Sample records for fusidic acid cem-102

  1. In Vitro Activity of Fusidic Acid (CEM-102, Sodium Fusidate) against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Its Effect on the Activities of Tobramycin and Amikacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia▿

    McGhee, Pamela; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; Beachel, Linda; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia


    We tested the MICs of fusidic acid (CEM-102) plus other agents against 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and the activities of fusidic acid with or without tobramycin or amikacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and Burkholderia cepacia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients in a 24-h time-kill study. Fusidic acid was potent (MICs, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml; a single 500-mg dose of fusidic acid at 8 h averaged 8 to 12. 5 μg/ml with 91 to 97% protein binding) against all MRSA strains. No antagonism was observed; synergy occurred for one MRSA strain treated with fusidic acid plus tobramycin. PMID:21343445

  2. In vitro activity of fusidic acid (CEM-102, sodium fusidate) against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and its effect on the activities of tobramycin and amikacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia.

    McGhee, Pamela; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; Beachel, Linda; Pankuch, Glenn A; Appelbaum, Peter C; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia


    We tested the MICs of fusidic acid (CEM-102) plus other agents against 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and the activities of fusidic acid with or without tobramycin or amikacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA, and Burkholderia cepacia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients in a 24-h time-kill study. Fusidic acid was potent (MICs, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml; a single 500-mg dose of fusidic acid at 8 h averaged 8 to 12. 5 μg/ml with 91 to 97% protein binding) against all MRSA strains. No antagonism was observed; synergy occurred for one MRSA strain treated with fusidic acid plus tobramycin.

  3. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene


    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  4. A new potent fusidic acid analogue

    Søtofte, Inger; Duvold, Tore


    The crystal structure of the compound, 17S,20S-dihydrofusidic acid diethylene glycol hydrate, C31H50O6.C4H10O3.H2O, consists of 17S,20S-dihydrofusidic acid, diethylene glycol and water. The fusidic acid moiety contains three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. The fused-ring system...... adopts a chair, a twist boat, a chair and an envelope conformation. The crystal packing is influenced by hydrogen bonds....

  5. Fusidic acid resistance among staphylococci strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Özcan Deveci


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitrosusceptibility of fusidic acid to clinic isolates of staphylococci.Materials and methods: The forty-one coagulase negativestaphylococci (CNS and 18 Staphylococcus aureusstrains isolated from various clinical specimens were includedin this study. Staphylococci isolates were identifiedby conventional methods such as colony morphologyonto medium, gram staining, catalase and coagulasetests. According to “Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI” criteria, antimicrobial susceptibility testingof isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusionmethod.Results: The seventy-two percent of the isolated S.aureuswere defined as methicillin sensitive-S.aureus (MSSA,28% of the isolated S.aureus were defined as methicillinresistant-S.aureus (MRSA. The difference among fusidicacid susceptibility rates of MSSA and MRSA strains wasnot statistically significant (p=0.305. The twenty-nine percentof the isolated CNS were defined as methicillin sensitive-CNS (MS-CNS, 71% of the isolated CNS were definedas methicillin resistant-CNS (MR-CNS. There wasno statistically significant difference between MS-CNSand MR-CNS strains for fusidic acid susceptibility rates(p=0.490. But the difference among fusidic acid susceptibilityrates of CNS and S.aureus strains was statisticallysignificant (p<0.001. CNS strains were found more resistancethan S.aureus strains for fusidic acid.Conclusion: In this study, the resistance rates weredetected to increase for fusidic acid along with methicillinresistance. Among CNS isolates, fusidic acid resistancerates were significantly more elevated than that forS.aureus. Fusidic acid remains as an alternative in thetreatment of infections due to staphylococci.

  6. Severe rhabdomyolysis as a consequence of the interaction of fusidic acid and atorvastatin.

    Magee, Ciara N


    Rhabdomyolysis is a known complication of statin therapy and may be triggered by a pharmacokinetic interaction between a statin and a second medication. Fatal statin-induced rhabdomyolysis has an incidence of 0.15 deaths\\/million prescriptions. We describe 4 cases of severe rhabdomyolysis with the common feature of atorvastatin use and coadministration of fusidic acid. All cases involved long-term therapy with atorvastatin; fusidic acid was introduced for treatment of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Three cases occurred in the setting of diabetes mellitus, with 2 in patients with end-stage renal disease, suggesting increased susceptibility to atorvastatin-fusidic acid-induced rhabdomyolysis in these patient populations. Of the 4 patients in this series, 3 died. Fusidic acid is a unique bacteriostatic antimicrobial agent with principal antistaphylococcal activity. There have been isolated reports of rhabdomyolysis attributed to the interaction of statins and fusidic acid, the cause of which is unclear. Fusidic acid does not inhibit the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme responsible for atorvastatin metabolism; increased atorvastatin levels due to inhibition of the glucuronidation pathway may be responsible. Considering the low frequency of fusidic acid use, the appearance of 4 such cases within a short time and in a small population suggests the probability that development of this potentially fatal complication may be relatively high.

  7. A novel fusidic acid resistance determinant, fusF, in Staphylococcus cohnii.

    Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Hung, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene


    To determine MICs of fusidic acid for and identify genetic determinants of resistance in Staphylococcus cohnii isolates. Susceptibility to fusidic acid was determined by the standard agar dilution method in 24 S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus clinical isolates, 7 S. cohnii subsp. cohnii clinical isolates and 2 reference strains. Sequencing of a novel resistance determinant, fusF, and its flanking regions was performed by long and accurate PCR and inverse PCR. To evaluate the function of fusF, the MIC of fusidic acid was determined for recombinant Staphylococcus aureus carrying a plasmid expressing fusF. A total of 25 S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus (24 clinical isolates and 1 reference strain) and 2 S. cohnii subsp. cohnii displayed low-level resistance to fusidic acid (MICs 2-16 mg/L). Sequencing of a 4259 bp fragment from S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330 revealed a novel resistance gene, designated fusF, which displayed 70.5% nucleotide and 67.3% amino acid identity to fusD. Expression of fusF in S. aureus confers resistance to fusidic acid. A novel FusB-family gene, fusF, was identified as a major resistance determinant in S. cohnii clinical isolates resistant to fusidic acid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Where to from here? The treatment of impetigo in children as resistance to fusidic acid emerges.

    Vogel, Alison; Lennon, Diana; Best, Emma; Leversha, Alison


    Admissions for skin and soft-tissue infections have been increasing steadily in children and in the general population. Concerns have been raised recently about the increasing widespread use of topical fusidic acid and concurrent increase of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fusidic acid resistance and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are both more prevalent in youngest age group (<5 year-olds) and particularly in the North island. In New Zealand, fusidic acid is recommended for treatment of minor impetigo and is the only fully-funded topical antibiotic. The evidence base for alternative treatment strategies for mild impetigo is limited. Most children with impetigo in the current Counties Manukau skin and sore throat schools programme received care with wound management with only a few requiring escalation. An upcoming randomised controlled trial comparing topical hydrogen peroxide cream, topical fusidic acid and wound management only (clean and cover) will help provide evidence about the effectiveness of alternative treatments in the New Zealand setting.

  9. Evaluation of fusidic acid in therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    Østergaard, Christian; Yieng-Kow, Runa Vavia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl


    Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti-inflammatory pr...

  10. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    S. Koning (Sander); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); S. Thomas (Siep); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam.

  11. Curative effects of sodium fusidate on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    Di Marco, Roberto; Mangano, Katia; Quattrocchi, Cinzia


    Fusidic acid and sodium fusidate (fusidin) are antibiotics with low toxicity and powerful immunomodulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we have evaluated the effect of fusidin on the development of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNB)-induced colitis in rats that serves....... These entailed a significant reduction in body weight loss, smaller increase in colon weights, milder macroscopic damage, and lower histological scores. In addition, when sacrificed at the end of the study, fusidin-treated rats had significantly lower blood levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon......-gamma compared with untreated controls. The present findings concur with the beneficial actions of fusidin in a pilot study conducted in patients with Crohn's disease and warrant controlled studies in humans with IBD....

  12. Fusidic Acid: A Bacterial Elongation Factor Inhibitor for the Oral Treatment of Acute and Chronic Staphylococcal Infections

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi


    Fusidic acid is an oral antistaphylococcal antibiotic that has been used in Europe for more than 40 years to treat skin infections as well as chronic bone and joint infections. It is a steroidal antibiotic and the only marketed member of the fusidane class. Fusidic acid inhibits protein synthesis by binding EF-G-GDP, which results in the inhibition of both peptide translocation and ribosome disassembly. It has a novel structure and novel mode of action and, therefore, there is little cross-resistance with other known antibiotics. Many mutations can occur in the FusA gene that codes for EF-G, and some of these mutations can result in high-level resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] > 64 mg/L), whereas others result in biologically unfit staphylococci that require compensatory mutations to survive. Low-level resistance (<8 mg/L) is more common and is mediated by fusB, fusC, and fusD genes that code for small proteins that protect EF-G-GDP from binding fusidic acid. The genes for these proteins are spread by plasmids and can be selected mostly by topical antibiotic use. Reports of resistance have led to combination use of fusidic acid with rifampin, which is superseded by the development of a new dosing regimen for fusidic acid that can be used in monotherapy. It consists of a front-loading dose to decrease the potential for resistance development followed by a maintenance dose. This dosing regimen is now being used in clinical trials in the United States for skin and refractory bone and joint infections. PMID:26729758

  13. Genetic complexity of fusidic acid-resistant small colony variants (SCV in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Jonas Lannergård

    Full Text Available FusE mutants are fusidic acid-resistant small colony variants (SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus that can be selected with aminoglycosides. All FusE SCVs have mutations in rplF, encoding ribosomal protein L6. However, individual FusE mutants including some with the same mutation in rplF display auxotrophy for either hemin or menadione, suggesting that additional mutations are involved. Here we show that FusE SCVs can be divided into three genetic sub-groups and that some carry an additional mutation, in one of the genes required for hemin biosynthesis, or in one of the genes required for menadione biosynthesis. Reversion analysis and genome sequencing support the hypothesis that these combinations of mutations in the rplF, hem, and/or men genes can account for the SCV and auxotrophic phenotypes of FusE mutants.

  14. Spread of the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC) in general practice patients in the south of The Netherlands.

    Rijnders, M I A; Wolffs, P F G; Hopstaken, R M; den Heyer, M; Bruggeman, C A; Stobberingh, E E


    We evaluated the susceptibility to fusidic acid, mupirocin and retapamulin of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal and wound swabs. The susceptibility to the three agents of S. aureus isolated from general patients in the south of The Netherlands with a skin or soft tissue infection was determined between January 2007 and December 2008. Fusidic acid-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of fusidic acid-resistant genes and compared with the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC). Fusidic acid resistance was found in 23% of the nasal and 35% of the wound isolates, the majority (~90%) being fusB positive. Most of the isolates belonged to spa type t171 and were isolated from younger patients. One isolate was retapamulin resistant (MIC 8 mg/L) and two were mupirocin resistant. The EEFIC clone was relatively highly prevalent among the isolated S. aureus. The usefulness of fusidic acid as first-line agent for the treatment of impetigo is questionable. As mupirocin is used in The Netherlands for eradication of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, it is not an alternative; retapamulin might be useful, but further in vivo studies are warranted.

  15. Fusidic acid suspension twice daily: a new treatment schedule for skin and soft tissue infection in children, with improved tolerability.

    Török, Eva; Somogyi, Tihamér; Rutkai, Krisztina; Iglesias, Luis; Bielsa, Isabel


    This multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study aimed to compare a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension against a standard regimen in children with skin and soft tissue infections. Treatment groups were given either a new regimen of fusidic acid suspension (20 mg/kg divided b.i.d.) or a standard regimen (50 mg/kg divided t.i.d.), which were administered for 5 days in both groups and for a further 5 days if evidence of infection persisted. Assessment of those cured was carried out 14 days. Both regimens were effective. Cure was achieved in 194 (91.1%) of the 213 children given the new b.i.d. dosage and for 194 (89.4%) of the 217 children given the standard t.i.d. dosage (intention-to-treat population; p=0.72). Cure was maintained at the follow-up assessment for 94.8% (181 of 191) and 95.7% (180 of 188), respectively, of the children. Bacteriological cure of infections due to fusidic acid susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, with elimination of pathogens, was achieved in all 121 (100%) children treated with the new b.i.d. regimen and in 123 (99.2%) of the 124 children treated with the standard TID regimen. The new twice-daily regimen had significantly better tolerance (p=0.025).

  16. Investigation and Treatment of Fusidic Acid Resistance Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcal Isolates from Egypt.

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa; Kassem, Mervat; Naguib, Marwa; El-Nakeeb, Moustafa


    Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from patients in northern Egypt has escalated alarmingly in the past decade. Data about the prevalence of fusidic acid (FA) resistance in Egyptian clinical isolates are limited. This work investigates the prevalence and mechanism of FA resistance among 81 methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from major hospitals of Alexandria, Egypt. Some combinations for treating infections due to resistant isolates were studied. Twenty-six isolates (32.1%) were FA resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] = 2-1,024 μg/ml), and fusB and fusC genes coding for FA resistance were detected in 30.77% and 34.62% of the FA-resistant strains, respectively. One highly resistant isolate, S502 (MIC = 1,024 μg/ml), possessed both genes. Plasmid curing resulted in fusB loss and MIC decrease by 16-64 folds. Conjugation caused acquisition of FA resistance among susceptible isolates. Serial passages in subinhibitory FA concentrations produced mutants with increased MIC by 4-32 folds. The combination of FA with rifampin, gentamicin, or ampicillin/sulbactam, in a subinhibitory concentration, was synergistic against the isolates, including serial passage mutants, decreasing number of survivors by an average of 2-4 logs. A relatively moderate rate of FA resistance was detected in Alexandria hospitals. Combination therapy with gentamicin, rifampin, or ampicillin/sulbactam is crucial to preserve the effectiveness of FA.

  17. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  18. Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Parras, F; Guerrero, M C; Bouza, E; Blázquez, M J; Moreno, S; Menarguez, M C; Cercenado, E


    Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal carriers of MRSA. The eradication rates with mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days were 93 and of 93, 100 and 100, 97 and 94, 100 and 92, 96 and 95, and 78 and 71%, respectively, for nasal carriage. At 7, 14, and 28 days the eradication rates for extranasal carriage by the two regimens were 23 and 74, 83 and 76, and 45 and 69%, respectively. The efficacies and safety of both regimens were similar. The MRSA isolates were not resistant to the study drugs either at the baseline or at follow-up. These results suggest that mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid, both used in conjunction with a chlorhexidine soap bath, are equally effective and safe for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal MRSA carriers. Mupirocin was easier to use but was more expensive. PMID:7695302

  19. Emergence of a Staphylococcus aureus Clone Resistant to Mupirocin and Fusidic Acid Carrying Exotoxin Genes and Causing Mainly Skin Infections.

    Doudoulakakis, Anastassios; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Spyridis, Nikolaos; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Kopsidas, John; Militsopoulou, Maria; Lebessi, Evangelia; Tsolia, Maria


    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently increased in number in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period. Data for all community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Genes encoding products producing high-level resistance (HLR) to mupirocin ( mupA ), fusidic acid resistance ( fusB ), resistance to macrolides and lincosamides ( ermC and ermA ), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) ( lukS/lukF -PV), exfoliative toxins ( eta and etb ), and fibronectin binding protein A ( fnbA ) were investigated by PCRs in 102 selected preserved strains. Genotyping was performed by SCC mec and agr typing, whereas clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 437 cases among 2,137 staphylococcal infections were recorded in 2013 to 2016; they were all SSTIs with the exception of 1 case of primary bacteremia. Impetigo was the predominant clinical entity (371 cases [84.9%]), followed by staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (21 cases [4.8%]), and there were no abscesses. The number of infections detected annually increased during the study years. All except 3 isolates were methicillin susceptible. The rates of HLR to mupirocin and constitutive resistance to clindamycin were 99% and 20.1%, respectively. Among the 102 tested strains, 100 (98%) were mupA positive and 97 (95%) were fusB positive, 26/27 clindamycin-resistant strains (96.3%) were ermA positive, 83 strains (81.4%) were lukS/lukF positive, 95 (93%) carried both eta and etb genes, and 99 (97%) were fnbA positive. Genotyping of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains revealed that 96/99 (96.7%) belonged to one main pulsotype, pulsotype 1, classified as sequence type 121 (ST121). The emergence of a single MSSA clone (ST121) causing impetigo was documented. Resistance to

  20. An efficient new formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (fucicort lipid cream) for treatment of clinically infected atopic dermatitis

    Larsen, Finn Schultz; Simonsen, Lene; Melgaard, Anita


    To relieve the dryness of atopic dermatitis skin, a lipid formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (Fucicort Lipid cream) was developed as an additional treatment option to the established Fucicort cream. The two formulations were compared in patients with clinically infected...... atopic dermatitis. A total of 629 patients were randomized to twice daily double-blind treatment for 2 weeks with either Fucicort Lipid cream, Fucicort cream, or the new lipid cream vehicle. Clinical assessment was based on a Total Severity Score of the eczematous lesions. Bacteriological samples were...... taken at inclusion and at subsequent visit(s) if clinically infected lesions persisted. At the end of treatment, the mean reduction in Total Severity score was 82.9% in the lipid cream group, 82.7% in the cream group, and 33.0% in the vehicle group. The percentage of patients with a successful...

  1. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway.

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri


    From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.

  2. Investigation of the potential for mutational resistance to XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, daptomycin, and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 55-passage study.

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G


    XF-73 is a dicationic porphyrin drug with rapid Gram-positive antibacterial activity currently undergoing clinical trials for the nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In multistep (55-passage) resistance selection studies in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and vancomycin against four Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains, there was no >4-fold increase in the MIC for XF-73 after 55 passages. In contrast, there was an increase in the MICs for retapamulin (from 0.25 μg/ml to 4 to 8 μg/ml), for mupirocin (from 0.12 μg/ml to 16 to 512 μg/ml), for fusidic acid (from 0.12 μg/ml to 256 μg/ml), and for vancomycin (from 1 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml in two of the four strains tested). Further investigations using S. aureus NRS384 (USA300) and daptomycin demonstrated a 64-fold increase in the MIC after 55 passages (from 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml) with a >4-fold increase in the MIC obtained after only five passages. Sequencing analysis of selected isolates confirmed previously reported point mutations associated with daptomycin resistance. No cross-resistance to XF-73 was observed with the daptomycin-resistant strains, suggesting that whereas the two drugs act on the bacterial cell membrane, their specific site of action differs. XF-73 thus represents the first in a new class of antibacterial drugs, which (unlike the comparator antibiotics) after 55 passages exhibited a ≤4-fold increase in MIC against the strains tested. Antibacterial drugs with a low propensity for inducing bacterial resistance are much needed for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria both within and outside the hospital setting.

  3. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Roy AK


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  4. Development of a novel sodium fusidate-loaded triple polymer hydrogel wound dressing: Mechanical properties and effects on wound repair.

    Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Seo, Youn Gee; Go, Toe Gyung; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon


    To develop a novel sodium fusidate-loaded triple polymer hydrogel dressing (TPHD), numerious polyvinyl alcohol-based (PVA) hydrogel dressings were prepared with various hydrophilic polymers using the freeze-thaw method, and their hydrogel dressing properties were assessed. Among the hydrophilic polymers tested, sodium alginate (SA) improved the swelling capacity the most, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) provided the greatest improvement in bioadhesive stength and mechanical properties. Thus, PVA based-TPHDs were prepared using different ratios of PVP:SA. The effect of selected PVP:SA ratios on the swelling capacity, bioadhesive strength, mechanical properties, and drug release, permeation and deposition characteristics of sodium fusidate-loaded PVA-based TPHDs were assessed. As the ratio of PVP:SA increased in PVA-loaded TPHD, the swelling capacity, mechanical properties, drug release, permeation and deposition were improved. The TPHD containing PVA, PVP, SA and sodium fusidate at the weight ratio of 10/6/1/1 showed excellent hydrogel dressing properties, release, permeation and deposition of drug. Within 24h, 71.8 ± 1.3% of drug was released. It permeated 625.1 ± 81.2 μg/cm(2) through the skin and deposited of 313.8 ± 24.1 μg/cm(2) within 24h. The results of in vivo pharmacodynamic studies showed that sodium fusidate-loaded TPHD was more effective in improving the repair process than was a commercial product. Thus, this sodium fusidate-loaded TPHD could be a novel tool in wound care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I


    We studied the effects of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on murine immunoinflammatory diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (SZ). Fusidin was given by gavage to three strains of mice (C57KsJ, C57BL/6, CD1) at doses 10 or 100 mg/kg body weight every...... induced in vivo by ConA, reducing the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and augmenting the level of IL-6. However, only the inhibitory effect of the drug on the synthesis/release of IFN-gamma seemed to be causally related to its capacity to counteract the SZ-induced DM. In fact, the disease...... other day. The drug was administered as an early or late prophylactic regime starting either 1 day prior to the first or after the fifth and last injection of SZ. In both situations the largest dose of fusidin successfully reduced the clinical, chemical and histological signs of DM, the treated mice...

  6. Dgroup: DG00398 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available sidate sodium (USAN); Sodium fusidate (JP17) ... D08000 ... Diethanolamine fusidate D08003 ... Fusidic acid hemihydrate ... ATC code: D06AX01 D09AA02 J01XC01 S01AA13 Antibiotics ...

  7. Bioavailability of prednisolone in rabbits: Comparison of a highviscosity gel and an aqueous suspension - single- and repeated applications

    Johansen, Sven; Rask-Pedersen, Eva; Prause, J.U.


    Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium......Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium...

  8. Aspartic acid

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  9. Acid Rain

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.


    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  10. Amino acids

    ... this page: // Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  11. Valproic Acid

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  12. Ascorbic Acid

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  13. Aminocaproic Acid

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  14. Ethacrynic Acid

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  15. Well acidizing

    Street, E H


    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  16. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte


    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  17. Formic acid

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B


    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  18. Lipoic Acid

    Ramazan Tetikcok


    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  19. Mefenamic Acid

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  20. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Curren, T


    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  1. Levulinic acid

    Barbara Hachuła


    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  2. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David


    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  3. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen


    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  4. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu


    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  5. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K


    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  6. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K


    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  7. Plasma amino acids

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  8. Uric acid - urine

    ... this page: // Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  9. Uric acid test (image)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    ... Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  11. Facts about Folic Acid

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Citric acid urine test

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Ramadan, A.E.K.


    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  16. Lactic acid test

    ... this page: // Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  2. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  3. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  4. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  5. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Amino acids and proteins

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.


    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  7. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  8. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  9. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  10. Stomach acid test

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  11. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Amarasekara, Ananda S


    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  12. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI


    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  13. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  14. Comparison of ViTEK 2, MALDI-TOF and Partial Sequencing of 16S ...

    All the strains were susceptible to Vancomycin, Linezolid and Rifampicin while they were all resistant to Penicillin, Fusidic acid, and Trimethoprim. Brevibacterium epidermidis were generally resistant to Erythromycin and Clindamycin while B. iodinum and B. oceani were susceptible. Conclusion - 16S rRNA identification is ...

  15. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...


    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  16. Bile acid sequestrants

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K


    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  17. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  18. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  19. Lack of effect of intermittently administered sodium fusidate in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus: the FUSIDM trial

    Conget, I; Aguilera, E; Pellitero, S


    We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.......We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus....

  20. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto


    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Characterization of acid tars

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava


    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  2. Characterization of acid tars

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)


    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Peptide Nucleic Acids


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids


    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  7. Folic acid in diet

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  9. Locked nucleic acid

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper


    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter


    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  11. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Sims, Paul A.


    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  12. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)


    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  14. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  15. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko


    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  16. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata


    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  17. Acidity in rainfall

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.


    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  18. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John


    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  19. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....



    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  1. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.


    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  2. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.


    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  3. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Cook, Jamie E.


    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  4. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Fripp, Jon


    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  5. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  6. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  7. Azetidinic amino acids

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie


    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  8. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  9. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G


    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  10. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M


    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  11. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.


    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  12. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.


    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  13. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick


    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  14. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.


    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  15. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua


    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  16. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele


    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  17. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    Petit, Gerard


    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  18. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    John S. Ramsdell


    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  19. Citric acid by fermentation

    El-Sayed, R M


    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  20. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan


    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  1. Whither Acid Rain?

    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  2. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.


    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  3. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.


    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  4. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali


    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  5. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene


    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  6. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang


    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  7. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert


    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  8. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete


    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  9. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.


    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  10. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Z. D. Nassar


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  11. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia


    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  12. Acid dip for dosemeter

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.


    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  13. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela


    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  14. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  15. Salicylic Acid Topical

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  16. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.


    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H


    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  18. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Aikaterini Peperidou


    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  20. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  1. and amino acids


    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  2. Lactic acid and lactates

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.


    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  3. Origin of fatty acids

    Prieur, B.E.


    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  4. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M


    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at C. are also described.

  5. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo


    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  6. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente


    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  7. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  8. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J


    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)


    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  10. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Chen, N G


    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  11. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  12. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  13. Mortar fights acid corrosion


    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  14. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.


    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  15. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G


    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas


    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  20. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    Clarke, A.G.


    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  1. Whence the acid raindrop

    Heaton, T.H.E.


    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  2. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.


    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  3. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    Cox, Brian G


    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  4. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate


    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  5. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  6. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.


    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  7. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.


    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  8. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.


    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  9. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.


    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  10. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.


    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  11. Urban acid deposition

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.


    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  12. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  13. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  14. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    Hattori, Hideshi


    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  15. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Schein, Arnold H.


    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  16. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Cicerello, Elisa


    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  17. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Chiang, John Y. L.


    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  18. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Fraenkel, Dan


    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  19. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.


    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  20. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C


    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  1. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.


    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  2. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid



    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  3. Acid mine drainage

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  4. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.


    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  5. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de


    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Acid precipitation literature review

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L


    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  7. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.


    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  8. Acid digestion of organic materials

    Capp, P.D.


    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  9. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M


    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  10. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega


    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  11. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    Yau, T.L.


    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  12. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.


    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)



    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  14. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373


    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  15. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  16. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  17. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha


    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  20. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.


    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  1. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...



    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  2. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    Bacon, Karleigh


    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  3. Sordarin derivatives induce a novel conformation of the yeast ribosome translocation factor eEF2

    Søe, Rikke; Mosley, R.T.; Justice, M.


    EF2 that form the ligand binding pocket are oriented in a different manner relative to the rest of eEF2 compared to our previous structure of eEF2 in complex with the parent natural product sordarin. Yeast eEF2 is also shown to bind adenylic nucleotides, which can be displaced by sordarin, suggesting...... that ADP or ATP also bind to the three C-terminal domains of eEF2. Fusidic acid is a universal inhibitor of translation that targets EF-G or eEF2, and is widely used as an antibiotic against gram positive bacteria. Based on mutations conferring resistance to fusidic acid, cryo-EM reconstructions, and X...

  4. Antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from artisanal Naples-type salami.

    Mauriello, G; Moschetti, G; Villani, F; Blaiotta, G; Coppola, S


    In the present paper 42 isolates from Italian salami were specified as Staphylococcus xylosus (30), Staph. capitis (1), Staph. saprophyticus (1), Staph. hominis (1), Staph. simulans (1), Staph. cohnii (1) and as Staph. spp. (7). These strains were coagulase-negative and were examined for resistance/sensitivity against 25 antibiotics including beta-lactams (7), macrolides (3), amynoglicosides (5), glycopeptides, lincosamides (4) and novobiocin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, tetracycline, minocycline. More than 64% of the strains were resistant to lincomycin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, fusidic acid and novobiocin. All the strains were multiresistant and displayed at least three resistances. Over 75% had a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index between 0.2 and 0.5.

  5. Origin of nucleic acids

    Prieur, B.E.


    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  6. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry


    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  7. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma


    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  8. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.


    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  9. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Marion, James I.


    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  10. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  11. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Rhodes, Sam


    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  12. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo


    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  13. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    Oku, Tadatake


    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  14. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Hui-Chuan Hsu


    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  15. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus Isolated from a Healthy Dog.

    Bean, David C; Wigmore, Sarah M; Wareham, David W


    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SW120 was isolated from the ear swab of a healthy dog. The isolate is resistant to methicillin and fusidic acid. The SW120 draft genome is 2,805,064 bp and contains 2,667 coding sequences, including 58 tRNAs and nine complete rRNA coding regions. Copyright © 2017 Bean et al.

  17. A high-throughput approach to identify compounds that impair envelope integrity in Escherichia coli

    Baker, Kristin Renee; Jana, Bimal; Franzyk, Henrik


    - to 125-fold) the MICs of erythromycin, fusidic acid, novobiocin and rifampin and displayed synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index, antibiotics by checkerboard assays in two genetically distinct E. coli strains, including the high-risk multidrug-resistant, CTX-M-15-producing...... the discovery of antimicrobial helper drug candidates and targets that enhance the delivery of existing antibiotics by impairing envelope integrity in Gram-negative bacteria....

  18. Conservative Treatment of a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa Presenting as Bart Syndrome: A Case Report

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat


    Full Text Available We presented a case of a newborn male with aplasia cutis congenita on the lower limb. The case was treated with conservative method. As for the conservative treatment, daily hydrodebridement with 1/200 diluted povidone-iodine and serum physiologic was performed, followed by closure of the wound with a dexpanthenol + chlorhexidine + fusidic acid-impregnated sterile gauze bandage. the followup that occured after three weeks, the wound was completely epithelialized, but a hypopigmented scar remained in the limb.

  19. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    N Tsevegsuren


    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  20. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben


    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  1. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella


    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  2. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S


    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  3. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L


    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  4. catalyzed oxidation of some amino acids by acid bromate

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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic investigations on Pd(II) catalyzed oxidation of dl-serine and dl- ... A suitable mechanism in agreement with observed kinetics has been ..... In acidic solution of potassium bromate quick .... Annual Review of Biochemistry.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...



    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid exerts a selective anti-tumor activity on cultured human melanoma .... percentage of proliferation was calculated by the following formula: Proliferation ..... artificially imposing the cell cycle checkpoint. Among.

  6. Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

    Christina Stefanaki


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010–2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%, followed by erythromycin (34.3%. Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT. Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%, fusidic acid (46%, clindamycin (38% and tetracycline (35.5%. Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

  7. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.


    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.


    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  9. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.


    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  10. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Cook, Jamie Elisla


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.


    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.


    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  12. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.


    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  13. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.


    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  14. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    Oku, Tadatake


    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  15. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...



    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  16. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  17. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A


    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  18. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele


    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.


    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  1. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M


    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  3. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.


    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  4. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.


    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  5. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    Lounis, A.


    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  6. Uronic acids in oligosaccharide synthesis

    Bos, Leendert Johannes van den


    This Thesis reports on research aimed at the assembly of acidic and zwitterionic polysaccharides of bacterial origin, using suitably protected 1-thioglycoside residues. Thioglycosides are attractive monosaccharide building blocks because of their high stability towards the diverse reaction

  7. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  8. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.


    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  9. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara


    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  10. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.




    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  12. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.


    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  13. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    ZHANG JiaWei; ZHU XiaoXia


    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications.Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver.They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers.These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  14. Biomaterials made of bile acids


    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications. Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver. They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers. These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  15. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Kessel, Kurt R.


    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  16. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    M. A. Zaman


    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  17. Ursodeoxycholic acid for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Wu, Sheng-di; Li, Lei; Wang, Ji-yao


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Databases, and article references were searched. We included randomized controlled trials using liver biopsy as a reference standard. We identified three eligible studies. Among histological responses, only lobular inflammation improved in the high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [mean deviation (MD): -0.23 (-0.40, -0.06), P=0.008]. However, fibrosis may tend to increase [MD: 0.08 (-0.04, 0.20), P=0.17]. Among biochemical responses, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase reduction was significantly greater in the ursodeoxycholic acid group than in the placebo group, and the reduction tendency was only shown in the high-dose subgroup [MD: -35.58 (-52.60, -18.56), Pursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [MD: 0.43 (0.14, 0.72), P=0.004]. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients did not differ significantly from control patients with regard to alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Adverse events were nonspecific and considered of no major clinical relevance. Ursodeoxycholic acid in monotherapy has no substantial positive effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  18. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B


    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  19. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L


    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  20. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    Matern, S.; Gerok, W.


    Specific radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of serum unconjugated cholic, conjugated cholic and conjugated deoxycholic acids have been developed. Prior to the radioimmunoassay, extraction of serum bile acids was performed with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labeled glyco[ 3 H]cholic acid using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3%, and conjugated lithocholic acid 3 H]cholic acid was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 80 pmol of unlabeled glycocholic acid. Fasting serum conjugated cholic acid in healthy subjects was 0.68 +- 0.34 μmol/l. Unconjugated cholic acid was determined by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using the cholic acid antibody chemically bound to Sepharose. The displacement curve of [ 3 H]cholic acid in the solid phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabeled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. Fasting serum conjugated deoxycholic acid concentrations in 10 healthy subjects ranged from 0.18 to 0.92 μmol/l determined by a radioimmunoassay using antiserum obtained after immunization with deoxycholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an 'oral cholate tolerance test' as a sensitive indicator of liver function and by an 'oral cholyglycine tolerance test' as a useful test for bile acid absorption. (orig.) [de

  1. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P


    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  2. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing


    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  3. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.


    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  4. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.


    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  5. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics


    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  6. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.


    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  7. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Jaen, J. A., E-mail: [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama); Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G. [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)


    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  8. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J


    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  9. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.


    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao


    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Matteo Ghiringhelli


    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  12. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...


    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  15. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  16. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    Li Jiang; Liu Yajie; Zheng Zhihong; Yuan Baohua; Shen Chuan; Shi Weijun


    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  17. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.


    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  18. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.


    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  19. Mine waters: Acidic to circumneutral

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    Acid mine waters, often containing toxic concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cr, can be produced from the mining of coal and metallic deposits. Values of pH for acid mine waters can range from –3.5 to 5, but even circumneutral (pH ≈ 7) mine waters can have high concentrations of As, Sb, Mo, U, and F. When mine waters are discharged into streams, lakes, and the oceans, serious degradation of water quality and injury to aquatic life can ensue, especially when tailings impoundments break suddenly. The main acid-producing process is the exposure of pyrite to air and water, which promotes oxidative dissolution, a reaction catalyzed by microbes. Current and future mining should plan for the prevention and remediation of these contaminant discharges by the application of hydrogeochemical principles and available technologies, which might include remining and recycling of waste materials.

  20. Preparation of deuterated succinic acids

    Tashiro, Masashi; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Goto, Hideyuki; Ogasahara, Shoji; Mataka, Shuntaro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Yonemitsu, Tadashi (Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)


    Succinic (2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})- and (2,2,3,3-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-acids were prepared from maleic anhydride and dimethyl fumarate, and acetylene dicarboxylic acid and its dimethyl ester by treatment with Cu-Al and Ni-Al alloys in 10% NaOD-D{sub 2}0 in 95% to 100% isotopic purity. The succinic {sup 2}H{sub 4} acid having high isotopic purity was also obtained on the hydrolysis of 1,2-ethanedinitrile with alkaline deuterium oxide. Based on the {sup 1}H({sup 2}H) spectra analysis of N-(o-biphenyl)(2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})succinimide, it was elucidated that the Raney alloy reduction with alkaline deuterium oxide proceeds stepwise. (author).

  1. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina


    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  2. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de


    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  3. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    Bricker, O.P.


    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  4. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua


    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  5. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van


    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  6. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.


    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  10. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  11. Nitrous Acid as an Oxidant in Acidic Media


    current work is the account of Ogsts and Sawski3 who studied the oxidation of benzyl ethers at 90C in acidic, aqueous dioxane. They found an increase in...and G. Tobin, Chem. Com., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm., 605 (1969). 15. (a) B. Challis and A. Lawson. J. Chem

  12. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...


    BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows first- ... amino acids by chloramines 7,8 while, little attention has been focused on ... in glass-stoppered pyrex boiling tubes whose outer surface was coated ... BAB in a measured aliquot (5 ml each) of the reaction mixture at different intervals of.

  13. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  14. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  15. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.


    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible bo....... Evidence suggests that geometric and steric factors are key features for controlling the equilibria. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  16. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  17. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Muppala Ashokraju


    Feb 7, 2018 ... to γ-valerolactone over ordered mesoporous Cu/Fe2O3 catalyst ... Compared to the direct use of biomass as fuel, its con- ... still room for the design and development of an efficient. 1 ... advantages no necessity of separation of levulinic acid ... of catalyst was placed in a quartz reactor and pre-treated in.

  18. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  19. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P


    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  20. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B


    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  1. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  2. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng


    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.


    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  4. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad


    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  5. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  6. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.


    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  7. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  8. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.


    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  9. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  10. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Zafar Faisal


    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  11. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.


    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  13. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  14. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Li-Hua Zhi


    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  15. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.


    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  16. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  17. Back to acid soil fields

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred


    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  18. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid


    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  19. An assessment of acid fog

    Lipfert, F.W.


    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H 2 SO 4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H + concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  20. An assessment of acid fog

    Lipfert, F.W.


    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  1. Endocrine functions of bile acids

    Houten, Sander M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan


    Bile acids (BAs), a group of structurally diverse molecules that are primarily synthesized in the liver from cholesterol, are the chief components of bile. Besides their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently emerged that BAs are also

  2. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup


    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  3. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio


    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  4. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.


    The reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O)·2(H 2 O). α- and β-An(HPO 2 OH) 4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2 1 /n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution

  5. Amino acid metabolism in plant leaf, 1

    Ito, Osamu; Kumazawa, Kikuo


    14C-labelled sodium bicarbonate and 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate were simultaneously vacuum-infiltrated into detached sunflower leaves, and the incorporation of 14C and 15N into free amino acids was chased during 60-min period in the light and in the dark. In the light, the 14C specific activity of aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine rapidly increased for 5 min and thereafter decreased. On the other hand, that of glutamic acid continued to increase slowly during the entire 60-min period. In the dark, aspartic acid most actively incorporated 14C. The difference of changes in 14C specific activity between glutamic acid and other amino acids was also observed in the dark as in the light. These results suggest that the carbon skeleton of glutamic acid is synthesized from aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine. 15N content of glutamine was the highest of all amino acids investigated in the light, and it was followed by glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine and glycine, in this order. In the dark, 15N content of glutamic acid fell remarkably and was lower than that of alanine up to 5 min. From these 15N tracer experiments, it is suggested that the incorporation of ammonium into glutamic acid is strictly dependent on light and that alanine incorporates ammonium by the direct animation besides the transamination from glutamic acid. (auth.)

  6. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.


    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  7. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin


    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  8. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Aulia Azka


    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  9. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.


    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  10. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  11. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.


    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  12. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K


    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  13. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan


    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...


    Sedighe Asgary


    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  15. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Yuan-Man Hsu


    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  16. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia


    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  17. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.


    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  18. Complex formation of calcium with humic acid and polyacrylic acid

    Kirishima, A.; Tanaka, K.; Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)


    In order to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides in the underground, it is also important to estimate the effect of the competing cations originally present in the groundwater. In this connection, the complexation of Ca(II) with Aldrich humic acid has been examined. For the study at trace concentrations ({proportional_to} 10{sup -10} M) of Ca(II), the solvent extraction of {sup 45}Ca with TTA and TOPO in cyclohexane has been used. At macro concentrations (10{sup -4} M) of Ca(II), the measurement of the free Ca{sup 2+} ion concentration with a calcium selective electrode has been conducted. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect of humic acid separately from its heterogeneous composition effect, polyacrylic acid ([-CH{sub 2}CH(COOH)-]{sub n}) has been selected as a representative of the homogeneous polymeric weak acids and its complexation with Ca(II) has also been examined. The values of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} have been obtained at pH 5 {proportional_to} 7 in 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0 M NaCl, where {beta}{sub {alpha}} is the apparent formation constants defined by {beta}{sub {alpha}} = [ML]/([M][R]). In this definition, [ML] and [M] are the concentrations of bound and free Ca{sup 2+} respectively, [R] is the concentration of dissociated proton exchanging sites. log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of humate decreases from 2.19 {proportional_to} 2.92 (depending on pH and ionic strength 1.0 < I < 0.4) at pCa = 10 to 1.98 {proportional_to} 2.44 at pCa = 4, while the variation of pCa has no appreciable influence on the log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of polyacrylate (1.36 {proportional_to} 3.24 for I = 0.1 {proportional_to} 1.0). For both humate and polyacrylate, log {beta}{sub {alpha}} decreases linearly with log[Na{sup +}], where [Na{sup +}] is the bulk concentration of sodium ion. Their dependences of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} on ionic strength are stronger than those of log {beta} of monomeric carboxylates such as oxalate and EDTA, indicating the large electrostatic effect of

  19. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  20. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  1. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)


    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  2. Prediction of acid generation potential

    Nalbandyan, V.B.


    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  3. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.


    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  4. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J


    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  5. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.


    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  6. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids


    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  7. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  8. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  9. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.


    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  10. Acid rain information book. Second edition


    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  11. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    Matutano, L.


    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  12. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C


    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....



    ABSTRACT. Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ... KEY WORDS: Amino acid quality, Raw, Steeped, Germinated, Guinea corn ..... Health Organization: Geneva; 1999; pp. 101-119.

  14. Acid loading test (pH)

    ... this page: // Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  15. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Deoclécio José Barilli


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  16. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with Crohn's disease

    Miwa, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, T.; Yao, T.


    In vivo 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid and the role of 7-ketolithocholic acid as an intermediate in this biotransformation were studied in 11 patients with Crohn's disease and in 5 healthy volunteers. The incorporation of deuterium into biliary ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid was determined by computed gas chromatography-mass fragmentography after ingestion of a dideuterated chenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic-11,12-d2 acid. The incorporation of deuterium into ursodeoxycholic acid increased to a peak level at 48 h in the patients with Crohn's disease, but was delayed in healthy volunteers. In 8 patients and 2 healthy controls there were small amounts of 7-ketolithocholic acid in bile. The incorporation of deuterium into 7-ketolithocholic acid was confirmed in only 2 patients and the peak level was noted at 48 h. These observations suggest that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate of this biotransformation in patients with Crohn's disease

  17. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Aulia Azka


    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  18. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki


    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun


    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  20. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.


    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  1. Neutralising acid mine waters underground

    Aminov, A S


    It is essential to treat acid mine drainage in order to avoid its corrosive effects on plant and equipment. Neutralisation aims at increasing the pH to 7 and is carried out using lime, limestone or dolomite, in conjunction with aeration. Use of residues from settling ponds to slake the lime increases economy in water and lime, improves sedimentation and provides a better and more even sediment.

  2. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.


    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  3. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.


    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14 CO 2 . None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14 CO 2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  4. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio


    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  5. Folic acid derivatives for use in radioimmunoassay

    Ali, A.


    The chemical preparation of two folic acid derivatives, labelled with 125 I or 131 I, is described for use in radioimmunoassay of folic acid and its metabolites in biological fluids such as blood serum. Labelled compounds of the present invention more closely resemble folic acid in that they have glutamic acid in the terminal position. Examples of the use of these compounds in three different assays are given. (U.K.)

  6. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    Pollock, C.W.


    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  7. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.


    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  8. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X


    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  9. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Khilnani P


    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  10. Extraction of cesium from acid solutions

    Katykhin, G.S.; Simonov, A.S.


    The extraction of cesium from acidic solutions is studied. Halogen-substituted carboxylic acids were chosen for the aqueous phase and nitrobenzene the diluent. The distribution coefficients are determined by the use of radioactive tracers 134 Cs and 137 Cs. It is believed that large singly charged anions of strong acids are necessary for the extraction of cesium. Metal halide acids are selected for supplying the anions

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.


    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  12. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.


    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  16. 21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formic acid. 573.480 Section 573.480 Food and... Listing § 573.480 Formic acid. Formic acid may be safely used as a preservative in hay crop silage in an.... The top foot of silage stored should not contain formic acid and silage should not be fed to livestock...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfamic acid. 186.1093 Section 186.1093 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3NO3S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6) is a white crystalline solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and...

  18. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan


    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactions of tritium atoms with amino acids, deuterated amino acids and mixtures of amino acids. Additivity property and isotope effect

    Badun, G.A.; Filatov, Eh.S.


    Interaction of tritium atoms with glycine (1) and leucine (2) amino acids, deuterated amino acids, their mixtures and glycylleucine (3) peptide in the 77-300 K temperature range is studied in isothermal and gradient regimes. Tagged amino acids were separated from targets after conducting the reaction. At T 150 K are associated with intermolecular transmission of free valence in the mixture of amino acids. Regularities of the reaction found for the mixture of amino acids are conserved for (3) as well, i.e. the peptide bond does not essentially affect the reaction of isotopic exchange conditioned by atomic tritium

  20. An Organic Puzzle Using Meldrum's Acid

    Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.


    Meldrum's acid or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione undergoes a Knoevenagel condensation with formaldehyde to form an active Michael acceptor for a second molecule of Meldrum's acid. The structure of the resulting product is determined by correlation of the products of possible reactions of Meldrum's acid and formaldehyde with the NMR spectrum of the product.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1033 - Citric acid.


    ... mole of water per mole of citric acid. Citric acid may be produced by recovery from sources such as... for the recovery of citric acid from Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor. (b) The ingredient meets...., Washington, DC 20418, and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy...

  2. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.


    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  3. 21 CFR 582.6033 - Citric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.6033 Section 582.6033 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. 2 For the purpose of this subpart, no attempt has been made to...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1033 - Citric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.1033 Section 582.1033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. Unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in neuroinflammation

    Orr, Sarah K; Palumbo, Sara; Bosetti, Francesca; Mount, Howard T; Kang, Jing X; E, Carol; Greenwood; Ma, David WL; Serhan, Charles N; Bazinet, Richard P


    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) is the major brain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and it is possible that docosahexaenoic acid is anti-inflammatory in the brain as it is known to be in other tissues. Using a combination of models including the fat-1 transgenic mouse, chronic dietary n-3 PUFA modulation in transgenic and wildtype mice, and acute direct brain infusion, we demonstrated that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid attenuates neuroinflammation initiated by intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide. Hippocampal neuroinflammation was assessed by gene expression and immunohistochemistry. Further, docosahexaenoic acid protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal loss. Acute intracerebroventricular infusion of unesterified docosahexaenoic acid or its 12/15-lipoxygenase product and precursor to protectins and resolvins, 17S-hydroperoxy-docosahexaenoic acid, mimics anti-neuroinflammatory aspects of chronically increased unesterified docosahexaenoic acid. LCMS/MS revealed that neuroprotectin D1 and several other docosahexaenoic acid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators are present in the hippocampus. Acute icv infusion of 17S-hydroperoxydocosahexaenoic acid increases hippocampal neuroprotectin D1 levels concomitant to attenuating neuroinflammation. These results show that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in a lipopolysaccharide-initiated mouse model of acute neuroinflammation, at least in part, via its conversion to specialized pro-resolving mediators; these docosahexaenoic acid stores may provide novel targets for the prevention and treatment(s) of neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component. PMID:23919613

  6. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe


    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  7. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.


    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van


    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  9. Succinic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this work, A. succinogenes 130Z was used to produce succinic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tuber hydrolysate. Results showed that both fructose and glucose in the tuber hydrolysate were utilized for succinic acid production. The sugar utilization was found to be dependent on process control...... that Jerusalem artichoke tubers could be utilized for production of bio-succinic acid....

  10. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...


    From the stem bark of Quassia africana, two new triterpenoids with the ursolic acid skeleton, characterized as 3-oxo-urs-12-en-27a, 28di-oic acid and its dihydro derivative, 3β-urs-12-en-27α, 28di-oic acid have been isolated. The structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques. KEY WORDS: Quassia africana; ...

  12. Hydrophosphorylation of alkynes with phosphinous acids

    Nifant'ev, E.E.; Solovetskaya, L.A.; Magdeeva, R.K.


    A feature of the homolytic hydrophosphorylation of alkynes, as compared with alkenes, is more ready addition of phosphinous acids in presence of benzoyl peroxides. A difference was found in the hydrophosphorylation of acetylenes with dibutylphosphinous acid and with diarylphosphinous acids: the latter tend to form diaddition products

  13. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  14. 21 CFR 582.1061 - Lactic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid. 582.1061 Section 582.1061 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1061 Lactic acid. (a) Product. Lactic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo


    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  16. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G


    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.


    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs

  18. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  19. Corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    Kajimura, H.; Morikawa, H.; Nagano, H.


    Slow strain rate tests are effected on zirconium in boiling nitric acid to study the influence of nitric acid concentration, of oxidizing ions (Cr and Ce) and of electric potential. Corrosion resistance is excellent and stress corrosion cracking occurs only for severe conditions: 350 mV over electric potential for corrosion with nitric acid concentration of 40 % [fr

  20. 21 CFR 182.3089 - Sorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sorbic acid. 182.3089 Section 182.3089 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3089 Sorbic acid. (a) Product. Sorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6099 - Tartaric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.6099 Section 582.6099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  5. Picolinic acid promoted oxidative decarboxylation of ...

    The kinetics and mechanism of picolinic acid promoted reaction of phenylsulfinylacetic acid (PSAA) with Cr(VI) was carried out in aqueous acetonitrile medium under pseudo first order conditions. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics with respect to PSAA. The catalytic activity by picolinic acid can be ...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3041 - Erythorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Erythorbic acid. 182.3041 Section 182.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 582.3021 Section 582.3021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3041 - Erythorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythorbic acid. 582.3041 Section 582.3041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3041 Erythorbic acid. (a) Product. Erythorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 7 CFR 58.632 - Acid.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acid. 58.632 Section 58.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....632 Acid. Acids used in sherbet shall be wholesome and of food grade quality and consist of one or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3089 - Sorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbic acid. 582.3089 Section 582.3089 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sorbic acid. (a) Product. Sorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  15. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1069 - Malic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malic acid. 582.1069 Section 582.1069 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1069 Malic acid. (a) Product. Malic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1009 - Adipic acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adipic acid. 582.1009 Section 582.1009 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Product. Adipic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1099 - Tartaric acid.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tartaric acid. 582.1099 Section 582.1099 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1099 Tartaric acid. (a) Product. Tartaric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta


    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  3. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.


    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition

    Lim Sun-Young


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ≥ 20 carbons, ≥ 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red

  5. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.


    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  6. Comparison of clinical characteristics of chronic cough due to non-acid and acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yang, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Li; Liang, Siwei; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin


    Little is known about non-acid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to explore the clinical characteristics of non-acid GERC. Clinical symptoms, cough symptom score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, gastroesophageal reflux diagnostic questionnaire (GerdQ) score, findings of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and response to pharmacological anti-reflux therapy were retrospectively reviewed in 38 patients with non-acid GERC and compared with those of 49 patients with acid GERC. Non-acid GERC had the similar cough character, cough symptom score, and capsaicin cough sensitivity to acid GERC. However, non-acid GERC had less frequent regurgitation (15.8% vs 57.1%, χ(2)  = 13.346, P = 0.000) and heartburn (7.9% vs 32.7%, χ(2)  = 7.686, P  = 0.006), and lower GerdQ score (7.4 ± 1.4 vs 10.6 ± 2.1, t = -6.700, P = 0.003) than acid GERC. Moreover, MII-pH revealed more weakly acidic reflux episodes, gas reflux episodes and a higher symptom association probability (SAP) for non-acid reflux but lower DeMeester score, acidic reflux episodes and SAP for acid reflux in non-acid GERC than in acid GERC. Non-acid GERC usually responded to the standard anti-reflux therapy but with delayed cough resolution or attenuation when compared with acid GERC. Fewer patients with non-acid GERC needed an augmented acid suppressive therapy or treatment with baclofen. There are some differences in the clinical manifestations between non-acid and acid GERC, but MII-pH is essential to diagnose non-acid GERC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.


    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

  8. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas


    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  9. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.


    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  10. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Danford, M. D.


    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  11. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki


    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  12. Kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid

    Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.


    A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid is

  13. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  14. "JCE" Classroom Activity #109: My Acid Can Beat Up Your Acid!

    Putti, Alice


    In this guided-inquiry activity, students investigate the ionization of strong and weak acids. Bead models are used to study acid ionization on a particulate level. Students analyze seven strong and weak acid models and make generalizations about the relationship between acid strength and dissociation. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  15. Catalyzed oxidation reactions. IV. Picolinic acid catalysis of chromic acid oxidations

    Rocek, J.; Peng, T.Y.


    Picolinic acid and several closely related acids are effective catalysts in the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols; the oxidation of other substrates is accelerated only moderately. The reaction is first order in chromium-(VI), alcohol, and picolinic acid; it is second order in hydrogen ions at low acidity and approaches acidity independence at high perchloric acid concentrations. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is observed at high but not at low acidities. At low acidity the reaction has a considerably lower activation energy and more negative activation entropy than at higher acidities. The reactive intermediate in the proposed mechanism is a negatively charged termolecular complex formed from chromic acid, picolinic acid, and alcohol. The rate-limiting step of the reaction changes with the acidity of the solution. At higher acidities the intermediate termolecular complex is formed reversibly and the overall reaction rate is determined by the rate of its decomposition into reaction products; at low acidities the formation of the complex is irreversible and hence rate limiting. Picolinic acids with a substituent in the 6 position show a greatly reduced catalytic activity. This observation is interpreted as suggesting a square pyramidal or octahedral structure for the reactive chromium (VI) intermediate. The temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect has been determined and the significance of the observed large values for E/sub a//sup D/ - E/sub a//sup H/ and A/sup D//A/sup H/ is discussed

  16. Simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, uric acid and homovanillic acid at copper modified electrode

    Selvaraju, T.; Ramaraj, R.


    The copper was deposited on glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes by electrochemical method. The copper structures on electrode were characterized by atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometeric pattern and differential pulse voltammetric studies. Optimal conditions for uniform growth of copper structures on the electrode were established. Voltammetric sensor was fabricated using the copper deposited GC electrode for the simultaneous detection and determination of uric acid (UA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the presence of excess concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA). The voltammetric signals due to AA and UA oxidation were well separated with a potential difference of 400 mV and AA did not interfere with the measurement of UA and HVA at the GC/Cu electrode. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 1-40 μM for AA and 20-50 μM for UA at physiological pH and a detection limit of 10 nM of UA in the presence of 10-fold excess concentrations of AA was achieved. The simultaneous detection of submicromolar concentrations of AA, UA and HVA was achieved at the GC/Cu electrode. The practical utility of the present GC/Cu modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the AA content in Vitamin C tablet, UA content in human urine and blood serum samples with satisfactory results


    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kürşat


    Abstract: Effect of jasmonic acid on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bülbül 89) was investigated in the present study. Jasmonic acid concentrations less than 1500 µM have not inhibited the seed germination, while 1500 and 2000 µM jasmonic acid levels caused atypical germination. The germination was completely inhibited at 3000 µM level of jasmonic acid. However, the seedling growth clearly slowed down with increasing concentrations of jasmonic acid. Furt...

  18. Gluconic Acid: Properties, Applications and Microbial Production

    Sumitra Ramachandran


    Full Text Available Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reaction. The reaction is facilitated by the enzyme glucose oxidase (fungi and glucose dehydrogenase (bacteria such as Gluconobacter. Microbial production of gluconic acid is the preferred method and it dates back to several decades. The most studied and widely used fermentation process involves the fungus Aspergillus niger. Gluconic acid and its derivatives, the principal being sodium gluconate, have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. This article gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production, its properties and applications.

  19. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn


    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  20. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    Jungmin eLee


    Full Text Available Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  1. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    Keating, Niamh


    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  2. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  3. Molecular pharmacology of 4-substituted glutamic acid analogues at ionotropic and metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Stensbøl, T B


    (subtypes 1alpha and 2), respectively, whereas (S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid showed high but rather non-selective affinity for the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid, NMDA and mGlu receptors (subtypes 1alpha and 2). Although none of the compounds were specific......The pharmacology of (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid, (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid and (S)- and (R)-4-methyleneglutamic acids (obtained in high chemical and enantiomeric purity from racemic 4-methyleneglutamic acid by chiral HPLC using a Crownpak CR(+) column), was examined in binding experiments...... using rat brain ionotropic glutamate receptors, and in functional assays using cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. As a notable result of these studies, (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid and (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid were shown to be selective for kainic acid receptors and mGlu receptors...

  4. Synthesis of novel acid electrolytes for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Adcock, James L.


    A 40 millimole per hour scale aerosol direct fluorination reactor was constructed. F-Methyl F-4-methoxybutanoate and F-4-methoxybutanoyl fluoride were synthesized by aerosol direct fluorination of methyl 4-methoxybutanoate. Basic hydrolysis of the perfluorinated derivatives produce sodium F-4 methoxybutanoate which was pyrolyzed to F-3-methoxy-1-propene. Purification and shipment of 33 grams of F-3-methoxy-1-propene followed. Syntheses by analogous methods allowed production and shipment of 5 grams of F-3-ethoxy 1-propene, 18 grams of F-3-(2-methoxy.ethoxy) 1-propene, and 37 grams of F-3,3-dimethyl 1-butene. Eighteen grams of F-2,2-dimethyl 1-chloropropane was produced directly and shipped. As suggested by other contractors, 5 grams of F-3-methoxy 1-iodopropane, and 5 grams of F-3-(2-methoxy.ethoxy) 1-iodopropane were produced by converting the respective precursor acid sodium salts produced for olefin synthesis to the silver salts and pyrolyzing them with iodine. Each of these compounds was prepared for the first time by the aerosol fluorination process during the course of the contract. These samples were provided to other Gas Research Institute (GRI) contractors for synthesis of perfluorinated sulfur (VI) and phosphorous (V) acids.

  5. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  6. Consumption of Pt anode in phosphoric acid

    Kamiya, N.; Urata, K.; Motohira, N.; Ota, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    Consumption of Pt anode was investigated in phosphoric acid of various concentration. In 30-70wt% phosphoric acid, Pt dissolved at the rate of 19{mu}gcm{sup -2}h{sup -1}. On the other hand, in 85 wt% phosphoric acid, the amount increased to 0.91 mgcm{sup -2}h{sup -1} which is ca. 180 and 1800 times as much as in 1M sulfuric acid and 1M alkaline solution, respectively. In the diluted phosphoric acid solution, the Pt surface was covered with Pt oxides during the electrolysis, which would prevent the surface from corrosion. However, in the concentrated phosphoric acid, no such oxide surface was observed. Concentrated phosphoric acid might form stable complex with Pt species, therefore the uncovered bare Pt surface is situated in the serious corrosion condition under the high overvoltage and Pt would dissolve into the solution directly instead of forming the Pt oxides. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    Terada, Kikuo


    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K


    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  9. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.


    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi


    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  11. Waste cleaning using CO2-acid microemulsion

    Park, Kwangheon; Sung, Jinhyun; Koh, Moonsung; Ju, Minsu


    Frequently we need to decontaminate radioactive wastes for volume reduction purposes. Metallic contaminants in wastes can be removed by dissolution to acid; however, this process produces a large amount of liquid acid waste. To reduce this 2ndary liquid waste, we suggest CO 2 -acid emulsion in removing metallic contaminants. Micro- and macro-emulsion of acid in liquid/supercritical CO 2 were successfully made. The formation region of microemulsion (water or acid in CO 2 ) was measured, and stability of the microemulsion was analyzed with respect to surfactant types. We applied micro- and macro-emulsion containing acid to the decontamination of radioactive metallic parts contaminated on the surface. The cleaning methods of micro- and macro-emulsion seemed better compared to the conventional acid cleaning. Moreover, these methods produce very small amount of secondary wastes. (author)

  12. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  13. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Marco Aurelio Callegari


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  14. Complexity in Acid?Base Titrations: Multimer Formation Between Phosphoric Acids and Imines

    Malm, Christian; Kim, Heejae; Wagner, Manfred; Hunger, Johannes


    Abstract Solutions of Br?nsted acids with bases in aprotic solvents are not only common model systems to study the fundamentals of proton transfer pathways but are also highly relevant to Br?nsted acid catalysis. Despite their importance the light nature of the proton makes characterization of acid?base aggregates challenging. Here, we track such acid?base interactions over a broad range of relative compositions between diphenyl phosphoric acid and the base quinaldine in dichloromethane, by u...

  15. Microbial production of citric acid

    Luciana P. S Vandenberghe


    Full Text Available Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch based media. However, other fermentation techniques, e.g. solid state fermentation and surface fermentation, and alternative sources of carbon such as agro-industrial residues have been intensively studied showing great perspective to its production. This paper reviews recent developments on citric acid production by presenting a brief summary of the subject, describing micro-organisms, production techniques, and substrates, etc.O ácido cítrico é o ácido mais produzido em termos de tonagem e é extensivamente utilizado pelas indústrias alimentícia e farmacêutica. É produzido principalmente por fermentação submersa utilizando o fungo Aspergillus niger e leveduras do gênero Candida sp. à partir de diferentes fontes de carbono, como a glicose e meios à base de amido. No entanto, outras técnicas de fermentação, e.g. fermentação no estado sólido e em superfície, e fontes alternativas de carbono tem sido intensamente estudadas mostrando grande perspectivas para o processo. O presente trabalho apresenta um resumo dos últimos avanços sobre a produção do ácido cítrico, descrevendo de maneira sucinta os trabalhos mais recentes, descrevendo microrganismos, técnicas de produção e substratos empregados, etc.

  16. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.


    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  17. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine


    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  18. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.


    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  19. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.


    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  20. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant. ... rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting ... of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

  1. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W


    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  2. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J


    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  3. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  4. Molecular radiobiology of nucleic acids

    Fuciarelli, A F


    In addition to radiolytic adenine release, radiolysis of adenosine 5'-monophosphate, in the absence of oxygen, can result in the formation of 8-hydroxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate and both the (R)- and (S)-epimer of 8,5'-cycloadenosine 5'-monophosphate. The mononucleoside derivatives of these modified nucleotides were also observed in irradiated solutions of adenosine and in the enzyme hydrolysates of irradiated solutions of polyadenylic acid (poly A) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In an effort to detect 8,5'-cyclo(deoxy) adenosine formation in irradiated nucleic acids, polyclonal antiserum were raised with specificity to the 8,5'-cycloadenosine 5'-monophosphate moiety and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 8,5'-cyclo(deoxy)adenosine moiety could be detected in nitrous oxide-saturated aqueous solutions containing unhydrolyzed poly A at 10 Gy and DNA at 200 Gy using the colorimetric ELISA. Correlation of product yield measured by ELISA with HPLC analysis of irradiated, enzyme-hydrolyzed solutions of poly A revealed that the ELISA was precisely reflecting changes in the combined yield of (R)- and (S)-8,5'-cycloadenosine.

  5. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra


    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  6. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    Otto, C.A.


    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  7. [Folic acid in physiology and pathology].

    Czeczot, Hanna


    This paper presents current knowledge of the biological functions of folic acid, the effects of its deficiency in the organism, as well as the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Folic acid (folate, B9) is a vitamin of special importance in normal cellular functions. Tetrahydrofolate (TH4-folate) is the biologically active form of folic acid. The main role of folic acid in biochemistry is the single-carbon transfer reaction (e.g. transfer of a methyl, methylene, or formyl group). Folic acid is involved in the transformation of certain amino acids as well as in the synthesis of purines and dTMP (2'-deoxythymidine-5'-phosphate) needed for the synthesis of nucleic acid (DNA), required by all rapidly growing cells. In humans, folate deficiency results in serious pathologies, the most important of which are neural tube defects, megablastic anemia, acceleration of the arteriosclerotic process, changes in the central nervous system, and the development of certain types of cancer. To increase the intake of folic acid, preventive actions include dietary education, the main objectives of which are to increase the intake of natural folate in the daily diet, add folic acid to selected dietary products (e.g. fl our, pasta, rice), and encourage supplementation with folic acid-containing pharmaceuticals.

  8. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju


    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  9. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion


    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624


    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.


    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  11. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Seyama Issei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  12. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    Lotte eCaarls


    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between the hormone signaling pathways allows for fine tuning of transcriptional programs, determining resistance to invaders and trade-offs with plant development. Here, we give an overview of how SA can control transcriptional reprogramming of JA-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. SA can influence activity and/or localization of transcriptional regulators by post-translational modifications of transcription factors and co-regulators. SA-induced redox changes, mediated by thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, modify transcriptional regulators that are involved in suppression of JA-dependent genes, such as NPR1 and TGA transcription factors, which affects their localization or DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SA can mediate sequestering of JA-responsive transcription factors away from their target genes by stalling them in the cytosol or in complexes with repressor proteins in the nucleus. SA also affects JA-induced transcription by inducing degradation of transcription factors with an activating role in JA signaling, as was shown for the ERF transcription factor ORA59. Additionally, SA can induce negative regulators, among which WRKY transcription factors, that can directly or indirectly inhibit JA-responsive gene expression. Finally, at the DNA level, modification of histones by SA-dependent factors can result in repression of JA-responsive genes. These diverse and complex regulatory mechanisms affect important signaling hubs in the integration of hormone signaling networks. Some pathogens have evolved effectors that highjack hormone crosstalk mechanisms for their own good, which are described in this review as well.

  13. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Sana Bahri

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA and rosmarinic acid (RA was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  14. Heart and bile acids - Clinical consequences of altered bile acid metabolism.

    Vasavan, Tharni; Ferraro, Elisa; Ibrahim, Effendi; Dixon, Peter; Gorelik, Julia; Williamson, Catherine


    Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart. Elevated maternal serum bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, a disorder which causes an impaired feto-maternal bile acid gradient, have been associated with fatal fetal arrhythmias. The hydrophobicity of individual bile acids in the serum bile acid pool is of relevance, with relatively lipophilic bile acids having a more harmful effect on the heart. Ursodeoxycholic acid can reverse or protect against these detrimental cardiac effects of elevated bile acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic acid and phaseic acid for molecular oxygen

    Creelman, R.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.


    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumariu. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18 O 2 and 80% N 2 indicates that one atom of 18 O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18 O 2 indicates that one atom of 18 O is presented in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-streesed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggest that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 tables

  16. Incorporation of Oxygen into Abscisic Acid and Phaseic Acid from Molecular Oxygen 1

    Creelman, Robert A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.


    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18O2 and 80% N2 indicates that one atom of 18O is incorporated in the 6′-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18O2 indicates that one atom of 18O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1′-, 4′-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1′- and 4′-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. PMID:16663564

  17. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid


    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  18. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben


    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing. (paper)

  19. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic Acid and phaseic Acid from molecular oxygen.

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A


    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% (18)O(2) and 80% N(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase.Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing (18)O(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress.

  20. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status...

  2. Characterization of acid tar waste from benzol purification | Danha ...

    The use of concentrated sulphuric acid to purify benzene, toluene and xylene produces acidic waste known as acid tar. The characterization of the acid tar to determine the composition and physical properties to device a way to use the waste was done. There were three acid tars two from benzene (B acid tar), toluene and ...

  3. Cleaving Double-Stranded DNA with Peptide Nucleic Acids


    Peptide nucleic acids and analogues of peptide nucleic acids are used to form duplex, triplex, and other structures with nucleic acids and to modify nucleic acids. The peptide nucleic acids and analogues thereof also are used to modulate protein activity through, for example, transcription arrest......, transcription initiation, and site specific cleavage of nucleic acids....

  4. Basicity and ionization constants of some molybdenum(6) complex acids

    Fedorov, A.A.


    Coordination of the Mo(6) ions of the malic, trioxyglutaric, glucaric and mucic acids changes their acidity. Complex Mo(6) acids are stronger then corresponding oxyacids. It was demonstrated that complexes of Mo(6) with malic, trioxyglutaric, glutaric, mucic acids and mannitol were behaving as polybasic acids during titration. Sequential ionization constants of the complex acids were determined

  5. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    Speranzini, R.A.


    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  6. Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro study

    Rasmussen, H S; Holtug, K; Mortensen, P B


    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) originate mainly in the colon through bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis that SCFA may originate from polypeptides as well, the production of these acids from albumin and specific amino acids was examined in a faecal incubation system....... Albumin was converted to all C2-C5-fatty acids, whereas amino acids generally were converted to specific SCFA, most often through the combination of a deamination and decarboxylation of the amino acids, although more complex processes also took place. This study indicates that a part of the intestinal...

  7. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Clofibric Acid Increases the Formation of Oleic Acid in Endoplasmic Reticulum of the Liver of Rats

    広瀬, 明彦; 山崎, 研; 坂本, 武史; 須永, 克佳; 津田, 整; 光本, 篤史; 工藤, なをみ; 川嶋, 洋一


    The effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) on the formation of oleic acid (18:1) from stearic acid (18:0) and utilization of the 18:1 formed for phosphatidylcholine (PC) formation in endoplasmic reticulum in the liver of rats were studied in vivo. [14C]18:0 was intravenously injected into control Wistar male rats and rats that had been fed on a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) clofibric acid for 7 days; and the distribution of radiolabeled fatty acids among subcellul...

  9. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.


    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  10. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe


    Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus......-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse...... sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised...

  11. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    Marta Vázquez


    Full Text Available Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%. Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia.

  12. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe


    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  13. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.


    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  14. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.


    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  15. Acid rain information book. Final report


    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of widespread acid rain demand that the phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty and summarizes current and projected research. The report is organized by a logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures and regulatory options. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations


    Jorgensen, E.C.; Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, M.; Tolbert, B.M.


    The directions for preparing the following acids from labeled acetic acid on a 1 to 20 millimole scale is presented: Succinic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid. Two methods for preparing the succinic acid are detailed.

  17. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    Finkelstein, Ruth


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  18. Acid precipitation; an annotated bibliography

    Wiltshire, Denise A.; Evans, Margaret L.


    This collection of 1660 bibliographies references on the causes and environmental effects of acidic atmospheric deposition was compiled from computerized literature searches of earth-science and chemistry data bases. Categories of information are (1) atmospheric chemistry (gases and aerosols), (2) precipitation chemistry, (3) transport and deposition (wet and dry), (4) aquatic environments (biological and hydrological), (5) terrestrial environments, (6) effects on materials and structures, (7) air and precipitation monitoring and data collection, and (8) modeling studies. References date from the late 1800 's through December 1981. The bibliography includes short summaries of most documents. Omitted are unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, master 's theses and doctoral dissertations, newspaper articles, and book reviews. Coauthors and subject indexes are included. (USGS)

  19. ARUM -- Acid reduction using microbiology

    Kalin, M.; Fyson, A.; Smith, M.P.


    The main objective of the ARUM process is to optimize this mineralization in sediments created in mining waste management areas. The most important parameter driving ARUM (or the remineralization process) is the flux of organic carbon from the water column to the microbial communities in the sediment. Various organic materials have been tested as sources of carbon for ARUM in AMD from base metal and coal operations. Carbon availability from materials such as peat, sawdust or Typha leaves depends on decomposition which is extremely limited in acidic, anoxic conditions where ARUM can occur. Weight loss from decomposition bags and sequential nutritional analysis were used to assess decomposition of test organic materials after prolonged exposure (up to two years) in AMD in ponds, lake enclosures (limnocorrals) or constructed ARUM test cells. The results indicate that decomposition can occur in the reducing conditions associated with ARUM and that of all the materials tested, peat is the most promising and sawdust the least promising ARUM substrate

  20. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø


    , directed against blood coagulation factors, are in clinical trials as anticoagulant drugs. Several of the studies on protease-binding aptamers have been pioneering and trend-setting in the field. The work with protease-binding aptamers also demonstrates many interesting examples of non-standard selection......Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing...... small molecule protease inhibitors of sufficient specificity has proved a daunting task. Aptamers seem to represent a promising alternative. In our review, we concentrate on biochemical mechanisms of aptamer selection, proteinaptamer recognition, protease inhibition, and advantages of aptamers...