse of neutrons that would be produced by magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) systems. Many of these applications can be achieved without the need for a fully developed reactor at high gain, and could thus be pursued at a much earlier stage of development which would dramatically reduce the risk of the long-term development and concern for the expense of an all-encompassing, single use system such as the tokamak or stellerator. A short list of applications well suited for MIF would include: (1) production of radioisotopes for medical applications and research, (2) efficient, high power propulsion through direct fusion heating of lithium propellants (3) Noninvasive interrogation of objects for homeland security (4) neutron radiography and tomography (5) destruction of long-lived radioactive waste, and (6) breeding of proliferation proof fissile fuel for existing nuclear reactors. These applications could all be pursued at lower neutron yield, but clearly the energy goals are by far the most significant and far reaching such as applying fusion energy as a hybrid to enable thorium cycle reactors which produce very little waste compared to the current uranium reactors. A discussion of how MIF could be configured and utilized to realize several of these uses will be discussed.

  17. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  18. Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, George H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment propose...

  19. Sensor fusion by pseudo information measure: a mobile robot application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharif, Mohammad Reza; Moshiri, Behzad; HoseinNezhad, Reza

    2002-07-01

    In any autonomous mobile robot, one of the most important issues to be designed and implemented is environment perception. In this paper, a new approach is formulated in order to perform sensory data integration for generation of an occupancy grid map of the environment. This method is an extended version of the Bayesian fusion method for independent sources of information. The performance of the proposed method of fusion and its sensitivity are discussed. Map building simulation for a cylindrical robot with eight ultrasonic sensors and mapping implementation for a Khepera robot have been separately tried in simulation and experimental works. A new neural structure is introduced for conversion of proximity data that are given by Khepera IR sensors to occupancy probabilities. Path planning experiments have also been applied to the resulting maps. For each map, two factors are considered and calculated: the fitness and the augmented occupancy of the map with respect to the ideal map. The length and the least distance to obstacles were the other two factors that were calculated for the routes that are resulted by path planning experiments. Experimental and simulation results show that by using the new fusion formulas, more informative maps of the environment are obtained. By these maps more appropriate routes could be achieved. Actually, there is a tradeoff between the length of the resulting routes and their safety and by choosing the proper fusion function, this tradeoff is suitably tuned for different map building applications.

  20. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jair Alves Mendes Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports, it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others.

  1. Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, José Jair Alves; Vieira, Mário Elias Marinho; Pires, Marcelo Bissi; Stevan, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study (biomedicine and sports), it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations. To illustrate the contemporaneity of applications, an analysis of specialized papers published in the last six years has been made. In this context, the main characteristic of this review is to present the largest quantity of relevant examples of sensor fusion and smart sensors focusing on their utilization and proposals, without deeply addressing one specific system or technique, to the detriment of the others. PMID:27669260

  2. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  3. The properties and weldability of materials for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.A.; Kee, C.K.; Wilcox, R.C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-11-15

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steels have been suggested for applications within fusion reactors. The use of these nickel-free steels will help to reduce the radioactive waste management problem after service. one requirement for such steels is the ability to obtain sound welds for fabrication purposes. Thus, two austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn alloys were studied to characterize the welded microstructure and mechanical properties. The two steels investigated were a Russian steel (Fe-11.6Cr19.3Mn-0.181C) and an US steel (Fe-12.lCr-19.4Mn-0.24C). Welding was performed using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Microscopic examinations of the structure of both steels were conducted. The as-received Russian steel was found to be in the annealed state. Only the fusion zone and the base metal were observed in the welded Russian steel. No visible heat affected zone was observed. Examination revealed that the as-received US steel was in the cold rolled condition. After welding, a fusion zone and a heat affected zone along with the base metal region were found.

  4. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsui, H.; Abe, K. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Osch, E. van [NERF, Petten (Netherlands); Kazakov, V.A. [RIAR, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  5. Mocr: A novel fusion tag for enhancing solubility that is compatible with structural biology applications

    OpenAIRE

    Delproposto, James; Majmudar, Chinmay Y.; Smith, Janet L.; Brown, William Clay

    2008-01-01

    A persistent problem in heterologous protein production is insolubility of the target protein when expressed to high level in the host cell. A widely employed strategy for overcoming this problem is the use of fusion tags. The best fusion tags promote solubility, may function as purification handles and either do not interfere with downstream applications or may be removed from the passenger protein preparation. A novel fusion tag is identified that meets these criteria. This fusion tag is a ...

  6. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  7. Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2010-04-01

    A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

  8. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  9. A Fusion Neutron Source Driven Sub-Critical Nuclear Energy System: A Way for Early Application of Fusion Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宜灿

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a sub-critical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source, FDS, which can be used to transmute long-lived radioactive wastes and to produce fissile nuclear fuel as a way for early application of fusion technology. The necessity and feasibility to develop that system in China are illustrated on the basis of prediction of the demand of energy source in the first half of the 21th century, the status of current fission energy supply and the progress in fusion technology in the vorld. The characteristics of fusion neutron driver and the potential for transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes and breeding of fissile nuclear fuel in a blanket are analyzed. A scenario of development steps is proposed.``

  10. Acceleration of compact toroid plasma rings for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, C.W.; Barr, W.L.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Hammer, J.H.; Ho, S.K.; Logan, B.G.; Meeker, D.J.; Mirin, A.A.; Nevins, W.M.

    1988-08-26

    We describe experimental results for a new type of collective accelerator based on magnetically confined compact torus (CT) plasma rings and discuss applications to both inertial and magnetic fusion. We have demonstrated the principle of CT acceleration in the RACE device with acceleration of 0.5 mg ring masses to 400 km/s and 0.02 mg ring masses to 1400 km/s at greater than or equal to30% efficiency. Scaling the CT accelerator to the multi-megajoule level could provide an efficient, economical driver for inertial fusion (ICF) or magnetically insulated inertial fusion. Efficient conversion to x-rays for driving hohlraum-type ICF targets has been modeled using a radiation-hydrodynamics code. At less demanding conditions than required for ICF, a CT accelerator can be applied to fueling and current drive in tokamaks. Fueling is accomplished by injecting CTs at the required rate to sustain the particle inventory and at a velocity sufficient to penetrate to the magnetic axis before CT dissolution. Current drive is a consequence of the magnetic helicity content of the CT, which is approximately conserved during reconnection of the CT fields with the tokamak. Major areas of uncertainty in CT fueling and current drive concern the mechanism by which CTs will stop in a tokamak plasma and the effects of the CT on energy confinement and magnetic stability. Bounds on the required CT injection velocity are obtained by considering drag due to emission of an Alfven-wave wake and rapid reconnection and tilting on the internal Alfven time scale of the CT. Preliminary results employing a 3-D, resistive MHD code show rapid tilting with the CT aligning its magnetic moment with the tokamak field. Requirements for an experimental test of CT injection and scenarios for fueling a reactor will also be discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  11. First-principles mapping of fusion applications into the JDL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents a formal approach for mapping from an entity-relationship model of a selected application domain to the functional components of the JDL fusion model. The resultant functional decomposition supports both traditional sensor, as well as human-generated text input. To demonstrate the generality of the mapping, examples are offered for three distinct application domains: (1) Intelligence Fusion, (2) Aircraft Collision Avoidance, and (3) Robotic Control. The first-principle's based approach begins by viewing fusion as the composition of similar and dissimilar entities. Next, the fusion triple (entity, location, time) is defined where entities can be either physical or non-physical. Coupling the fusion triple with this generalized view of fusion leads to the identification of eight base-level fusion services that serve as the building blocks of individual composition products.

  12. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  13. Application of next generation sequencing to human gene fusion detection: computational tools, features and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Xia, Junfeng; Jia, Peilin; Pao, William; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-07-01

    Gene fusions are important genomic events in human cancer because their fusion gene products can drive the development of cancer and thus are potential prognostic tools or therapeutic targets in anti-cancer treatment. Major advancements have been made in computational approaches for fusion gene discovery over the past 3 years due to improvements and widespread applications of high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. To identify fusions from NGS data, existing methods typically leverage the strengths of both sequencing technologies and computational strategies. In this article, we review the NGS and computational features of existing methods for fusion gene detection and suggest directions for future development.

  14. Proceedings of the Office of Fusion Energy/DOE workshop on ceramic matrix composites for structural applications in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Lucas, G.E. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop to assess the potential application of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for structural applications in fusion reactors was held on May 21--22, 1990, at University of California, Santa Barbara. Participants included individuals familiar with materials and design requirements in fusion reactors, ceramic composite processing and properties and radiation effects. The primary focus was to list the feasibility issues that might limit the application of these materials in fusion reactors. Clear advantages for the use of CMCs are high-temperature operation, which would allow a high-efficiency Rankine cycle, and low activation. Limitations to their use are material costs, fabrication complexity and costs, lack of familiarity with these materials in design, and the lack of data on radiation stability at relevant temperatures and fluences. Fusion-relevant feasibility issues identified at this workshop include: hermetic and vacuum properties related to effects of matrix porosity and matrix microcracking; chemical compatibility with coolant, tritium, and breeder and multiplier materials, radiation effects on compatibility; radiation stability and integrity; and ability to join CMCs in the shop and at the reactor site, radiation stability and integrity of joints. A summary of ongoing CMC radiation programs is also given. It was suggested that a true feasibility assessment of CMCs for fusion structural applications could not be completed without evaluation of a material tailored'' to fusion conditions or at least to radiation stability. It was suggested that a follow-up workshop be held to design a tailored composite after the results of CMC radiation studies are available and the critical feasibility issues are addressed.

  15. Application of data fusion in computer facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ai Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition rate of single recognition method is inefficiency in computer facial recognition. We proposed a new confluent facial recognition method using data fusion technology, a variety of recognition algorithm are combined to form the fusion-based face recognition system to improve the recognition rate in many ways. Data fusion considers three levels of data fusion, feature level fusion and decision level fusion. And the data layer uses a simple weighted average algorithm, which is easy to implement. Artificial neural network algorithm was selected in feature layer and fuzzy reasoning algorithm was used in decision layer. Finally, we compared with the BP neural network algorithm in the MATLAB experimental platform. The result shows that the recognition rate has been greatly improved after adopting data fusion technology in computer facial recognition.

  16. A Robust Modular IGBT Power Supply for Fusion Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Ken; Prager, James

    2010-11-01

    A present challenge facing the fusion energy community and particularly the ICC community in its support of the main line tokamak program is the ability to generate increased power levels for pulsed magnets, arc plasma sources, radio frequency heating, and current drive schemes, at reasonable cost. Continuous wave (CW) tube based power supplies are typically large and expensive, making them prohibitive for smaller experimental facilities or not cost effective when only pulsed input power is required. Continued research and development of next generation solid state power supplies could allow for multiple applications with a single well developed, low cost module that could be configured in many ways. Eagle Harbor Technologies has developed, built, and tested a modular solid state power supply based on Insulate Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT) technologies. The power supply utilized a modular, low cost, high power IGBT based system that can be assembled in multiple ways to address a wide range of applications. Testing results demonstrating the prototype abilities in both parallel and series configurations and for both high current and/or high voltage operation will be presented. The prototype cost was shown to be significantly lower than older generation power supplies for similar applications. Future work includes upgrading the prototype for increased power levels (> 10 MW).

  17. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  18. Contribution of sensor fusion to urban mapping: application to simulated SPOT 5-6 data

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    International audience; This communication intends to enhance the contribution of a sensor fusion method to urban mapping using the simulated SPOT 5-6 data. A new scheme is proposed for cartography of urban areas which takes into account the multispectral and the multiresolution nature of the data. This process makes use of classification and segmentation. An application of the sensor fusion method to analyse the simulated SPOT 5-6 data is presented. The benefits of using sensor fusion before...

  19. The Development of Low Activation Ferritic Steels for Fusion Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kohyama, A; Hishinuma, A.; Kohno, Y; Shiba, K; Sagara, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R & D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progres...

  20. Tracking and sensor data fusion methodological framework and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Sensor Data Fusion is the process of combining incomplete and imperfect pieces of mutually complementary sensor information in such a way that a better understanding of an underlying real-world phenomenon is achieved. Typically, this insight is either unobtainable otherwise or a fusion result exceeds what can be produced from a single sensor output in accuracy, reliability, or cost. This book provides an introduction Sensor Data Fusion, as an information technology as well as a branch of engineering science and informatics. Part I presents a coherent methodological framework, thus providing th

  1. Application of data fusion on multi-function earth drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长胜; 赵伟民; 李瑰贤; 杨春蕾; 牛红; 胡长军

    2003-01-01

    taking the bucket of multi-function earth drill as an example, combining with the conception of multi-sensor integration and data fusion, adopting the terrene column chart and digging torque formula as control dependence, the detecting method of the earth drill's working state is introduced. Multi-sensor data fusion is done with the aid of BP neural network in Matlab. The data to be interfused are pre-processed and the program of simulation and "point checking" is given.

  2. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880{degrees}C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000{degrees}C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures.

  3. Mocr: a novel fusion tag for enhancing solubility that is compatible with structural biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelProposto, James; Majmudar, Chinmay Y; Smith, Janet L; Brown, William Clay

    2009-01-01

    A persistent problem in heterologous protein production is insolubility of the target protein when expressed to high level in the host cell. A widely employed strategy for overcoming this problem is the use of fusion tags. The best fusion tags promote solubility, may function as purification handles and either do not interfere with downstream applications or may be removed from the passenger protein preparation. A novel fusion tag is identified that meets these criteria. This fusion tag is a monomeric mutant of the Ocr protein (0.3 gene product) of bacteriophage T7. This fusion tag displays solubilizing activity with a variety of different passenger proteins. We show that it may be used as a purification handle similar to other fusion tags. Its small size and compact structure are compatible with its use in downstream applications of the passenger protein or it may be removed and purified away from the passenger protein. The use of monomeric Ocr (Mocr) as a complement to other fusion tags such as maltose-binding protein will provide greater flexibility in protein production and processing for a wide variety of protein applications.

  4. Direct energy conversion for IEC fusion for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momota, Hiromu; Nadler, Jon [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miley, George H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes a concept of extracting fusion power from D-{sup 3}He fueled IEC (Inertia Electrostatic Configuration) devices. The fusion system consists of a series of fusion modules and direct energy converters at an end or at both ends. This system of multiple units is linear and is connected by a magnetic field. A pair of coils anti-parallel to the magnetic field yields a field-null domain at the center of each unit as required for IEC operation. A stabilizing coil installed between the coil pairs eliminates the strong attractive force between the anti-parallel coils. Accessible regions for charged particle trajectories are essentially isolated from the coil structure. Thus, charged particles are directed along magnetic field lines to the direct energy converter without appreciable losses. A direct energy converter unit designed to be compatible to this unique system is also described. It basically consists of a separator and a traveling wave converter. A separator separates low energy ions and electron from the 14.7 MeV fusion protons and then converts their energy into electricity. In the traveling wave direct energy converter, fusion protons are modulated to form bunches. It couples with a transmission line to couple AC power out. The overall conversion efficiency of this system, combined with E-{sup 3}He IEC cores, is estimated as high as 60%. (author)

  5. Reactor applications of the compact fusion advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a D-T tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.A.; Logan, B.G.; Campbell, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    We have made a preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system based on the CFAR concept, and found that the performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low pressures and mass flow rates, a nearly isothermal module shell which minimizes problems of thermal distortion and stresses, and an insensitivity to pressure losses in the blanket so that the two-phase MHD pressure drops in the boilling part of the blanket and the ordinary vapor pressure drops in the pebble-bed superheating zones are acceptable (the direct result of pumping a liquid rather than having to compress a gas). There are no moving parts in the high-temperature MHD power generators, no steam bottoming plant is required, only small vapor precoolers and condensers are needed because of the high heat rejection trmperatures, and only a relatively small natural-draft heat exhanger is required to reject the heat to the atmosphere. The net result is a very compact fusion reactor and power conversion system which fit entirely inside an 18 meter radius reactor vault. Although we have not yet performed a detailed cost analysis, preliminary cost estimates indicate low capital costs and a very attractive cost of electricity. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Thick Nano-Crystalline Diamond films for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawedeit, Christoph [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-30

    This Diplomarbeit deals with the characterization of 9 differently grown diamond samples. Several techniques were used to determine the quality of these specimens for inertial confinement fusion targets. The quality of chemical vapor deposition diamond is usually considered in terms of the proportion of sp3-bonded carbon to sp2-bonded carbon in the sample. For fusion targets smoothness, Hydrogen content and density of the diamonds are further important characteristics. These characteristics are analyzed in this thesis. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institut für angewandte Festkörperphysik Freiburg, Germany. Additionally the Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik at Technical University of Germany supported the work.

  7. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  8. Application of Fusion Gyrotrons to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H.; Oglesby, K.

    2013-10-01

    The potential size of geothermal energy resources is second only to fusion energy. Advances are needed in drilling technology and heat reservoir formation to realize this potential. Millimeter-wave (MMW) gyrotrons and related technologies developed for fusion energy research could contribute to enabling EGS. Directed MMW energy can be used to advance rock penetration capabilities, borehole casing, and fracking. MMWs are ideally suited because they can penetrate through small particulate extraction plumes, can be efficiently guided long distances in borehole dimensions, and continuous megawatt sources are commercially available. Laboratory experiments with a 10 kW, 28 GHz CPI gyrotron have shown that granite rock can be fractured and melted with power intensities of about 1 kW/cm2 and minute exposure times. Observed melted rock MMW emissivity and estimated thermodynamics suggest that penetrating hot, hard crystalline rock formations may be economic with fusion research developed MMW sources. Supported by USDOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Impact Technologies, LLC.

  9. Entropy-functional-based online adaptive decision fusion framework with application to wildfire detection in video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Osman; Toreyin, Behçet Ugur; Kose, Kivanc; Cetin, A Enis

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, an entropy-functional-based online adaptive decision fusion (EADF) framework is developed for image analysis and computer vision applications. In this framework, it is assumed that the compound algorithm consists of several subalgorithms, each of which yields its own decision as a real number centered around zero, representing the confidence level of that particular subalgorithm. Decision values are linearly combined with weights that are updated online according to an active fusion method based on performing entropic projections onto convex sets describing subalgorithms. It is assumed that there is an oracle, who is usually a human operator, providing feedback to the decision fusion method. A video-based wildfire detection system was developed to evaluate the performance of the decision fusion algorithm. In this case, image data arrive sequentially, and the oracle is the security guard of the forest lookout tower, verifying the decision of the combined algorithm. The simulation results are presented.

  10. Application of data fusion techniques to direct geographical traceability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Michele; Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Salvatore, Elisa; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-03-26

    A hierarchical data fusion approach has been developed proposing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) as a variable reduction tool. The case study presented concerns the characterization of soil samples of the Modena District. It was performed in order to understand, at a pilot study stage, the geographical variability of the zone prior to planning a representative soils sampling to derive geographical traceability models for Lambrusco Wines. Soils samples were collected from four producers of Lambrusco Wines, located in in-plane and hill areas. Depending on the extension of the sampled fields the number of points collected varies from three to five and, for each point, five depth levels were considered. The different data blocks consisted of X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP) spectra, metals concentrations relative to thirty-four elements and the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic abundance ratio, a very promising geographical traceability marker. A multi steps data fusion strategy has been adopted. Firstly, the metals concentrations dataset was weighted and concatenated with the values of strontium isotopic ratio and compressed. The resolved components described common patterns of variation of metals content and strontium isotopic ratio. The X-ray powder spectra profiles were resolved in three main components that can be referred to calcite, quartz and clays contributions. Then, a high-level data fusion approach was applied by combining the components arising from the previous data sets. The results show interesting links among the different components arising from XRDP, the metals pattern and to which of these (87)Sr/(86)Sr Isotopic Ratio variation is closer. The combined information allowed capturing the variability of the analyzed soil samples.

  11. Conference Report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-02-01

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  12. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  13. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  14. Advanced SiC composites for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Schwarz, O.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This is a short review of the motivation for and progress in the development of ceramic matrix composites for fusion. Chemically vapor infiltrated silicon carbide (SiC) composites have been fabricated from continuous fibers of either SiC or graphite and tested for strength and thermal conductivity. Of significance is the the Hi-Nicalon{trademark} SiC based fiber composite has superior unirradiated properties as compared to the standard Nicalon grade. Based on previous results on the stability of the Hi-Nicalon fiber, this system should prove more resistant to neutron irradiation. A graphite fiber composite has been fabricated with very good mechnical properties and thermal conductivity an order of magnitude higher than typical SiC/SiC composites.

  15. Radio frequency heating of ceramic windows in fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.D. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Ceramic windows will be used as material barriers for radio frequency plasma heating in fusion reactors. This report examines the theory behind rf heating phenomena. Heating calculations are presented for various window materials, thicknesses, wavelengths, and power densities. The most pertinent material properties are loss tangent, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, strength, and radiation resistance. Calculations indicate that among candidate materials, beryllium oxide offers the most promise because of its large thermal conductivity and relatively low loss tangent and dielectric constant. On the other hand, beryllia is susceptible to neutron damage, and this may adversely affect its electrical properties. Another promising candidate is sapphire, particularly at lower temperatures where the thermal conductivity is high. Fused silica suffers from low thermal conductivity and large positive temperature coefficient for loss tangent, but it may be useful under some conditions. In summary, calculations of heating can lead to elimination of some candidate materials and selection of others for further study.

  16. Fusion d'images: application au contr\\^ole de la distribution des biopsies prostatiques

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Pierre; Chevreau, G; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the application of a 3D ultrasound data fusion technique to the 3D reconstruction of prostate biopies in a reference volume. The method is introduced and its evaluation on a series of data coming from 15 patients is described.

  17. MODELLING THERMODYNAMICS OF ALLOYS FOR FUSION APPLICATION . Semi annual report for the Fusion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, J A

    2007-07-31

    This research has two main objectives: (1) The development of computational tools to evaluate alloy properties, using the information contained in thermodynamic functions. We aim at improving the ability of classical potentials to account for complex alloy behavior; and (2) The application of these tools to predict properties of alloys under irradiation. Atomistic simulations of alloys at the empirical level face the challenge of correctly modeling basic thermodynamic properties. In the periods reported previously we develop a methodology to generalize many-body classic potentials to incorporate complex formation energy curves. Application to Fe-Cr allows us to predict the implications of the ab initio results of formation energy on the phase diagram of this alloy and to get a detailed insight into the processes leading to precipitation of {alpha}{prime} phase under irradiation. In particular in this period we report on the consequences of the negative heat of formation at low Cr composition on the short range order SRO existing in the {alpha} phase. We elaborate a simple description of SRO on a two phase alloy and compare the predictions with experiments. We provide a key to rationalize a diversity of experiments on SRO versus annealing time or irradiation dose.

  18. The Potential Use of Ultrasound-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fusion Applications in Musculoskeletal Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Bencardino, Jenny; Adler, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    We sought to assess the potential use of an application allowing real-time ultrasound spatial registration with previously acquired magnetic resonance imaging in musculoskeletal procedures. The ultrasound fusion application was used to perform a range of outpatient procedures including piriformis, sacroiliac joint, pudendal and intercostal nerve perineurial injections, hamstring-origin calcific tendonopathy barbotage, and 2 soft tissue biopsies at our institution in 2015. The application was used in a total of 7 procedures in 7 patients, all of which were technically successful. The ages of patients ranged from 19 to 86 years. Particular use of the fusion application compared to sonography alone was noted in the biopsy of certain soft tissue lesions and in perineurial therapeutic injections. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Bringing functions together with fusion enzymes--from nature's inventions to biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander

    2015-02-01

    It is a mammoth task to develop a modular protein toolbox enabling the production of posttranslational organized multifunctional enzymes that catalyze reactions in complex pathways. However, nature has always guided scientists to mimic evolutionary inventions in the laboratory and, nowadays, versatile methods have been established to experimentally connect enzymatic activities with multiple advantages. Among the oldest known natural examples is the linkage of two or more juxtaposed proteins catalyzing consecutive, non-consecutive, or opposing reactions by a native peptide bond. There are multiple reasons for the artificial construction of such fusion enzymes including improved catalytic activities, enabled substrate channelling by proximity of biocatalysts, higher stabilities, and cheaper production processes. To produce fused proteins, it is either possible to genetically fuse coding open reading frames or to connect proteins in a posttranslational process. Molecular biology techniques that have been established for the production of end-to-end or insertional fusions include overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and recombination approaches. Depending on their flexibility and applicability, these methods offer various advantages to produce fusion genes in high throughput, different orientations, and including linker sequences to maximize the flexibility and performance of fusion partners. In this review, practical techniques to fuse genes are highlighted, enzymatic parameters to choose adequate enzymes for fusion approaches are summarized, and examples with biotechnological relevance are presented including a focus on plant biomass-degrading glycosyl hydrolases.

  20. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, V.; Lim, H.; Melvin, J.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  1. Existing and new applications of micropellet injection (MPI) in magnetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Lunsford, Robert; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Nichols, Jacob H.

    2016-04-01

    > The intense heat and energetic particle fluxes expected in ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors pose prohibitive problems to the design, selection and maintenance of the first wall and divertor. Micropellet injection (MPI) technologies can offer some innovative solutions to the material and extreme heat challenges. Basic physics of micropellet motion, ablation and interactions with high-temperature plasmas and energetic particles are presented first. We then discuss MPI technology options and applications. In addition to plasma diagnostic applications, controlled injection of micropellets of different sizes, velocities and injection frequencies will offer several possibilities: (1) better assessment of the core plasma cooling due to dust produced in situ; (2) better understanding of the plasma-material interaction physics near the wall; (3) new methods for plasma fuelling and impurity control; and (4) techniques for edge cooling with minimal impact on the plasma core. Dedicated small-scale laboratory experiments will complement major fusion experiments in development and applications of MPI.

  2. Structured Multi-level Data Fusion and Modelling of Heterogeneous Environmental Data for Future Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Chakravarthy, Ajay; Bashevoy, Maxim; Modafferi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    important approach provides a strong basis for the delivery of environmental observations at desired spatial and temporal scales to multiple users with various needs of spatial and temporal resolutions. It has also led to building robust future internet specific enablers on data fusion, which can indeed be used for multiple usage areas above and beyond the environmental domains of the Future Internet. In this paper, data and processing workflow scenarios shall be described. The fucntionalities of the multi-level fusion services shall be demonstrated and made accessible to the wider communities of the Fututre Internet. [1] The Environmental Observation Web and its Service Applications within the Future Internet. ENVIROFI IP. FP7-2011-ICT-IF Pr.No: 284898 http://www.envirofi.eu/

  3. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  4. Uncertainty in Ontologies: Dempster-Shafer Theory for Data Fusion Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bellenger, Amandine

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays ontologies present a growing interest in Data Fusion applications. As a matter of fact, the ontologies are seen as a semantic tool for describing and reasoning about sensor data, objects, relations and general domain theories. In addition, uncertainty is perhaps one of the most important characteristics of the data and information handled by Data Fusion. However, the fundamental nature of ontologies implies that ontologies describe only asserted and veracious facts of the world. Different probabilistic, fuzzy and evidential approaches already exist to fill this gap; this paper recaps the most popular tools. However none of the tools meets exactly our purposes. Therefore, we constructed a Dempster-Shafer ontology that can be imported into any specific domain ontology and that enables us to instantiate it in an uncertain manner. We also developed a Java application that enables reasoning about these uncertain ontological instances.

  5. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-20

    The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of "precision medicine", "fusion imaging", "multimodality", and "tumor diagnosis and treatment". Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  6. Non-fusion applications of RF and microwave technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caughman, J.B.O.; Baity, F.W.; Bigelow, T.S.; Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Forrester, S.C.; White, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The processing of materials using rf and/or microwave power is a broad area that has grown significantly in the past few years. The authors have applied rf and microwave technology in the areas of ceramic sintering, plasma processing, and waste processing. The sintering of ceramics in the frequency range of 50 MHz-28 GHz has lead to unique material characteristics compared to materials that have been sintered conventionally. It has been demonstrated that sintering can be achieved in a variety of materials, including alumina, zirconia, silicon carbide, and boron carbide. In the area of plasma processing, progress has been made in the development and understanding of high density plasma sources, including inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources. The effects of processing conditions on the ion energy distribution at the substrate surface (a critical processing issue) have been determined for a variety of process gases. The relationship between modeling and experiment is being established. Microwave technology has also been applied to the treatment of radioactive and chemical waste. The application of microwaves to the removal of contaminated concrete has been demonstrated. Details of these programs and other potential application areas are discussed.

  7. Development status of CLAM steel for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qunying, E-mail: qunying.huang@fds.org.cn

    2014-12-15

    The China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) under wide collaboration within China. Significant R and D work on CLAM steel was carried out to help make it suitable for industrial applications. The effect of refining processes and thermal aging on composition, microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Material properties before irradiation including impact, fracture toughness, thermal aging, creep and fatigue properties etc. were assessed. A series of irradiation tests in the fission reactor HFETR in Chengdu up to 2 dpa and in the spallation neutron source SINQ in Paul Scherrer Institute up to 20 dpa were performed. PbLi corrosion tests for more than 10,000 h were done in the DRAGON-I and PICOLO loops. Fabrication techniques for a test blanket module (TBM) are being developed and a 1/3 scale TBM prototype is being fabricated with CLAM steel. Recent progresses on the development status of this steel are presented here. The code qualification of CLAM steel is under plan for its final application in ITER-TBM and DEMO in the future.

  8. Fusion of Imperfect Information in the Unified Framework of Random Sets Theory: Application to Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Informatique WGZ Anne-Laure Jousselme Éloi Bossé DRDC Valcartier Defence R&D Canada – Valcartier Technical Report DRDC Valcartier TR 2003-319 November 2007...Fusion of imperfect information in the unified framework of random sets theory Application to target identification Mihai Cristian Florea Informatique ...Cell CFB Esquimalt P.O. Box 17000 Stn Forces Victoria, British Columbia, V9A 7N2 Attn: Commanding Officer 1 M. C. Florea (author) Informatique WGZ inc

  9. Development of benchmark reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, H.; Gaganidze, E.; Hirose, T.; Ando, M.; Zinkle, S. J.; Lindau, R.; Diegele, E.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is the benchmark structural material for in-vessel components of fusion reactor. The current status of RAFM developments and evaluations is reviewed based on two leading RAFM steels, F82H and EUROFER-97. The applicability of various joining technologies for fabrication of fusion first wall and blanket structures, such as weld or diffusion bonding, is overviewed as well. The technical challenges and potential risks of utilizing RAFM steels as the structural material of in-vessel components are discussed, and possible mitigation methodology is introduced. The discussion suggests that deuterium-tritium fusion neutron irradiation effects currently need to be treated as an ambiguity factor which could be incorporated within the safety factor. The safety factor will be defined by the engineering design criteria which are not yet developed with regard to irradiation effects and some high temperature process, and the operating time condition of the in-vessel component will be defined by the condition at which those ambiguities due to neutron irradiation become too large to be acceptable, or by the critical condition at which 14 MeV fusion neutron irradiation effects is expected to become different from fission neutron irradiation effects.

  10. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ligorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor’s uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  11. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-26

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  12. Dust dynamics and diagnostic applications in quasi-neutral plasmas and magnetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catalin M.; Si, Jiahe; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Gianni; Wurden, Glen

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about dust dynamics in highly ionized quasi-neutral plasmas with ca. 1.0 e+20 per cubic meter density and ion temperature at a few eV and above, including in magnetic fusion. For example, dust motion in fusion, better known as UFO's, has been observed since 1980's but not explained. Solid understanding of dust dynamics is also important to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) because of concerns about safety and dust contamination of fusion core. Compared with well studied strongly-coupled dusty plasma regime, new physics may arise in the higher density quasi-neutral plasma regime because of at least four orders of magnitude higher density and two orders of magnitude hotter ion temperature. Our recent laboratory experiments showed that plasma-flow drag force dominates over other forces in a quasi-neutral flowing plasma. In contrast, delicate balance among different forces in dusty plasma has led to many unique phenomena, in particular, the formation of dust crystal. Based on our experiments, we argue that 1) dust crystal will not form in the highly ionized plasmas with flows; 2) the UFO's are moving dust dragged by plasma flows; 3) dust can be used to measure plasma flow. Two diagnostic applications using dust for laboratory quasi-neutral plasmas and magnetic fusion will also be presented.

  13. S-layer fusion proteins--construction principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Nicola; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2011-12-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are the outermost cell envelope component of many bacteria and archaea. S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membrane developed during evolution. The wealth of information available on the structure, chemistry, genetics and assembly of S-layers revealed a broad spectrum of applications in nanobiotechnology and biomimetics. By genetic engineering techniques, specific functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins while maintaining the self-assembly capability. These techniques have led to new types of affinity structures, microcarriers, enzyme membranes, diagnostic devices, biosensors, vaccines, as well as targeting, delivery and encapsulation systems.

  14. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposom...

  15. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  16. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  17. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  18. Supervised multimodal fusion and its application in searching joint neuromarkers of working memory deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shile Qi; Calhoun, Vince D; van Erp, Theo G M; Damaraju, Eswar; Bustillo, Juan; Yuhui Du; Turner, Jessica A; Mathalon, Daniel H; Ford, Judith M; Voyvodic, James; Mueller, Bryon A; Belger, Aysenil; McEwen, Sarah; Potkin, Steven G; Preda, Adrian; Birn, F; Tianzi Jiang; Jing Sui

    2016-08-01

    Multimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain disease. To date, most current fusion approaches are unsupervised; there is need for a multivariate method that can adopt prior information to guide multimodal fusion. Here we proposed a novel supervised fusion model, called "MCCAR+jICA", which enables both identification of multimodal co-alterations and linking the covarying brain regions with a specific reference signal, e.g., cognitive scores. The proposed method has been validated on both simulated and real human brain data. Features from 3 modalities (fMRI, sMRI, dMRI) obtained from 147 schizophrenia patients and 147 age-matched healthy controls were included as fusion input, who participated in the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) Phase III study. Our aim was to investigate the group co-alterations seen in three types of MRI data that are also correlated with working memory performance. One joint IC was found both significantly group-discriminating (p=7.4E-06, 0.001, 7.0E-09) and highly correlated with working memory scores(r=0.296, 0.241, 0.301) and PANSS negative scores (r=-0.229, -0.276, -0.240) for fMRI, dMRI and sMRI, respectively. Given the simulation and FBIRN results, MCCAR+jICA is shown to be an effective multivariate approach to extract accurate and stable multimodal components associated with a particular measure of interest, and promises a wide application in identifying potential neuromarkers for mental disorders.

  19. Application of the X-ray laser to muon-catalyzed d-t fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Sachie; 10.1080/10420150701777991

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the alpha-muon sticking coefficient in the muon-catalysed d-t fusion in the framework of the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model. Especially the influence of muonic chaotic dynamics on the sticking coefficient is brought into focus. The chaotic motion of the muon affects not only the fusion cross section but also the muon-alpha sticking coefficient. Chaotic systems lead to lar ger enhancements with respect to regular systems because of the reduction of the tunneling region. Moreover they give smaller sticking probabilities than those of regular events. By utilizing a characteristic of the chaotic dynamics one can avoid losing the muon in the muCF cycle. W e propose that the application of the so-called microwave ionization of a Rydberg atom to the present case could lead to the enhancement of the reactivation process by using X-rays.

  20. Application of the fault diagnosis strategy based on hierarchical information fusion in motors fault diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper has analyzed merits and demerits of both neural network technique and of the information fusion methods based on the D-S (dempster-shafer evidence) Theory as well as their complementarity, proposed the hierarchical information fusion fault diagnosis strategy by combining the neural network technique and the fused decision diagnosis based on D-S Theory, and established a corresponding functional model. Thus, we can not only solve a series of problems caused by rapid growth in size and complexity of neural network structure with diagnosis parameters increasing, but also can provide effective method for basic probability assignment in D-S Theory. The application of the strategy to diagnosing faults of motor bearings has proved that this method is of fairly high accuracy and reliability in fault diagnosis.

  1. Nanostructured rhodium films produced by pulsed laser deposition for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, M.; Dellasega, D.; Grosso, G.; Conti, C.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Bottani, C. E.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the possibilities offered by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the production of nanostructured rhodium films with improved properties are explored. Thanks to its high reflectivity and low sputtering yield, rhodium is one of the best candidates for the development of thin films to be used in first mirrors, which are crucial components in many diagnostic systems of thermonuclear magnetic fusion machines, like tokamaks. Due to the features of PLD, by varying the process parameters it is possible to tailor both the structure, i.e. the nanocrystalline domain size of the deposited films, down to less than 5 nm and separately control the other relevant physical properties. This leads to modifications in growth regime and annealing dynamics, in such a way that both morphology and reflectivity achieve the properties demanded to use these films as mirrors for fusion applications, opening at the same time new possibilities for the future improvement of thermo-mechanical and adhesion properties.

  2. Studies in ion source development for application in heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapica, Jonathan G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The overall purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the development of ion injector technology in order to produce a driver for use in a heavy-ion-fusion (HIF) power generating facility. The overall beam requirements for HIF are quite demanding; a short list of the constraints is the following: (1) Low cost (a large portion of overall cost will come from the beam system); (2) Bright, low emittance beam; (3) Total beam energy 5MJ; (4) Spot size 3mm (radius); (5) Pulse Duration 10ns; (6) Current on target 40kA; (7) Repetition Rate 5Hz; (8) Standoff from target 5m; and (9) Transverse Temp < 1 keV. The reasons for employing ion beams in inertial fusion systems become obvious when the repetition rate required is considered. While laser drivers are useful in producing a proof-of-concept, they will be incapable of application in power generation. Consequently attempts in the U.S. to achieve a power generating system make use of linear ion accelerators. It is apparent that the accelerator system requires the highest quality input as obtainable. Therefore injector design is an essential portion of the entire inertial fusion system. At Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories experiments are being conducted using two injector formats. For this project I have conducted a series of studies using both. The next two sections provide a brief description of the sources used for my experiments.

  3. Microstructural evolutions of friction stir welded F82H steel for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tani Gawa, Hiro Yasu [JAEA, Rokasho (Japan); Fujii, Hideto Shi [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kim Ura, Aki Hiko [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    A blanket is the most important component functionalized as plasma confining, tritium breeding, heat exchanging, and irradiation shielding from severe thermo neutron loads in a fusion reactor. Its structure consists of first walls, side walls, a back board, and coolant channels mainly made of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, which is the most promising candidate as a structural material for fusion reactors. To fabricate this blanket structure, some welding and joining methods have being carefully applied. However, when fusion welding, such as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, electron beam, and laser welding was performed between F82H and itself, the strength of welds significantly deteriorated due to the development of {delta} ferrite and precipitate dissolution. Post welding heat treatment (PWHT) should be followed to restore the initial microstructure. Nevertheless, microstructural discontinuity inevitably occurs between the weld metal, heat affected zone and base metal and this seriously degrades the entire structural stability under pulsed operation at high temperature in test blanket module (TBM). A phase transformation can also be an issue to be solved, which leads to a difficult replacement of the blanket module. Therefore, a reliable and field applicable joining technique should be developed not to accompany with PWHT after the joining process. Friction stir welding (FSW) is one of the solid state processes that does not create a molten zone at the joining area, so the degradation of the featured microstructures may be avoided or minimized. In this study, FSW was employed to join F82H steels to develop a potential joining technique for RAFM steel. The microstructural features on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of the FSW.

  4. Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel C; Villeneuve, Emma; White, Ruth J; Sherratt, R Simon; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William S

    2017-02-22

    Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs. This paper is intended to provide a short overview of data fusion techniques and algorithms that can be used to interpret wearable sensor data in the context of health monitoring applications. The application of these techniques are then described in the context of healthcare including activity and ambulatory monitoring, gait analysis, fall detection, and biometric monitoring. A snap-shot of current commercially available sensors is also provided, focusing on their sensing capability, and a commentary on the gaps that need to be bridged to bring research to market.

  5. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  6. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, J.C.; Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.O. [MER Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    SiC/SiC composites are considered for fusion applications due to their neutron irradiation stability, low activation, and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. The projected magnetic fusion power plant first wall and the divertor will operate with surface heat flux ranges of 0.5 to 1 and 4 to 6 MW/m{sup 2}, respectively. To maintain high thermal performance at operating temperatures the first wall and divertor coolant channels must have transverse thermal conductivity values of 5 to 10 and 20 to 30 W/mK, respectively. For these components exposed to a high energy neutron flux and temperatures perhaps exceeding 1000{degrees}C, SiC/SiC composites potentially can meet these demanding requirements. The lack of high-purity SiC fiber and a low through-the-thickness (transverse) thermal conductivity are two key technical problems with currently available SiC/SiC. Such composites, for example produced from Nicalon{trademark} fiber with a chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) matrix, typically exhibit a transverse conductivity value of less than 8 W/mK (unirradiated) and less than 3 W/mK after neutron irradiation at 800{degrees}C. A new SiC/SiC composite fabrication process has been developed at MER Corp. This paper describes this process, and the thermal and mechanical properties which are observed in this new composite material.

  7. Generation of the neutron response function of an NE213 scintillator for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, F.; Eriksson, J.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Nocente, M.; Sundén, E. Andersson

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present a method to evaluate the neutron response function of an NE213 liquid scintillator. This method is particularly useful when the proton light yield function of the detector has not been measured, since it is based on a proton light yield function taken from literature, MCNPX simulations, measurements of gamma-rays from a calibration source and measurements of neutrons from fusion experiments with ohmic plasmas. The inclusion of the latter improves the description of the proton light yield function in the energy range of interest (around 2.46 MeV). We apply this method to an NE213 detector installed at JET, inside the radiation shielding of the magnetic proton recoil (MPRu) spectrometer, and present the results from the calibration along with some examples of application of the response function to perform neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) of fusion plasmas. We also investigate how the choice of the proton light yield function affects the NES analysis, finding that the result does not change significantly. This points to the fact that the method for the evaluation of the neutron response function is robust and gives reliable results.

  8. GNSS-ISR data fusion: General framework with application to the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeter, Joshua; Hirsch, Michael; Lind, Frank; Coster, Anthea; Erickson, Philip; Pankratius, Victor

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical framework is presented for the fusion of electron density measured by incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and total electron content (TEC) measured using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Both measurements are treated as projections of an unknown density field (for GNSS-TEC the projection is tomographic; for ISR the projection is a weighted average over a local spatial region) and discrete inverse theory is applied to obtain a higher fidelity representation of the field than could be obtained from either modality individually. The specific implementation explored herein uses the interpolated ISR density field as initial guess to the combined inverse problem, which is subsequently solved using maximum entropy regularization. Simulations involving a dense meridional network of GNSS receivers near the Poker Flat ISR demonstrate the potential of this approach to resolve sub-beam structure in ISR measurements. Several future directions are outlined, including (1) data fusion using lower level (lag product) ISR data, (2) consideration of the different temporal sampling rates, (3) application of physics-based regularization, (4) consideration of nonoptimal observing geometries, and (5) use of an ISR simulation framework for optimal experiment design.

  9. Promise and Challenges of SiCf/SiC Composites for Fusion Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russell H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Giancarli, L. (CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Hasegawa, Akira (UNKNOWN); Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, Akira (UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO); Riccardi, B (ENEA-CR Frascati); Snead, Lance L.(UNKNOWN); Weber, William J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-12-30

    Silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix composites are a promising structural material for fusion energy applications. They have been specified in several recent fusion power plant design studies because of their high operating temperature (1000-1100?C) and hence high energy conversion efficiencies. Radiation resistance of the b-phase of SiC, excellent high-temperature fracture, creep, corrosion and thermal shock resistance and safety advantages arising from low induced radioactivity and afterheat are all positive attributes favoring the selection of SiCf/SiC composites. With the promise of these materials comes a number of challenges such as their thermal conductivity, radiation stability, gaseous transmutation rates, hermetic behavior and joining technology. Recent advances have been made in understanding radiation damage in SiC at the fundamental level through molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades. Radiation stability of composites made with the advanced fibers of Nicalon Type S and the UBE Tyranno SA, where no change in strength was observed up to 10 dpa at 800?C, in the development of materials with improved thermal conductivity, modeling of thermal conductivity, joining techniques and models for life-prediction. High transmutation rates of C and Si to form H, He, Mg, and Al continue to be a concern.

  10. Application of proton boron fusion reaction to radiation therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2014-12-01

    Three alpha particles are emitted from the point of reaction between a proton and boron. The alpha particles are effective in inducing the death of a tumor cell. After boron is accumulated in the tumor region, the emitted from outside the body proton can react with the boron in the tumor region. An increase of the proton's maximum dose level is caused by the boron and only the tumor cell is damaged more critically. In addition, a prompt gamma ray is emitted from the proton boron reaction point. Here, we show that the effectiveness of the proton boron fusion therapy was verified using Monte Carlo simulations. We found that a dramatic increase by more than half of the proton's maximum dose level was induced by the boron in the tumor region. This increase occurred only when the proton's maximum dose point was located within the boron uptake region. In addition, the 719 keV prompt gamma ray peak produced by the proton boron fusion reaction was positively detected. This therapy method features the advantages such as the application of Bragg-peak to the therapy, the accurate targeting of tumor, improved therapy effects, and the monitoring of the therapy region during treatment.

  11. A Review of the Application of Optical and Radar Remote Sensing Data Fusion to Land Use Mapping and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of complementary data available from remote sensing missions can hugely aid efforts towards accurately determining land use and quantifying subtle changes in land use management or intensity. This study reviewed 112 studies on fusing optical and radar data, which offer unique spectral and structural information, for land cover and use assessments. Contrary to our expectations, only 50 studies specifically addressed land use, and five assessed land use changes, while the majority addressed land cover. The advantages of fusion for land use analysis were assessed in 32 studies, and a large majority (28 studies concluded that fusion improved results compared to using single data sources. Study sites were small, frequently 300–3000 km 2 or individual plots, with a lack of comparison of results and accuracies across sites. Although a variety of fusion techniques were used, pre-classification fusion followed by pixel-level inputs in traditional classification algorithms (e.g., Gaussian maximum likelihood classification was common, but often without a concrete rationale on the applicability of the method to the land use theme being studied. Progress in this field of research requires the development of robust techniques of fusion to map the intricacies of land uses and changes therein and systematic procedures to assess the benefits of fusion over larger spatial scales.

  12. Optimal decision fusion and its application on 3D face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Qian; Rootseler, van Robin; Veldhuis, Raymond; Gehlen, Stefan; Weber, Frank; Bromme, A.; Busch, C.; Huhnlein, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple classifiers or multiple modalities in biometrics. In this paper, optimal decision fusion (ODF) by AND rule and OR rule is presented. We show that the decision fusion can be done in an optimal way such that it always gives an improvement in terms of er

  13. Threshold-optimized decision-level fusion and its application to biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to increase the reliability of biometric verification. In this paper, we propose an optimal fusion scheme at decision level by the AND or OR rule, based on optimizing matching score thresholds. The proposed fusion scheme will always give an improvement in the Neyman–Pear

  14. Liquid lithium applications for solving challenging fusion reactor issues and NSTX-U contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Steady-state fusion reactor operation presents major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both steady-state and transients. In addition, there are unresolved issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety concerns (Federici et al., 2001) . It has been suggested that radiative liquid lithium divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues, while potentially improving reactor plasma performance (Ono et al., 2013, 2014) . The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium (LL) divertor (RLLD) concept (Ono et al., 2013) and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept (ARLLD) (Ono et al., 2014) , taking advantage of the enhanced non-coronal Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It was estimated that only a few moles/s of lithium injection would be needed to significantly reduce the divertor heat flux in a tokamak fusion power plant. By operating at lower temperatures ≤450 °C than the first wall ∼600–700 °C, the LL-covered divertor chamber wall surfaces can serve as an effective particle pump, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature LL divertor surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ∼1 l/s (l/s) is envisioned to sustain the steady-state operation of a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant. By running the Li loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to outside where the dust/impurities are removed by relatively simple filter and cold/hot trap systems. Using a

  15. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek [Research Institute for Basic Science, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development.

  16. DETERMINGING BPA UNDER UNCERTAINTY ENVIRONMENTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN DATA FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yong; Jiang Wen; Xu Xiaobin; Li Qi; Wang Dong

    2009-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence has been widely used in many data fusion application systems. However, how to determine basic probability assignment, which is the main and the first step in evidence theory, is still an open issue. In this paper, a new method to obtain Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) is proposed based on the similarity measure between generalized fuzzy numbers. In the proposed method, species model can be constructed by determination of the min, average and max value to construct a fuzzy number. Then, a new Radius Of Gravity (ROG) method to determine the similarity measure between generalized fuzzy numbers is used to calculate the BPA functions of each instance. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by the classification of Iris data.

  17. Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kardaun, Otto J W F

    2005-01-01

    Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...

  18. Plasma etching to enhance the surface insulating stability of alumina for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the surface electrical conductivity of alumina, considered one of the most promising insulating materials for numerous applications in fusion devices, has been observed during ion bombardment in vacuum due to oxygen loss by preferential sputtering. Although this is expected to cause serious limitations to insulating components functionality, recent studies showed it is possible to restore the damaged lattice by oxygen reincorporation during thermal treatments in air. These studies also revealed a correlation between conductivity and ion beam induced luminescence, which is being used to monitor surface electrical conductivity degradation and help qualify the post irradiation recovery. Work now carried out for Wesgo alumina considers oxygen implantation and plasma etching as additional methods to improve recovered layer depth and quality. Both conductivity and luminescence results indicate the potential use of plasma etching not only for damage recovery, but also as a pre-treatment to enhance material stability during irradiation.

  19. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  20. High thermal conductivity SiC/SiC composites for fusion applications -- 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowbel, W.; Tsou, K.T.; Withers, J.C. [MER Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States); Youngblood, G.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23--24, 1997. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made with MER-developed CVR SiC fiber and a hybrid PIP/CVI SiC matrix exhibited room temperature transverse thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. An unirradiated SiC/SiC composite made from C/C composite totally CVR-converted to a SiC/SiC composite exhibited transverse thermal conductivity values of 75 and 35 W/mK at 25 and 1000 C, respectively. Both types of SiC/SiC composites exhibited non-brittle failure in flexure testing.

  1. A fusion algorithm for joins based on collections in Odra (Object Database for Rapid Application development)

    CERN Document Server

    Satish, Laika

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the functionality of a currently under development database programming methodology called ODRA (Object Database for Rapid Application development) which works fully on the object oriented principles. The database programming language is called SBQL (Stack based query language). We discuss some concepts in ODRA for e.g. the working of ODRA, how ODRA runtime environment operates, the interoperability of ODRA with .net and java .A view of ODRA's working with web services and xml. Currently the stages under development in ODRA are query optimization. So we present the prior work that is done in ODRA related to Query optimization and we also present a new fusion algorithm of how ODRA can deal with joins based on collections like set, lists, and arrays for query optimization.

  2. Prompt gamma-ray emission for future imaging applications in proton-boron fusion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, L.; La Rosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, an approach exploiting the proton therapy biological enhancement by using Boron atoms injected inside a tumor, has been proposed [1-3]. Here, the 11B(p,α)2α nuclear fusion reaction channel, where three alpha particles are produced with an average energy around 4 MeV, is considered [4]. These alphas are able to penetrate the cells nucleus and strongly damage their DNA. In addition, gamma prompts emitted by the proton Boron nuclear reactions can be used for on-line proton beam imaging purposes. In this work an experimental study of the gamma prompt emissions from the proton Boron nuclear reactions has been carried out with the main aim to understand and quantify the most probable emission for future clinical applications.

  3. Fusion of radiostereometric analysis data into computed tomography space: application to the elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, A; Arndt, A; Stark, A; Noz, M E; Maguire, G Q; Zeleznik, M P; Olivecrona, H

    2007-01-01

    Improvement of joint prostheses is dependent upon information concerning the biomechanical properties of the joint. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and electromagnetic techniques have been applied in previous cadaver and in vivo studies on the elbow joint to provide valuable information concerning joint motion axes. However, such information is limited to mathematically calculated positions of the axes according to an orthogonal coordinate system and is difficult to relate to individual skeletal anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo application of a new fusion method to provide three-dimensional (3D) visualization of flexion axes according to bony landmarks. In vivo RSA data of the elbow joint's flexion axes was combined with data obtained by 3D computed tomography (CT). Results were obtained from five healthy subjects after one was excluded due to an instable RSA marker. The median error between imported and transformed RSA marker coordinates and those obtained in the CT volume was 0.22 mm. Median maximal rotation error after transformation of the rigid RSA body to the CT volume was 0.003 degrees . Points of interception with a plane calculated in the RSA orthogonal coordinate system were imported into the CT volume, facilitating the 3D visualization of the flexion axes. This study demonstrates a successful fusion of RSA and CT data, without significant loss of RSA accuracy. The method could be used for relating individual motion axes to a 3D representation of relevant joint anatomy, thus providing important information for clinical applications such as the development of joint prostheses.

  4. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  5. Online Adaptive Decision Fusion Framework Based on Entropic Projections onto Convex Sets with Application to Wildfire Detection in Video

    CERN Document Server

    Gunay, Osman; Kose, Kivanc; Cetin, A Enis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an Entropy functional based online Adaptive Decision Fusion (EADF) framework is developed for image analysis and computer vision applications. In this framework, it is assumed that the compound algorithm consists of several sub-algorithms each of which yielding its own decision as a real number centered around zero, representing the confidence level of that particular sub-algorithm. Decision values are linearly combined with weights which are updated online according to an active fusion method based on performing entropic projections onto convex sets describing sub-algorithms. It is assumed that there is an oracle, who is usually a human operator, providing feedback to the decision fusion method. A video based wildfire detection system is developed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm in handling the problems where data arrives sequentially. In this case, the oracle is the security guard of the forest lookout tower verifying the decision of the combined algorithm. Simulation results are...

  6. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  7. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  8. Present status of beryllides for fusion and industrial applications in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Yoshinao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G3-23 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: mishima@materia.titech.ac.jp; Yoshida, Naoaki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Takahashi, Heishichiro [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ishida, Kiyohito [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aobayama 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kawamura, Hiroshi [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Iwadachi, Takaharu [Engineering Department, New Metals Division, NGK Insulators Ltd., 1 Maegata-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0825 (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuma, Ikuo [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aobayama 02, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sato, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata, Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo; Iwakiri, Hirotomo [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Uchida, Munenori [Engineering Department, New Metals Division, NGK Insulators Ltd., 1 Maegata-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0825 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Beryllides have remarkable characteristics besides their low density, such as high radiation resistance, high chemical stability, low hydrogen isotope retention and good high temperature mechanical strength especially for fusion applications. In order to have a practical usage for industrial applications, it is important to compile a set of quantitative data on such properties. It is also important to develop fabrication and processing paths to assure the processing of inherently brittle beryllides. The characterization and manufacturing technologies development have been carried out mainly on the Be{sub 12}Ti interemetallic compounds at the Be-rich side of the Be-Ti binary system. In the present paper, up-dated results on several properties are described for the compound fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and ingot metallurgy. Mechanical properties of the compounds having a duplex microstructure with neighboring phases are evaluated by compressive tests from room temperature to 1273 K. Radiation damage of the compound is preliminary studied by charged particle irradiation. Oxidation in air and the interaction with water vapor are evaluated. Thermal desorption of the deuterium is examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). Through these evaluations it seems that Be{sub 12}Ti is superior as neutron multiplier with respect to pure Be metal.

  9. Development of ODS FeCrAl for Compatibility in Fusion and Fission Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, B. A.; Dryepondt, S.; Unocic, K. A.; Hoelzer, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12-15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  10. A Bayes fusion method based ensemble classification approach for Brown cloud application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Krishnaveni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification is a recurrent task of determining a target function that maps each attribute set to one of the predefined class labels. Ensemble fusion is one of the suitable classifier model fusion techniques which combine the multiple classifiers to perform high classification accuracy than individual classifiers. The main objective of this paper is to combine base classifiers using ensemble fusion methods namely Decision Template, Dempster-Shafer and Bayes to compare the accuracy of the each fusion methods on the brown cloud dataset. The base classifiers like KNN, MLP and SVM have been considered in ensemble classification in which each classifier with four different function parameters. From the experimental study it is proved, that the Bayes fusion method performs better classification accuracy of 95% than Decision Template of 80%, Dempster-Shaferof 85%, in a Brown Cloud image dataset.

  11. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  12. One-dimensional Lagrangian implicit hydrodynamic algorithm for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    A new one-dimensional hydrodynamic algorithm, specifically developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) applications, is presented. The scheme uses a fully conservative Lagrangian formulation in planar, cylindrical, and spherically symmetric geometries, and supports arbitrary equations of state with separate ion and electron components. Fluid equations are discretized on a staggered grid and stabilized by means of an artificial viscosity formulation. The space discretized equations are advanced in time using an implicit algorithm. The method includes several numerical parameters that can be adjusted locally. In regions with low Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number, where stability is not an issue, they can be adjusted to optimize the accuracy. In typical problems, the truncation error can be reduced by a factor between 2 to 10 in comparison with conventional explicit algorithms. On the other hand, in regions with high CFL numbers, the parameters can be set to guarantee unconditional stability. The method can be integrated into complex ICF codes. This is demonstrated through several examples covering a wide range of situations: from thermonuclear ignition physics, where alpha particles are managed as an additional species, to low intensity laser-matter interaction, where liquid-vapor phase transitions occur.

  13. Automated Offline Arabic Signature Verification System using Multiple Features Fusion for Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The signature of a person is one of the most popular and legally accepted behavioral biometrics that provides a secure means for verification and personal identification in many applications such as financial, commercial and legal transactions. The objective of the signature verification system is to classify between genuine and forged signatures that are often associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal variability. Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features; it contains diacritics, ligatures, and overlapping. Because of lacking any form of dynamic information during the Arabic signature’s writing process, it will be more difficult to obtain higher verification accuracy. This paper addresses the above difficulty by introducing a novel offline Arabic signature verification algorithm. The key point is using multiple feature fusion with fuzzy modeling to capture different aspects of a signature individually in order to improve the verification accuracy. State-of-the-art techniques adopt the fuzzy set to describe the properties of the extracted features to handle a signature’s uncertainty; this work also employs the fuzzy variables to describe the degree of similarity of the signature’s features to deal with the ambiguity of questioned document examiner judgment of signature similarity. It is concluded from the experimental results that the verification system performs well and has the ability to reduce both False Acceptance Rate (FAR and False Rejection Rate (FRR.

  14. JDL level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2002-07-01

    The 1999 Joint Director of Labs (JDL) revised model incorporates five levels for fusion methodologies including level 0 for preprocessing, level 1 for object refinement, level 2 for situation refinement, level 3 for threat refinement, and level 4 for process refinement. The model was developed to define the fusion process. However, the model is only for automatic processing of a machine and does not account for human processing. Typically, a fusion architecture supports a user and thus, we propose a Level 5 User refinement to delineate the human from the machine in the process refinement. Typical human in the loop models do not deal with a machine fusion process, but only present the information to the human on a display. We seek to address issues for designing a fusion system which supports a user: trust, workload, attention and situation awareness. In this paper, we overview the need for a Level 5, the issues concerning the human for realizable fusion architectures, and examples where the human is instrumental in the fusion process such as group tracking.

  15. Model of constant probability event and its application in information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓勇; 施文康

    2004-01-01

    A model of constant probability event is constructed rigorously in event space of PSCEA. It is showed that the numerical-based fusion and the algebraic-based fusion have a consistent result when the weight is regarded as a constant probability event. From the point of view of algebra, we present a novel similarity measure in product space. Based on the similarity degree, we use a similarity aggregation method to fusion experts' evaluation. We also give a numerical example to illustrate the method.

  16. Application of carbon-aluminum nanostructures in divertor coatings from fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, V.; Lungu, C. P.; Vladoiu, R.; Epure, T. D.; Prodan, G.; Porosnicu, C.; Prodan, M.; Stanescu, I. M.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Dinca, V.; Zarovschi, V.

    2012-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon materials have increasingly attracted the interest of the scientific community, because of their fascinating physical properties and potential applications in high-tech devices. In the current ITER design, the tiles made of carbon fiber composites (CFCs) are foreseen for the strike point zone and tungsten (W) for other parts of the divertor region. This choice is a compromise based mainly on experience with individual materials in many different tokamaks. Also Carbon-Aluminum composites are the candidate material for the First Wall in ITER. In order to prepare nanostructured carbon-aluminum nanocomposite for the divertor part in fusion applications, the original method thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) was used in two electronic guns configuration. One of the main advantages of this technology is the bombardment of the growing thin film just by the ions of the depositing film. Moreover, the energy of ions can be controlled. Thermo-electrons emitted by an externally heated cathode and focused by a Wehnelt focusing cylinder are strongly accelerated towards the anode whose material is evaporated and bright plasma is ignited by a high voltage DC supply. The nanostructured C-Al films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties in dry sliding were evaluated using a CSM ball-on-disc tribometer. The carbon - aluminum films were identified as a nanocrystals complex (from 2nm to 50 nm diameters) surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films. The friction coefficients (0.1 - 0.2, 0.5) of the C-Al coatings was decreased more than 2-5 times in comparison with the uncoated substrates proving excellent tribological properties. C-Al nanocomposites coatings were designed to have excellent tribological properties while the structure is composed by nanocrystals complex surrounded by amorphous structures

  17. Electron microscopy characterization of some carbon based nanostructures with application in divertors coatings from fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, V.; Morjan, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Vladoiu, R.; Prodan, G.; Prodan, M.; Zarovschi, V.; Porosnicu, C.; Stanescu, I. M.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Dinca, V.; Sugiyama, K.

    2011-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon materials have increasingly attracted the interest of the scientific community, because of their fascinating physical properties and potential applications in high-tech devices. In the current ITER design, the tiles made of carbon fiber composites (CFCs) are foreseen for the strike point zone and tungsten (W) for other parts of the divertor region. This choice is a compromise based mainly on experience with individual materials in many different tokamaks. Also Beryllium is the candidate material for the First Wall in ITER. In order to prepare nanostructured carbon-tungsten nanocomposite for the divertor part in fusion applications, the original method thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) was used in two electronic guns configuration. One of the main advantages of this technology is the bombardment of the growing thin film just by the ions of the depositing film. The nanostructured C-W and C-Be films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The C-W films were identified as a nanocrystals complex (5 nm average diameter) surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films. The C-Be films are polycrystalline with mean grain size about 15 nm. The friction coefficients (0.15 - 0.35) of the C-W coatings was decreased more than 3-5 times in comparison with the uncoated substrates proving excellent tribological properties. C-W nanocomposites coatings were designed to have excellent tribological properties while the structure is composed by nanocrystals complex surrounded by amorphous structures with a strong graphitization tendency, allowing the creating of adherent and wear resistant films.&updat

  18. Clinical application of anterior cervical decompression and fusion under METRx system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue; ZHANG Xia; WANG Wei-dong; LI Chang-qing; CHU Tong-wei; ZHANG Zheng-feng; WANG Jian; ZHENG Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and effect of anterior cervical decompression and fusion under METRx system. Methods: Between Nov. 2001 and Nov. 2003, totally 23 consecutive patients were performed anterior cervical decompression and fusion under METRx system. The clinical outcome was evaluated by Odom standard. Results: Decompression and fusion along with internal fixation was obtained in all the 23 patients with minimal tissue damage and operation-caused scar. There were no wound infection, neurological injuries, throat discomfort and other complications. The total rate of excellent and good outcome in patients with degenerative cervical diseases was 94%. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and fusion can be performed under METRx system with its own advantages, such as minimal tissue damage and operation-caused scar, less throat discomfort.

  19. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  20. Application of Multi-Sensors Information Fusion for Self-protection System of Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a kind of robot self-protection system using the multi-sensors information fusion technology. This system used five groups of photoelectric sensor and ultrasonic sensor which were installed in different direction of the robot. In this study, signals were gathered by using the complement of ranging of photoelectric sensor and ultrasonic sensor. Then the signals were sent to MCU to achieve multi-sensors information fusion.Core fusion technology was the adaptive weighted fusion estimation algorithm, which can make measurement data more accurate. With such technology, an accurate robot self-protection command was made as to avoid obstacles, to judge narrow highland and to prevent dropping. The experiment results validated its good self-protection function.

  1. Multiscale Multisensor Data Fusion and Application in High Precision Marking and Cutting Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The multisensor online measure system for high precision marking and cutting robot system is designed and the data fusion method is introduced, which combines augment state multiscale process with extend Kalman filter. The technology measuring the three-dimensional deforming information of profiled bars is applied. The experimental result shows that applying the multisensor data fusion technology can enhance the measure precision and the reliability of measure system.

  2. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data.

  3. A generic framework for context-dependent fusion with application to landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul D.; Chamseddine Ben Abdallah, Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    We present a novel method for fusing the results of multiple landmine detection algorithms that use different types of features and different classification methods. Our approach, called Context Extraction for Local Fusion (CELF), is motivated by the fact that the relative performance of different detectors can vary significantly depending on the mine type, geographical site, soil and weather conditions, and burial depth. CELF is a local approach that adapts the fusion method to different regions of the feature space. It is based on a novel objective function that combines context identification and multi-algorithm fusion criteria into a joint objective function. This objective function is defined and optimized to produce contexts via unsupervised clustering while simultaneously providing optimal fusion parameters for each context. Results on large and diverse Ground Penetrating Radar data collections show that the proposed method can identify meaningful and coherent contexts and that different expert algorithms can be identified for the different contexts. Typically, the contexts correspond to groups of alarm signatures that share common attributes such as mine type, geographical site, soil and weather conditions. Our initial experiments have also indicated that the proposed context-dependent fusion outperforms all individual detectors and other standard fusion methods.

  4. Application of data fusion method to fault diagnosis of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chun-li; XIA Hong; LIU Yong-kuo

    2005-01-01

    The work condition of nuclear power plant (NPP) is very bad, which makes it has faults easily. In order to diagnose the faults real time, the fusion diagnosis system is built. The data fusion fault diagnosis system adopts data fusion method and divides the fault diagnosis into three levels, which are data fusion level, feature level and decision level. The feature level uses three parallel neural networks whose structures are the same. The purpose of using neural networks is mainly to get basic probability assignment (BPA) of D-S evidence theory, and the neural networks in feature level are used for local diagnosis. D-S evidence theory is adopted to integrate the local diagnosis results in decision level. The reactor coolant system is the study object and we choose 2# steam generator U-tubes break of the reactor coolant system as a diagnostic example. The experiments prove that the fusion diagnosis system can satisfy the fault diagnosis requirement of complicated system, and verify that the fusion fault diagnosis system can realize the fault diagnosis of NPP on line timely.

  5. Additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel by electron beam melting for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Liu, Leifeng; Koptyug, Andrey; Wikman, Stefan; Olsen, Jon; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by one of the metal additive manufacturing methods, Electron Beam Melting® (EBM®). Solid specimens of SS316L with 99.8% relative density were prepared from gas atomized precursor powder granules. After the EBM® process the phase remains as austenite and the composition has practically not been changed. The RCC-MR code used for nuclear pressure vessels provides guidelines for this study and tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C (RT) and 250 °C (ET). This work provides the first set of mechanical and microstructure data of EBM® SS316L for nuclear fusion applications. The mechanical testing shows that the yield strength, ductility and toughness are well above the acceptance criteria and only the ultimate tensile strength of EBM® SS316L is below the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterizations reveal the presence of hierarchical structures consisting of solidified melt pools, columnar grains and irregular shaped sub-grains. Lots of precipitates enriched in Cr and Mo are observed at columnar grain boundaries while no sign of element segregation is shown at the sub-grain boundaries. Such a unique microstructure forms during a non-equilibrium process, comprising rapid solidification and a gradient 'annealing' process due to anisotropic thermal flow of accumulated heat inside the powder granule matrix. Relations between process parameters, specimen geometry (total building time) and sub-grain structure are discussed. Defects are formed mainly due to the large layer thickness (100 μm) which generates insufficient bonding between a few of the adjacently formed melt pools during the process. Further studies should focus on adjusting layer thickness to improve the strength of EBM® SS316L and optimizing total building time.

  6. Progress in lattice Boltzmann methods for magnetohydrodynamic flows relevant to fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, M.J. [MetaHeuristics LLC, 3944 State St., Ste. 350, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 (United States)], E-mail: martin@metah.com; Premnath, K.N. [MetaHeuristics LLC, 3944 State St., Ste. 350, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 (United States); UCSB, Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A. [UCLA, MAE Department, 44-114 Engineering IV, 420 Westwood Pza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, an approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The dynamics of the flow are simulated using a so-called multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), in which a source term is included for the Lorentz force. The evolution of the magnetic induction is represented by introducing a vector distribution function and then solving an appropriate lattice kinetic equation for this function. The solution of both distribution functions are obtained through a simple, explicit, and computationally efficient stream-and-collide procedure. The use of the MRT collision term enhances the numerical stability over that of a single relaxation time approach. To apply the methodology to solving practical problems, a new extrapolation-based method for imposing magnetic boundary conditions is introduced and a technique for simulating steady-state flows with low magnetic Prandtl number is developed. In order to resolve thin layers near the walls arising in the presence of high magnetic fields, a non-uniform gridding strategy is introduced through an interpolated-streaming step applied to both distribution functions. These advances are particularly important for applications in fusion engineering where liquid metal flows with low magnetic Prandtl numbers and high Hartmann numbers are introduced. A number of MHD benchmark problems, under various physical and geometrical conditions are presented, including 3-D MHD lid driven cavity flow, high Hartmann number flows and turbulent MHD flows, with good agreement with prior data. Due to the local nature of the method, the LBM also demonstrated excellent performance on parallel machines, with almost linear scaling up to 128 processors for a MHD flow problem.

  7. 航迹融合算法在多传感器融合中的应用%Application of the Track Fusion in Multi-sensor Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪怡; 李一兵; 李志刚

    2012-01-01

    The track fusion is an important aspect in the multi-sensor data fusion. Because of the public noise, the track estimate errors from the different sensors are not independent in the state estimate fusion system. So the fu sion problem becomes complex. This article researched the simple fusion, adaptive track fusion and weighted covari ance fusion. The comparison of data fusion methods shows that adaptive track fusion and weighted covariance fusion is effective to multi-sensor data fusion. The simulation indicates that the algorithm has preferable fusion result.%研究寻的制导优化控制问题,针对传统单一传感器导引不能满足性能要求,提出采用多传感器复合制导.航迹融合是多传感器数据融合中一个非常重要的方面.由于公共过程噪声的原因,使在应用状态估计融合系统中,来自不同传感器的航迹估计误差未必有独立性,为了使航迹与航迹关联和融合,提出自适应航迹和协方差加权航迹融合的算法.通过仿真研究说明自适应航迹融合和协方差加权航迹融合的算法对多传感器数据融合技术有很明显的作用,数据融合效果好,为复合寻的制导优化设计提供了依据.

  8. Kernel-Based Sensor Fusion With Application to Audio-Visual Voice Activity Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dov, David; Talmon, Ronen; Cohen, Israel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multiple view data fusion in the presence of noise and interferences. Recent studies have approached this problem using kernel methods, by relying particularly on a product of kernels constructed separately for each view. From a graph theory point of view, we analyze this fusion approach in a discrete setting. More specifically, based on a statistical model for the connectivity between data points, we propose an algorithm for the selection of the kernel bandwidth, a parameter, which, as we show, has important implications on the robustness of this fusion approach to interferences. Then, we consider the fusion of audio-visual speech signals measured by a single microphone and by a video camera pointed to the face of the speaker. Specifically, we address the task of voice activity detection, i.e., the detection of speech and non-speech segments, in the presence of structured interferences such as keyboard taps and office noise. We propose an algorithm for voice activity detection based on the audio-visual signal. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms competing fusion and voice activity detection approaches. In addition, we demonstrate that a proper selection of the kernel bandwidth indeed leads to improved performance.

  9. Application of D-S Evidence Fusion Method in the Fault Detection of Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity and dangerousness of drying process, the fault detection of temperature sensor is very difficult and dangerous in actual working practice and the detection effectiveness is not satisfying. For this problem, in this paper, based on the idea of information fusion and the requirements of D-S evidence method, a D-S evidence fusion structure with two layers was introduced to detect the temperature sensor fault in drying process. The first layer was data layer to establish the basic belief assignment function of evidence which could be realized by BP Neural Network. The second layer was decision layer to detect and locate the sensor fault which could be realized by D-S evidence fusion method. According to the numerical simulation results, the working conditions of sensors could be described effectively and accurately by this method, so that it could be used to detect and locate the sensor fault.

  10. Application of Multi-information Fusion Positioning Technology in Robot Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Against to the presence of high complexity, low accuracy and a smaller range of positioning in traditional positioning technologies (WLAN, RFID and visual positioning technology, it presents the multi-information fusion positioning technology. The technology takes full advantage of WLAN, RFID and visual positioning technology which chooses Kalman filter for WLAN and RFID information fusion location, and uses visual for positioning after close to the target. Experimental results show that: This technology reduces deviations of WLAN, RFID and visual positioning technology during alone positioning, improves positional accuracy and better meets the positioned requirements of indoor mobile robots.

  11. Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics Model and its Application to Fusion Reaction Near Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An improved quantum molecular dynamics model is proposed. By using this model, the properties of ground state of nuclei from 6Li to 208Pb can be described very well with one set of parameters. The fusion reactions for 40Ca+90Zr, 40Ca+96Zr and 48Ca+90Zr at the energy near the barrier are studied by this model. The experimental data of the fusion cross sections for 40Ca+90,96Zr at the energy near the barrier can be reproduced remarkably well without introducing any new parameters. The mechanism

  12. Materials studies for magnetic fusion energy applications at low temperatures, volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Tobler, R. L.

    1989-11-01

    The results are given of a research program to determine the properties of materials that may be used in cryogenic structures for the superconducting magnets of fusion energy power plants and prototypes. The program was developed jointly by the staffs of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Office of Fusion Energy of the Department of Energy. Research results for 1988 are presented in technical papers under four headings that reflect the main program areas: Structural Alloys; Welding; Technology Transfer; and United States-Japan Development of Test Standards. Objectives and research highlights are summarized in the introduction to each program area.

  13. Development of a Multifilament PIT V3Ga Conductor for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distin, J.S.; Ghosh, A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.

    2011-08-03

    Previous studies on V{sub 3}Ga assert its suitability for use in proposed fusion reactors. V{sub 3}Ga may outperform Nb{sub 3}Sn in a fusion reactor environment based on its relatively flat critical-current profile in the 15 T-20 T range, resilience to applied strain, and reduced risk of induced radioactivity. A multifilament powder-in-tube V{sub 3}Ga conductor was designed, fabricated and tested with a focus on evaluating critical current versus applied field and applied strain performance, wire drawing difficulties, heat-treatment optimization, and overall feasibility of the concept.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 from ilmenite by caustic fusion process for photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, J. E.; Soepriyanto, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the use of TiO2 from Indonesian ilmenite will be developed using caustic fusion process and made into photocatalyst product that will be applied for water treatment applications. The research procedures include caustic fusion process involving the mixing of NaOH and ilmenite with a ratio of 1 : 4 at 650°C for 120 minutes. The result from this caustic fusion process, i.e. frit, was then washed with water and followed by acid leaching using sulfuric acid 45% to obtain precursor TiOSO4. This precursor was then hydrolyzed to produce white precipitates in the form of sol TiO(OH)2 which was then condensed for 24 hours. The precipitate was washed and dried before calcined at a temperature of 500°C for 1 hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis is included to show the phases, morphology and the final composition of the synthesized TiO2 powder. UV-Vis Spectrometry was also used to calculate the band-gap energy and the photocatalytic ability of the synthesized TiO2 in the purification process of rhodamin-B.

  15. Physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of aluminum nitride insulator coatings for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1996-04-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of various concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. Based on the requirements for an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the MHD pressure drop during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, AlN was selected as a candidate coating material for the Li self-cooled blanket concept. This report discusses the results from an ongoing study of physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of AlN electrical insulator coatings in a liquid Li environment. Details are presented on the AlN coating fabrication methods, and experimental data are reported for microstructures, chemistry of coatings, pretreatment of substrate, heat treatment of coatings, hardness data for coatings, coating/lithium interactions, and electrical resistance before and after exposure to lithium. Thermodynamic calculations are presented to establish regions of stability for AlN coatings in an Li environment as a function of O concentration and temperature, which can aid in-situ development of AlN coatings in Li.

  16. The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccari, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at \\url{http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/} and on...

  17. An Existential Perspective on Differentiation/Fusion: Theoretical Issues and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara E.

    1985-01-01

    Calls for a recognition of existential issues in family therapy. Notes the importance of "big questions" to families, reviews the roots of existential philosophy therapy, and offers an example of the usefulness of connecting existential thought to the family field by discussing differentiation/fusion from an existential perspective. (BH)

  18. Materials Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion: growth and characterization of coatings with nuclear applications; Laboratorio de Materiales en el Instituto de Fusion Nuclear: crecimiento y caracterizacion de recubrimientos con aplicaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Gordillo, N.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Fernandez-Martinez, I.; Wennberg, A.; Rivera, A.; Pena, O.; Briones, F.; Perlado, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the capabilities of the new materials lab located at the Instituto de Fusion Nuclear to develop coating for nuclear applications. The main objectives of the lab are described: (a) design of coatings which fulfil industrial requirements and (b) development of the need instrumentation to coat non-planar surfaces, i.e. inner and outer surface of pipes. Some examples of radiation resistance materials (self-healing) will be shown. Moreover, we present some new solution with improved corrosion resistance when facing liquid metals to conform the cooling system of future fission and fusion nuclear reactors. (Author)

  19. 小波变换在动态估计和数据融合中的应用%Application of wavelet in dynamic estimation and data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵巍; 赵志国; 晁锐; 潘泉

    2001-01-01

    The application of Wavelet in dynamic estimatio n and data fusion is introduced in this paper; an optimal real-time multiscale estimation and fusion algorithm for dynamic system is given.%介绍了小波变换在动态估计和数据融合 中的应用,给出了一种实时的最优动态多尺度估计和融合算法。

  20. Image fusion using wavelet transform and its application to asymmetric cryptosystem and hiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K

    2014-03-10

    Image fusion is a popular method which provides better quality fused image for interpreting the image data. In this paper, color image fusion using wavelet transform is applied for securing data through asymmetric encryption scheme and image hiding. The components of a color image corresponding to different wavelengths (red, green, and blue) are fused together using discrete wavelet transform for obtaining a better quality retrieved color image. The fused color components are encrypted using amplitude- and phase-truncation approach in Fresnel transform domain. Also, the individual color components are transformed into different cover images in order to result disguising information of input image to an attacker. Asymmetric keys, Fresnel propagation parameters, weighing factor, and three cover images provide enlarged key space and hence enhanced security. Computer simulation results support the idea of the proposed fused color image encryption scheme.

  1. [Application of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging in reservoir characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zha, Ming; Guo, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Yong

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, spectral imaging technique has been applied widely in mineralogy and petrology. The technique combines the spectral technique with imaging technique. The samples can be analyzed and recognized both in spectra and space by using the technique. However, the problem is how to acquire the needful information from a large number of data of spectral imaging, and how to enhance the needful information. In the present paper, the experimental data were processed by using the technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging. The space distribution map of chemical composition and physical parameters of samples were obtained. The result showed that the distribution of different hydrocarbon in the reservoirs, pore connectivity, etc. were revealed well. The technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging provided a new method for reservoir characterization.

  2. a Two-Step Decision Fusion Strategy: Application to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Images for Urban Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghemmi, W.; Le Bris, A.; Chehata, N.; Mallet, C.

    2017-05-01

    Very high spatial resolution multispectral images and lower spatial resolution hyperspectral images are complementary sources for urban object classification. The first enables a fine delineation of objects, while the second can better discriminate classes and consider richer land cover semantics. This paper presents a decision fusion scheme taking advantage of both sources classification maps, to produce a better classification map. The proposed method aims at dealing with both semantic and spatial uncertainties and consists in two steps. First, class membership maps are merged at pixel level. Several fusion rules are considered and compared in this study. Secondly, classification is obtained from a global regularization of a graphical model, involving a fit-to-data term related to class membership measures and an image based contrast sensitive regularization term. Results are presented on three datasets. The classification accuracy is improved up to 5 %, with comparison to the best single source classification accuracy.

  3. Doping-Induced Isotopic Mg11B2 Bulk Superconductor for Fusion Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting wires are widely used for fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. Superconducting magnet system represents a key determinant of the thermal efficiency and the construction/operating costs of such a reactor. In consideration of the stability of 11B against fast neutron irradiation and its lower induced radioactivation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as the boron source is an alternative candidate for use in fusion reactors with a severe high neutron flux environment. In the present work, the glycine-doped Mg11B2 bulk superconductor was synthesized from isotopic 11B powder to enhance the high field properties. The critical current density was enhanced (103 A·cm−2 at 20 K and 5 T over the entire field in contrast with the sample prepared from natural boron.

  4. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  5. Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Aktaa, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Armstrong, D.E.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue, de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Basuki, W.W. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Battabyal, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP EPFL - Materials, 5232 Villigen/PSI (Switzerland); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Blagoeva, D. [NRG, Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Boldyryeva, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Praha (Czech Republic); and others

    2013-01-15

    The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

  6. Performance evaluation of multi-sensor data fusion technique for test range application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shrabani Bhattacharya; R Appavu Raj

    2004-04-01

    We have adopted the state-vector fusion technique for fusing multiple sensors track data to provide complete and precise trajectory information about the flight vehicle under test, for the purpose of flight safety monitoring and decisionmaking at Test Range. The present paper brings out the performance of the algorithm for different process noise and measurement noise using simulated as well as real track data.

  7. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  8. Using Bayesian Programming for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Coué, Christophe; Fraichard, Thierry; Bessiere, Pierre; Mazer, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; A prerequisite to the design of future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems for cars is a sensing sytem providing all the information required for high-level driving assistance tasks. Carsense is a European project whose purpose is to develop such a new sensing system. It will combine different sensors (laser, radar and video) and will rely on the fusion of the information coming from these sensors in order to achieve better accuracy, robustness and an increase of the in...

  9. A Discussion of Dempster-Shafer Theory and its Application to Identification Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    in Bayesian Belief Networks was also given by the same author [5]. Maskell [6] addressed a well-known problem of handling conflicting information by... Bayesian fusion techniques give a similar result to DST approaches when prior information is not carefully defined [6]. 4 Alternative Rules of...of the PiT claim that it takes the most prudent betting criterion . Advocates of the PlT claim that it most closely resembles Bayesian probability

  10. An Automatic Registration-Fusion Scheme Based on Similarity Measures: An Application to Dental Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    images, the specialist can then perform any quantitative comparisons, concerning the evolution of abnormalities (cysts, tooth decay etc.) or healing...images to evaluate the progression of pathological conditions, such as cysts or tooth decays , or healing processes, as well as the assessment of the...calculation of similarity measures between two dental radiographic images to be registered. Moreover, a fusion process has been developed to combine

  11. Selected Tracking and Fusion Applications for the Defence and Security Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Geographical information systems Own resources Doctrines ... Figure 1: Overview of the JDL -Model of Sensor Data and Information Fusion [1, Chapter...Directors of Laboratories ( JDL ), an advisory board to the US Department of Defense, coined the technical term “Sensor Data and Information Fusion” in...1, Chapter 2, p. 24]. To the present day, the scientific fu- sion community speaks of the “ JDL Model of Information Fusion” and its subsequent

  12. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Xie, Chunhe; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Shou, Yehang; Tang, Yongchuan

    2016-09-15

    Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B), can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection.

  13. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B, can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster–Shafer (D-S evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection.

  14. Application of tridimensional intravertebral bone graft combined with AxiaLIF technique in lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Duan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nLumbar interbody fusion techniques are becoming more and more minimally invasive. AxiaLIF technique can be used in low back pain caused by degenerative disc disease or minor spondylolisthesis, but there are risks for fusion failure. Intravertebral bone graft is performed in painful osteoporotic or posttraumatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs. Until now, no attempt has been made to apply intravertebral bone graft with AxiaLIF technique."nSo first, we hypothesize a novel method for tridimensional intravertebral bone graft with a special designed bone grafting instrument and describe it vividly. The special instrument would mainly consist of a hollow tube and a rod, the distal parts of them would be shape into 45o slope, so the direction of grafting would be decided by the slope. By rotating the tube we can deliver cancellous bone granules in one plane, but by retreating the tube we can perform tridimensional intravertebral bone graft. Second, intravertebral bone graft is supposed to be performed combined with AxiaLIF technique in order to create biologic vertebral reconstruction and raise fusion rate. We believe this is the first description of such a method, future clinical studies are needed to validate these hypotheses.

  15. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes as design tools for inertial confinement fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A; MartInez-Val, J M [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 - Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F; Lafuente, A [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 - Madrid (Spain); Munoz, J [Fundacion para el Fomento de la Innovacion Industrial, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 - Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es

    2008-05-15

    The engineering design of the new innovative fusion reactors constitutes a clear challenge for the need to overcome several new technological edges in every engineering aspect. The great amount of thermal energy delivered into any inertial fusion chamber and the large temperatures and thermal gradients that are envisaged, joined to the even more demanding aspects related to neutron activation, Tritium breeding and the characteristics that are imposed to the coolant that could be used for that purpose, converged into material selection in which liquid metal seems to be one of the most interesting options. The safety assessment of such Fusion reactors should be clearly provided to fulfill the requirements asked by the Regulatory Bodies in a near-term future, when licensing will be a must. Therefore the availability of well proven and validated engineering design tools is a must. In this context, CFD is one of the tools that are potentially needed for thermal-hydraulic design of such complex machines. The state-of-the-art of CFD technologies will be shown, in particular in relation with liquid metals.

  16. Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes as design tools for inertial confinement fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abánades, A.; Sordo, F.; Lafuente, A.; Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    The engineering design of the new innovative fusion reactors constitutes a clear challenge for the need to overcome several new technological edges in every engineering aspect. The great amount of thermal energy delivered into any inertial fusion chamber and the large temperatures and thermal gradients that are envisaged, joined to the even more demanding aspects related to neutron activation, Tritium breeding and the characteristics that are imposed to the coolant that could be used for that purpose, converged into material selection in which liquid metal seems to be one of the most interesting options. The safety assessment of such Fusion reactors should be clearly provided to fulfill the requirements asked by the Regulatory Bodies in a near-term future, when licensing will be a must. Therefore the availability of well proven and validated engineering design tools is a must. In this context, CFD is one of the tools that are potentially needed for thermal-hydraulic design of such complex machines. The state-of-the-art of CFD technologies will be shown, in particular in relation with liquid metals.

  17. Application of Preoperative CT/MRI Image Fusion in Target Positioning for Deep Brain Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Zi-yuan Liu; Wan-chen Dou; Wen-bin Ma; Ren-zhi Wang; Yi Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of target positioning by preoperative CT/MRI image fusion technique in deep brain stimulation. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and images of 79 cases (68 with Parkinson’s disease, 11 with dystonia) who received preoperative CT/MRI image fusion in target positioning of subthalamic nucleus in deep brain stimulation. Deviation of implanted electrodes from the target nucleus of each patient were measured. Neurological evaluations of each patient before and after the treatment were performed and compared. Complications of the positioning and treatment were recorded. Results The mean deviations of the electrodes implanted on X, Y, and Z axis were 0.5 mm, 0.6 mm, and 0.6 mm, respectively. Postoperative neurologic evaluations scores of unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) for Parkinson’s disease and Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) for dystonia patients improved significantly compared to the preoperative scores (P<0.001); Complications occurred in 10.1% (8/79) patients, and main side effects were dysarthria and diplopia. Conclusion Target positioning by preoperative CT/MRI image fusion technique in deep brain stimulation has high accuracy and good clinical outcomes.

  18. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  19. Interactive, Computer-Assisted Tracking of Speckle Trajectories in Fluorescence Microscopy: Application to Actin Polymerization and Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew B.; Karatekin, Erdem; Gohlke, Andrea; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of particle trajectories in images obtained by fluorescence microscopy reveals biophysical properties such as diffusion coefficient or rates of association and dissociation. Particle tracking and lifetime measurement is often limited by noise, large mobilities, image inhomogeneities, and path crossings. We present Speckle TrackerJ, a tool that addresses some of these challenges using computer-assisted techniques for finding positions and tracking particles in different situations. A dynamic user interface assists in the creation, editing, and refining of particle tracks. The following are results from application of this program: 1), Tracking single molecule diffusion in simulated images. The shape of the diffusing marker on the image changes from speckle to cloud, depending on the relationship of the diffusion coefficient to the camera exposure time. We use these images to illustrate the range of diffusion coefficients that can be measured. 2), We used the program to measure the diffusion coefficient of capping proteins in the lamellipodium. We found values ∼0.5 μm2/s, suggesting capping protein association with protein complexes or the membrane. 3), We demonstrate efficient measuring of appearance and disappearance of EGFP-actin speckles within the lamellipodium of motile cells that indicate actin monomer incorporation into the actin filament network. 4), We marked appearance and disappearance events of fluorescently labeled vesicles to supported lipid bilayers and tracked single lipids from the fused vesicle on the bilayer. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that vesicle fusion has been detected with single molecule sensitivity and the program allowed us to perform a quantitative analysis. 5), By discriminating between undocking and fusion events, dwell times for vesicle fusion after vesicle docking to membranes can be measured. PMID:21961607

  20. Application of fuzzy logic in weighted information of fusion fingerprints and palm prints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is a developing job to distinguish identifications with information fusion of fingerprints and palm prints. It is also a very effective way to resolve the problem of low identification rate and low stability of single biology characteristic identification. Based on the theory of fuzzy logic theory, we bring out the method of obfuscating weigh coefficient and reliability to fuse the information of fingerprints and palm prints to realize high identification rate. The experiment proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method and the identification rate can be more than 90% , which contributes useful experience to the research of identification using biology characteristics.

  1. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  2. Continuum fusion: a theory of inference, with applications to hyperspectral detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Alan

    2010-04-12

    A new theoretical framework is created for the class of detection problems traditionally addressed by the generalized likelihood ratio test. Absent prior knowledge that would permit implementation of the optimal detector, a family of optimal detectors is fused according to any one of a group of criteria. Geometrical solutions are presented to several specific problems motivated by hyperspectral signal processing. For the general case, a set of partial differential relations is derived. The generalized likelihood ratio test is shown to be equivalent to one of several flavors of continuum fusion detector.

  3. A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion to Proving the Equivalence of Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    We show how Ohori and Sasano's recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) as a transition function together with a `driver loop' implementing the iteration of this transition...... function; and (2) as a function directly iterating upon a configuration until reaching a final state, if ever. The equivalence hinges on the fact that the latter style of specification is a fused version of the former one. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our recent work on syntactic...

  4. FOREWORD: 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Rubel, Marek

    2009-12-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications (PFMC-12) was held in Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Germany in May 2009. This symposium is the successor to the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003, 10 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. After this time, the scope of the symposium was redefined to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution of the field. The workshop was first organized under its new name in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany. The main objective of this conference series is to provide a discussion forum for experts from research institutions and industry dealing with materials for plasma-facing components in present and future controlled fusion devices. The operation of ASDEX-Upgrade with tungsten-coated wall, the fast progress of the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET, the plans for the EAST tokamak to install tungsten, the start of ITER construction and a discussion about the wall material for DEMO all emphasize the importance of plasma-wall interactions and component behaviour, and give much momentum to the field. In this context, the properties and behaviour of beryllium, carbon and tungsten under plasma impact are research topics of foremost relevance and importance. Our community realizes both the enormous advantages and serious drawbacks of all the candidate materials. As a result, discussion is in progress as to whether to use carbon in ITER during the initial phase of operation or to abandon this element and use only metal components from the start. There is broad knowledge about carbon, both in terms of its excellent power-handling capabilities and the drawbacks related to chemical reactivity with fuel species and, as a consequence, about problems arising from fuel inventory and dust formation. We are learning continuously about beryllium and tungsten under fusion conditions, but our

  5. Coordinated Workload Scheduling in Hierarchical Sensor Networks for Data Fusion Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lin Li; Jian-Nong Cao

    2008-01-01

    To minimize the execution time of a sensing task over a multi-hop hierarchical sensor network, we present acoordinated scheduling method following the divisible load scheduling paradigm. The proposed scheduling strategy builds on eliminating transmission collisions and idle gaps between two successive data transmissions. We consider a sensor network consisting of several clusters. In a cluster, after related raw data measured by source nodes are collected at the fusion node,in-network data aggregation is further considered. The scheduling strategies consist of two phases: intra-cluster scheduling and inter-cluster scheduling. Intra-cluster scheduling deals with assigning different fractions of a sensing workload among source nodes in each cluster; inter-cluster scheduling involves the distribution of fused data among all fusion nodes. Closed-form solutions to the problem of task scheduling are derived. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the impacts of different system parameters such as the number of sensor nodes, measurement, communication, and processing speed, on the finish time and energy consumption.

  6. Application of remote-sensing-image fusion to the monitoring of mining induced subsidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang-jun; WU Yan-bin

    2008-01-01

    We discuss remote-sensing-image fusion based on a multi-band wavelet and RGB feature fusion method. The fused data can be used to monitor the dynamic evolution of mining induced subsidence. High resolution panchromatic image data and multi-spectral image data were first decomposed with a multi-ary wavelet method. Then the high frequency components of the high resolution image were fused with the features from the R, G, B bands of the multi-spectral image to form a new high frequency component. Then the newly formed high frequency component and the low frequency component were inversely transformed using a multi-ary wavelet method. Finally, color images were formed from the newly formed R, G, B bands. In our experiment we used images with a resolution of 10 m (SPOT), and TM30 images, of the Huainan mining area. These images were fused with a trinary wavelet method. In addition, we used four indexes-entropy, average gradient, wavelet energy and spectral distortion-to assess the new method. The result indicates that this new method can improve the clarity and resolution of the images and also preserves the information from the original images. Using the fused images for monitoring mining induced subsidence achieves a good effect.

  7. An Improved Unmixing-Based Fusion Method: Potential Application to Remote Monitoring of Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although remote sensing technology has been widely used to monitor inland water bodies; the lack of suitable data with high spatial and spectral resolution has severely obstructed its practical development. The objective of this study is to improve the unmixing-based fusion (UBF method to produce fused images that maintain both spectral and spatial information from the original images. Images from Environmental Satellite 1 (HJ1 and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were used in this study to validate the method. An improved UBF (IUBF algorithm is established by selecting a proper HJ1-CCD image band for each MERIS band and thereafter applying an unsupervised classification method in each sliding window. Viewing in the visual sense—the radiance and the spectrum—the results show that the improved method effectively yields images with the spatial resolution of the HJ1-CCD image and the spectrum resolution of the MERIS image. When validated using two datasets; the ERGAS index (Relative Dimensionless Global Error indicates that IUBF is more robust than UBF. Finally, the fused data were applied to evaluate the chlorophyll a concentrations (Cchla in Taihu Lake. The result shows that the Cchla map obtained by IUBF fusion captures more detailed information than that of MERIS.

  8. Neutron-energy-dependent defect production cross sections for fission and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Doiron, D.R.

    1976-06-01

    Neutron cross sections for displacements and post-short-term cascade annealing defects are derived from nuclear kinematics calculations of primary atomic recoil energy distributions and the number of secondary defects produced per primary as a function of recoil energy. For the first time, recoil kinematics of charged- and multiple-particle emission reactions are treated rigorously using a compound-nucleus evaporation spectrum nuclear model. Secondary-defect production functions, derived from computer simulation experiments, are taken from the literature. Spectral-averaged defect production cross sections for a fusion reactor first-wall-type environment are on the order of 1.5 to 2.5 times those for a fast fission reactor core-type spectrum. The indicated range of uncertainty is primarily due to secondary-defect production model sensitivity. Nuclear model and data errors are expected to become more significant at high neutron energies, greater than approximately 20 MeV. Fusion reactor environments are found to produce some very energetic recoils and high-energy release events due to charged-particle reactions such as (n,..cap alpha..).

  9. Trust Model of Wireless Sensor Networks and Its Application in Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Lin, Chuang

    2017-03-28

    In order to ensure the reliability and credibility of the data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper proposes a trust evaluation model and data fusion mechanism based on trust. First of all, it gives the model structure. Then, the calculation rules of trust are given. In the trust evaluation model, comprehensive trust consists of three parts: behavior trust, data trust, and historical trust. Data trust can be calculated by processing the sensor data. Based on the behavior of nodes in sensing and forwarding, the behavior trust is obtained. The initial value of historical trust is set to the maximum and updated with comprehensive trust. Comprehensive trust can be obtained by weighted calculation, and then the model is used to construct the trust list and guide the process of data fusion. Using the trust model, simulation results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced by an average of 15%. The detection rate of abnormal nodes is at least 10% higher than that of the lightweight and dependable trust system (LDTS) model. Therefore, this model has good performance in ensuring the reliability and credibility of the data. Moreover, the energy consumption of transmitting was greatly reduced.

  10. Evaluation of Matrix Square Root Operations for UKF within a UAV GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rhudy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF as the nonlinear estimator within a Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS sensor fusion algorithm for attitude estimation, various methods of calculating the matrix square root were discussed and compared. Specifically, the diagonalization method, Schur method, Cholesky method, and five different iterative methods were compared. Additionally, a different method of handling the matrix square root requirement, the square-root UKF (SR-UKF, was evaluated. The different matrix square root calculations were compared based on computational requirements and the sensor fusion attitude estimation performance, which was evaluated using flight data from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The roll and pitch angle estimates were compared with independently measured values from a high quality mechanical vertical gyroscope. This manuscript represents the first comprehensive analysis of the matrix square root calculations in the context of UKF. From this analysis, it was determined that the best overall matrix square root calculation for UKF applications in terms of performance and execution time is the Cholesky method.

  11. Theory and application for retrieval and fusion of spatial and temporal quantitative information from complex natural environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yaqiu

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the research progress of the State Major Basic Research Project 2001CB309400,"Theory and Application for Retrieval and Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Information from Complex Natural Environment". Based on the rapid advancement of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery technology, informa-tion theory of fully polarimetric scattering and applications in polarimetric SAR remote sensing are developed. To promote the modeling of passive microwave remote sensing, thevector (polarized) radiative transfer theory (VRT) of complex natural media such as inhomogeneous, multi-layered and 3-dimensional VRT is developed. With these theoretical progresses, data validation and retrieval algorithms for some typical events and characteristic parameters of earth terrain surfaces, atmosphere, and oceans from operational and experimental remote sensing satellites are studied. Employ-ing remote sensing, radiative transfer simulation, geographic information systems (GIS), land hydrological process, and data assimilation, the Chinese land data assimilation system (CLDAS) is established. Towards the future development of China's microwave meteorological satellites, employing remote sensing data of currently available SSM/I (special sensor microwave/imager), AMSU (advanced microwave sounding unit), MTI (microwave temperature imager),etc., with ground-based measurements, several operation alalgorithms and databases for atmospheric precipitation, water vapor and liquid water in clouds, and other hydrological/hydrological applications are developed. To advance China's SAR and InSAR (interferometric SAR) technologies, the image processing and analysis of ERS (European remote sensing), Radarsat SAR, and Chinese SAR, etc., the software platforms are accomplished. Based on the researches of multi-information fusion, some simulations, identification,and information extractions of the targets from complex background clutter scenes are studied. Some

  12. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  13. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  14. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization; Recherche lineaire et fusion de donnees par ajustement de faisceaux; Application a la localisation par vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, J.

    2010-12-09

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  15. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  16. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  17. [The application of pulse and electrocardiogram data fusion to identify sub-health state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Aihua

    2009-12-01

    In order to diagnose or evaluate sub-health state, we have used data fusion technology and developed a new method which is based on the hidden information among ECG and pulse signals. The characteristic was constructed with pulse power spectrum peak value and pulse transit time (PTT). The classification of health state was realized by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method. The results showed that the pulse power spectrum peak value of sub-health state was decreased significantly when compared with health state [(42.3843 +/- 3.7116) vs. (37.6022 +/- 4.4468), P < 0.01], and the pulse transit time was also decreased significantly [(326.5801 +/- 36.4035) vs. (259.1023 +/- 67.3719), P < 0.01]. The classification accurate rate can reach 90%.

  18. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, F. Q.L. [Grinnell College, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  19. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, F. Q.L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

    2011-01-20

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  20. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.

  1. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 cu mm volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales 1 s).

  2. Tailoring mechanical properties of nano-structured Eurofer 97 steel for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Pawel M.; Krawczynska, Agnieszka T.; Kulczyk, Mariusz; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    EUROFER 97 steel is a candidate structural material for future fusion reactors and Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). In the present work microstructure of Eurofer 97 was modified by hydrostatic extrusion in multi-step process with total true strain exceeding 3. TEM observations showed that HE causes significant grain refinement from about 400 to 80 nm. This is accompanied by improvement of the tensile mechanical properties and microhardness. On the other hand, there is a clear decrease in the resistance to brittle fracture as measured in the Charpy impact tests. In order to improve strength/ductility/fracture toughness balance, the extruded samples were annealed for 1 hour at temperature range of 473-1073K. The results obtained for samples after post-extrusion annealing are discussed in terms of mechanical properties of Eurofer 97 steel. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Application of Kelvin Probe to Studies of Fusion Reactor Materials under Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guangnan; K. Yamaguchi; T. Terai; M. Yamawaki

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the work function (WF) changes in metallic and ceramic materials to be potentially used in future fusion reactors have been examined by means of Kelvin probe (KP),under He ion irradiation in high energy (MeV) and / or low energy (500 eV) ranges. The results of polycrystalline Ni samples indicate that the 1 MeV beam only induces decrease in the WF within the experimental fluence range; whereas the irradiation of 500 eV beam results in decrease in the WF firstly, then increase till saturation. A dual layer surface model is employed to explain the observed phenomena, together with computer simulation results by SRIM code. Charges buildup on the surface of lithium ceramics has been found to greatly influence the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively using a model concerning an induction electric field due to external field and free charges on the ceramic surface.

  4. Modeling high-energy radiation damage in nuclear and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachenko, K., E-mail: k.trachenko@qmul.ac.uk [School of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zarkadoula, E. [School of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Todorov, I.T. [Computational Science and Engineering Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury WA44AD (United Kingdom); Dove, M.T. [School of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Dunstan, D.J. [School of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    We discuss molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of high-energy radiation damage in materials relevant for encapsulation of nuclear waste and materials to be used in fusion reactors, including several important oxides and iron. We study various stages of evolution and relaxation of 100-200 keV collision cascades, and identify reversible elastic and irreversible inelastic structural changes. The elastic expansion of the lattice around the cascade is explained in terms of anharmonicity of interatomic interactions. The remaining irreversible structural change is related to resistance to amorphization by radiation damage. This resistance is quantified by the number of remaining defect atoms in the damaged structure. We discuss how MD simulations can predict experimental resistance to amorphization, including the important case of highly resistant materials. Finally, we discuss our current work to simulate radiation damage of MeV energies and system sizes of the order of billion atoms using massive parallel computing facilities.

  5. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  6. Overview of processing technologies for tungsten-steel composites and FGMs for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějíček Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime candidate material for the plasma-facing components in future fusion devices, e.g. ITER and DEMO. Because of the harsh and complex loading conditions and the differences in material properties, joining of the tungsten armor to the underlying construction and/or cooling parts is a complicated issue. To alleviate the thermal stresses at the joint, a sharp interface may be replaced by a gradual one with a smoothly varying composition. In this paper, several techniques for the formation of tungsten-steel composites and graded layers are reviewed. These include plasma spraying, laser cladding, hot pressing and spark plasma sintering. Structure, composition and selected thermal and mechanical properties of representative layers produced by each of these techniques are presented. A summary of advantages and disadvantages of the techniques and an assessment of their suitability for the production of plasma-facing components is provided.

  7. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M; Fazzi, A; Tardocchi, M; Cazzaniga, C; Lorenzoli, M; Pirovano, C; Rebai, M; Uboldi, C; Varoli, V; Gorini, G

    2014-11-01

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr3 crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%-4% in the energy range Eγ = 3-5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  8. A fusion algorithm for joins based on collections in Odra-Object Database for Rapid Application development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laika Satish

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the functionality of a currently under development database programming methodology called ODRA (Object Database for Rapid Application development which works fully on the object oriented principles. The database programming language is called SBQL (Stack based query language. We discuss some concepts in ODRA for e.g. the working of ODRA, how ODRA runtime environment operates, the interoperability of ODRA with .net and java .A view of ODRA's working with web services and xml. Currently the stages under development in ODRA are query optimization. So we present the prior work that is done in ODRA related to Query optimization and we also present a new fusion algorithm of how ODRA can deal with joins based on collections like set, lists, and arrays for query optimization.

  9. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  10. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  11. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  12. Fusion strategies for selecting multiple tuning parameters for multivariate calibration and other penalty based processes: A model updating application for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencate, Alister J; Kalivas, John H; White, Alexander J

    2016-05-19

    New multivariate calibration methods and other processes are being developed that require selection of multiple tuning parameter (penalty) values to form the final model. With one or more tuning parameters, using only one measure of model quality to select final tuning parameter values is not sufficient. Optimization of several model quality measures is challenging. Thus, three fusion ranking methods are investigated for simultaneous assessment of multiple measures of model quality for selecting tuning parameter values. One is a supervised learning fusion rule named sum of ranking differences (SRD). The other two are non-supervised learning processes based on the sum and median operations. The effect of the number of models evaluated on the three fusion rules are also evaluated using three procedures. One procedure uses all models from all possible combinations of the tuning parameters. To reduce the number of models evaluated, an iterative process (only applicable to SRD) is applied and thresholding a model quality measure before applying the fusion rules is also used. A near infrared pharmaceutical data set requiring model updating is used to evaluate the three fusion rules. In this case, calibration of the primary conditions is for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of tablets produced in a laboratory. The secondary conditions for calibration updating is for tablets produced in the full batch setting. Two model updating processes requiring selection of two unique tuning parameter values are studied. One is based on Tikhonov regularization (TR) and the other is a variation of partial least squares (PLS). The three fusion methods are shown to provide equivalent and acceptable results allowing automatic selection of the tuning parameter values. Best tuning parameter values are selected when model quality measures used with the fusion rules are for the small secondary sample set used to form the updated models. In this model updating situation, evaluation of

  13. Fusion strategies for selecting multiple tuning parameters for multivariate calibration and other penalty based processes: A model updating application for pharmaceutical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencate, Alister J. [Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Kalivas, John H., E-mail: kalijohn@isu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); White, Alexander J. [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Huate, IN 47803 (United States)

    2016-05-19

    New multivariate calibration methods and other processes are being developed that require selection of multiple tuning parameter (penalty) values to form the final model. With one or more tuning parameters, using only one measure of model quality to select final tuning parameter values is not sufficient. Optimization of several model quality measures is challenging. Thus, three fusion ranking methods are investigated for simultaneous assessment of multiple measures of model quality for selecting tuning parameter values. One is a supervised learning fusion rule named sum of ranking differences (SRD). The other two are non-supervised learning processes based on the sum and median operations. The effect of the number of models evaluated on the three fusion rules are also evaluated using three procedures. One procedure uses all models from all possible combinations of the tuning parameters. To reduce the number of models evaluated, an iterative process (only applicable to SRD) is applied and thresholding a model quality measure before applying the fusion rules is also used. A near infrared pharmaceutical data set requiring model updating is used to evaluate the three fusion rules. In this case, calibration of the primary conditions is for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of tablets produced in a laboratory. The secondary conditions for calibration updating is for tablets produced in the full batch setting. Two model updating processes requiring selection of two unique tuning parameter values are studied. One is based on Tikhonov regularization (TR) and the other is a variation of partial least squares (PLS). The three fusion methods are shown to provide equivalent and acceptable results allowing automatic selection of the tuning parameter values. Best tuning parameter values are selected when model quality measures used with the fusion rules are for the small secondary sample set used to form the updated models. In this model updating situation, evaluation of

  14. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  15. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  16. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree

  17. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Rachel, E-mail: rachel.sparks@ucl.ac.uk; Barratt, Dean [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Nicolas Bloch, B. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States); Moses, Daniel [South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Ponsky, Lee [Department of Urology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anantm@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  18. Fusion of Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Data for 3D modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hani Mahmoud

    This thesis deals with the 3D modeling phase of the as-built large BIM projects. Among several means of BIM data capturing, such as photogrammetric or range tools, laser scanners have been one of the most efficient and practical tool for a long time. They can generate point clouds with high resolution for 3D models that meet nowadays' market demands. The current 3D modeling projects of as-built BIMs are mainly focused on using one type of laser scanner data, such as Airborne or Terrestrial. According to the literatures, no significant (few) efforts were made towards the fusion of heterogeneous laser scanner data despite its importance. The importance of the fusion of heterogeneous data arises from the fact that no single type of laser data can provide all the information about BIM, especially for large BIM projects that are existing on a large area, such as university buildings, or Heritage places. Terrestrial laser scanners are able to map facades of buildings and other terrestrial objects. However, they lack the ability to map roofs or higher parts in the BIM project. Airborne laser scanner on the other hand, can map roofs of the buildings efficiently and can map only small part of the facades. Short range laser scanners can map the interiors of the BIM projects, while long range scanners are used for mapping wide exterior areas in BIM projects. In this thesis the long range laser scanner data obtained in the Stop-and-Go mapping mode, the short range laser scanner data, obtained in a fully static mapping mode, and the airborne laser data are all fused together to bring a complete effective solution for a large BIM project. Working towards the 3D modeling of BIM projects, the thesis framework starts with the registration of the data, where a new fast automatic registration algorithm were developed. The next step is to recognize the different objects in the BIM project (classification), and obtain 3D models for the buildings. The last step is the development of an

  19. 合理使用脊柱非融合技术%Proper application of non-fusion technique in spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树勋

    2013-01-01

      Spine fusion technique has been the most frequently used technique in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases. However, various related complications force doctors to look for other substitutions. The proposing and application of non-fusion technique has changed the concept of traditional spine surgery. A great number of early and present researches have revealed good results, nevertheless, the results vary due to the deficiency of high-quality clinical researches. The definite conclusion can hardly be drawn, while the technique should be used cautiously.

  20. Recent progress in fusion enzyme design and applications%融合酶的设计和应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄子亮; 张翀; 吴希; 苏楠; 邢新会

    2012-01-01

    酶的分子改造和重新设计是解决酶催化工业应用瓶颈的重要途径.基于融合蛋白设计的融合酶技术是分子酶工程的一个研究热点,已逐渐应用于多功能酶和酶靠近效应的构建与控制研究中,显示出重要的理论和应用研究价值.文中对近年来融合酶的分子设计策略和应用研究的进展进行了综述.首先介绍了融合酶的概念和特点,并对最近研究中出现的融合酶构建策略进行了归纳总结,重点阐述了不同种类连接肽对融合酶的影响及其可能机理.同时,对目前融合酶的应用研究进行了归纳和讨论.最后,结合本实验室的研究,指出了融合酶领域的关键问题并对其发展方向进行了探讨和展望.%Engineering and redesign of enzymes are important to industrial biocatalysis. Fusion enzyme technology, based on fusion protein design, is frequently used in multifunctional enzyme construction and enzyme proximity control. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in molecular design strategy and application studies of fusion enzymes. The concept and features of fusion enzymes were introduced, followed by a systematical summary of the design strategy of fusion enzymes. In particular, the effects of different linker properties on fusion enzymes and their possible mechanisms were discussed. In addition, recent studies on fusion enzyme applications were also discussed. Finally, based on our own studies on fusion enzymes and the current research progress, the key problems in fusion enzyme technology and perspectives of this field were discussed.

  1. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  2. Advances in HYDRA and its application to simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Koning, J. M.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.; Brown, P. N.; Chang, B.; Procassini, R.; Veitzer, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We will outline new capabilities added to the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics ICF simulation code. These include a new SN multigroup radiation transport package (1D), constitutive models for elastic-plastic (strength) effects, and a mix model. A Monte Carlo burn package is being incorporated to model diagnostic signatures of neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles. A 3D MHD package that treats resistive MHD is available. Improvements to HYDRA's implicit Monte Carlo photonics package, including the addition of angular biasing, now enable integrated hohlraum simulations to complete in substantially shorter time. The heavy ion beam deposition package now includes a new model for ion stopping power developed by the Tech-X Corporation, with improved accuracy below the Bragg peak. Examples will illustrate HYDRA's enhanced capabilities to simulate various aspects of inertial confinement fusion targets.This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. The work of Tech-X personnel was funded by the Department of Energy under Small Business Innovation Research Contract No. DE-FG02-03ER83797.

  3. Application of belief theory to similarity data fusion for use in analog searching and lead hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchmore, Steven W; Debe, Derek A; Metz, James T; Brown, Scott P; Martin, Yvonne C; Hajduk, Philip J

    2008-05-01

    A wide variety of computational algorithms have been developed that strive to capture the chemical similarity between two compounds for use in virtual screening and lead discovery. One limitation of such approaches is that, while a returned similarity value reflects the perceived degree of relatedness between any two compounds, there is no direct correlation between this value and the expectation or confidence that any two molecules will in fact be equally active. A lack of a common framework for interpretation of similarity measures also confounds the reliable fusion of information from different algorithms. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for interpreting similarity measures that directly correlates the similarity value to a quantitative expectation that two molecules will in fact be equipotent. The approach is based on extensive benchmarking of 10 different similarity methods (MACCS keys, Daylight fingerprints, maximum common subgraphs, rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) shape similarity, and six connectivity-based fingerprints) against a database of more than 150,000 compounds with activity data against 23 protein targets. Given this unified and probabilistic framework for interpreting chemical similarity, principles derived from decision theory can then be applied to combine the evidence from different similarity measures in such a way that both capitalizes on the strengths of the individual approaches and maintains a quantitative estimate of the likelihood that any two molecules will exhibit similar biological activity.

  4. Conformal mapping via metric optimization with application for cortical label fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonggang; Lai, Rongjie; Toga, Arthur W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a novel approach for computing conformal maps between anatomical surfaces with the ability of aligning anatomical features and achieving greatly reduced metric distortion. In contrast to conventional approaches that focused on conformal maps to the sphere or plane, our method computes the conformal map between surfaces in the embedding space formed the intrinsically defined Laplace-Beltrami (LB) eigenfunctions. Utilizing the power of LB eigenfunctions as informative descriptors of global geometry, the conformal maps computed by our method can effectively align anatomical features on cortical surfaces. By computing such feature-aware conformal maps to a group-wisely optimal atlas surface, which is also computed with metric optimization in the LB embedding space, we develop a fully automated system for cortical labeling with the fusion of labels on a large number of atlas surfaces. In our experiments, we build our system with 40 labeled surfaces and demonstrate its excellent performance with leave-one-out cross validation. We also applied the automated labeling system to cortical surfaces reconstructed from MR scans of 50 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 50 normal controls (NC) to illustrate its robustness and effectiveness in clinical data analysis.

  5. Performance studies of Cryocooler based cryosorption pumps with indigenous activated carbons for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Vivek, G. A.; Verma, Ravi; Behera, Upendra; Udgata, Swarup; Gangradey, Ranjana

    2017-02-01

    Cryosorption pumps are the only solution for pumping helium and hydrogen in fusion systems, due to their high pumping speeds and suitability in harsh environments. Their development requires the right Activated Carbons (ACs) and suitable adhesives to bind them to metallic panels with liquid helium (LHe) flow channels. However, their performance evaluation will require large quantities of LHe. Alternatively, these pumps can be built with small size panels adhered with ACs and cooled by a cryocooler. The paper describes the development of a cryopump using a commercial cryocooler (Sumitomo RDK415D), with 1.5W@4.2 K, integrated with small size AC panel mounted on 2nd stage, with the 1st stage acting as radiation shield. Under no load, the cryopump reaches the ultimate pressure of 2.1E-7 mbar. The pump is built using panels with different indigenously developed ACs such as granules, pellets, ACF-FK2 and activated carbon of knitted IPR cloth. We present the experimental results of pumping speeds for gases such as nitrogen, argon and helium using the procedures outlined by American Vacuum Society (AVS). These studies will enable to arrive at the right ACs and adhesives for the development of large scale cryosorption pumps with liquid helium flow.

  6. Clinical Applications of Phage-Derived sFvs and sFv Fusion Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Chester

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Single chain Fv antibodies (sFvs have been produced from filamentous bacteriophage libraries obtained from immunised mice. MFE-23, the most characterised of these sFvs, is reactive with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, a glycoprotein that is highly expressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas. MFE-23 has been expressed in bacteria and purified in our laboratory for two clinical trials; a gamma camera imaging trial using 123I-MFE-23 and a radioimmunoguided surgery trial using 125I-MFE-23, where tumour deposits are detected by a hand-held probe during surgery. Both these trials show MFE-23 is safe and effective in localising tumour deposits in patients with cancer. We are now developing fusion proteins which use MFE-23 to deliver a therapeutic moiety; MFE-23::CPG2 targets the enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2 for use in the ADEPT (antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy system and MFE::TNFα aims to reduce sequestration and increase tumor concentrations of systemically administered TNFα.

  7. Application of EGFP-EGF fusions to explore mechanism of endocytosis of epidermal growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua JIANG; Jie ZHANG; Bi-zhi SHI; Yu-hong XU; Zong-hai LI; Jian-ren GU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop a simple method for monitoring protein localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in living cells. Methods: Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as an autofluorescent tag to label EGF ligands. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of the EGFP-tagged EGF (EGFP-EGF) protein. The cell-binding and internalization activity of EGFP-EGF were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and confocal micro-scopy. Results: EGFP-EGF protein was expressed in Escherichia coil and purified.A cell-binding assay demonstrated that the EGFP-EGF protein could bind effi-ciently to the cells expressing EGFR. The binding and intemalization of EGFP-EGF can be visualized even at a very low concentration under confocal microscopy.The FACS-based assay for internalization activity indicated the accumulation of internalized EGFP-EGF over time. Furthermore, the results of the competition assay indicated its EGFR binding specificity. Using such a method, it does not need to label EGF with chemicals and avoid light in the experimental process. Conclusion: The fusion protein EGFP-EGF has several characters including high sensitivity, stability and convenience for manipulation, and is a powerful tool for the study of EGF endocytosis.

  8. Application of multiple attributes fusion technology in the Su-14 Well Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jian; Hu, Guang-Min; Cao, Jun-Xing

    2010-09-01

    In this study area the geological conditions are complicated and the effective sandstone is very heterogeneous. The sandstones are thin and lateral and vertical variations are large. We introduce multi-attribute fusion technology based on pre-stack seismic data, pre-stack P- and S-wave inversion results, and post-stack attributes. This method not only can keep the fluid information contained in pre-stack seismic data but also make use of the high SNR characteristics of post-stack data. First, we use a one-step recursive method to get the optimal attribute combination from a number of attributes. Second, we use a probabilistic neural network method to train the nonlinear relationship between log curves and seismic attributes and then use the trained samples to find the natural gamma ray distribution in the Su-14 well block and improve the resolution of seismic data. Finally, we predict the effective reservoir distribution in the Su-14 well block.

  9. Foundation Flex for developers data-driven applications with PHP, ASP.NET, ColdFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Sas

    2008-01-01

    Jacobs explores in detail how to create professional data-centric Flex 2 and Flex 3 applications. This work is for Flex developers who know the basics of building Flex UIs, and want to learn how to connect their applications to data sources.

  10. Gold nanoprobe functionalized with specific fusion protein selection from phage display and its application in rapid, selective and sensitive colorimetric biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Lei; Wang, Fei; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in public healthcare worldwide. It holds great insterest in establishing robust analytical method for S. aureus. Herein, we report a S. aureus-specific recognition element, isolated from phage monoclone GQTTLTTS, which was selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against S. aureus in a high-throughput way. By functionalizing cysteamine (CS)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNPs) with S. aureus-specific pVIII fusion protein (fusion-pVIII), a bifunctional nanoprobe (CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII) for S. aureus was developed. In this strategy, the CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII could be induced to aggregate quickly in the presence of target S. aureus, resulting in a rapid colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles. More importantly, the as-designed probe exhibited excellent selectivity over other bacteria. Thus, the CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII could be used as the indicator of target S. aureus. This assay can detect as low as 19CFUmL(-1)S. aureus within 30min. Further, this approach can be applicable to detect S. aureus in real water samples. Due to its sensitivity, specificity and rapidness, this proposed method is promising for on-site testing of S. aureus without using any costly instruments.

  11. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  12. Drupal在中药信息融合中的应用*%Application of Drupal in Chinese Medicine Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昭; 马莉; 张百霞; 袁斌; 何帅兵; 王耘; 乔延江

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed to discuss the application of content management system (CMS) Drupal in Chinese medicine information fusion. The modular functionality, scalability and strong management capabilities of Drupal can effectively manage and reasonably present information resources of Chinese medicine, which extended the application of Chinese medicine information fusion. Regarding CMS Drupal as the carrier of Chinese medicine information fusion, the Chinese medicine information fusion method can be used in the collection, organization and demonstration of Chinese medicine information in the platform. As one of network tools for Chinese medicine information fusion, Dru-pal will play its powerful function in content management and information publishing with the virtual technology. It will also enrich Chinese medicine information fusion, and promote the spread of Chinese medicine knowledge.%本文主要论述了内容管理系统Drupal在中药信息融合中的应用。Drupal的模块化功能、可扩展性以及其强大的管理能力可以有效管理、合理呈现中药信息资源,扩展中药信息融合的应用。将内容管理系统Drupal作为中药信息融合的载体,运用中药信息融合方法汇集中药信息,整理中药信息并在中药信息融合平台上展示。作为中药信息融合网络工具之一的Drupal将结合虚拟化技术,发挥其强大内容管理与信息发布功能,丰富中药信息融合内容,促进中药知识的传播。

  13. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, J.P., E-mail: allain@purdue.ed [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Nieto-Perez, M. [CICATA-IPN, Cerro Blanco 141 Cimatario, Queretaro, QRO 76090 (Mexico); Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  14. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  15. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S. X., E-mail: shu@lle.rochester.edu; Goncharov, V. N.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations of the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm{sup 3} and T = 15 625 to 500 000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a “Saha-type” model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which gives an increasing ionization as the CH density increases even at low temperatures (T < 50 eV). The orbital-free molecular dynamics method is only used to gauge the average ionization behavior of CH under the average-atom model in conjunction with the pressure-matching mixing rule. The thermal conductivities (κ{sub QMD}) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn–Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalized Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ){sub QMD}] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation–hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium–tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted ∼20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.

  16. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lindig, S.; Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3}. Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr){sub 5}Si{sub 3}; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material.

  17. The application of machine learning in multi sensor data fusion for activity recognition in mobile device space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhoubi, Asmaa H.; Saravi, Sara; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2015-05-01

    The present generation of mobile handheld devices comes equipped with a large number of sensors. The key sensors include the Ambient Light Sensor, Proximity Sensor, Gyroscope, Compass and the Accelerometer. Many mobile applications are driven based on the readings obtained from either one or two of these sensors. However the presence of multiple-sensors will enable the determination of more detailed activities that are carried out by the user of a mobile device, thus enabling smarter mobile applications to be developed that responds more appropriately to user behavior and device usage. In the proposed research we use recent advances in machine learning to fuse together the data obtained from all key sensors of a mobile device. We investigate the possible use of single and ensemble classifier based approaches to identify a mobile device's behavior in the space it is present. Feature selection algorithms are used to remove non-discriminant features that often lead to poor classifier performance. As the sensor readings are noisy and include a significant proportion of missing values and outliers, we use machine learning based approaches to clean the raw data obtained from the sensors, before use. Based on selected practical case studies, we demonstrate the ability to accurately recognize device behavior based on multi-sensor data fusion.

  18. Effects of retractor application on cuff pressure and vocal cord function in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a commonly performed procedure for prolapse of cervical intervertebral disc. It involves retraction of soft tissue of neck for adequate exposure of anterior spinal canal. Increased cuff pressure with retractor application may affect the postoperative vocal cord function. Cuff pressures of tracheal tube were measured continuously in 37 patients using air-filled pressure transducer connected to the pilot balloon. Changes of pressure from baseline values were noted after application of cervical retractor. At the end of procedure, vocal cord movement was observed using fibreoptic bronchoscope. Significant increase in cuff pressure (168% of baseline values and airway pressure of tracheal tube during cervical retraction was observed. The vocal cord function was assessed using fibreoptic laryngoscope. One patient developed right vocal cord palsy (2.7% and two patients had postoperative hoarseness of voice (5.4%. All these complications improved over a period of time. It is suggested that the cuff of tracheal tube should be inflated to achieve ′just seal′, with adequate cuff pressure monitoring. Intermittent release of cervical retraction may help to prevent laryngeal morbidities.

  19. Effects of retractor application on cuff pressure and vocal cord function in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh; Rath, Girija P; Bithal, Parmod K; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Marda, Manish K

    2010-07-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a commonly performed procedure for prolapse of cervical intervertebral disc. It involves retraction of soft tissue of neck for adequate exposure of anterior spinal canal. Increased cuff pressure with retractor application may affect the postoperative vocal cord function. Cuff pressures of tracheal tube were measured continuously in 37 patients using air-filled pressure transducer connected to the pilot balloon. Changes of pressure from baseline values were noted after application of cervical retractor. At the end of procedure, vocal cord movement was observed using fibreoptic bronchoscope. Significant increase in cuff pressure (168% of baseline values) and airway pressure of tracheal tube during cervical retraction was observed. The vocal cord function was assessed using fibreoptic laryngoscope. One patient developed right vocal cord palsy (2.7%) and two patients had postoperative hoarseness of voice (5.4%). All these complications improved over a period of time. It is suggested that the cuff of tracheal tube should be inflated to achieve 'just seal', with adequate cuff pressure monitoring. Intermittent release of cervical retraction may help to prevent laryngeal morbidities.

  20. Analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and passive visible light polarimetric imaging data fusion for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Sanjit

    bounce occurs from flat surfaces like lakes, rivers, bare soil, and oceans. Double bounce can be observed from two adjacent surfaces where one horizontal flat surface is near a vertical surface such as buildings and other vertical structures. Randomly oriented scatters in homogeneous media produce a multiple bounce scattering effect which occurs in forest canopies and vegetated areas. Relationships between Pauli color components from PolSAR and Degree of Linear Polarization (DOLP) from passive visible light polarimetric imaging are established using real measurements. Results show higher values of the red channel in Pauli color image (|HH-VV|) correspond to high DOLP from double bounce effect. A novel information fusion technique is applied to combine information from the two modes. In this research, it is demonstrated that the Degree of Linear Polarization (DOLP) from passive visible light polarimetric imaging can be used for separation of the classes in terms of scattering mechanisms from the PolSAR data. The separation of these three classes in terms of the scattering mechanisms has its application in the area of land cover classification and anomaly detection. The fusion of information from these particular two modes of imaging, i.e. PolSAR and passive visible light polarimetric imaging, is a largely unexplored area in remote sensing and the main challenge in this research is to identify areas and scenarios where information fusion between the two modes is advantageous for separation of the classes in terms of scattering mechanisms relative to separation achieved with only PolSAR.

  1. Supporting Pervasive Computing Applications with Active Context Fusion and Semantic Context Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Gu, Tao; Das, Sajal

    2010-01-01

    Future pervasive computing applications are envisioned to adapt the applications’ behaviors by utilizing various contexts of an environment and its users. Such context information may often be ambiguous and also heterogeneous, which make the delivery of unambiguous context information to real app...

  2. An Improved Tracking Using IMU and Vision Fusion for Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR is becoming an important cyber-physical system application given the ubiquitous availability of mobile phones. With the need to operate in unprepared environments, accurate and robust registration and tracking has become an important research problem to solve. In fact, when MAR is used for tele-interactive applications involving large distances, say from an accident site to insurance office, tracking at both the ends is desirable and further it is essential to appropriately fuse inertial and vision sensors’ data. In this paper, we present results and discuss some insights gained in marker-less tracking during the development of a prototype pertaining to an example use case related to breakdown/damage assessment of a vehicle. The novelty of this paper is in bringing together different components and modules with appropriate enhancements towards a complete working system.

  3. CaO insulator and Be intermetallic coatings on V-base alloys for liquid-lithium fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop (a) stable CaO insulator coatings at the Liquid-Li/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coating that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the V-alloy wall, and (b) stable Be-V intermetallic coating for first-wall components that face the plasma. Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid-Li/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket application. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on oxygen-enriched surface layers of V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposing the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Crack-free Be{sub 2}V intermetallic coatings were also produced by exposing V-alloys to liquid Li that contained Be as a solute. These techniques can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coatings are formed by liquid-phase reactions.

  4. Mouse models for ROS1-fusion-positive lung cancers and their application to the analysis of multikinase inhibitor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Maki; Toki, Hideaki; Matsui, Junko; Togashi, Yuki; Dobashi, Akito; Fukumura, Ryutaro; Gondo, Yoichi; Minowa, Osamu; Tanaka, Norio; Mori, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Kengo; Noda, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    ROS1-fusion genes, resulting from chromosomal rearrangement, have been reported in 1-2% of human non-small cell lung cancer cases. More than 10 distinct ROS1-fusion genes, including break-point variants, have been identified to date. In this study, to investigate the in vivo oncogenic activities of one of the most frequently detected fusions, CD74-ROS1, as well as another SDC4-ROS1 fusion that has also been reported in several studies, we generated transgenic (TG) mouse strains that express either of the two ROS1-fusion genes specifically in lung alveolar type II cells. Mice in all TG lines developed tumorigenic nodules in the lung, and a few strains of both TG mouse lines demonstrated early-onset nodule development (multiple tumor lesions present in the lung at 2-4 weeks after birth); therefore, these two strains were selected for further investigation. Tumors developed progressively in the untreated TG mice of both lines, whereas those receiving oral administration of an ALK/MET/ROS1 inhibitor, crizotinib, and an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, ASP3026, showed marked reduction in the tumor burden. Collectively, these data suggest that each of these two ROS1-fusion genes acts as a driver for the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma in vivo The TG mice developed in this study are expected to serve as valuable tools for exploring novel therapeutic agents against ROS1-fusion-positive lung cancer.

  5. 数据融合技术在空气动力学研究中的应用%Application of data fusion technique in aerodynamics studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何开锋; 钱炜祺; 汪清; 孔轶男; 王文正

    2014-01-01

    气动力数据通常通过风洞试验、数值计算和飞行试验三种途径获得,三者各有优缺点,为了得到更加完善准确的气动数据,可采用数据融合技术对不同来源的数据进行深加工和利用。针对数据融合技术在空气动力学中的应用进行讨论和探索,首先介绍了数据融合技术在空气动力学中的应用背景、发展现状及数据融合的基本思想,此后综合提出了建立气动数据融合准则的基本思路和两种具有应用价值的融合算法:基于不确定度的数据融合方法和基于气动力建模的数据融合方法,并给出了部分研究应用结果。最后,文章对气动数据融合技术在气动领域的应用前景进行了展望。研究发现,采用数据融合技术后,可以进一步提高气动数据的完整性和准确性,但由于气动数据融合工作不仅需要进行算法研究,同时还需要工作人员的大量经验,融合结果包含较多的人为因素,因此具体采用何种融合方法要根据具体情况而定。%Aerodynamic data usually can be obtained through three ways:wind tunnel test,numerical calculation and flight test,each method have both advantages and disadvantages.To achieve more complete and more accurate aerodynamic data,deep comparison and acquisition of data from different ways,together with data fusion technique could be used.In the first part of this paper,the background,development,pres-ent situation and basic idea of data fusion in aerodynamics research field was introduced.Secondly,the meth-od to establish data fusion rules was given,and two kinds of practical data fusion algorithms were presented, i.e.,the fusion algorithm based on uncertainty bounds analysis and the algorithm based on aerodynamic mathematical modeling.And some engineering applications of these two algorithms were also introduced.At the last part of this paper,the application prospect of aerodynamic data fusion was

  6. Methods of Improving Internal-TIN Nb{sub 3}Sn for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyon, T; Gregory, E.

    2002-08-29

    Development of a more reliable and economical high field material for ITER and TPX as well as LDK and KSTAR programs. The overall objective of this work is to provide the TPX/ITER programs and similar projects with an improved, reliable and economical high field Nb{sub 3}Sn multifilamentary conductor strand made by the internal-tin process. An effort will also be made to determine the reasons for the property changes taking place after various heat treatment cycles in an effort to develop optimized heat treatments for the various applications.

  7. Application of the high-spin isomer beams to the secondary fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Asahi, K. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kishida, T. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, W. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshimi, A. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kameda, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Miyoshi, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Fukuchi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Sasaki, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kibe, M. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hokoiwa, N. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Odahara, A. [Nishinippon Institute of Technology, Kanda, Fukuoka 800-03 (Japan); Cederwall, B. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativ gen 24, Stockholm 10405 (Sweden); Lagergren, K. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativ gen 24, Stockholm 10405 (Sweden); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ishihara, M. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [and others

    2004-12-27

    A technique for providing high-spin isomers as probes of the fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor has been worked out at RIKEN. In the study of the fusion reaction {sup 12}C({sup 145m}Sm,xn){sup 157-x}Er, the {gamma} rays emitted from the fusion-evaporation residue {sup 154}Er have been successfully observed. The nuclear g-factor of the T{sub 1/2} = 28 ns high-spin isomer in {sup 149}Dy has been measured with the {gamma}-ray TDPAD method.

  8. Research on Application of Data Fusion in Smart Grid%数据融合在智能电网中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 李玲娟; 陈建新; 徐小龙

    2012-01-01

    数据融合是一种自动化信息综合处理技术.智能电网是物联网的一项重大应用,它具有海量的终端设备和海量的采集数据,为数据融合技术提供了很好的研究点和应用点.为了明确数据融合在智能电网中的应用方向和方法,文中首先介绍了数据融合技术的原理,分析了智能电网的特点;接着分别从数据的采集、传输、处理三个方面探讨了数据融合在智能电网中的应用;最后给出了数据融合在线路监测、设备监测和用户信息采集方面的应用意义和具体方法.为进一步展开研究提供了可选方向和技术参考.%Data fusion is a comprehensive automatic information processing technology. Smart grid is one of the major applications of Internet of Things,it has large numbers of terminals and mass collected data,so it provides good chance for data fusion research and application. In order to nail down the application directions and methods of data fusion in smart grid, the principle of data fusion and the characteristics of the smart grid are introduced;The applications of data fusion in different phases of the smart grid,such as data collection phase,data transmission phase and data processing phase are analyzed,and the meanings and methods of applying data fusion to detect and monitor lines and equipment and to collect the users' data are given. Thus,the feasible research points and the technical reference can be gotten from this paper.

  9. Issues and challenges in resource management and its interaction with levels 2/3 fusion with applications to real-world problems: an annotated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Hintz, Kenneth; Biermann, Joachim; Chong, Chee-Yee; Salerno, John; Das, Subrata

    2007-04-01

    Resource management (or process refinement) is critical for information fusion operations in that users, sensors, and platforms need to be informed, based on mission needs, on how to collect, process, and exploit data. To meet these growing concerns, a panel session was conducted at the International Society of Information Fusion Conference in 2006 to discuss the various issues surrounding the interaction of Resource Management with Level 2/3 Situation and Threat Assessment. This paper briefly consolidates the discussion of the invited panel panelists. The common themes include: (1) Addressing the user in system management, sensor control, and knowledge based information collection (2) Determining a standard set of fusion metrics for optimization and evaluation based on the application (3) Allowing dynamic and adaptive updating to deliver timely information needs and information rates (4) Optimizing the joint objective functions at all information fusion levels based on decision-theoretic analysis (5) Providing constraints from distributed resource mission planning and scheduling; and (6) Defining L2/3 situation entity definitions for knowledge discovery, modeling, and information projection

  10. 多接口融合系统的发展与应用%the development and Application of multi interface Fusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺保卫

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of Multi Interface Fusion system is talked about in this paper. Through an example of an engineering application, the functions, composition, performance and features of the Multi Interface Fusion system are introduced. Practice has proved that Multi Interface Fusion system has such features Perfect function simple operation , accurate data collection and reliable operation. It has great application values.%文章讲述多接口融合系统在焦化厂的发展及应用。通过焦化厂多接口融合系统的设计与开发,介绍了多接口融合系统的功能、组成、性能及特点。实践证明,多接口融合系统功能完善、操作简便、数据采集准确、运行可靠,具有较大的应用价值。

  11. Sensor fusion for social robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Brian R.; Garcia, C; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Hare, G.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of sensor fusion for the visualisation of social robotic behaviour. Experiments with the Virtual Reality Workbench integrate the key elements of Virtual Reality and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. The deliberative focusing of attention and sensor fusion between vision systems and sonar sensors is implemented on autonomous mobile robots functioning in standard office environments

  12. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  14. New approach to information fusion for Lipschitz classifiers ensembles: Application in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Egorov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents new results concerning selection of an optimal information fusion formula for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificatory which could provide better generalization ability of the ensemble while achieving a practically acceptable level of effectiveness. The problem of information fusion is very relevant for data processing in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems. In this case we have to effectively classify targeted events which appear in the vicinity of the monitored object. Solution of this problem is based on usage of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers each of which corresponds to a respective channel. We suggest a brand new method for information fusion in case of ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. This method is called "The Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants" (WILC). Results of WILC-method practical usage in multichannel C-OTDR monitoring systems are presented.

  15. Friction stir welding of F82H steel for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, friction stir welding was employed to join F82H steels and develop a potential joining technique for a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. The microstructures and mechanical properties on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of friction stir welding. F82H steel sheets were successfully butt-joined with various welding parameters. In welding conditions, 100 rpm and 100 mm/min, the stirred zone represented a comparable hardness distribution with a base metal. Stirred zone induced by 100 rpm reserved uniformly distributed precipitates and very fine ferritic grains, whereas the base metal showed a typical tempered martensite with precipitates on the prior austenite grain boundary and lath boundary. Although the tensile strength was decreased at 550 °C, the stirred zone treated at 100 rpm showed comparable tensile behavior with base metal up to 500 °C. Therefore, friction stir welding is considered a potential welding method to preserve the precipitates of F82H steel.

  16. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  17. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  18. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  19. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  20. 遥感影像数据融合方法应用研究%Application of Remote Sensing Image Data Fusion Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建英; 刘建平

    2016-01-01

    介绍了遥感影像数据融合中常用的三种方法:主成份变换法、乘积变换法、比值变换法。以某地区的 SPOT 和 TM遥感影像为实验数据,选用 ERDAS 软件平台,采用数据融合的三种方法分别进行融合实验,对融合的效果和应用进行了对比和分析。实验结果表明:应用不同的融合方法可以得到不同的融合效果,多源遥感影像融合不仅可以提高图像的清晰度,还可以使得提取的信息量更加丰富。%The paper introduced three kinds of commonly used methods,principal component analysis,multiplicative and Brovey trans-form.Using the SPOT and TMremote sensing images of the area as experimental data and based on the ERDAS software platform,the study conducted the fusion experiments with the three methods,and compared and analyzed the effects and application of the fusion. The experimental results showed that different fusion methods could get different fusion effects,and multi -source remote sensing image fusion could not only improve image clarity,but also make the information extracted more abundant.

  1. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  2. [Prokaryotic expression for fusion protein of human metapneumovirus and its preliminary application as an antigen for antibody detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-nan; Qian, Yuan; Zhao, Lin-qing; Sun, Yu; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the effectiveness of prokaryotic expression of fusion protein (F) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and its application as antigen, F proteins from different genotypes of hMPV were expressed in prokaryotic expression system and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography column. According to the hydrophobicity, antigen index and surface probability of F protein, the subunit 1 (F1) region of F protein was generated and expressed in E. Coil. BL21(DE3). The 6-His-F1 proteins with molecular weight of approximately 37 kD generated from hMPV of two genotypes were expressed efficiently mainly in inclusion body. The antigenicity and specificity of the expressed proteins were tested and confirmed by Western Blot using polyclonal antibody against hMPV and one serum specimen from a patient with confirmed hMPV acute infection,and polyclonal antibodies against human respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 2 and 3. The results of preliminary use of the expressed proteins for detecting antibodies against hMPV in 457 serum specimens collected from different age groups in Beijing indicated that 66%-67% of sera in all age groups were positive. The positive rate of antibodies declined in children in age groups from birth to 2-year-old and then rose along with the increase in age, in which the lowest was in age group from 1 to 2-year-old and the highest in newborn and people older than 60 years. The data indicated the existence of maternal transferred antibodies against hMPV in infants and the risk of hMPV infections in children younger than 2 years old.

  3. A CCA+ICA based model for multi-task brain imaging data fusion and its application to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jing; Adali, Tülay; Pearlson, Godfrey; Yang, Honghui; Sponheim, Scott R; White, Tonya; Calhoun, Vince D

    2010-05-15

    Collection of multiple-task brain imaging data from the same subject has now become common practice in medical imaging studies. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective model, "CCA+ICA", as a powerful tool for multi-task data fusion. This joint blind source separation (BSS) model takes advantage of two multivariate methods: canonical correlation analysis and independent component analysis, to achieve both high estimation accuracy and to provide the correct connection between two datasets in which sources can have either common or distinct between-dataset correlation. In both simulated and real fMRI applications, we compare the proposed scheme with other joint BSS models and examine the different modeling assumptions. The contrast images of two tasks: sensorimotor (SM) and Sternberg working memory (SB), derived from a general linear model (GLM), were chosen to contribute real multi-task fMRI data, both of which were collected from 50 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. When examining the relationship with duration of illness, CCA+ICA revealed a significant negative correlation with temporal lobe activation. Furthermore, CCA+ICA located sensorimotor cortex as the group-discriminative regions for both tasks and identified the superior temporal gyrus in SM and prefrontal cortex in SB as task-specific group-discriminative brain networks. In summary, we compared the new approach to some competitive methods with different assumptions, and found consistent results regarding each of their hypotheses on connecting the two tasks. Such an approach fills a gap in existing multivariate methods for identifying biomarkers from brain imaging data.

  4. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  5. City Data Fusion: Sensor Data Fusion in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) has gained substantial attention recently and play a significant role in smart city application deployments. A number of such smart city applications depend on sensor fusion capabilities in the cloud from diverse data sources. We introduce the concept of IoT and present in detail ten different parameters that govern our sensor data fusion evaluation framework. We then evaluate the current state-of-the art in sensor data fusion against our sensor data fusion framework....

  6. Medical Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rafizadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in medical imaging in the past two decades have enable radiologists to create images of the human body with unprecedented resolution. MRI, PET,... imaging devices can quickly acquire 3D images. Image fusion establishes an anatomical correlation between corresponding images derived from different examination. This fusion is applied either to combine images of different modalities (CT, MRI or single modality (PET-PET."nImage fusion is performed in two steps:"n1 Registration: spatial modification (eg. translation of model image relative to reference image in order to arrive at an ideal matching of both images. Registration methods are feature-based and intensity-based approaches."n2 Visualization: the goal of it is to depict the spatial relationship between the model image and refer-ence image. We can point out its clinical application in nuclear medicine (PET/CT.

  7. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  8. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  9. Issues in Data Fusion for Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Applications with GIOVANNI System at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Arun; Zubko, Viktor; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    We look at issues, barriers and approaches for Data Fusion of satellite aerosol data as available from the GES DISC GIOVANNI Web Service. Daily Global Maps of AOT from a single satellite sensor alone contain gaps that arise due to various sources (sun glint regions, clouds, orbital swath gaps at low latitudes, bright underlying surfaces etc.). The goal is to develop a fast, accurate and efficient method to improve the spatial coverage of the Daily AOT data to facilitate comparisons with Global Models. Data Fusion may be supplemented by Optimal Interpolation (OI) as needed.

  10. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  11. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  12. 信息融合技术在火灾探测中的应用%Application of Data Fusion Technology to Fire Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 韩菁

    2011-01-01

    为解决火灾探测问题,采用基于推理的信息融合方法,分析了Dempster-shafer证据理论用于多传感器数据融合的基本概念和理论,并将它用于火灾探测的数据融合中.在数据处理方法上,结合具体应用背景,借助专家数据库知识,构造初始概率分配函数,产生每条证据的信度函数分配.在融合规则上,采用改进的融合规则对多条证据进行数据融合.融合结果鲁棒性强,有效地解决了传感器数据失效及证据冲突等问题.%A method of data fusion based on reasoning is applied to solve the problem of fire detection. This paper analyzes the basic concepts and theories of Dempster-shafer evidence theory which is applied to multi-sensor data fusion in the field of fire detection. In the way of data processing, a method of constructing the initial probability distribution function is developed by combining the specific application background with the knowledge of expert database in order to produce the reliability distribution of each evidence. In terms of the fusion rules, the improved integration role is used to fuse a number of evidences. The fusion results are strongly robust and effectively solve the problem of unreasonable fuses caused by invalidation of sensor data and the conflicts between evidences.

  13. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    by DisasterHub, an application proposal that won the MYGEOSS Second Call for Innovative Apps (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/index.php/ann-blog/197-disasterhub-mygeoss). DisasterHub will fill the gap by introducing a mobile application that will act as a middleware between mobile users and BEYOND services, building on the concept of citizen observatories in support of Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS, and UN-SPIDER. In this context the roadmap for generating beneficial EO services through DisasterHub is sketched in two main branches: (i) ingestion, processing and fusion of big multimodal data with additional spatiotemporal evidences (originated from Core Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS) for deriving higher value DRR and EMS products, (ii) interlinking the web and mobile platforms for the exchange and ease access of the societies to open EO/crowd generated data. The benefited communities will be effectively enlarged through DisasterHub mobile app. Mutually the BEYOND ecosystem will profit from the large amount of tagged information returned from the field, forming a unique input to the production chains and assimilation of predictive modeling. In conclusion DisasterHub will showcase in the EO community an enhanced EO services ecosystem with a software infrastructure for easy access of mobile users to the real-time monitoring and early-warning systems of BEYOND and tools for incorporating crowd-sourced data with open geospatial and socioeconomic data via open/linked data ingestion mechanisms (APIs), retrieved from the GEOSS Data-CORE, Copernicus and other EU portals.

  14. Canonical Correlation Analysis for Feature-Based Fusion of Biomedical Imaging Modalities and Its Application to Detection of Associative Networks in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Nicolle M; Li, Yi-Ou; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2008-12-01

    Typically data acquired through imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) are analyzed separately. However, fusing information from such complementary modalities promises to provide additional insight into connectivity across brain networks and changes due to disease. We propose a data fusion scheme at the feature level using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to determine inter-subject covariations across modalities. As we show both with simulation results and application to real data, multimodal CCA (mCCA) proves to be a flexible and powerful method for discovering associations among various data types. We demonstrate the versatility of the method with application to two datasets, an fMRI and EEG, and an fMRI and sMRI dataset, both collected from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. CCA results for fMRI and EEG data collected for an auditory oddball task reveal associations of the temporal and motor areas with the N2 and P3 peaks. For the application to fMRI and sMRI data collected for an auditory sensorimotor task, CCA results show an interesting joint relationship between fMRI and gray matter, with patients with schizophrenia showing more functional activity in motor areas and less activity in temporal areas associated with less gray matter as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, we compare our scheme with an independent component analysis based fusion method, joint-ICA that has proven useful for such a study and note that the two methods provide complementary perspectives on data fusion.

  15. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  16. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  17. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  18. Seeking tools for image fusion between computed tomography, structural and functional magnetic resonance methods for applications in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Guerra Sanches da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate tools for the fusion of images generatedby tomography and structural and functional magnetic resonanceimaging. Methods: Magnetic resonance and functional magneticresonance imaging were performed while a volunteer who hadpreviously undergone cranial tomography performed motor andsomatosensory tasks in a 3-Tesla scanner. Image data were analyzedwith different programs, and the results were compared. Results:We constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowedmeasurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. Therewas no single computational tool that contained the entire set offunctions necessary to achieve the goal. Conclusion: The fusion ofthe images from the three methods proved to be feasible with the useof four free-access software programs (OsiriX, Register, MRIcro andFSL. Our results may serve as a basis for building software that willbe useful as a virtual tool prior to neurosurgery.

  19. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hua; LIU Yin-ping; XIAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time,can only using the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring,the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed Information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectivenes.

  20. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebo Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  1. Research on the Application of the Light-Energy Spectrum Fusion Technique to Land and Resources Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use remote sensing images including Landsat (MSS and TM) and airborne radioactivity images to identify the type of rocks in the areas covered by vegetation. The relationship between light spectrum (Landsat MSS and TM) and energy spectrum (U, Th and K) is discussed on the basis of correlation analysis, and it is proven that there are correlations between the Landsat MSS or TM data and the U, Th and K data. By using the fusion technique, new images were generated, which contain both the light spectrum and the energy spectrum information.Taking the Lucong basin as the study area, the present paper demonstrates the successful identification of various types of rocks using the fusion technique. Different types of rocks are represented by different colours on the new light-energy spectrum images, so that volcanic rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods can be discriminated. Another example, in the Lingquan basin in Northeast China, not only the different types of rocks are successfully distinguished, but corrections and modifications are also made on the original geological map after some field investigation. Practice has proven that the light-energy spectrum fusion technique is a good way in lithologic identification.

  2. Tame Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The first section of this paper covers preliminaries. Essentially, the next four cover units. It is shown that a compatible nearring with DCCR is Nnilpotent if and only if every maximal right N-subgroup is a right ideal. The last five sections relate to fusion (I.e., N-groups minimal for being generated by Nsubgroups, where each is N-isomorphic to a given N-group). Right N-subgroups of a tame nearring N with DCCR, minimal for not annihilating a minimal ideal from the left, are self monogenic and N-isomorphic. That this holds for any collection of minimal ideals is significant. Here, the right N-subgroup involved is a 'fusion product' of the 'components'.

  3. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  4. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  5. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  6. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  7. Rovibrationally Resolved Time-Dependent Collisional-Radiative Model of Molecular Hydrogen and Its Application to a Fusion Detached Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Sawada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel rovibrationally resolved collisional-radiative model of molecular hydrogen that includes 4,133 rovibrational levels for electronic states whose united atom principal quantum number is below six is developed. The rovibrational X 1 Σ g + population distribution in a SlimCS fusion demo detached divertor plasma is investigated by solving the model time dependently with an initial 300 K Boltzmann distribution. The effective reaction rate coefficients of molecular assisted recombination and of other processes in which atomic hydrogen is produced are calculated using the obtained time-dependent population distribution.

  8. FUSION WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline; 黄颖(翻译)

    2009-01-01

    Fusion World”科技展示体验中心是英国设计公司MET Studio为新加坡科技研究局(A*Star)的科学工程委员会(SERC)所设计的,位于启汇城的办公地点,用于展示该委员会的精选技术作品,以吸引潜在的客户和启汇城内的学生购买群体。

  9. An approach to 3D model fusion in GIS systems and its application in a future ECDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Depeng; Pan, Mingyang

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics technology is widely used in various areas and causes profound changes. As an information carrier, 3D models are becoming increasingly important. The use of 3D models greatly helps to improve the cartographic expression and design. 3D models are more visually efficient, quicker and easier to understand and they can express more detailed geographical information. However, it is hard to efficiently and precisely fuse 3D models in local systems. The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic and precise approach to fuse 3D models in geographic information systems (GIS). It is the basic premise for subsequent uses of 3D models in local systems, such as attribute searching, spatial analysis, and so on. The basic steps of our research are: (1) pose adjustment by principal component analysis (PCA); (2) silhouette extraction by simple mesh silhouette extraction and silhouette merger; (3) size adjustment; (4) position matching. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system Automotive Intelligent Chart (AIC) 3D Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS). The fusion approach we propose is a common method and each calculation step is carefully designed. This approach solves the problem of cross-platform model fusion. 3D models can be from any source. They may be stored in the local cache or retrieved from Internet, or may be manually created by different tools or automatically generated by different programs. The system can be any kind of 3D GIS system.

  10. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-06-30

    The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments appears to require joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community has designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and for irradiation in HFIR. Therefore, miniature torsion joints were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with CVD-SiC that were tested in shear prior to and after HFIR irradiation. However, these torsion specimens fail out-of-plane, which causes difficulties in determining a shear strength for the joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model has been developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The implications for torsion shear joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  11. Multi-atlas-based segmentation with local decision fusion--application to cardiac and aortic segmentation in CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgum, Ivana; Staring, Marius; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Viergever, Max A; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-07-01

    A novel atlas-based segmentation approach based on the combination of multiple registrations is presented. Multiple atlases are registered to a target image. To obtain a segmentation of the target, labels of the atlas images are propagated to it. The propagated labels are combined by spatially varying decision fusion weights. These weights are derived from local assessment of the registration success. Furthermore, an atlas selection procedure is proposed that is equivalent to sequential forward selection from statistical pattern recognition theory. The proposed method is compared to three existing atlas-based segmentation approaches, namely 1) single atlas-based segmentation, 2) average-shape atlas-based segmentation, and 3) multi-atlas-based segmentation with averaging as decision fusion. These methods were tested on the segmentation of the heart and the aorta in computed tomography scans of the thorax. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods and yields results very close to those of an independent human observer. Moreover, the additional atlas selection step led to a faster segmentation at a comparable performance.

  12. Fundamental processes of fuel removal by cyclotron frequency range plasmas and integral scenario for fusion application studied with carbon co-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, S.; Wauters, T.; Kreter, A.; Petersson, P.; Carrasco, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Plasma impact removal using radio frequency heated plasmas is a candidate method to control the co-deposit related tritium inventory in fusion devices. Plasma parameters evolve according to the balance of input power to losses (transport, radiation, collisions). Material is sputtered by the ion fluxes with impact energies defined by the plasma sheath. H2, D2 and 18O2 plasmas are produced in the carbon limiter tokamak TEXTOR. Pre-characterised a-C:D layers are exposed to study local removal rates. The D2 plasma exhibits the highest surface release rate of 5.7 ± 0.9 ∗ 1019 D/m2s. Compared to this the rate of the O2 plasma is 3-fold smaller due to its 11-fold lower ion flux density. Re-deposition of removed carbon is observed, indicating that pumping and ionisation are limiting the removal in TEXTOR. Presented models can explain the observations and allow tailoring removal discharges. An integral application scenario using ICWC and thermo-chemical removal is presented, allowing to remove 700 g T from a-C:DT co-deposits in 20 h with fusion compatible wall conditions using technical specifications similar to ITER.

  13. Product of Likelihood Ratio Scores Fusion of Dynamic Face, Text Independent Speech and On-line Signature Based Biometrics Verification Application Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SOLTANE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of finite Gaussian mixture modal (GMM tuned using Expectation Maximization (EM estimating algorithms for score level data fusion is proposed. Automated biometric systems for human identification measure a “signature” of the human body, compare the resulting characteristic to a database, and render an application dependent decision. These biometric systems for personal authentication and identification are based upon physiological or behavioral features which are typically distinctive, Multi-biometric systems, which consolidate information from multiple biometric sources, are gaining popularity because they are able to overcome limitations such as non-universality, noisy sensor data, large intra-user variations and susceptibility to spoof attacks that are commonly encountered in mono modal biometric systems. Simulation result show that finite mixture modal (GMM is quite effective in modelling the genuine and impostor score densities, fusion based the product of Likelihood Ratio achieves a significant performance on eNTERFACE 2005 multi-biometric database based on dynamic face, on-line signature and text independent speech modalities.

  14. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Krommes

    2009-05-19

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-χ theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  15. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  16. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  17. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  18. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for

  19. Fusion Protein Linkers: Property, Design and Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoying; Zaro, Jennica; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    As an indispensable component of recombinant fusion proteins, linkers have shown increasing importance in the construction of stable, bioactive fusion proteins. This review covers the current knowledge of fusion protein linkers and summarizes examples for their design and application. The general properties of linkers derived from naturally-occurring multi-domain proteins can be considered as the foundation in linker design. Empirical linkers designed by researchers are generally classified i...

  20. On the equivalence between small-step and big-step abstract machines: a simple application of lightweight fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We show how Ohori and Sasano’s recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) in small-step form, as a state-transition function together with a ‘driver loop’, i.e., a function......-step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine’s machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...

  1. Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Reinforced with Amino-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Applications in Underwater Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Saliba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings can be improved through advanced composite coatings reinforced with nanomaterials. Hence, in this study a novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite finish was designed, synthesized, and characterized, achieved by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles produced via sol-gel process in epoxy-based powder. After the curing process of the coating reinforced with nanoparticles, the formation of a homogenous novel nanocomposite with the development of interfacial reactions between organic-inorganic and inorganic-inorganic components was observed. These hybrid nanostructures produced better integration between nanoparticles and epoxy matrix and improved mechanical properties that are expected to enhance the overall performance of the system against underwater corrosion.

  2. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  3. Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements of Fusion-Reaction Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Sadowski, M. J.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Schweer, B.; Galkowski, A.

    2008-03-01

    The paper reports on measurements of the space distribution of fusion protons of energy equal to about 3-MeV, originating from the D(d, p)T reactions. The measurements were carried out on the TEXTOR facility by means of a small ion pinhole camera, which was equipped with a solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type. The results obtained in two series of successive discharges are compared. The first series was performed with an additional heating of TEXTOR plasmas with NBI of fast deuterons, whereas in the second series plasma was heated by ICRF and NBI of hydrogen neutrals. Computer simulations of different trajectories of charged particles have been performed with the Gourdon code and the detection efficiency has been calculated for various orientations of the measuring assembly.

  4. Characterization of the axial plasma shock in a table top plasma focus after the pinch and its possible application to testing materials for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P" 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Inestrosa-Izurieta, María José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación y Aplicaciones en Física de Plasmas y Potencia Pulsada, P" 4, Santiago-Talca (Chile); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Gutiérrez, Gonzalo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Vergara, Julio [Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Clausse, Alejandro [CNEA-CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Centro, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Bruzzone, Horacio [CONICET and Universidad de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Castillo, Fermín [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-15

    The characterization of plasma bursts produced after the pinch phase in a plasma focus of hundreds of joules, using pulsed optical refractive techniques, is presented. A pulsed Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm and 8 ns FWHM pulse duration was used to obtain Schlieren images at different times of the plasma dynamics. The energy, interaction time with a target, and power flux of the plasma burst were assessed, providing useful information for the application of plasma focus devices for studying the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material targets. In particular, it was found that damage factors on targets of the order of 10{sup 4} (W/cm{sup 2})s{sup 1/2} can be obtained with a small plasma focus operating at hundred joules.

  5. First-principles studies on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  6. Modelling of impurity transport and plasma-wall interaction in fusion devices with the ERO code: basics of the code and examples of application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, A.; Borodin, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Linsmeier, C.; Romazanov, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Juelich (Germany); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion rate at OeAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien (Austria); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck (Austria); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Ding, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-08-15

    The 3D ERO code, which simulates plasma-wall interaction and impurity transport in magnetically confined fusion-relevant devices is described. As application, prompt deposition of eroded tungsten has been simulated at surfaces with shallow magnetic field of 3 T. Dedicated PIC simulations have been performed to calculate the characteristics of the sheath in front of plasma-exposed surfaces to use as input for these ERO simulations. Prompt deposition of tungsten reaches 100% at the highest electron temperature and density. In comparison to more simplified assumptions for the sheath the amount of prompt deposition is in general smaller if the PIC-calculated sheath is used. Due to friction with the background plasma the impact energy of deposited tungsten can be significantly larger than the energy gained in the sheath potential. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  7. [Application of positron-emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging fusion in biopsy and resection of gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xu; Guo, Yi; Cheng, Xin; Zhong, Ding-rong; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ren-zhi; Ma, Wen-bin

    2013-01-01

    To assess the value and feasibility of positron-emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) fusion technology in delineating tumor boundaries and positioning biopsy targets of gliomas so as to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas. A total of 18 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of gliomas discharged from our hospital from January 2010 to April 2011 were recruited. All of them underwent the preoperative examinations of MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and fluoroethyl-choline (FECH) PET. The digital image data were transferred into Brain LAB planning software and three types of images automatically fused. The tumor contours were drawn on the basis of each image modality separately. The extent of tumor resection or biopsy target was determined on the integrated information including tumor contours on PET and MRI images and intraoperative observation of tumor texture. On PET scans, the average standard uptake value (SUV) of glioblastomas was higher than that of grade II-III gliomas. With regard to the patients with both biopsy and tumor resection, the pathological diagnosis of the specimen obtained from the PET-guided biopsy was consistent with that of subsequently resected tissue. All 11 patients undergoing tumor resection were classified according to relationship between the image-based tumor contour and actual extent of resection. Six of them benefited from contour delineated by FDG PET images and 3 of them benefited from FECH PET. The combined contribution ratio of both PET methods was 9/11. PET-MRI fusion technology may accurately delineate tumor boundary and sensitively target the region of high proliferation or metabolism. A more radical resection and more accurate histological diagnosis can be thus achieved and yield a probably better prognosis of gliomas.

  8. Assessment and Treatment of Peritumoral Cortical Veins in Parasagittal Meningiomas with Application of 3-Dimensional Imaging Fusion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tengkun; Gu, Jianjun; Huang, Yinxing; Wei, Liangfeng; Gao, Jinxi; Wang, Shousen

    2017-08-01

    Operation of cortical veins is the keystone of parasagittal meningioma (PSM) resection. Little is known about pathologic changes of the veins and proper treatment. We built 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion models by neuronavigation to analyze the features of peritumoral cortical veins for PSMs and explore intraoperative treatment options. We performed a prospective study of 42 consecutive surgically treated PSM patients who underwent preoperative evaluation of peritumoral cortical veins using a 3D venous-tumor fusion model established by a neuronavigation system. We categorized cortical veins into 3 types: single-end anastomosis (type a), tumor-to-end anastomosis (type b), and end-to-end anastomosis (type c). We present surgical strategies to operate these veins. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated 39 patients with peritumoral cortical veins. The 3D models show 100% of the veins (95 in total), which were confirmed intraoperation. The postoperative complication rates after vein injury were 60% (type a), 16.7% (type c), and 0% (type b). Ten patients (23.8%) had residual tumor because of venous protection (equal to Simpson grade III). After correlation analysis, type b and c cortical veins were positively correlated with tumor volume. The anastomoses of cortical veins may provide compensation for venous transaction. There may be a time-evolution relationship between different cortical veins (type a to c to b). Treatment of cortical veins should follow the following principles: single-end veins must be protected, tumor-to-end veins should be transacted directly, and end-to-end veins could be cut selectivity based on the degree of occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus. Detailed preoperative assessment of peritumoral cortical veins is critical for proper treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-E-I-23: Design and Clinical Application of External Marking Body in Multi- Mode Medical Images Registration and Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Gong, G [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design an external marking body (EMB) that could be visible on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images and to investigate the use of the EMB for multiple medical images registration and fusion in the clinic. Methods: We generated a solution containing paramagnetic metal ions and iodide ions (CT'MR dual-visible solution) that could be viewed on CT and MR images and multi-mode image visible solution (MIVS) that could be obtained by mixing radioactive nuclear material. A globular plastic theca (diameter: 3–6 mm) that mothball the MIVS and the EMB was brought by filling MIVS. The EMBs were fixed on the patient surface and CT, MR, PET and SPECT scans were obtained. The feasibility of clinical application and the display and registration error of EMB among different image modalities were investigated. Results: The dual-visible solution was highly dense on CT images (HU>700). A high signal was also found in all MR scanning (T1, T2, STIR and FLAIR) images, and the signal was higher than subcutaneous fat. EMB with radioactive nuclear material caused a radionuclide concentration area on PET and SPECT images, and the signal of EMB was similar to or higher than tumor signals. The theca with MIVS was clearly visible on all the images without artifact, and the shape was round or oval with a sharp edge. The maximum diameter display error was 0.3 ± 0.2mm on CT and MRI images, and 1.0 ± 0.3mm on PET and SPECT images. In addition, the registration accuracy of the theca center among multi-mode images was less than 1mm. Conclusion: The application of EMB with MIVS improves the registration and fusion accuracy of multi-mode medical images. Furthermore, it has the potential to ameliorate disease diagnosis and treatment outcome.

  10. Cold nuclear fusion reactor and nuclear fusion rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available "Nuclear restraint inertial guidance directly hit the cold nuclear fusion reactor and ion speed dc transformer" [1], referred to as "cold fusion reactor" invention patents, Chinese Patent Application No. CN: 200910129632.7 [2]. The invention is characterized in that: at room temperature under vacuum conditions, specific combinations of the installation space of the electromagnetic field, based on light nuclei intrinsic magnetic moment and the electric field, the first two strings of the nuclei to be bound fusion on the same line (track of. Re-use nuclear spin angular momentum vector inherent nearly the speed of light to form a super strong spin rotation gyro inertial guidance features, to overcome the Coulomb repulsion strong bias barrier to achieve fusion directly hit. Similar constraints apply nuclear inertial guidance mode for different speeds and energy ion beam mixing speed, the design of ion speed dc transformer is cold fusion reactors, nuclear fusion engines and such nuclear power plants and power delivery systems start important supporting equipment, so apply for a patent merger

  11. Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

  12. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  13. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  14. In-fusion 连接技术优化及其在大片段重组载体构建中的应用%Optimization of In-fusion Technology and Application in Constructing Large Recombinant Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 张伟; 宋玲珍; 胡新德; 陈树林; 赵善廷

    2014-01-01

    With the completion of large-scale genome sequencing and the establishment of expression se-quence tag databases,the genome research had a great conversion from structural genomics to functional genomics and the key way to study gene function was gene fusion technology.To construct large recombi-nant vectors efficiently and precisely,we constructed large recombinant vectors using In-fusion technology and optimized the In-fusion technology system by changing the time of gene fusion.The quality of these vectors were tested by cell transfection and immunoblotting.The efficiency of clones could be improved by optimization of reaction time.Large recombinant vectors could be successfully achieved with the combina-tion of In-fusion technology and Fusion reagent.We constructed several eukaryotic expression vectors with the inserted DNA fragments of 10 ku,8 ku and 4 ku after optimizing connecting time during reaction and they were translated successfully.The optimized In-fusion technology make it more efficient and easier to fuse seamlessly and clone large PCR products into a vector of interest.This lays foundation for further re-search about the function of large sequence.%随着大规模基因组测序的完成和表达序列标签数据库的建立,基因组的研究已由结构基因组向功能基因组转化,而基因功能研究的关键是基因融合技术。为高效率高保真地构建融合大片段的重组载体,本试验利用 In-fusion 技术进行大片段载体构建,以不同的融合时间进行比较,通过细胞转染以及免疫印迹等方法对载体质量进行验证。通过对体系中连接时间的优化,构建出了含插入片段10、8、4 ku 的真核表达载体,并可正确表达。In-fusion 技术的优化,提高了大片段真核表达载体构建的效率,为研究大片段基因的生物学功能奠定了基础。

  15. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  16. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  17. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process.

  18. Sensor data fusion for body state estimation in a bipedal robot and its feedback control application for stable walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Jing-Yi; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-02-27

    We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot's body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.

  19. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex

    2012-06-01

    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality.

  20. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pei Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.

  1. [Application of the musculo-skeletal modelling software lhpFusionBox to a paleoanthropological problem: the Spyrou Neandertal moves!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tara; Semal, Patrick; Moiseev, Fedor; Louryan, Stéphane; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    LhpFusionBox is a program originally designed for biomechanical and clinical studies relating to the musculoskeletal system of anatomically modern humans (AMH). The program has recently been adapted for paleontological purposes and used to reconstruct and biomechanically analyse a fossil hominid. There is no complete Neandertal skeleton in the fossil record. The aim of the study was to reconstruct a complete three-dimensional (3D) model of a Neandertal using the relatively complete Spy II Neandertal and to conduct biomechanical feasibility studies on the knee and hamstring moment arms of the skeleton. Different Neandertal specimens were scaled to the size of Spy II to replace incomplete or missing bones. Biomechanical feasibility studies performed on the knee seem to show that Neandertal and AMHh gait is similar and Neandertals were shown to have larger moment arms in the hamstring muscles, which would have given them a mechanical advantage. The complete Neandertal was printed in 3D and used as the base to create the artistic model of "Spyrou" housed at l'Espace de l'Homme de Spy (EHoS) museum. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. The pre-image problem for Laplacian Eigenmaps utilizing L 1 regularization with applications to data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Doster, Timothy

    2017-07-01

    As the popularity of non-linear manifold learning techniques such as kernel PCA and Laplacian Eigenmaps grows, vast improvements have been seen in many areas of data processing, including heterogeneous data fusion and integration. One problem with the non-linear techniques, however, is the lack of an easily calculable pre-image. Existence of such pre-image would allow visualization of the fused data not only in the embedded space, but also in the original data space. The ability to make such comparisons can be crucial for data analysts and other subject matter experts who are the end users of novel mathematical algorithms. In this paper, we propose a pre-image algorithm for Laplacian Eigenmaps. Our method offers major improvements over existing techniques, which allow us to address the problem of noisy inputs and the issue of how to calculate the pre-image of a point outside the convex hull of training samples; both of which have been overlooked in previous studies in this field. We conclude by showing that our pre-image algorithm, combined with feature space rotations, allows us to recover occluded pixels of an imaging modality based off knowledge of that image measured by heterogeneous modalities. We demonstrate this data recovery on heterogeneous hyperspectral (HS) cameras, as well as by recovering LIDAR measurements from HS data.

  3. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, M., E-mail: kashiwagi.mieko@jaea.go.jp; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  4. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Anderson, K. S.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Epstein, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); McCrory, R. L. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8 MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6 × 10{sup 13} and ∼0.3 g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  5. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  6. Ligand-binding mass spectrometry to study biotransformation of fusion protein drugs and guide immunoassay development: strategic approach and application to peptibodies targeting the thrombopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael P; Gegg, Colin; Walker, Kenneth; Spahr, Christopher; Ortiz, Robert; Patel, Vimal; Yu, Steven; Zhang, Liana; Lu, Hsieng; DeSilva, Binodh; Lee, Jean W

    2010-12-01

    The knowledge of in vivo biotransformation (e.g., proteolysis) of protein therapeutic candidates reveals structural liabilities that impact stability. This information aids the development and confirmation of ligand-binding assays with the required specificity for bioactive moieties (including intact molecule and metabolites) for appropriate PK profiling. Furthermore, the information can be used for re-engineering of constructs to remove in vivo liabilities in order to design the most stable candidates. We have developed a strategic approach of ligand-binding mass spectrometry (LBMS) to study biotransformation of fusion proteins of peptides fused to human Fc ("peptibodies") using anti-human Fc immunoaffinity capture followed by tiered mass spectrometric interrogation. LBMS offers the combined power of selectivity of ligand capture with the specificity and detailed molecular-level information of mass spectrometry. In this paper, we demonstrate the preclinical application of LBMS to three peptibodies, AMG531 (romiplostim), AMG195(linear), and AMG195(loop), that target the thrombopoietin receptor. The data show that ligand capture offers excellent sample cleanup and concentration of intact peptibodies and metabolites for subsequent query by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification of in vivo proteolytic points. Additional higher-resolution analysis by nanoscale liquid chromatography interfaced with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is required for identification of heterogeneous metabolites. Five proteolytic points are accurately identified for AMG531 and two for AMG195(linear), while AMG195(loop) is the most stable construct in rats. We recommend the use of LBMS to assess biotransformation and in vivo stability during early preclinical phase development for all novel fusion proteins.

  7. Application of exposure fusion to single image dehazing%曝光融合在单幅图像去雾中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 胡士强; 张军

    2012-01-01

    针对雾天拍摄图像的降质现象,提出一种简单、有效的单幅图像去雾算法.首先利用暗原色先验知识估计出大气光亮度;然后根据雾天图像的成像物理模型,对每一像素的景深进行较高精度的亚采样,生成对应的虚拟无雾图像备选序列;最后,根据曝光融合算法提出的像素曝光评价指标,利用多分辨率形式的图像融合方法从备选序列中提取出清晰的无雾图像.实验结果表明,该算法既保证了复原图像清晰度,又具有较好的实时性.%This paper proposed a simple and effective method to remove haze from a single input image degraded by bad weather. First, it estimated the airlight by using dark channel prior knowledge. Then, under a mathematical model for describing the formation of a hazy image, the depth of field of each pixel was sampled to get a virtual haze-free image sequence. Finally, an exposure criterion introduced by exposure fusion algorithm was used to extract a haze-free image from the image sequence by multi-scale fashion image fusion method. The experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results and it is appropriate for real-time applications.

  8. Insights into nuclear reactions through fusion barrier distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hinde, D J; Morton, C R; Berriman, A C; Butt, R D; Newton, J O

    1999-01-01

    The study of nuclear fusion has been greatly enhanced following the realisation that an experimental fusion barrier distribution can be determined from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Experimental fusion barrier distributions for different reactions have shown clear signatures of a range of nuclear structure effects, for example those of static quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, and of coupling to single- and double-phonon states. Applications of this improved quantitative understanding of fusion in the fields of fission, and fusion of weakly bound nuclei are discussed.

  9. Sample-poor estimation of order and common signal subspace with application to fusion of medical imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Song, Yang; Schreier, Peter J; Calhoun, Vince D; Adalı, Tülay

    2016-07-01

    Due to their data-driven nature, multivariate methods such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) have proven very useful for fusion of multimodal neurological data. However, being able to determine the degree of similarity between datasets and appropriate order selection are crucial to the success of such techniques. The standard methods for calculating the order of multimodal data focus only on sources with the greatest individual energy and ignore relations across datasets. Additionally, these techniques as well as the most widely-used methods for determining the degree of similarity between datasets assume sufficient sample support and are not effective in the sample-poor regime. In this paper, we propose to jointly estimate the degree of similarity between datasets and their order when few samples are present using principal component analysis and canonical correlation analysis (PCA-CCA). By considering these two problems simultaneously, we are able to minimize the assumptions placed on the data and achieve superior performance in the sample-poor regime compared to traditional techniques. We apply PCA-CCA to the pairwise combinations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and electroencephalogram (EEG) data drawn from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while performing an auditory oddball task. The PCA-CCA results indicate that the fMRI and sMRI datasets are the most similar, whereas the sMRI and EEG datasets share the least similarity. We also demonstrate that the degree of similarity obtained by PCA-CCA is highly predictive of the degree of significance found for components generated using CCA.

  10. Study of the Fe-Ti/W system for joining applications in high-temperature fusion reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, J. de, E-mail: javier.deprado@urjc.es [Rey Juan Carlos University, Calle Tulipán s/n 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Sánchez, M. [Rey Juan Carlos University, Calle Tulipán s/n 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E. [Carlos III de Madrid University, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Ureña, A. [Rey Juan Carlos University, Calle Tulipán s/n 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Simulations show good correlation versus experimental results for Fe-Ti/W system. • The joint is predicted to be stable at the service conditions of the component. • The predictions could help to analyze different scenarios during its service life. - Abstract: The interaction of the Fe-Ti/W system in a brazed divertor component of the future fusion power plant has been studied. The reactivity between the substrates and the filler is an important factor to obtain a high quality joint. Thermodynamic and diffusion simulation software can be valuable tools for studying these effects, particularly in scenarios that are difficult to experimentally analyze. Two different strategies have been performed: 1) simulation processes using the Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software to calculate the phase diagram and simulate the diffusion process, respectively, and 2) experimental tests in a furnace to join W-W substrates using a filler with an 86Fe-Ti composition to analyze the operational brazeability and compare it with the simulation results. The simulation processes predicted two of the three phases that formed at the experimental joint (α-Fe and TiC). The interaction at the W-filler interface predicted by DICTRA correlates with the experimental results, where Fe, Ti and C diffused into the W substrate and moved the interface by 25 μm. Simulations also show the stability of the interface over the lifetime of the component. The combined use of Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software enabled the accurate prediction of different scenarios in the system of Fe-Ti-C/W.

  11. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  12. Fusion-protein-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Bostjan; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Fusion proteins can be used directly in protein crystallization to assist crystallization in at least two different ways. In one approach, the `heterologous fusion-protein approach', the fusion partner can provide additional surface area to promote crystal contact formation. In another approach, the `fusion of interacting proteins approach', protein assemblies can be stabilized by covalently linking the interacting partners. The linker connecting the proteins plays different roles in the two applications: in the first approach a rigid linker is required to reduce conformational heterogeneity; in the second, conversely, a flexible linker is required that allows the native interaction between the fused proteins. The two approaches can also be combined. The recent applications of fusion-protein technology in protein crystallization from the work of our own and other laboratories are briefly reviewed.

  13. Fusion of multimodal medical images. Application to dynamic tri dimensional study of vertebral column; Fusion d`images medicales multimodales. Application a l`etude tridimensionnelle dynamique de la colonne vertebrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunie, L.

    1992-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to put in correspondence images coming from different ways. The area of application is biomedical imaging, particularly dynamic imaging in three dimensional calculations of spinal cord. The use of computers allows modeling. Then a study of validation by clinical experimentation on spinal cord proves the efficiency of the simulation.

  14. Human-Centered Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, David L

    2010-01-01

    Information fusion refers to the merging of information from disparate sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations. Rather than focusing on traditional data fusion applications which have been mainly concerned with physical military targets, this unique resource explores new human-centered trends, such as locations, identity, and interactions of individuals and groups (social networks). Moreover, the book discusses two new major sources of information: human observations and web-based information.This cutting-edge volume presents a new view of multi-sensor d

  15. Fusion Power Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the October--December 1978 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Three separate abstracts were prepared for the included sections. (MOW)

  16. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  17. A Survey of the Application of Data Fusion Model in Medical Care Systems%数据融合模型在医疗监护领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2012-01-01

      With the increasingly enrichment of medical care equipments, and the rapid expansion of body sensor data in recent years, the application of data fusion in medical care has become the research tendency. According to the variety of scenarios and functions, the usage of data fusion in the practical medical care system is varied as well. This paper discusses the data fusion models that are widely used in medical system, and divides them into three categories, which are data level fusion model, feature level fusion model, and decision level fusion model. The paper expounds the implementation principle, the key problems and the applicable occasions of each kind of fusion model, and gives some remarks on the current medical data fusion models.%  近年来,随着医疗监护设备的日益丰富,人体传感数据迅速膨胀,数据融合在医疗监护领域的应用成为一项重要研究趋势。根据应用场景和功能侧重点的不同,数据融合在实际医疗监护系统中的使用方法也是多种多样的。文章主要讨论目前广泛应用于医疗系统中的多种数据融合模型,将现有的医疗数据融合模型按数据层融合、特征层融合、决策层融合分为三类。文章详细阐述了每种融合模型的实现原理、关键问题与适用场合,并在此基础之上对目前医疗数据融合模型加以总结。

  18. 数据融合技术在交通事件检测中的应用综述%A Review of Application of Data Fusion Technology in the Field of Traffic Incident Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜桂艳; 李琦; 常安德

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the overall performance of traffic incident detection system and the utilization of multi-source information, based on the analysis of the main problems in current traffic detection methods, the application of data fusion in traffic incident detection system is summarized, analyzed, and classified into two kinds of data fusion application modes, which are data-level fusion of multiple-source information for automatic incident detection and decisionlevel fusion of traffic incident detection methods based on multiple-source information. The major problems in current research and the trends of future research are also pointed out.%为了进一步提高交通事件检测系统的性能,在对基于单源信息的交通事件检测方法进行分析的基础上,从基于多信息源的交通事件自动检测数据级融合和基于多信息源的交通事件检测方法决策级融合2个方面,分析、总结了数据融合技术在交通事件检测中的应用现状,并指出了目前研究存在的主要问题及后续研究的发展趋势.

  19. 异体骨垫在腰椎结核椎间融合术中的临床应用%Clinical application of allogeneic bone pad in intervertebral fusion of lumbar spine tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范相成; 关玉成; 贾勇; 邵向明

    2012-01-01

    [目的]评价异体骨垫在腰椎结核椎间融合中的临床应用效果.[方法]2005年6月~2009年11月,采用异体骨垫对腰椎单节段结核病灶清除后进行植骨融合41例.[结果]所有病例全部治愈,未发生结核复发,椎间融合率100%.[结论]采用异体骨垫对腰椎单节段结核病灶清除后进行植骨融合,方法简单,效果可靠,值得临床应用.%[Objective] To clinically evaluate the application effect of allogeneic bone pad in interveitebral fusion of lumbar spine tuberculosis. [Methods] Forty -one cases of bone graft fusion were performed with allogeneic bone pad after clearance of tuberculose focus at single lumbar segment from June 2005 to November 2009. [ Results] All patients were cured without recurrence of tuberculosis and the ratio of interveitebral fusion were 100%. [Conclusion] For its reliability and simplicity, bone graft fusion with allogeneic bone pad is worthy of clinical application after clearance of tuberculose focus at single lumbar segment

  20. Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS

  1. Three-way (N-way) fusion of brain imaging data based on mCCA+jICA and its application to discriminating schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sui (Jing); H. He (Hao); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); T. Adali (Tülay); K.A. Kiehl (Kent ); Q. Yu (Qingbao); V.P. Clark; E. Castro (Elena); T.J.H. White (Tonya); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); B.C. Ho (Beng ); N.C. Andreasen; V.D. Calhoun (Vince)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMultimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain diseases. However, most such instances have been limited to pair-wise fusion; because there are often more than two imaging modalities available per subject, there is a need for approaches that can combine multiple dat

  2. Three-way (N-way) fusion of brain imaging data based on mCCA+jICA and its application to discriminating schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sui (Jing); H. He (Hao); G. Pearlson (Godfrey); T. Adali (Tülay); K.A. Kiehl (Kent ); Q. Yu (Qingbao); V.P. Clark; E. Castro (Elena); T.J.H. White (Tonya); B.A. Mueller (Bryon ); B.C. Ho (Beng ); N.C. Andreasen; V.D. Calhoun (Vince)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMultimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain diseases. However, most such instances have been limited to pair-wise fusion; because there are often more than two imaging modalities available per subject, there is a need for approaches that can combine multiple

  3. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  4. Development of a high-heat flux cooling element with potential application in a near-term fusion power plant divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Jack Robert, E-mail: jack.nicholas@eng.ox.ac.uk [Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ireland, Peter [Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hancock, David [CCFE, Culham, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Robertson, Dan [Rolls-Royce Plc., Derby, Derbyshire (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Laminate jet impingement system introduced for high pressure operation (17 MPa+). • Numerical thermo-fluid analysis on baseline geometry. • Cascade impingement shown to reduce divertor mass flow rate requirements and increase fluid temperature change. • Numerical thermo-fluid analysis validated using scaled experiments with air. - Abstract: A low temperature jet impingement based heat sink module has been developed for potential application in a near-term fusion power plant divertor. The design is composed of a number of hexagonal CuCrZr sheets bonded together in a stack to form a laminate structure. This method allows the production of complex flow paths using relatively simple manufacturing techniques. The thermo-fluid performance of a baseline design employing cascade jet impingement has been assessed and compared to a non-cascade case. Experimental validation of the numerical work was carried out on a scaled model using air as the working fluid. Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on the surface using surface temperature data from thermochromic liquid crystals.

  5. Analytical electron microscopy of W-core β-SiC fibers for use in an SiC-based composite material for fusion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplišek, Tea; Gec, Medeja; Iveković, Aljaž; Novak, Saša; Kobe, Spomenka; Dražić, Goran

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the interactions between tungsten (W) and silicon carbide (SiC) in Sigma SiC fibers at high temperatures were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These fibers could have the potential for use in fusion-related applications owing to their high thermal conductivity compared with pure SiC-based fibers. The as-received fibers were composed of a 100-μm-thick shell of radially textured β-SiC grains and a 15-μm-thick tungsten core, composed of a few hundreds of nm-sized elongated tungsten grains. The interfaces between the tungsten and the SiC and the SiC and the outer coatings were sharp and smooth. After heat treatment at 1,600°C for 3 h in Ar, the tungsten core reacted with SiC to form a rough interface surface. Inside the core, W₅Si₃, W₃Si, and W₂C phases were detected using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron-diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the fibers deteriorate after the heat treatment.

  6. Enhanced research in ground-penetrating radar and multisensor fusion with application to the detection and visualization of buried waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devney, A.J.; DiMarzio, C.; Kokar, M.; Miller, E.L.; Rappaport, C.M.; Weedon, W.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recognizing the difficulty and importance of the landfill remediation problems faced by DOE, and the fact that no one sensor alone can provide complete environmental site characterization, a multidisciplinary team approach was chosen for this project. The authors have developed a multisensor fusion approach that is suitable for the wide variety of sensors available to DOE, that allows separate detection algorithms to be developed and custom-tailored to each sensor. This approach is currently being applied to the Geonics EM-61 and Coleman step-frequency radar data. High-resolution array processing techniques were developed for detecting and localizing buried waste containers. A soil characterization laboratory facility was developed using a HP-8510 network analyzer and near-field coaxial probe. Both internal and external calibration procedures were developed for de-embedding the frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters from the measurements. Dispersive soil propagation modeling algorithms were also developed for simulating wave propagation in dispersive soil media. A study was performed on the application of infrared sensors to the landfill remediation problem, particularly for providing information on volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) in the atmosphere. A dust-emission lidar system is proposed for landfill remediation monitoring. Design specifications are outlined for a system which could be used to monitor dust emissions in a landfill remediation effort. The detailed results of the investigations are contained herein.

  7. Fusion analysis of MH-Ni batteries characteristics by neural network data fusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the fusion analysis of the charging and dischargingcharacteristics of MH-Ni batteries in wide applications by neural network data fusion method to generate a specific vector and the use of this specific vector for selection of MH-Ni batteries, and the comparison of two results of selection.

  8. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  9. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  10. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  11. JENDL fusion file 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yu Baosheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro [Data Engineering Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons have been evaluated for 79 isotopes and 13 natural elements ranging from H to Bi to improve the accuracy of predictions for the neutronics calculations in the D-T thermonuclear fusion applications. The data given in JENDL-3.1, which was the newest version of JENDL general purpose file when this project was initiated, was combined with new calculations based on the optical model, DWBA, pre-equilibrium and multi-step statistical models, and the DDX data were generated based on various kinds of systematics for medium-mass nuclei. Different methods were employed for light nuclei to which the above method could not be applied. In addition, the DDXs for emission of charged particles (p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle) were given for {sup 2}H, {sup 9}Be and elements heavier or equal to F. The present results give an overall good description of the measured DDX data of both the neutron and charged particles emission channels. The data were compiled in ENDF-6 format, and released in 1999 as a special purpose file of JENDL family, namely, JENDL Fusion File 99. (author)

  12. Application and development of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion%经椎间孔腰椎椎体间融合术的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王辉; 丁文元

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar fusion has become a major surgical method in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion ( TLIF ) has a series of advantages such as less damage to lumbar structure, less nerve injuries and less postoperative complications. With the constant increase of lumbar degenerative diseases, TLIF has been rapidly developed in recent years. With the development of surgery, minimally invasive technique has been used in TLIF. Minimally invasive-TLIF ( MI-TLIF ) has become one of the research hotspots in spinal surgery. The development process, technical features, biomechanical advantages, internal ifxation methods and fusion materials of TLIF and MI-TLIF are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  14. Transmutation of Minor Actinides in a Spherical Torus Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGKaiming; ZHANGGuoshu

    2002-01-01

    Fusion energy will be a long-term energy source. Great efforts have been devoted to fusion research in the past 50 years, and there is still a long way to go. Transmutation of high-level waste (HLW) utilizing D-T fusion neutrons is a good choice for an early application of fusion.

  15. Visualization of membrane fusion, one particle at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterstrom, Jason; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2013-03-12

    Protein-mediated fusion between phospholipid bilayers is a fundamental and necessary mechanism for many cellular processes. The short-lived nature of the intermediate states visited during fusion makes it challenging to capture precise kinetic information using classical, ensemble-averaging biophysical techniques. Recently, a number of single-particle fluorescence microscopy-based assays that allow researchers to obtain highly quantitative data about the fusion process by observing individual fusion events in real time have been developed. These assays depend upon changes in the acquired fluorescence signal to provide a direct readout for transitions between the various fusion intermediates. The resulting data yield meaningful and detailed kinetic information about the transitory states en route to productive membrane fusion. In this review, we highlight recent in vitro and in vivo studies of membrane fusion at the single-particle level in the contexts of viral membrane fusion and SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion. These studies afford insight into mechanisms of coordination between fusion-mediating proteins as well as coordination of the overall fusion process with other cellular processes. The development of single-particle approaches to investigate membrane fusion and their successful application to a number of model systems have resulted in a new experimental paradigm and open up considerable opportunities to extend these methods to other biological processes that involve membrane fusion.

  16. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  17. Design study of a G-band FEL amplifier for application to cyclotron resonant heating in magnetic fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H. P.; Read, M. E.; Jackson, R. H.; Pershing, D. E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    A G-band (140-150 GHz) free-electron laser is described using a coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler. The CHI wiggler is produced by insertion into a solenoid of a central rod and an outer ring composed of alternating ferrite and nonferrite spacers. The position of the spacers is such that the ferrite (nonferrite) spacers on the central rod are opposite the nonferrite (ferrite) spacers on the outer ring. The field is cylindrically symmetric and exhibits minima in the center of the gap providing for enhanced beam focusing. We describe a tapered wiggler amplifier for plasma heating applications. Preliminary design studies using a nonlinear simulation indicates that output powers of 3.5 MW are possible using a 690 kV/40 A electron beam for a total efficiency of 13%. It is important to note that no beam loss was observed even for realistic values of beam energy spread.

  18. PCNN-Based Image Fusion in Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a novel method of image fusion problem for different application scenarios, employing compressive sensing (CS as the image sparse representation method and pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN as the fusion rule. Firstly, source images are compressed through scrambled block Hadamard ensemble (SBHE for its compression capability and computational simplicity on the sensor side. Local standard variance is input to motivate PCNN and coefficients with large firing times are selected as the fusion coefficients in compressed domain. Fusion coefficients are smoothed by sliding window in order to avoid blocking effect. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed fusion method outperforms other fusion methods in compressed domain and is effective and adaptive in different image fusion applications.

  19. Gradient-based compressive image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang CHEN‡; Zheng QIN

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel image fusion scheme based on gradient and scrambled block Hadamard ensemble (SBHE) sam-pling for compressive sensing imaging. First, source images are compressed by compressive sensing, to facilitate the transmission of the sensor. In the fusion phase, the image gradient is calculated to reflect the abundance of its contour information. By com-positing the gradient of each image, gradient-based weights are obtained, with which compressive sensing coefficients are achieved. Finally, inverse transformation is applied to the coefficients derived from fusion, and the fused image is obtained. Information entropy (IE), Xydeas’s and Piella’s metrics are applied as non-reference objective metrics to evaluate the fusion quality in line with different fusion schemes. In addition, different image fusion application scenarios are applied to explore the scenario adaptability of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the gradient-based scheme has the best per-formance, in terms of both subjective judgment and objective metrics. Furthermore, the gradient-based fusion scheme proposed in this paper can be applied in different fusion scenarios.

  20. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  1. THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND AERO-GEOPHYSICS DATA FUSION ON METALLOGENIC PROGNOSIS IN QIMANTAGE OF EAST KUNLUN MONTAIN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Based on west of Qimantage of East Kunlun mountain area, takes advantage of ASTER data, according to the altered mineral spectral characteristics, remote sensing alteration information is extracted. Incorporation the anomaly extraction results with high-precision aero geophysical data processing results, a multiple resource information fusion model is proposed. The fusion model of two totally different type of data which is a special attention in geospatial academia now, which can im...

  2. Fusion de mesures de déplacement issues d'imagerie SAR : application aux modélisations séismo-volcaniques

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Yajing

    2011-01-01

    Following the successive launches of satellites for Earth observation with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor, the volume of available radar data is increasing considerably. In this context, fusion of displacement measurements from SAR imagery is promising both in the community of remote sensing and in geophysics. With this in mind, this Ph.D thesis proposes to extend conventional approaches by combining SAR image processing techniques, information fusion methods and the knowledge on geoph...

  3. A NOVEL REGION FEATURE USED IN MULTISENSOR IMAGE FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new region feature which emphasized the salience of target region and its neighbors is proposed.In region segmentation-based multisensor image fusion scheme, the presented feature can be extracted from each segmented region to determine the fusion weight. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature has extensive application scope and it provides much more information for each region. It can not only be used in image fusion but also be used in other image processing applications.

  4. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  5. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  7. Suboptimal distributed Kalman filtering fusion with feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Minhua; Zhu Zhuanmin; Shi Meng; Peng Qinke; Huang Yongxuan

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of fusion algorithm, feedback is introduced into Kalman filtering fusion. Fusion center broadcasts its latest estimated states to the local sensors, which can improve the performance of local tracking error through reducing the covariance of each local error, and only needs calculating the trace of error variance matrices without calculating the inverse of error variance matrices. Simulation results show that it can reduce the computational complexity and the covariance of error, and it is convenient for engineering applications.

  8. Fusion the energy of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Fusion: The Energy of the Universe, 2e is an essential reference providing basic principles of fusion energy from its history to the issues and realities progressing from the present day energy crisis. The book provides detailed developments and applications for researchers entering the field of fusion energy research. This second edition includes the latest results from the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, CA, and the progress on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak programme at Caderache, France.

  9. The Fusion Driven Rocket: Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a...

  10. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  11. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Koji; Gopala Reddy, Sindhoora Bhargavi; Zhang, Li Feng; Chin, Wei Xin; Muschin, Tegshi; Heinig, Lars; Suzuki, Youichi; Nanjundappa, Haraprasad; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Ryo, Akihide; Nomura, Nobuo; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Curdlan sulfate (CRDS), a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV). CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E) protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion). The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  12. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  13. Genome Fusion Detection: a novel method to detect fusion genes from SNP-array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Sebastian; Groth, Philip

    2013-03-15

    Fusion genes result from genomic rearrangements, such as deletions, amplifications and translocations. Such rearrangements can also frequently be observed in cancer and have been postulated as driving event in cancer development. to detect them, one needs to analyze the transition region of two segments with different copy number, the location where fusions are known to occur. Finding fusion genes is essential to understanding cancer development and may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Here we present a novel method, the Genomic Fusion Detection algorithm, to predict fusion genes on a genomic level based on SNP-array data. This algorithm detects genes at the transition region of segments with copy number variation. With the application of defined constraints, certain properties of the detected genes are evaluated to predict whether they may be fused. We evaluated our prediction by calculating the observed frequency of known fusions in both primary cancers and cell lines. We tested a set of cell lines positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion and prostate cancers positive for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. We could detect the fusions in all positive cell lines, but not in the negative controls.

  14. Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.

    2008-03-01

    The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.

  15. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  16. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  17. Research on Application of Data Fusion Technology in Boat's Integrated Navigation System%数据融合技术在船舶组合导航中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟士超; 唐正茂

    2011-01-01

    As the combined application type of boat's navigation system,it is necessary to fuse integrated navigation information in order to supply reliability navigation information.This paper discussed the main data fusion methods that used in the boat's navigation system,of which on the basis the sensor local information fusion algorithm was pointed out aiming at the structure of federated filter,and the fault-tolerance of federated filter that adopted local sensor navigation information fusion algorithm was also analyzed in the end.All this work is significative for promoting the application of data fusion technology in boat's integrated navigation system.%随着船舶导航系统的组合应用,有必要对组合导航信息进行数据融合以提供高可靠性的导航信息。在简单分析了船舶导航信息主要的数据融合方法的基础上,针对联邦滤波器的结构设计了传感器本地多次数据融合决策算法,并对融合了传感器本地决策数据融合算法的容错性进行了分析,对于推动数据融合在船舶组合导航中的应用具有一定借鉴意义。

  18. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  19. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  20. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  1. Data Fusion Between Microwave and Thermal Infrared Radiometer Data and Its Application to Skin Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Speed and Salinity Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Method for data fusion between Microwave Scanning Radiometer: MSR and Thermal Infrared Radiometer: TIR derived skin sea surface temperature: SSST, wind speed: WS and salinity is proposed. SSST can be estimated with MSR and TIR radiometer data. Although the contribution ocean depth to MSR and TIR radiometer data are different each other, SSST estimation can be refined through comparisons between MSR and TIR derived SSST. Also WS and salinity can be estimated with MSR data under the condition of the refined SSST. Simulation study results support the idea of the proposed data fusion method.

  2. Multisource Remote Sensing Imagery Fusion Scheme Based on Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD and Its Application to the Extraction of Bamboo Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most bamboo forests grow in humid climates in low-latitude tropical or subtropical monsoon areas, and they are generally located in hilly areas. Bamboo trunks are very straight and smooth, which means that bamboo forests have low structural diversity. These features are beneficial to synthetic aperture radar (SAR microwave penetration and they provide special information in SAR imagery. However, some factors (e.g., foreshortening can compromise the interpretation of SAR imagery. The fusion of SAR and optical imagery is considered an effective method with which to obtain information on ground objects. However, most relevant research has been based on two types of remote sensing image. This paper proposes a new fusion scheme, which combines three types of image simultaneously, based on two fusion methods: bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD and the Gram-Schmidt transform. The fusion of panchromatic and multispectral images based on the Gram-Schmidt transform can enhance spatial resolution while retaining multispectral information. BEMD is an adaptive decomposition method that has been applied widely in the analysis of nonlinear signals and to the nonstable signal of SAR. The fusion of SAR imagery with fused panchromatic and multispectral imagery using BEMD is based on the frequency information of the images. It was established that the proposed fusion scheme is an effective remote sensing image interpretation method, and that the value of entropy and the spatial frequency of the fused images were improved in comparison with other techniques such as the discrete wavelet, à-trous, and non-subsampled contourlet transform methods. Compared with the original image, information entropy of the fusion image based on BEMD improves about 0.13–0.38. Compared with the other three methods it improves about 0.06–0.12. The average gradient of BEMD is 4%–6% greater than for other methods. BEMD maintains spatial frequency 3.2–4.0 higher than

  3. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  4. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  5. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  6. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, PCN> , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. PCN> for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: PCN> has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine PCN> . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where PCN> starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of PCN> from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections

  7. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  8. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  9. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  10. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature...

  11. The ab initio equation of state of hydrogen in the warm dense matter and its application to the implosion of targets for the inertial confinement fusion; Equation d'etat ab initio de l'hydrogene dans la matiere dense et tiede et application a l'implosion de cibles pour la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillabet, L.

    2011-03-25

    In the field of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the equation of state (EoS) of the hydrogen and its isotopes is one of the most important properties to know. The EoS based on chemical models have difficulty in giving an unambiguous description of the hydrogen in the strong coupled and partial degenerate regime, called Warm Dense Matter (WDM). Indeed, these models use potential with adjustable parameters to describe the many body interactions which are important in the WDM. On the other hand, the ab initio methods resolve almost exactly the quantum many body problem and are thus particularly relevant in this domain. In the first part of this thesis, we describe how we built a table of a multi-phase EoS of the hydrogen, using ab initio methods in the field of the WDM. We show in particular that this EoS is in very good agreement with most of the available experimental data (principal Hugoniot, sound velocity in the molecular fluid, melting curve at low pressure, measurements of multiple shocks). In the second part, we present a direct application of our EoS by showing its influence on the criteria of ignition and combustion of two target designs for ICF: a self-ignited target which will be used on the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ), and a shock-ignited target. We show in particular that the optimization of the laser pulse allowing maximizing the thermonuclear energy is strongly dependent on the precision of the EoS in the strong coupled and degenerate domain. (author) [French] Dans le domaine de la fusion par confinement inertiel (FCI), l'equation d'etat (EoS) de l'hydrogene et de ses isotopes est tres certainement une des proprietes les plus importantes a connaitre. Les EoS basees sur des modeles chimiques peinent a donner une description univoque de l'hydrogene dans le domaine de couplage et de degenerescence partiels, appele matiere dense et tiede, ou Warm Dense Matter (WDM). En effets, ces modeles utilisent des potentiels ad hoc pour decrire les

  12. Perceptual reasoning in adaptive fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2002-07-01

    The author previously published a unified perceptual reasoning system framework for adaptive sensor fusion and situation assessment. Ths framework is re-examined to highlight the role of human perceptual reasoning and to establish the relationship between human perceptual reasoning and the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) fusion levels. Mappings between the fusion levels and the elements of perceptual reasoning are defined. Methods to populate the knowledge bases associated with each component of the perceptual reasoning system are highlighted. The concept and application of perception, the resultant system architecture and its candidate renditions using distributed interacting software agents (ISA) are discussed. The perceptual reasoning system is shown to be a natural governing mechanism for extracting, associating and fusing information from multiple sources while adaptively controlling the fusion level processes for optimum fusion performance. The unified modular system construct is shown to provide a formal framework to accommodate various implementation alternatives. The application of this architectural concept is illustrated for distributed fusion systems architectures and is sued to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  13. Calibration of new batches and a study of applications of nuclear track detectors under the harsh conditions of nuclear fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowska, A., E-mail: a.malinowska@ncbj.gov.pl [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7 Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Szydlowski, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Malinowski, K.; Kuk, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7 Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each new batch of PM-355 material should be carefully calibrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detectors heated at a temperature higher than 100 Degree-Sign C demonstrate v nearly equal to 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of V{sub B} on the temperature is similar to the dependence of V{sub B} on the dose of electron and gamma radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aging effect of these materials also has a significant influence on the track diameter. - Abstract: This paper describes calibration studies of PM-355 detectors manufactured at different times in order to compare their sensitivity to the investigated ions. These studies were motivated by the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in fusion experiments to measure energetic ions escaping from high-temperature plasmas. The CR-39 detector and its new versions such as PM-355, PM-500, PM-600 have been examined for several years at our institute. The PM-355 plastic appeared to be the best, especially for the detection of light ions. However, to use these detectors optimally, especially in spectroscopic measurements, each new batch of PM-355 material should be carefully calibrated. In high temperature plasma experiments the detectors operate under harsh conditions of high temperature, heat impact, intense X-ray, neutron and fast electron radiation. In order to evaluate the effect of these conditions on the crater formation process, some of the {alpha} particle- and proton-irradiated PM-355 detector samples were heated in an oven and then etched and scanned. Other alpha- and proton-irradiated samples were exposed to {gamma} and electron radiation of doses varying from 100 to 2000 kGy. The irradiated samples were then etched in steps and the bulk etching rate v{sub B} of the PM-355 material was determined. The craters induced by the projectiles in both heated and {gamma} and electron irradiated samples differ considerably from the

  14. High-Gain Magnetized Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.3333505] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

  15. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  16. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  17. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  18. Research on multi-source heterogeneous data fusion and its application%一种多源异构数据融合方法及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建华; 洪年松; 张广云

    2016-01-01

    针对基于多源数据融合的多用户决策问题,建立了多源异构数据融合模型,研究了基于三角模糊数的异构数据统一量化表示方法,采用有序加权平均算子融入决策者的偏好,设计了一种支持多用户决策的多源异构数据融合算法。实际应用表明,本文设计的算法能解决多源异构数据在结构和语义上的模糊性、差异性和异构性等问题,通过在数据融合过程中考虑决策者偏好,提高了多用户决策结果的可靠度。%As to the multi-source data fusion based multi-user decision, a model of multi-source heterogeneous data fusion was designed. Triangular fuzzy number based uniform quantity description of multi-source data was researched. The ordered weight average (OWA) was used to deal with the preference of decision-maker and a data fusion algorithm for decision making was designed. At last, practical application shows the algorithm can solve the problems of semantic ambiguity, difference and heterogeneity of multi-source heterogeneous data, and the reliability of decision results was improved by considering data maker's preference into the process of data fusion.

  19. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  20. Application of Data Fusion Technology in Remote Sensing Interpretation for Railway Geology Engineering%数据融合技术在铁路地质遥感判释中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂卫

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes:The remote sensing interpretation technology for railway geology engineering, as acomplex system work, is difficult to get good effect only by using the single data or method. To improve the accuracy andquality of the interpretation, this paper studies the application of data fusion technology in the remote sensinginterpretation.Research conclusions: (1) The remote sensing interpretation accuracy for unfavorable geological condition can beenhanced by using the data fusion technology. (2 ) The quantitative interpretation and analysis for the unfavorablegeological condition can be realized by using the 2D interpretation method along with the 3D interpretation method.(3 ) The study should be strengthened on the application of fusion of remote sensing with the geophysical prospecting toextend the application range of remote sensing interpretation.%研究目的:铁路工程地质遥感判释作为一项复杂的系统工作,仅靠单一的数据源或手段很难达到较好的判释效果.为提高地质遥感判释的精度和质量,本文探讨数据融合技术在地质遥感判释中的应用.研究结论:(1)采用多源数据融合技术进行地质遥感判释,可提高不良地质判释的准确度;(2)二维和三维遥感判释相结合,可实现不良地质由定性到定量的判释和分析;(3)今后应加强遥感与物探等勘察手段的融合应用研究,拓宽地质遥感判释的应用范围.

  1. Strategy for D/He-3 fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, John F.

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that Deuterium/Helium-3 fusion faces a more difficult physics development path but an easier technology development path than does Deuterium/Tritium. Early D/He-3 tests in next generation D/T fusion experiments might provide a valuable D/He-3 proof-of-principle at modest cost. At least one high leverage alternate concept should be vigorously pursued. Space applications of D/He-3 fusion are critically important to large scale development.

  2. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  3. Distributed fusion estimation for sensor networks with communication constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-An; Song, Haiyu; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    This book systematically presents energy-efficient robust fusion estimation methods to achieve thorough and comprehensive results in the context of network-based fusion estimation. It summarizes recent findings on fusion estimation with communication constraints; several novel energy-efficient and robust design methods for dealing with energy constraints and network-induced uncertainties are presented, such as delays, packet losses, and asynchronous information... All the results are presented as algorithms, which are convenient for practical applications.

  4. An investigation of face and fingerprint feature-fusion guidelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and application of the face and fingerprint feature-fusion guidelines, respectively. The experimental analyses and results are discussed in Section 8. Section 9 concludes the paper and discusses future work. 2 Quality Enhancement Quality enhancement is used... and discussed as follows. An Investigation of Face and Fingerprint Feature-Fusion Guidelines 9 Table 1: Feature-Fusion Guidelines Stage Name Advantage Disadvantage Suggested Use Quality Enhancement Pixel Normalization Reduces in- consistent lighting. Not very...

  5. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Katsov; M Müller; M Schick

    2005-06-01

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent field theory is applied to examine the free energy barriers in the different scenarios.

  6. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  7. Complementary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management... homographic fusion notions are identified together with the Nash approach, the pursuit-evasion approach to threat situation outcome determination, and the

  8. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  9. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  10. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  11. 第二代高温超导体研究与在聚变领域应用前景%Research and application status in fusion field of second generation high-temperature superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林煜; 李鹏远

    2012-01-01

    简述了高温超导体的特点,系统介绍了第二代高温超导体的研究状况、制备工艺,并分析了第二代高温超导体在核聚变领域的应用前景.%The characteristics of high - temperature superconductors were reviewed. The research issues and the processes of second generation high — temperature superconductors were systematically introduced. In addition, the application of second temperature superconductor in nuclear fusion facility was discussed.

  12. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  13. FusionCharts Beginner's Guide The Official Guide for FusionCharts Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Nadhani, Sanket; Bhattacharya, Shamasis

    2012-01-01

    The book is written as a practical, step-by-step guide to using FusionCharts Suite. The book not only teaches you the fundamentals and implementation of FusionCharts Suite, but also makes you the data visualization guru among your friends and colleagues by teaching how to select the right chart type and usability tips. Filled with examples, code samples and practical tips in a no-nonsense way, the book is a breeze to read.This book is both for beginners and advanced web developers who need to create interactive charts for their web applications. No previous knowledge of FusionCharts Suite is a

  14. Three-way (N-way) fusion of brain imaging data based on mCCA+jICA and its application to discriminating schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jing; He, Hao; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Adali, Tülay; Kiehl, Kent A; Yu, Qingbao; Clark, Vince P; Castro, Eduardo; White, Tonya; Mueller, Bryon A; Ho, Beng C; Andreasen, Nancy C; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-02-01

    Multimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain diseases. However, most such instances have been limited to pair-wise fusion; because there are often more than two imaging modalities available per subject, there is a need for approaches that can combine multiple datasets optimally. In this paper, we extended our previous two-way fusion model called "multimodal CCA+joint ICA", to three or N-way fusion, that enables robust identification of correspondence among N data types and allows one to investigate the important question of whether certain disease risk factors are shared or distinct across multiple modalities. We compared "mCCA+jICA" with its alternatives in a 3-way fusion simulation and verified its advantages in both decomposition accuracy and modal linkage detection. We also applied it to real functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)-Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and structural MRI fusion to elucidate the abnormal architecture underlying schizophrenia (n=97) relative to healthy controls (n=116). Both modality-common and modality-unique abnormal regions were identified in schizophrenia. Specifically, the visual cortex in fMRI, the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) and forceps minor in DTI, and the parietal lobule, cuneus and thalamus in sMRI were linked and discriminated between patients and controls. One fMRI component with regions of activity in motor cortex and superior temporal gyrus individually discriminated schizophrenia from controls. Finally, three components showed significant correlation with duration of illness (DOI), suggesting that lower gray matter volumes in parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes and cerebellum are associated with increased DOI, along with white matter disruption in ATR and cortico-spinal tracts. Findings suggest that the identified fractional anisotropy changes may relate to the corresponding functional/structural changes in the brain that are thought to play a role in the clinical expression of

  15. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests with Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-03-01

    The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments requires joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes. These torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are within a certain range compared to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model was extended to treat elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy joints tested as validation of the specimen design.

  16. The Application of Cloud Technology in Three Nets Fusion Administration System%云技术在三网融合管控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钰

    2013-01-01

    Guizhou communication administration leads the cloud technology into the three nets fusion administration system. This is not only a kind of innovation, but also a kind of inevitable. This article introduces the platform construction situation adopting the cloud virtulization technology, in order to provide the reference for three nets fusion. Administration platform construction.%贵州省通信管理局将云技术引入到三网融合管控系统建设当中,这既是一种创新,也是一种必然。文章着重介绍贵州省通信管理局运用虚拟化云技术开展平台建设的情况,希望以此为三网融合管控平台建设提供有益参考。

  17. Controlled cellular fusion using optically trapped plasmonic nano-heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Azra; Lund, Andreas R.; Semsey, Szabolcs; Oddershede, Lene B.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-09-01

    Optically trapped plasmonic nano-heaters are used to mediate efficient and controlled fusion of biological membranes. The fusion method is demonstrated by optically trapping plasmonic nanoparticles located in between vesicle membranes leading to rapid lipid and content mixing. As an interesting application we show how direct control over fusion can be used for studying diffusion of peripheral membrane proteins and their interactions with membranes and for studying protein reactions. Membrane proteins encapsulated in an inert vesicle can be transferred to a vesicle composed of negative lipids by optically induced fusion. Mixing of the two membranes results in a fused vesicle with a high affinity for the protein and we observe immediate membrane tubulation due to the activity of the protein. Fusion of distinct membrane compartments also has applications in small scale chemistry for realizing pico-liter reactions and offers many exciting applications within biology which are discussed here.

  18. Noise factor of a high-speed cinematography system; Facteur de bruit d'une chaine de cinematographie ultrarapide: application a la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secroun, A

    2000-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion simulates in a laboratory the thermodynamic state of the center of stars, thus leading to the determination of stellar parameters. In order to reach that aim, high-speed cinematography brings up instruments specifically adapted to picosecond measurement, for which it is necessary to know the final precision. A model of the noise factor of the instruments under study is introduced and confronted to the experimental results obtained. (authors)

  19. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  20. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  1. Three-way FMRI-DTI-methylation data fusion based on mCCA+jICA and its application to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jing; He, Hao; Liu, Jingyu; Yu, Qingbao; Adali, Tulay; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2012-01-01

    Multi-modal fusion is an effective approach in biomedical imaging which combines multiple data types in a joint analysis and overcomes the problem that each modality provides a limited view of the brain. In this paper, we propose an exploratory fusion model, we term "mCCA+jICA", by combining two multivariate approaches: multi-set canonical correlation analysis (mCCA) and joint independent component analysis (jICA). This model can freely combine multiple, disparate data sets and explore their joint information in an accurate and effective manner, so that high decomposition accuracy and valid modal links can be achieved simultaneously. We compared mCCA+jICA with its alternatives in simulation and applied it to real fMRI-DTI-methylation data fusion, to identify brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The results replicate previous reports and add to our understanding of the neural correlates of schizophrenia, and suggest more generally a promising approach to identify potential brain illness biomarkers.

  2. Hybrid fusion of linear, non-linear and spectral models for the dynamic modeling of sEMG and skeletal muscle force: an application to upper extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Schoen, Marco P; Subbaram Naidu, D; Urfer, Alex; Chiu, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Estimating skeletal muscle (finger) forces using surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals poses many challenges. In general, the sEMG measurements are based on single sensor data. In this paper, two novel hybrid fusion techniques for estimating the skeletal muscle force from the sEMG array sensors are proposed. The sEMG signals are pre-processed using five different filters: Butterworth, Chebychev Type II, Exponential, Half-Gaussian and Wavelet transforms. Dynamic models are extracted from the acquired data using Nonlinear Wiener Hammerstein (NLWH) models and Spectral Analysis Frequency Dependent Resolution (SPAFDR) models based system identification techniques. A detailed comparison is provided for the proposed filters and models using 18 healthy subjects. Wavelet transforms give higher mean correlation of 72.6 ± 1.7 (mean ± SD) and 70.4 ± 1.5 (mean ± SD) for NLWH and SPAFDR models, respectively, when compared to the other filters used in this work. Experimental verification of the fusion based hybrid models with wavelet transform shows a 96% mean correlation and 3.9% mean relative error with a standard deviation of ± 1.3 and ± 0.9 respectively between the overall hybrid fusion algorithm estimated and the actual force for 18 test subjects' k-fold cross validation data.

  3. Single-step purification and immobilization of MBP-phytase fusion on starch agar beads: application in dephytination of soy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Pandey, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    Periplasmic phytase, appA from E. coli has been noticed as a superior feed and food additive owing to its high specific activity, acidic pH optimum and resistance to gastric proteases. E. coli phytase was expressed as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein, affinity-purified to homogeneity and, subsequently, immobilized in one step using a cost-effective matrix prepared from starch agar bead. Immobilized enzyme revealed an activity optimum at pH 6, while that of free enzyme was observed at pH 4. Both the immobilized and free enzyme showed a temperature optimum at 60 °C. Cleavage of 87 kDa fusion protein using factor Xa released 45 kDa appA. Hydrolysis of soy milk using immobilized enzyme led to 10% increase in release of inorganic phosphate at 50 °C relative to free fusion protein. This study suggests the usability of MBP as an immobilizing linker to other food enzymes for economical use in industry.

  4. A Framework for Multiple and Heterogeneous Earthquake Disaster Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghai Xu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To realize the fusion of multiple and heterogeneous earthquake disaster information and get effective disaster information, situation and characteristics are addressed on different earthquake disaster information acquiring methods, in which some new earthquake disaster information acquiring methods are described. A fusion architecture of multiple and heterogeneous disaster information is put forward, including data level, fusion level and application level. And function principle of each level is described. Finally key technologies and realization methods in the fusion architecture are expounded, which are transformation and match of multiple disaster information and coding of the information.

  5. Quantitative and comparative analysis of hyperspectral data fusion performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 张晔; 李硕; 沈毅

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral data fusion technique is the key to hyperspectral data processing in recent years. Manyfusion methods have been proposed, but little research has been done to evaluate the performances of differentdata fusion methods. In order to meet the urgent need, quantitative correlation analysis (QCA) is proposed toanalyse and compare the performances of different fusion methods directly from data before and after fusion. Ex-periment results show that the new method is effective and the results of comparison are in agreement with theresults of application.

  6. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, David A

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we consider the control of fusion in fusion systems, proving three previously known, non-trivial results in a new, largely elementary way. We then reprove a result of Aschbacher, that the product of two strongly closed subgroups is strongly closed; to do this, we consolidate the theory of quotients of fusion systems into a consistent theory. We move on considering p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us to effectively characterize fusion systems of p-soluble groups. This leads us to recast Thompson Factorization for Qd(p)-free fusion systems, and consider Thompson Factorization for more general fusion systems.

  8. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  9. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Based on Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Patil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT is used for fusion of two different images and for image compression. Image fusion deals with creating an image by combining portions from other images to obtain an image in which all of the objects are in focus. Two multi focus images are used for image fusion. Different fusion algorithms are used and their performance is evaluated using evaluation metrics such as PSNR, SSIM, Spatial Frequency, Quality Index, Structural Content, Mean Absolute Error. Fusion performance is not good while using the algorithms with block size less than 64x64 and also the block size of 512x512. Contrast, amplitude and energy based image fusion algorithms performed well. The fused images are comparable with the reference image. Only the image size is considered but blurring percentage is not considered. These algorithms are very simple and might be suitable for real time applications

  11. [The progress of TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions and their mechanism in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Qiang; Gui, Yao-Ting; Cai, Zhi-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The gene fusions between transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and E26 (ETS) transcription factors are present in over 50% of patients with prostate cancer. TMPRSS2-ERG is the most common gene fusion type. The ERG overexpression induced by TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion contributes to the development of prostate cancer. Both androgen receptor binding and genotoxic stress induce chromosomal proximity and TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion functions as a biomarker for prostate cancer, which can be easily detected in urine. This review focuses on the characteristics, oncogenic and rearranged mechanism, and clinical application of TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions.

  12. Fusion of Noisy Multi-sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Mishra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in fusing multiple sensor data for both military and civil applications has beengrowing. Some of the important applications integrate image information from multiple sensorsto aid in navigation guidance, object detection and recognition, medical diagnosis, datacompression, etc. While, human beings may visually inspect various images and integrateinformation, it is of interest to develop algorithms that can fuse various input imagery to producea composite image. Fusion of images from various sensor modalities is expected to produce anoutput that captures all the relevant information in the input. The standard multi-resolution-based edge fusion scheme has been reviewed in this paper. A theoretical framework is given forthis edge fusion method by showing how edge fusion can be framed as information maximisation.However, the presence of noise complicates the situation. The framework developed is used toshow that for noisy images, all edges no longer correspond to information. In this paper, varioustechniques have been presented for fusion of noisy multi-sensor images.  These techniques aredeveloped for a single resolution as well as using multi-resolution decomposition. Some of thetechniques are based on modifying edge maps by filtering images, while others depend onalternate definition of information maps. Both these approaches can also be combined.Experiments show that the proposed algorithms work well for various kinds of noisy multi-sensor images.

  13. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Fusion Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.

  14. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  15. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  16. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  17. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  18. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  19. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  20. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  1. Economically competitive fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ward

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not since the oil crisis of the 1970s has the perception that energy is a crucial and precious resource been as strong as it is today. The need for a new approach to world energy supply, driven by concerns over resources, pollution, and security, is leading to a reappraisal of fusion. Fusion has enormous potential and major safety and environmental advantages, and hence could make a large difference to energy supplies.

  2. Fusion ignition research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  3. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    neutral beam injectors and the power supply systems were considered. This year the ion cyclotron resonant heating system is under evaluation. I. Cristescu et al (Germany) present the paper `Tritium inventories and tritium safety design principles for the fuel cycle of ITER'. She and her colleagues developed the dynamic mathematical model (TRIMO) for tritium inventory evaluation within each system of the ITER fuel cycle in various operational scenarios. TRIMO is used as a tool for trade-off studies within the fuel cycle systems with the final goal of global tritium inventory minimization. M. Matsuyama et al (Japan) describes a new technique for in situ quantitative measurements of high-level tritium inventory and its distribution in the VV and tritium systems of ITER and future fusion reactors. This technique is based on utilization of x-rays induced by beta-rays emitting from tritium species. It was applied to three physical states of high-level tritium: to gaseous, aqueous and solid tritium retained on/in various materials. Finally, there are four papers devoted to safety issues in fusion reactor decommissioning and waste management. A paper by R. Pampin et al (UK) provides the revised radioactive waste analysis of two models in the PPCS. Another paper by M. Zucchetti (Italy), S.A. Bartenev (Russia) et al describes a radiochemical extraction technology for purification of V-Cr-Ti alloy components from activation products to the dose rate of 10 µSv/h allowing their clearance or hands-on recycling which has been developed and tested in laboratory stationary conditions. L. El-Guebaly (USA) and her colleagues submitted two papers. In the first paper she optimistically considers the possibility of replacing the disposal of fusion power reactor waste with recycling and clearance. Her second paper considers the implications of new clearance guidelines for nuclear applications, particularly for slightly irradiated fusion materials.

  4. Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotegard, D. (CST Ltd. (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper critiques Americal science policy through a consideration of two examples-cold fusion and asteroid mining. It points out that the failure of central planning in science and technology policy is just as marked as in more mundane activities. It highlights the current low level of debate and points out some technical issues that need to be addressed. It concludes with evidence that the alliance of flawed policy options is further lowering the level of debate. (author).

  5. Future communications satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  6. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  7. Mechanical properties and microstructural investigations of TIG welded 40 mm and 60 mm thick SS 316L samples for fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar, E-mail: brkumar75@gmail.com; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P.M.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Austenitic stainless steels (316L) of 40 mm and 60 mm thickness plates were joined by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG) process which are probable materials for advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel requirements. • Mechanical properties and detailed microstructure studies have been carried out for welded samples. • Fractography analysis of impact test specimens indicated ductile fracture mode in BM, HAZ and WZ samples. • Presence of delta ferrite phase was observed in the welded zone and ferrite number data was measured for the base and weld metal and was found high in welds. - Abstract: The development of advanced fusion reactors like DEMO will have various challenges in materials and fabrication. The vacuum vessel is important part of the fusion reactor. The double walled design for vacuum vessel with thicker stainless steel material (40–60 mm) has been proposed in the advanced fusion reactors like ITER. Different welding techniques will have to be used for such vacuum vessel development. The required mechanical, structural and other properties of stainless steels have to be maintained in these joining processes of components of various shapes and sizes in the form of plates, ribs, shells, etc. The present paper reports characterization of welding joints of SS316L plates with higher thicknesses like 40 mm and 60 mm, prepared using multi-pass Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process. The weld quality has been evaluated with non-destructive tests by X-ray radiography and ultrasonic methods. The mechanical properties like tensile, bend tests, Vickers hardness and impact fracture tests have been carried out for the weld samples. Tensile property test results indicate sound weld joints with efficiencies over 100%. Hardening was observed in the weld zone in non-uniform manner. Macro and microstructure studies have been carried out for Base Metal (BM), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone (WZ). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis carried

  8. Application of compressed sensing in multi-source image fusion%压缩感知在多源图像融合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鑫

    2013-01-01

    A new fusion method based on Compressed Sensing(CS) is proposed to solve storage and computation cost problems in traditional image fusion algorithms. Sparse representation coefficients of source images are obtained on the basis of overcomplete two-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) dictionary. Then the observed values which will be fused are got by applying random projection on the coefficients. The weights of each image block are calculated adaptively based on standard deviation method. Thus input image measurements are fused into composite measurements via weighted averaging. The fused image is reconstructed through improved gradient pursuit with modified stepsize. The simulation results show that, comparing with other fusion algorithms, the proposed method can achieve better performance on fusion results with less sampling numbers and low computational complexity.%针对全采样传统图像融合方法中计算量大、时间复杂度高的问题,提出了一种基于压缩感知(CS)理论的多源图像融合模型。为满足一定的稀疏性,将源图像在过完备二维离散余弦变换(DCT)字典上进行稀疏表示,并通过随机观测得到待融合的观测值;在每一图像块上采用基于标准差的方法自适应地计算融合权值,加权合成融合后的观测值,然后利用改进步长的梯度追踪算法求解稀疏系数,得到最终融合图像。实验结果表明:与传统方法相比,提出的融合模型在减少计算量和存储容量的同时,能更好地从源图像中提取信息,获得效果较好的融合图像。

  9. Advances in the development of interaction between the codes MCNPX and ANSYS Fluent and their fusion applications; Avances en el desarrollo de la interaccion entre los codigos MCNPX y ANSYS Fluente y sus aplicaciones para fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer, C.; Salellas, J.; Ahmed, R.; Fabbrio, M.; Aleman, A.

    2012-07-01

    The advances are presented in the project for the development of a code of interaction between MCNPX y el ANSYS Fluent. Following the flow of the work carried out during the development of the project will study of the most appropriate remeshing algorithms between both codes. In addition explain the selection and implementation of methods to verify internally the correct transmission of the variables involved between both nets. Finally the selection of cases for verification and validation of the interaction between both codes in each of the possible fields of application will be exposed.

  10. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  11. Super-diffusion scalings - space versus fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Sergey; Budaev, Vyacheslav; Silin, Victor

    2016-07-01

    In the plasma kinetics, looking at the plasma waves interactions with the particles, most people use the Boltzman nonlinear approach for a variate of the waves, which could be interpreted as a "turbulence". We have now a theory for ion-sound turbulence [Silin e. a., 2011] that predicts fast heating of the ions: it can be either in fusion devices , magnetosphere or solar plasma. The ion heating could result into the power lowers for the turbulent spectra. We compare the theory predictions with the experimental data both from the fusion laboratory devices and from space plasma data, discussing their applicability to the solar plasma.

  12. Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo

    Multi-sensor data fusion is a broad area of constant research which is applied to a wide variety of fields such as the field of mobile robots. Mobile robots are complex systems where the design and implementation of sensor fusion is a complex task. But research applications are explored constantly....... The scope of the thesis is limited to building a map for a laboratory robot by fusing range readings from a sonar array with landmarks extracted from stereo vision images using the (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) SIFT algorithm....

  13. Fusion in diffusion MRI for improved fibre orientation estimation: An application to the 3T and 7T data of the Human Connectome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Hernández-Fernández, Moisés; Vu, An T; Andersson, Jesper L; Moeller, Steen; Yacoub, Essa; Lenglet, Christophe; Ugurbil, Kamil; Behrens, Timothy E J; Jbabdi, Saad

    2016-07-01

    Determining the acquisition parameters in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is governed by a series of trade-offs. Images of lower resolution have less spatial specificity but higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). At the same time higher angular contrast, important for resolving complex fibre patterns, also yields lower SNR. Considering these trade-offs, the Human Connectome Project (HCP) acquires high quality dMRI data for the same subjects at different field strengths (3T and 7T), which are publically released. Due to differences in the signal behavior and in the underlying scanner hardware, the HCP 3T and 7T data have complementary features in k- and q-space. The 3T dMRI has higher angular contrast and resolution, while the 7T dMRI has higher spatial resolution. Given the availability of these datasets, we explore the idea of fusing them together with the aim of combining their benefits. We extend a previously proposed data-fusion framework and apply it to integrate both datasets from the same subject into a single joint analysis. We use a generative model for performing parametric spherical deconvolution and estimate fibre orientations by simultaneously using data acquired under different protocols. We illustrate unique features from each dataset and how they are retained after fusion. We further show that this allows us to complement benefits and improve brain connectivity analysis compared to analyzing each of the datasets individually.

  14. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests with Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, Monica; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-06-30

    The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes since SiC and SiC-composites used in fission or fusion environments require joining methods for assembling systems. Torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are comparable to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for many joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed to treat elastic joints such as SiC/Ti3SiC2+SiC and elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy. The model uses constitutive shear data and is validated using epoxy joint data. The elastic model indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. Lower modulus epoxy joints always fail in plane and provide good model validation.

  15. Applications of fusion protein techniques in biopharmaceutical areas%融合蛋白技术在生物医药领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征

    2011-01-01

    在治疗性药物的研发中,效应分子与人免疫球蛋白IgG1 Fc片段或人血清白蛋白形成的融合蛋白疗效不变,但体内半衰期明显延长、药物耐受性增加、副作用减少.在疫苗研发中,抗原分子与毒素分子或Fc形成的融合蛋白是很好的新型疫苗,并能激发细胞免疫.%In the development of biopharmaceuticals, fusion proteins of effectors and IgG1 Fc fragment or human albumin have the same treatment efficacy as the effectors alone, much prolonged half-life, increased drug tolerance, and decreased side effects. In the studies of vaccines, the fusion proteins of antigens and toxins or IgG1 Fc will become new type of vaccines which can also stimulate T cell response.

  16. Manufacturing W fibre-reinforced Cu composite pipes for application as heat sink in divertor targets of future nuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Alexander v.; You, Jeong-Ha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ewert, Dagmar [Institut fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik Denkendorf, 73770 Denkendorf (Germany); Siefken, Udo [Louis Renner GmbH, 85221 Dachau (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    An important plasma-facing component (PFC) in future nuclear fusion reactors is the so-called divertor which allows power exhaust and removal of impurities from the main plasma. The most highly loaded parts of a divertor are the target plates which have to withstand intense particle bombardment. This intense particle bombardment leads to high heat fluxes onto the target plates which in turn lead to severe thermomechanical loads. With regard to future nuclear fusion reactors, an improvement of the performance of divertor targets is desirable in order to ensure reliable long term operation of such PFCs. The performance of a divertor target is most closely linked to the properties of the materials that are used for its design. W fibre-reinforced Cu (Wf/Cu) composites are regarded as promising heat sink materials in this respect. These materials do not only feature adequate thermophysical and mechanical properties, they do also offer metallurgical flexibility as their microstructure and hence their macroscopic properties can be tailored. The contribution will point out how Wf/Cu composites can be used to realise an advanced design of a divertor target and how these materials can be fabricated by means of liquid Cu infiltration.

  17. 基于神经网络的多传感器信息融合及其在机器人中的应用%Multi-sensor information fusion based on neural network and its application in mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司兴涛; 张新义

    2009-01-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion technology fuses the redundant , complementary and real-time information from every sensor in a system and acquires more reliable and accurate information required by system. A fusion method based on neural network is introduced in this paper, and its application in robot field is discussed. An obstacle avoidance experiment of robot is done and the results prove the feasibility of the proposed approach.%多传感器信息融合即融合多个传感器提供的冗余、互补或更实时的信息,可以获得系统所需的更准确和更精确的信息.介绍了神经网络融合方法,探讨了信息融合技术在机器人方面的应用.机器人避障实验验证了所提方法的有效性.

  18. Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations of the Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data are the application of the concept to the dynamic entry-interface through near-landing phases,...

  19. Fusion and regenerative therapies: is immortality really recessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sethe, Sebastian

    2007-12-01

    Harnessing cellular fusion as a potential tool for regenerative therapy has been under tentative investigation for decades. A look back the history of fusion experiments in gerontology reveals that whereas some studies indicate that aging-related changes are conserved in fused cells, others have demonstrated that fusion can be used as a tool to revoke cellular senescence and induce tissue regeneration. Recent findings about the role of fusion processes in tissue homeostasis, replenishment, and repair link insights from fusion studies of previous decades with modern developments in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. We suggest that age-associated loss of regenerative capacity is associated with a decline of effectiveness in stem cell fusion. We project how studies into the fusion of stem cells with tissue cells, or the fusion between activator stem cells and patient cells might help in the development of applications that "rejuvenate" certain target cells, thereby strategically reinstating a regeneration cascade. The outlook is concluded with a discussion of the next research milestones and the potential hazards of fusion therapies.

  20. ANALYSIS OF INTERBODY VERSUS POSTEROLATERAL FUSION FOR LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Góes Medéa de Mendonça

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare radiographic and clinical evaluation of patients undergoing interbody fusion versus posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine. Methods : Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with lumbar spondylosis that were surgically treated in the period from 2012 to 2014. The results were observed by clinical evaluation by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for low back and leg pain. We evaluated functional results and quality of life through the application of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaires, respectively. The pre and postoperative condition were compared in Group 1 (interbody fusion and Group 2 (posterolateral fusion, in addition to evaluation of fusion by means of post-operative radiograph. Results : A total of 30 patients of 36 were eligible, 12 in Group 1 and 18 in Group 2. The mean follow-up was 10.1 months. Statistical analysis showed similar scores for back and leg pain VAS, SF-36 function scores and Oswestry between groups with interbody and posterolateral fusion, and compared within these groups regarding the pre- and postoperative condition, and found no statistical significance. The successful fusion was similar in both groups, with 11 of 12 patients in Group 1 showing bone fusion and 17 of 18 in Group 2 showing arthrodesis. Conclusion : No clinical or radiographic differences between patients who underwent posterolateral or interbody fusion were observed. Both methods showed improvement in functional outcome and pain reduction.

  1. Metallurgical properties study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for their application in a fusion reactor; Estudio de las propiedades metalurgicas de los aceros martensticos de activacion reducida para su aplicacion en los reactores de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Paredes, M. P.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the metallurgical characterization of two reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel of last generation, called F-82H-mod and Eurofer'97 has been performed. the aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the degradation mechanisms and ageing that these materials can suffer during operation at high temperatures with or without the application of the load (creep). In order to fulfill these objectives, the investigations have been carried out in both materials on as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatments in the temperature range from 300 degree centigree to 600 degree centigree for periods up to 1000 h. To achieve the objectives cited, microstructural (optical, SEM, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction and TEM) and mechanical (hardness, tensile, Charpy, Fracture toughness and creep) investigations have been performed. (Author) 58 refs.

  2. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  3. Computational problems in magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J.

    1981-08-31

    Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly.

  4. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  5. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  6. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian

    2017-09-01

    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  7. Region-based multisensor image fusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Image fusion should consider the priori knowledge of the source images to be fused, such as the characteristics of the images and the goal of image fusion, that is to say, the knowledge about the input data and the application plays a crucial role. This paper is concerned on multiresolution (MR) image fusion. Considering the characteristics of the multisensor (SAR and FLIR etc) and the goal of fusion, which is to achieve one image in possession of the contours feature and the target region feature. It seems more meaningful to combine features rather than pixels. A multisensor image fusion scheme based on K-means cluster and steerable pyramid is presented. K-means cluster is used to segment out objects in FLIR images. The steerable pyramid is a multiresolution analysis method, which has a good property to extract contours information at different scales. Comparisons are made with the relevant existing techniques in the literature. The paper concludes with some examples to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  8. Decision Fusion System for Bolted Joint Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolted joint is widely used in mechanical and architectural structures, such as machine tools, industrial robots, transport machines, power plants, aviation stiffened plate, bridges, and steel towers. The bolt loosening induced by flight load and environment factor can cause joint failure leading to a disastrous accident. Hence, structural health monitoring is critical for the bolted joint detection. In order to realize a real-time and convenient monitoring and satisfy the requirement of advanced maintenance of the structure, this paper proposes an intelligent bolted joint failure monitoring approach using a developed decision fusion system integrated with Lamb wave propagation based actuator-sensor monitoring method. Firstly, the basic knowledge of decision fusion and classifier selection techniques is briefly introduced. Then, a developed decision fusion system is presented. Finally, three fusion algorithms, which consist of majority voting, Bayesian belief, and multiagent method, are adopted for comparison in a real-world monitoring experiment for the large aviation aluminum plate. Based on the results shown in the experiment, a big potential in real-time application is presented that the method can accurately and rapidly identify the bolt loosening by analyzing the acquired strain signal using proposed decision fusion system.

  9. Slantlet Transform for Multispectral Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan H.M. Al-Helali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image fusion is a process by which multispectral and panchromatic images, or some of their features, are combined together to form a high spatial/high spectral resolutions image. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is a great importance issue in remote sensing applications. Approach: A new method of image fusion was introduced. It was based on a hybrid transform, which is an extension of Ridgelet transform. It used the slantlet transform instead of wavelet transform in the final steps of Ridgelet transform. The slantlet transform was an orthogonal discrete wavelet transform with two zero moments and with improved time localization. Results: Since edges and noise played fundamental role in image understanding, this hybrid transform was proved to be good way to enhance the edges and reduce the noise. Conclusion: The proposed method of fusion presented richer information in spatial and spectral domains simultaneously as well as it had reached an optimum fusion result.

  10. Sparse Recovery from Combined Fusion Frame Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boufounos, Petros T; Rauhut, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Sparse representations have emerged as a powerful tool in signal and information processing, culminated by the success of new acquisition and processing techniques such as Compressed Sensing (CS). Fusion frames are very rich new signal representation methods that use collections of subspaces instead of vectors to represent signals. This work combines these exciting fields to introduce a new sparsity model for fusion frames. Signals that are sparse under the new model can be compressively sampled and uniquely reconstructed in ways similar to sparse signals using standard CS. The combination provides a promising new set of mathematical tools and signal models useful in a variety of applications. With the new model, a sparse signal has energy in very few of the subspaces of the fusion frame, although it does not need to be sparse within each of the subspaces it occupies. This sparsity model is captured using a mixed l1/l2 norm for fusion frames. A signal sparse in a fusion frame can be sampled using very few ran...

  11. Prokaryotic expression and purification of fusion protein HSP70-EGFP and its application in the study of dendritic cells internalization antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping QU; Yanfang SUI; Libing LIU; Jiahai MA; Guangsheng CHEN; Jiankang CHEN; Fang'e LIU

    2008-01-01

    To study the endocytic activity of dendritic cells (DCs) by obtaining fusion protein HSP70-EGFP as exogenous antigen and loading it with DCs derived from human peripheral blood. Fusion protein HSP70-EGFP was prokaryotically expressed, isolated and puri-fied. DCs were isolated and cultured from human peri-pheral blood. The DCs were divided into 3 groups in the endocytic experiment. There were 106 DCs in each group. Group 1 and 2 were respectively incubated for 30 min. with HSP70-EGFP and EGFP. Group 3 was incubated with HSP70 for 30 min, and then incubated for 30 min. with HSP70-EGFP. Subsequently, 3 groups were placed in an incubator at 37℃ for 0.5, 1,2 and 24 h. Flow cytometry (FCM) was adopted to detect the amount of DCs with EGFP inside. IL-12 Eli-spot was adopted to detect the amount of DCs which secreted IL-12. There were 5 types in the experiment: LPS, inactive LPS, HSP70-EGFP, EGFP and no antigen. Fusion pro-tein HSP70-EGFP was successfully obtained and its molecular weight was 97 000. It accounted for 35.32% of the total protein. Under irradiation of an ultraviolet lamp, the protein solution sent out viridescent fluor-escence. The result detected by FCM indicated that after incubation for 0.5 h at 37℃, the positive rate in group 1 was 63%, while the other 2 groups were negative. After incubation for 1, 2 and 24 h at 37℃, the positive rates in the 3 groups were above 80%. The IL-12 Eli-spot exam-ination shows that with HSP70-EGFP being loaded, the amount of DCs secreting IL-12 was 134.09±31.78/105 cells, a little lower than that of DCs with LPS loaded (with the average point of 156.36±15.73). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P<0.01). By contrast, both of them were significantly higher than inactive LPS-(33.78±1.40)/105 cells and EGFP-loaded (23.13±4,57)/105 cells DC groups in the amount of DCs secreting IL-12 (P<0.01). The results suggest that receptor-mediated phagocytosis plays a main role in the preliminary stage of DCs

  12. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, C.; Jannin, P.; Biraben, A.; Buvat, I.; Benali, H.; Bernard, A. M.; Scarabin, J. M.; Gibaud, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were found within

  13. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  14. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  16. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  17. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  18. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...... to the occupied and empty regions. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors are interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sensor readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied to update the sonar array......  and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopy at MHz counting rates with a compact LaBr{sub 3} detector and silicon photomultipliers for fusion plasma applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “Piero Caldirola,” Milano (Italy); Rigamonti, D.; Croci, G.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “Piero Caldirola,” Milano (Italy); Perseo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Cremona, A.; Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “Piero Caldirola,” Milano (Italy); Boltruczyk, G.; Broslawski, A.; Gosk, M.; Korolczuk, S.; Zychor, I. [Narodowe Centrum Badan Jadrowych (NCBJ), Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kiptily, V. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham (United Kingdom); Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates have been carried out, for the first time, with a compact spectrometer based on a LaBr{sub 3} scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. The instrument, which is also insensitive to magnetic fields, has been developed in view of the upgrade of the gamma-ray camera diagnostic for α particle measurements in deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus. Spectra were measured up to 2.9 MHz with a projected energy resolution of 3%-4% in the 3-5 MeV range, of interest for fast ion physics studies in fusion plasmas. The results reported here pave the way to first time measurements of the confined α particle profile in high power plasmas of the next deuterium-tritium campaign at the Joint European Torus.

  20. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling. Technical progress report, [July 16, 1990--August 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.

  1. Gamma-ray spectroscopy at MHz counting rates with a compact LaBr3 detector and silicon photomultipliers for fusion plasma applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M; Rigamonti, D; Perseo, V; Tardocchi, M; Boltruczyk, G; Broslawski, A; Cremona, A; Croci, G; Gosk, M; Kiptily, V; Korolczuk, S; Mazzocco, M; Muraro, A; Strano, E; Zychor, I; Gorini, G

    2016-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates have been carried out, for the first time, with a compact spectrometer based on a LaBr3 scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. The instrument, which is also insensitive to magnetic fields, has been developed in view of the upgrade of the gamma-ray camera diagnostic for α particle measurements in deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus. Spectra were measured up to 2.9 MHz with a projected energy resolution of 3%-4% in the 3-5 MeV range, of interest for fast ion physics studies in fusion plasmas. The results reported here pave the way to first time measurements of the confined α particle profile in high power plasmas of the next deuterium-tritium campaign at the Joint European Torus.

  2. Gamma-ray spectroscopy at MHz counting rates with a compact LaBr3 detector and silicon photomultipliers for fusion plasma applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Perseo, V.; Tardocchi, M.; Boltruczyk, G.; Broslawski, A.; Cremona, A.; Croci, G.; Gosk, M.; Kiptily, V.; Korolczuk, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Muraro, A.; Strano, E.; Zychor, I.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates have been carried out, for the first time, with a compact spectrometer based on a LaBr3 scintillator and silicon photomultipliers. The instrument, which is also insensitive to magnetic fields, has been developed in view of the upgrade of the gamma-ray camera diagnostic for α particle measurements in deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus. Spectra were measured up to 2.9 MHz with a projected energy resolution of 3%-4% in the 3-5 MeV range, of interest for fast ion physics studies in fusion plasmas. The results reported here pave the way to first time measurements of the confined α particle profile in high power plasmas of the next deuterium-tritium campaign at the Joint European Torus.

  3. Metallurgical aspects of possibility of 9?12% chromium steel application as a structural material for first wall and blanket of fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioltukhovsky, A. G.; Kondrat'ev, V. P.; Leont'eva-Smirnova, M. V.; Votinov, S. N.; Shamardin, V. K.; Povstyanko, A. V.; Bulanova, T. M.

    1996-10-01

    Steels containing 9-12% Cr are considered to be candidate structural materials for the first wall and blanket of a fusion reactor at the operation temperature up to 650°C. The optimal structure, phase composition and the specific chemical composition of the steels ensure their high heat resistance, yield strength and ductility as well as adequate thermophysical properties. The susceptibility of chromium steels for low temperature irradiation embrittlement can be influenced by changing their structural state via alloying, heat treatment and method of melting. Steels having a uniform martensite structure are less susceptible to irradiation conditions and have more stable tensile properties as compared to steels having δ-ferrite in their structures.

  4. Metallurgical aspects of possibility of 9-12% chromium steel application as a structural material for first wall and blanket of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioltukhovsky, A.G. [State Sci. Center of Russian Feder., Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar All-Rusia Res Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kondrat`ev, V.P. [State Sci. Center of Russian Feder., Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar All-Rusia Res Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Leont`eva-Smirnova, M.V. [State Sci. Center of Russian Feder., Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar All-Rusia Res Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Votinov, S.N. [State Sci. Center of Russian Feder., Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar All-Rusia Res Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Shamardin, V.K. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Povstyanko, A.V. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Bulanova, T.M. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Steels containing 9-12% Cr are considered to be candidate structural materials for the first wall and blanket of a fusion reactor at the operation temperature up to 650 C. The optimal structure, phase composition and the specific chemical composition of the steels ensure their high heat resistance, yield strength and ductility as well as adequate thermophysical properties. The susceptibility of chromium steels for low temperature irradiation embrittlement can be influenced by changing their structural state via alloying, heat treatment and method of melting. Steels having a uniform martensite structure are less susceptible to irradiation conditions and have more stable tensile properties as compared to steels having {delta}-ferrite in their structures. (orig.).

  5. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy Study of Neutron Irradiated High Temperature Superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-δ for Application in Fusion Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterníková, J.; Chudý, M.; Slugeň, V.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Hinca, R.; Degmová, J.; Sabelová, V.

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on the crystallographic defects introduced by neutron irradiation and the resulting changes of the superconducting properties in the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This material is considered to be most promising for magnet systems in future fusion reactors. Two different bulk samples, pure non-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and multi-seed YBa2Cu3O7-δ doped by platinum (MS2F) were studied prior to and after irradiation in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna. Neutron irradiation is responsible for a significant enhancement of the critical current densities as well as for a reduction in critical temperature. The accumulation of small open volume defects (treatment.

  6. Theoretical and experimental studies of the radiative properties of matter at high energy densities and their application to the problems of inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, O. B.; Orlov, N. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the radiative properties of plasmas produced by heating and compression of various materials to high energy densities. The specific features of the theoretical plasma model known as the ion model, which is used to calculate the radiative characteristics of plasmas of complex chemical composition, are discussed. The theoretical approach based on this model is applied to the plasma produced during the explosion of the X-pinch wires. The theoretical estimate of the radiation efficiency is compared with the experimental data on the total energy yield from an X-pinch made of two different wires (NiCr and Alloy 188). The radiative characteristics of (C12 H16 O8) and (C8 H12 O6) plasmas are calculated for the temperature diagnostics of plasmas produced from porous targets employed in inertial confinement fusion experiments with the use of laser radiation and heavy-ion beams.

  7. Fe-15Ni-13Cr austenitic stainless steels for fission and fusion reactor applications - Part 1: Effects of minor alloying elements on precipitate phases in melt products and implication in alloy fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. H.; Mansur, L. K.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to develop alloys for fission and fusion reactor applications, 28Fe-15Ni-13Cr base alloys were fabricated by adding various combinations of the minor alloying elements, Mo, Ti, C, Si, P, Nb, and B. The results showed that a significant fraction of undesirable residual oxygen was removed as oxides when Ti, C, and Si were added. Accordingly, the concentrations of the latter three essential alloying elements were reduced also. Among these elements, Ti was the strongest oxide former, but the largest oxygen removal (over 80%) was observed when carbon was added alone without Ti, since gaseous CO boiled off during melting. This paper recommends an alloy melting procedure to mitigate solute losses while reducing the undesirable residual oxygen. In this work, 14 different types of precipitate phases were identified. Compositions of precipitate phases and their crystallographic data are documented. Finally, stability of precipitate phases was examined in view of Gibbs free energy of formation.

  8. 3D characterization of thermal fatigue damage in monofilament reinforced copper for heat sink applications in fusion reactor systems; 3D-Charakterisierung von thermischer Ermuedungsschaedigung in Monofilament verstaerktem Kupfer zur Anwendung als Waermeleiter in Kernfusionsreaktorsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoebel, Michael; Degischer, H. Peter [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology; Brendel, Annegret [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harrer, Bernhard [Upper Austria Univ. of Applied Sciences, Wels (Austria); Di Michiel, Marco [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-01

    Monofilament reinforced metals (MFRM) are developed as high temperature heat sink materials for fusion reactor applications. These composites combine the high thermal conductivity (TC) of a Cu matrix with low thermal expansion (CTE) of SiC or W filaments. The CTE mismatch between matrix and reinforcement lead to high micro stresses under operation conditions. Stress induced thermal fatigue damage such as interface delamination and fiber/matrix damage degrades the thermal properties of these composites. Different interface designs are developed for SiC as well as W filaments to improve bonding strength and increase the long term stability. Conventional as well as synchrotron tomography was applied on different MFRMs to characterize thermal fatigue damage and its propagation before, during and after thermal cycling. (orig.)

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of H 2 and D 2 helicon plasmas generated by a resonant antenna for neutral beam applications in fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, C.; Agnello, R.; Duval, B. P.; Furno, I.; Howling, A. A.; Jacquier, R.; Karpushov, A. N.; Plyushchev, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Fantz, U.; Wünderlich, D.; Béchu, S.; Simonin, A.

    2017-03-01

    A new generation of neutral beam systems will be required in future fusion reactors, such as DEMO, able to deliver high power (up to 50 MW) with high (800 keV or higher) neutral energy. Only negative ion beams may be able to attain this performance, which has encouraged a strong research focus on negative ion production from both surface and volumetric plasma sources. A novel helicon plasma source, based on the resonant birdcage network antenna configuration, is currently under study at the Swiss Plasma Centre before installation on the Cybele negative ion source at the Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research, CEA, Cadarache, France. This source is driven by up to 10 kW at 13.56 MHz, and is being tested on a linear resonant antenna ion device. Passive spectroscopic measurements of the first three Balmer lines α, β and γ and of the Fulcher-α bands were performed with an f/2 spectrometer, for both hydrogen and deuterium. Multiple viewing lines and an absolute intensity calibration were used to determine the plasma radiance profile, with a spatial resolution  emissivity profile for each emission line for cylindrical symmetry, which was experimentally confirmed. An uncertainty estimate of the inverted profiles was performed using a Monte Carlo approach. Finally, a radiofrequency-compensated Langmuir probe was inserted to measured the electron temperature and density profiles. The absolute line emissivities are interpreted using the collisional-radiative code YACORA which estimates the degree of dissociation and the distribution of the atomic and molecular species, including the negative ion density. This paper reports the results of a power scan up to 5 kW in conditions satisfying Cybele requirements for the plasma source, namely a low neutral pressure, p≤slant 0.3 Pa and magnetic field B≤slant 150 G.

  10. 多传感器信息融合测控体系在温室测控中的应用研究%Research on the Application of Sensors Information Fusion Control System in the Conservatory Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 程雯; 夏亦冰; 杜四平; 肖贝

    2011-01-01

    The real-time monitoring and remote controlling to growing environmental parameters of crops, such as temperature, humidity and illumination, which is a significant method in agricultural modernization. The system takes the ARM embedded microprocessor 2410 as the hardware platform, combines with Linux operating system and ARM Developer Suite (ADS) 1. 2integrated development environments. Moreover, it forms a measurement and control system of multisensor information fusion, which based on the D-S evidence theory and the BP neural network algorithm. The BP neural network provides some pieces of evidence; while D-S evidence theory could reduce the nondeterminacy. With the application of both multisensor information fusion algorithms, finally, the reliability is 93. 47% of section, with the basic probability fusion of three sensors in three different moments. Through the simulation result of the experiment, we can see a higher recognition rate and good application prospect of the system.%对农作物生长环境的温度、湿度和光照等参数的实时监测和远程控制是农业生产现代化的重要手段,为此设计了一种以ARM嵌入式微处理器2410为硬件平台,结合Linux操作系统和ADS1.2集成开发环境,同时采用D-S证据理论和BP神经网络相结合算法的多传感器信息融合测控系统.BP神经网络提供一定数量的证据,D-S证据理论降低证据的不确定性,将这种基于二者的多传感器信息融合算法应用于农作物生长环境监控中,最终得到了在S1(T>30℃)温度区间内93.47%的可信度,可见设计的基于多传感器信息融合的测控体系具有良好的应用前景.

  11. Research Progress and Application of SPECT/CT Fusion Imaging in Diagnosis of Bone Diseases%SPECT/CT融合显像诊断骨骼疾病的应用研究与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴妮慧; 柳炳吉; 李杰; 孔宁宁; 于华

    2015-01-01

    SPECT/CT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a hybrid molecular imaging device integrated the functional specificity of SPECT with anatomic specificity of CT, which can be used to facilitate the understanding of physiology, pathology and diagnostic information of the disease and provide objective foundations for its localization and qualitative diagnosis. This paper made an introduction of the advantages of application of SPECT/CT fusion imaging in diagnosis of malignant tumor bone metastasis, primary bone tumor and benign bone diseases, pointing out that SEPCT/CT fusion imaging might have wide application prospects in diagnosis and treatment of tumors and non-oncological diseases.%SPECT/CT是一种将SPECT的功能特异性和CT的解剖特异性有机融合的分子影像装置, SEPCT/CT融合显像有助于更好地理解疾病的病理生理和诊断,为疾病的定位和定性诊断提供客观依据。本文介绍了SEPCT/CT融合显像在恶性肿瘤骨转移、原发骨肿瘤、良性骨骼疾病诊断中的优势,并指出其在肿瘤与非肿瘤疾病尤其是骨骼疾病的诊断、治疗方面有着广阔的应用前景。

  12. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  13. Quantum controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  14. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    of propellant can be millions of times greater than the fuel, only a tiny fraction can completely push out the fuel. If the plasma is moving at a... push -plate for various explosive yields. It appears that the maximum specific impulse for such a system is -4000 to 5000 sec and increasing the base...Energy Agency, 1977, p. 507. Bourque, R.F., "OHTE as a Fusion Reactor," Proc. 4th Topl. Mt,. Tecnology of Controlled NV?4clear Fusion, King of Prussia

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  16. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-15

    {center_dot} Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. {center_dot} Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances {center_dot} Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  17. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems.

  18. Research on Kalman-filter based multisensor data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion has played a significant role in diverse areas ranging from local robot guidance to global military theatre defense etc.Various multisensor data fusion methods have been extensively investigated by researchers,of which Klaman filtering is one of the most important.Kalman filtering is the best-known recursive least mean-square algorithm to optimally estimate the unknown.states of a dynamic system,which has found widespread application in many areas.The scope of the work is restricted to investigate the various data fusion and track fusion techniques based on the Kalman Filter methods.then a new method of state fusion is proposed.Finally the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced method.

  19. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  20. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.