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Sample records for fusel alcohol production

  1. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  2. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  3. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Synthesis of acetate of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil using immobilized candida antarctica lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, B.; Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed production of isoamyl acetate, the flavor and fragrance ester was carried out in n-hexane solvent. Isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil and acetic acid were used as reactants The favorable reaction conditions for maximum (92 %) ester production were amount of enzyme 9 %. acid:alcohol molar ratio 1:2 M, temperature 40 degree C and reaction time 6 hour. Enzyme could be reused six times before loss of activity started. Product was confirmed by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  6. Improvements to the Composition of Fusel Oil and Analysis of the Effects of Fusel Oil–Gasoline Blends on a Spark-Ignited (SI Engine’s Performance and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Simsek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of energy needs and environmental pollution, alcohol-based alternative fuels are used in spark-ignited (SI engines. Fusel oil, which is a by-product obtained through distillation of ethanol, contains some valuable alcohols. As alcohols are high-octane, they have an important place among the alternative fuels. Fusel also takes its place among those alternatives as it is high-octane and low on exhaust emissions. In this research, the effects of using blends of unleaded gasoline and improved fusel oil on engine performance and exhaust emissions were analyzed experimentally. A four-stroke, single-cylinder, spark-ignited engine was used in the experiments. The tests were conducted at a fixed speed and under different loads. The test fuels were blended supplying with fusel oil at rates incremented by 10%, up to 50%. Under each load, the engine’s performance and emissions were measured. Throughout the experiments, it has been observed that engine torque and specific fuel consumption increases as the amount of fusel oil in the blend is increased. Nitrogen oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbon (HC emissions are reduced as the amount of fusel oil in the blends is increased.

  7. Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eleanor J.; Campbell, Susan G.; Griffiths, Christian D.; Reid, Peter J.; Slaven, John W.; Harrison, Richard J.; Sims, Paul F.G.; Pavitt, Graham D.; Delneri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of eIF2-GDP to the GTP-bound form constitutes a core essential, regulated step in eukaryotic translation. This reaction is mediated by eIF2B, a heteropentameric factor with important links to human disease. eIF2 in the GTP-bound form binds to methionyl initiator tRNA to form a ternary complex, and the levels of this ternary complex can be a critical determinant of the rate of protein synthesis. Here we show that eIF2B serves as the target for translation inhibition by various fusel alcohols in yeast. Fusel alcohols are endpoint metabolites from amino acid catabolism, which signal nitrogen scarcity. We show that the inhibition of eIF2B leads to reduced ternary complex levels and that different eIF2B subunit mutants alter fusel alcohol sensitivity. A DNA tiling array strategy was developed that overcame difficulties in the identification of these mutants where the phenotypic distinctions were too subtle for classical complementation cloning. Fusel alcohols also lead to eIF2α dephosphorylation in a Sit4p-dependent manner. In yeast, eIF2B occupies a large cytoplasmic body where guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 can occur and be regulated. Fusel alcohols impact on both the movement and dynamics of this 2B body. Overall, these results confirm that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, is targeted by fusel alcohols. Moreover, they highlight a potential connection between the movement or integrity of the 2B body and eIF2B regulation. PMID:20444979

  8. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, ACTIVITY, DEACTIVATION, AND REGENERATION TESTS OF CoO-MoO/ZnO AND CoO-MoO/ZnO-ACTIVATED ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR THE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM FUSEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization, activation, deactivation, and regeneration tests of CoO-MoO/ZnO and CoO-MoO/ZnO-Activated Zeolite (AZ catalysts for the hydrogen production using steam reforming of alcohols in fusel oil have been conducted. Both catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Co and Mo onto ZnO or ZnO-AZ powder then followed by calcination at 400 °C for 5 h under N2 stream. The BET method and pyridine adsorption were used for catalysts characterization. The study of activation, deactivation, and regeneration of catalysts were conducted by using steam reforming method in the semi flow reactor. The reaction condition were: weight ratio of catalysts/feed = 0.1, temperature: 450 °C, duration: 45 min. The gas product was trapped in a 250 mL vacuum pyrex bottle filled with 50 mL of 4 M NaOH solution and analyzed by GC with TCD system to determine H2 existance and HCl titration to determine CO2 produced during the process that was dissolved in NaOH solution. The results showed that CoO-MoO/ZnO-AZ catalyst produced higher gas conversion than CoO-MoO/ZnO catalyst. However, it had short catalyst lifetime due to its high amount of coke deposited during the process. The regeneration test could enhance the catalyst activity. The gas product consisted of H2 (14.70% and CO2 (24.41%.   Keywords: fusel oil, steam reforming, deactivation, regeneration, hydrogen production.

  9. 27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from the premises. (7) The quantity and testing for alcoholic content of fusel oil or other chemicals removed from the production system and the disposition thereof with the name of the consignee, if...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF 3,4-DIMETHOXY ISOAMYL CINNAMIC AS THE SUNSCREEN COMPOUND FROM CLOVE OIL AND FUSEL OIL

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    Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sunscreen compound 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic from clove oil and fusel oil has been done. The majoring component of clove oil that is eugenol has been isolated, followed with several chemical processes i.e. isomerization into isoeugenol, oxidation of the product to change into vanillin, then modification vanillin into veratraldehyde. From the fusel oil, we isolate isoamyl alcohol and modified by acetylation into isoamyl acetic. The final product could be produce by Claissen's condensation of isoamyl acetic and veratraldehyde to give 3,4-dimethoxy isoamyl cinnamic. All of the processes are followed with structure characterization using GC, IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The result shown that compound has 46.98% purity and potent as the UV-B sunscreen's type (lmax = 313 nm. In-vitro sunscreen's activity of the compound was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and resulting a maximum Sun Protection Factor value (SPFin-vitro at low concentration, 10.25 mg/mL.   Keywords: UV absorber, sunscreen, clove oil, cinnamic esther.

  11. Complete utilization of whey for alcohol and methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L; Strube, R

    1978-01-01

    The quality of the rectified alcohol obtained by 2-stage fermentation of whey permeate with Kluyveromyces fragilis followed by distillation was similar to that of rectified alcohol from molasses, though composition in terms of fusel oils, aldehydes, and diacetyls was varied. A contact process of anaerobic biological treatment reduced the COD of the effluent from 7000 to 350 and 1000 mg/L in laboratory and full-scale plant experiments respectively. The gas drawn off from this process contained 63% CH/sub 4/ and was almost odorless because of the low S content in the whey permeate; it had an energy value of 1.8 kg fuel oil/m/sup 3/ permeate and was able to replace 17 to 20% of the fuel oil used at the plant. The alcohol yield was 80% of the theoretical yield, and corresponded to the use of 42 L of whey permeate containing 4.4% lactose for production of 1 L of 100% alcohol and the total energy gain was 30%.

  12. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  13. Dry alcohol production plant

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    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  14. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  15. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  16. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  18. Biodiesel production from triolein and short chain alcohols through biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea; Pinna, Marcella; Monduzzi, Maura; Solinas, Vincenzo

    2005-09-29

    Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% of conversion after 6h. Different operative conditions such as reaction temperature, water activity, and reagent stoichiometric ratio were investigated and optimised. These conditions were then used to investigate the effect of linear and branched short chain alcohols. Methanol and 2-butanol were the worst alcohols: the former, probably, due to its low miscibility with the oil and the latter because secondary alcohols usually are less reactive than primary alcohols. Conversely, linear and branched primary alcohols with short alkyl chains (C(2)--C(4)) showed high reaction rate and conversion. A mixture of linear and branched short chain alcohols that mimics the residual of ethanol distillation (fusel oil) was successfully used for oleic acid ester synthesis. These compounds are important in biodiesel mixtures since they improve low temperature properties.

  19. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachot, T; Mueller, M; Pons, M N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  20. Alcohol production from pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Koffi, L. (Ministry of Scientific Research, Abidjan (CI). Ivorian Center of Technological Research); Han, Y.W. (USDA, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (US))

    1990-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis were grown on pineapple waste and their alcohol production characteristics compared. The pineapple waste consisted of 19% cellulose, 22% hemi-cellulose, 5% lignin and 53% cell soluble matters but concentration of soluble sugars, which included 5.2% sucrose, 3.1% glucose and 3.4% fructose, was relatively low and pretreatment of the substrate was needed. Pretreatment of pineapple waste with cellulase and hemi-cellulase and then fermentation with S. cerevisiae or Z. mobilis produced about 8% ethanol from pineapple waste in 48 h. (author).

  1. Hyphal-like extension and pseudohyphal formation in industrial strains of yeasts induced by isoamyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Silva, Paula Cristina da

    2002-01-01

    Yeasts can produce pseudohyphae and hyphal-like extensions under certain growth conditions like isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induction, a chief constituent of fusel oil, which is a subproduct from the ethanolic fermentation. The morphology switch from yeast to a filamentous form can be troublesome to the process. In this work it was studied the influence of fusel alcohols, nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate and leucine) and glifosate (a chemical maturator for sugar cane) added to a complex medium o...

  2. Mixed alcohols production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.; Conway, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for selectively producing mixed alcohols from synthesis gas comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytic amount of a catalyst containing components of (1) a catalytically active metal of molybdenum or tungsten, in free or combined form; (2) a cocatalytic metal or cobalt or nickel in free or combined form; and (3) a Fischer-Tropsch promoter of an alkali or alkaline earth series metal, in free or combined form; the components combined by dry mixing, mixing as a wet paste, wet impregnation, and then sulfided, the catalyst excluding rhodium, ruthenium and copper, at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and under conditions sufficient to form the mixed alcohols in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the mixed alcohols containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  3. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  4. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  5. Microbial amylases in the production of alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H J

    1970-01-01

    This book is based on experiments carried out in the experimental distillery of the University of Hohenheim on the use of microbial enzyme preparations for processing wheat and maize, with particular reference to comparison of green and cured malts. The subject is divided into the following chapters: introduction (pp. -14); raw materials (pp. 5-6); enzymic dextrinizing and saccharification agents (pp. 6-10); technology of alcohol production with microbial amylses (pp. 11-27); experiments into, results of and discussion on special problems of the mashing and fermentation process with reference to application of microbial amylases (pp. 28-45); Analytical methods (pp. 46-51); and Resume (pp. 5254).

  6. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars. (Refs. 9).

  7. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars.

  8. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  9. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed

  10. Optimisation of flavour ester biosynthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil catalysed by lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-12-15

    Coconut cream and fusel oil, two low-cost natural substances, were used as starting materials for the biosynthesis of flavour-active octanoic acid esters (ethyl-, butyl-, isobutyl- and (iso)amyl octanoate) using lipase Palatase as the biocatalyst. The Taguchi design method was used for the first time to optimize the biosynthesis of esters by a lipase in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil. Temperature, time and enzyme amount were found to be statistically significant factors and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: temperature 30°C, fusel oil concentration 9% (v/w), reaction time 24h, pH 6.2 and enzyme amount 0.26 g. Under the optimised conditions, a yield of 14.25mg/g (based on cream weight) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 23.07 dB were obtained. The results indicate that the Taguchi design method was an efficient and systematic approach to the optimisation of lipase-catalysed biological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial-water-splitting catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P; Gagliardi, Christopher J; Chen, Janice S; Bediako, D Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-02-24

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations.

  12. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial–water-splitting catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P.; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Chen, Janice S.; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C.; Silver, Pamela A.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations. PMID:25675518

  13. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  14. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  15. Response surface methodology (RSM) based multi-objective optimization of fusel oil -gasoline blends at different water content in SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Omar I.; Mamat, R.; Ali, Obed M.; Azmi, W.H.; Kadirgama, K.; Yusri, I.M.; Leman, A.M.; Yusaf, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal ratio ratio of fusel oil–gasoline blended fuels is proposed. • The water content of fusel oil was reduced from 13.5% to 6.5%. • The heating value of fusel oil was improved by 13%. • FAWE 20 fuels were found to be optimal values with a high desirability of 0.707. • RSM was applied to optimize the engine performance and exhaust emissions. - Abstract: The main objective of this study is to determine the optimal blend ratio of fusel oil–gasoline before and after water extraction (FBWE10, FBWE20, FAWE10, and FAWE20) regarding the performance and emissions of spark ignition engine using response surface methodology (RSM). The multi-objective optimization is applied to maximize the brake power, brake thermal efficiency and minimize the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), NOx emission, HC emission and CO emission. The water content of fusel oil has been extracted by employing rotary extractor method. The experimental of this study has been carried out with different fusel oil–gasoline blends, different throttle valve opening position (15%, 30%, 45% and 60%) and different engine speed (1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm). All the developed models for responses were determined to be statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The study results reveal an improvement in heating value of fusel oil after water extraction with FAWE20 (80 vol% gasoline fuel, 20 vol% fusel oil after water extracted) as the optimally blended fuel. The best condition of engine parameters with FAWE20 were 55.4% of WOT for load and 4499 rpm engine speed. In additional of the optimal values with a high desirability of 0.707 were 62.511 kW, 241.139 g/kW h, 36%, 1895.913 ppm140.829 ppm and % for brake power, BSFC, BTE, NO x , HC and CO emissions respectively. The reduction of water content in fusel oil has a statistical significance influence to increases BTE, NO x emission and decreases the BSFC, HC and CO emissions.

  16. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Oleson, Kathryn C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2017-01-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive—albeit less important—behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles—non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:28804158

  17. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles- non-procrastinators , academic productive procrastinators , non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators , and classic procrastinators . Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  19. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  20. Corrosion products study of alcohol by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, R.; Gil de Larre, M.

    1995-01-01

    Simulated corrosion essays in alcohol is presented and corrosion products of storage tanks (CAPASA) were analyzed. The analysis by Mossbauer absortion and transmission spectroscopy shows the formation of hematite substratum in the rust of the storage tanks of carburetant and burning alcohol. In the sample of corrosion with strong rum shows the formation of lepidocrocite and with destilled water besides of lepidocrocite, magnetite (Fe3 O4) is detected

  1. Catalytic production of sugar alcohols (polyols) and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R; Straetz, A; Vollheim, G

    1980-07-01

    The article surveys the numerous applications of the principal sugar alcohols sorbitol and xylitol and their world production in 1978. Nowadays, the industrial production of sugar alcohols is almost exclusively by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding sugars; thus sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of D-glucose, xylitol by hydrogenation of xylose, and mannitol by hydrogenation of invert sugar or fructose. Some 80% of the world production of sugar alcohols are manufactured in batch suspension processes using Raney nickel catalysts. Apart from the Atlas Powder continuous suspension process employing nickel-carrier catalysts, continuous processes have recently been developed which use Raney nickel and prove more economical owing to the lower catalyst costs. Trickling processes with fixed catalyst continue to play a minor role. Available production capacity based on batch suspension processes can be expanded by process optimization and new catalyst developments. A newly developed special Raney nickel catalyst reduces the specific catalyst consumption by about 50%.

  2. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  3. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  4. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  5. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  6. Continuous saccharification and fermentation in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M; Mikhailova, L E; Babaeva, S A; Ustinnikov, B A

    1968-01-01

    Submerged cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 and A. batatae 61, or a mixture of submerged A. niger culture with a surface culture of A. oryzae Kc are used for fermentations and compared with the usual barley malt procedure. The latter yields 71% maltose and 24 to 28% glucose, wherease the fungal procedure gives 14 to 21% maltose and 80 to 85% glucose in a continuous mashing-fermentation process with barley. The fungal method gives a higher degree of fermentation for sugars and dextrins and a lower content of total and high-molecular-weight residual dextrins. The amounts of propanol PrOH and iso-BuOH isobutyl alcohol are almost equal, whereas the amount of isoamylalcohol is lower in fungal fermentations.

  7. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  8. Alcohol or feed product from rotten sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T

    1956-06-25

    Rotten sweet potatoes were mixed with the same weight of a pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash, and the mixture was cooked and fermented with amylo stock mash under semisolid conditions for five days. The fermented mash was steam-distilled to recover ethanol, and a solid residue was dried to give a nutrient feed product.

  9. laboratory production of alcohol from rice and maize chaffs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulrahman Issa Muse

    2010-09-22

    Sep 22, 2010 ... The alcohol content of the samples were determined by distillation method. ... and cosmetics. It serves as a .... Reducing sugar production was determined .... did not lead to a decrease in water activity (aw) as it was noticed by ...

  10. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  11. Carbery milk products in Ireland produces alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R

    1980-01-01

    A brief illustrated description is given of alcohol production by Carbery Milk Products Ltd., introduced in 1976 as an alternative to whey drying. The initial investment into the new alcohol factory was 1.6 million. The process includes whey ultrafiltration at a rate of 125,000 gallons/day, fermentation of the premeate in 6 fermentation tanks (total capacity 42,000 gallons) in batch operation, each requiring on average 6 hours; efficiency of lactose conversion to alcohol is 86% of the theoretical yield. After separation of the yeasts, the liquor is pasteurized and heated to the correct temperature for distillation which is carried out in a plant consisting of six 32-metre high cylinders incorporating rectification towers. The finished alcohol is stored under customs supervision in 3 storage tanks, each with a capacity of 125000 gallons. The waste products from the fermentation and distillation stages necessitated the installation of a purification plant for treating daily about 200000 gallons effluent with 9000 lb BOD, in addition to another plant handling 400 000 gallons with also 9000 lb BOD of normal dairy waste water.

  12. Production of ethyl alcohol from babassu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, J.O.B. (Universidad Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil); Scares, J.B.; Thiemann, W.H.P.

    1978-03-01

    The babassu coconut palm tree of northeastern Brazil was studied as a source of ethanol. The feasibility was shown on a laboratory scale by fermenting babassu flour obtained by grinding the mesocarp, the intermediate fibers of the coconut, with a relative ethanol yield of 76%. It is suggested that the optimization of the process should be investigated as the annual production is about 210 tons and at present only the ''almonds,'' oil-rich kernels, are utilized. (JSR)

  13. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium autoethanogenum for selective alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Fungmin; Henstra, Anne M; Kӧpke, Michael; Winzer, Klaus; Simpson, Sean D; Minton, Nigel P

    2017-03-01

    Gas fermentation using acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum offers an attractive route for production of fuel ethanol from industrial waste gases. Acetate reduction to acetaldehyde and further to ethanol via an aldehyde: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase has been postulated alongside the classic pathway of ethanol formation via a bi-functional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). Here we demonstrate that AOR is critical to ethanol formation in acetogens and inactivation of AdhE led to consistently enhanced autotrophic ethanol production (up to 180%). Using ClosTron and allelic exchange mutagenesis, which was demonstrated for the first time in an acetogen, we generated single mutants as well as double mutants for both aor and adhE isoforms to confirm the role of each gene. The aor1+2 double knockout strain lost the ability to convert exogenous acetate, propionate and butyrate into the corresponding alcohols, further highlighting the role of these enzymes in catalyzing the thermodynamically unfavourable reduction of carboxylic acids into alcohols. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Industrial alcohol production via whey and grain fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, B A; Cunningham, M L; Shahani, K M

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of a trained lactose fermenting Kluyveromyces yeast were examined for their ability to utilise lactose in sweet-whey permeate. All strains of K. fragilis tested reduced the concentration of the 5.1% lactose, initially present in whey permeate, to 0.1-0.2% within 48h. Periodic adjustment to maintain the pH during fermentation did not alter the lactose utilisation. The fermentation efficiency of K. fragilis was then compared with that of a mixture of K. fragilis and the classical alcohol fermenter Saccharomyces cerevisiae to verify that no unfavourable interactions occurred in the mixed culture. There were no differences in lactose utilisation or ethanol production between the two groups; both produced approximately 2% ethanol within 24h. This represented approximately 80% of the alcohol which theoretically could be produced from the 5.1% lactose present in the permeate. Whey permeate was also incorporated into the classical grain fermentation by substitution for one-half the water normally added to produce the mash. Fermentation was nearly complete by 36h and alcohol levels ranged from 9.7% for the mixed culture to 9.4% for the K. fragilis and 9.3% for the S. cerevisiae. Since the whey provided significant levels of fermentable sugars, studies were also conducted in which undiluted whey permeate was substituted for all of the water in the mash and the amount of grain was reduced by 20%. At the end of 36h K. fragilis produced 10.9% alcohol and at 60 h of fermentation the level had reached 12.2%. When whole sweet-whey was used, similar levels of alcohol were produced. (Refs. 20).

  17. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  18. Analysis of the structure of a product line of alcoholic beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agalarova, C.; Askadullina, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    AB This article deals with marketing decisions on the optimal product line of alcoholic beverages manufactured under the brand name «Praskoveyskoe». KEY WORDS Product line, turnover analysis, ABC-analysis, production of alcoholic beverages, policy to optimize a product line INTRODUCTION A product

  19. Production of sugar and alcohol: financial and operational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the construction of an optimization model to define the product portfolio of a sugarcane mill, taking into account operational and financial aspects. It is considered that the revenue earned by a producer comes from the sale of sugar and alcohol in the physical market and the results obtained through hedging in the derivatives market of sugar. Employing CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk, as the risk measure, the model allows the construction of an efficient frontier and, according to the producer's risk tolerance, defines the optimal strategy of production (production mix and activity in the derivatives market (hedge ratio. Through the model the article also seeks to analyze the advantage of using the options market in the construction of financial hedging strategies in agricultural commodities markets.

  20. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... X PBA 3000[dash]P X X PBA 3000C X X Alcohol Data Sensor X X Phoenix X X Phoenix 6.0 X X EV 30 X X FC...-0016] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement... 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol...

  2. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., battery powered device with a semiconductor sensor. (2) Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp., submitted...-0062] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in... Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16956). DATES: Effective...

  3. Software sensor for primary metabolite production case of alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G.; Dahhou, B.; Queinnec, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Goma, G. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper investigate the application of an observer for state and parameter estimation to batch, continuous and fed batch fermentations for alcohol production taken as model for a primary metabolite production. This observer is provided to palliate the lack of suitable sensors for on-line biomass and ethanol concentrations measurements and to estimate the time varying specific growth rate. Estimates are obtained from an interlaced structure filter based on a `modified extended Kalman filter` by using on-line measurements of carbon dioxide outflow rate and substrate concentration. The filter algorithm was tested during batch, continuous and fed batch fermentation processes. The filter behaviour observed in the experiments gives good results with an agreement theory/practice. (authors) 18 refs.

  4. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Production and storage stability of non alcoholic banana beverage powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L

    1994-02-01

    Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.

  6. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  7. Germinação de sementes de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens influenciada por vinhaça, flegmaça e óleo de fúsel Germination of Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens seeds influenced by vinasse, flegmass and fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar, em condições de laboratório, a germinação de sementes de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens submetidas à aplicação de vinhaça, flegmaça e óleo de fúsel. Esses subprodutos, nas concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v, e as testemunhas (água com pH e osmolalidade corrigidos, em função da caracterização realizada nos subprodutos e em suas diluições foram aplicados diretamente em 100 sementes acondicionadas em caixas de plástico, utilizando papel como substrato. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, e as médias obtidas foram submetidas ao teste de Tukey. As sementes de Sida rhombifolia submetidas ao óleo de fúsel não germinaram e apresentaram redução na viabilidade, principalmente nas maiores concentrações de aplicação. As sementes de Brachiaria decumbens submetidas à maior concentração de flegmaça apresentaram tendência de redução da viabilidade e do índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Na presença do óleo de fúsel as sementes de Brachiaria decumbens não germinaram e apresentaram-se totalmente inviáveis.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of vinasse, flegmass and fusel oil (distillery by-products on the germination of Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens seeds, under laboratory conditions. By-product concentrations (12.5; 25.0; 50.0 and 100.0% v/v and the controls (water with pH and osmolality amended according to by-product composition and levels were applied directly on plastic boxes filled with 100 seeds of the same species. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design and the data were submitted to the Tukey test. Sida rhombifolia seeds submitted to fusel oil did not germinate, reducing seed viability mainly at the largest application rates. Brachiaria decumbens seeds submitted to the highest flegmass rate tended to reduce seed viability and germination speed index (GSI. Brachiaria decumbens seeds

  8. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  9. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  10. The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  11. Production and antioxidative activity of alcoholic beverages made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation yeast was isolated from a Thai traditional alcoholic beverage called Thai ou, which is drunk through bamboo tubes. The isolated yeast was identified as a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alcoholic beverage made with the isolated yeast designated as S. cerevisiae NP01 from black rice ...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  13. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed...

  14. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  15. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1993-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1994-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  18. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  19. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  20. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.

  1. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  2. Biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols in an ultrasonic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Okitsu, Kenji; Nishimura, Rokuro; Maeda, Yasuaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dong, Nguyen The [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2009-03-15

    The biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol and decanol was investigated at molar ratio 6:1 (alcohol:triolein) and 25 C in the presence of base catalysts (NaOH and KOH) under ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) and mechanical stirring (1800 rot/min) conditions. It was found that the rate of the alkyl ester formation under the ultrasonic irradiation condition was higher than that under the stirring condition. In addition, it was confirmed that the rate depended upon the kind of alcohols; as the number of carbon in alcohol increased, the rate of the ester formation tended to decrease. On the other hand, the secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-hexanol, and 2-octanol showed little ester conversion, suggesting that the steric hindrance strongly affected the transesterification of triolein. (author)

  3. Several varieties of sugar sorghum and their possibilities for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, P W; Fernandez, P W

    1956-01-01

    To study the possibility of using sugar sorghum as a raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, 17 sugar-sorghum varieties from the USA were grown experimentally under field conditions in Uruguay. The best were White African, Honey (Texas) T.S. 21001, and Axtell, which yielded 35,300, 34,200, and 32,450 kg. of stems (1271), 1539, and 14211.100% alcohol)/ha., respectively. The quantity of alcohol/ha obtained from sugar sorghum is almost 3 times that obtained from corn.

  4. Enzymatic production of alkyl esters through alcoholysis: A critical evaluation of lipases and alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Deng; Xu, Xuebing; Gudmundur G, Haraldsson

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on a detailed evaluation of commercially available immobilized lipases and simple monohydric alcohols for the production of alkyl esters from sunflower oil by enzymatic alcoholysis. Six lipases were tested with seven alcohols, including straight and branched-chain primary...... in an increased degree of conversion for all lipases except Novozym 435. The secondary alcohol 2-propanol significantly reduced the alcoholysis reaction with all lipases; however, the branch-chain isobutanol was more advantageous than linear 1-butanol for Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipase PS-C. Many...

  5. Rational production scheme for utilization of sugar-beet molasses in the alcohol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L

    1959-01-01

    Continuously operating equipment is described and the mode of operation is presented. When processed under the described conditions, each long ton of fermented sugar-beet molasses will produce 315 l EtOH, 9.2 l ester-aldehyde fraction, 1 l fusel oil, 150 kg liquid CO/sub 2/, and 45 kg bakers' yeast. Each long ton of stillage will give 20 kg betaine-HCl, 15 to 20 kg glutamic acid, 17 kg glycerol, and 65 kg salt mixture which has approximately the following composition: K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ 35, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ 15, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 5, and KCl 5 kg.

  6. Secondary products and consumption of sugar during continuous alcoholic fermentation of starchy media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M; Yarovenko, V L; Makeev, D M; Belov, E M

    1976-01-01

    Continuous alcohol fermentation in different media containing starch as the carbon source and final analysis of products indicated that 93.3% glucose is converted into ethanol and CO/sub 2/, 2.78% metabolized by the yeast cells, 2.4% converted into glycerol, 0.036% into acetic acid, 0.25% into lactic acid, and a nonsignificant percentage was changed into other organic acids and higher alcohols.

  7. Various oils and detergents enhance the microbial production of farnesol and related prenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    The object of this research was improvement of prenyl alcohol production with squalene synthase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. On screening of many kinds of additives, we found that oils and detergents significantly enhanced the extracellular production of prenyl alcohols. Soybean oil showed the most prominent effect among the additives tested. Its effect was accelerated by a high concentration of glucose in the medium. The combination of these cultivation conditions led to the production of more than 28 mg/l of farnesol in the soluble fraction of the broth. The addition of these compounds to the medium was an effective method for large-scale production of prenyl alcohols with microorganisms.

  8. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  9. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  10. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  11. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion...... of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... studies are very important and required and will be prepared by competent and knowledgeable independent...

  13. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  14. Combination of the production of starch and of alcohol in alcohol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, M E; Yurchenko, E I

    1958-01-01

    A flow sheet is presented to show how, when cheap potatoes are available, some can be side-tracked from ethanol fermentation and be used fo the production of starch. The additional equipment needed, like centrifuges, is listed. The starch can be saccharified and made available for ethanol production again if required.

  15. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  16. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  17. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Juergen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  18. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  19. Production, characterization and acceptability of pineapple liqueurs prepared with different alcoholic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Resende Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters and the acceptability of liquors pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merri, produced with different alcoholic bases: rum, flavored with pineapple peel and rum doubly distilled grain alcohol, were performed in this study. We conducted analyzes of alcoholic strength, density, pH, soluble solids, total fixed and volatile acidity, dry, and sensory analysis through the affective test of acceptability with 100 judges using 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate the attributes color, flavor , odor and overall impression, and purchase intent test. The average alcohol content found for all treatments was 25% v / v, a value that lies within the limits of the Brazilian law. The values of dry matter, fixed acidity, density and L * is not distinguished between treatments. The color parameters L *, a *, b *, chroma and H °, and the results of the analysis of the total acidity, soluble solid showed up only statistically different for liquor-based grain alcohol. The average pH differed for rum-based liqueur. All liquors showed good acceptability, averaging above 6 and 49% of the panelists claimed that the product would probably buy pineapple liqueur made with different alcoholic bases. The liquor made of only rum was the most accepted as the global average of items analyzed.

  20. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brigham, Christopher J.; Gai, Claudia S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Health Sciences and Technology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Engineering Systems Div.

    2012-10-15

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen Production by Homogeneous Catalysis: Alcohol Acceptorless Dehydrogenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    in hydrogen production from biomass using homogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis has the advance of generally performing transformations at much milder conditions than traditional heterogeneous catalysis, and hence it constitutes a promising tool for future applications for a sustainable energy sector...

  2. Biomass and alcohol production potential of over-ripe plantains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedures for alcohol and protein-rich biomass production from over-ripe plantains and their peels are described. Chemical analyses indicated a significantly (P < 0.05) higher content of moisture, crude fat and protein; as well as potassium, sodium, calcium, iron and magnesium in ripe plantains than in their peels.

  3. Yeast physiology and flavour formation during production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.

    1999-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer is performed with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. uvarum . In the reactor, combined stress factors such as low temperature (0-4°C) and anaerobic conditions limit cell

  4. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sarsh, Bart; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation. In a descriptive pilot study, a convenience sample of alcohol products was collected from local city markets in both countries (Lithuania n = 10, Hungary n = 15) and chemical analyses, including some that have not been done in prior studies, were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions (including nitrate) and inorganic elements (including lead). Additionally, a multi-target screening analysis for toxicologically relevant substances was conducted. The majority of samples (64%) had an alcohol content between 35% vol. and 40% vol., being in accordance with the typical strength of legal spirits in Europe. Three samples containing significantly higher concentrations of alcohol above 60% vol. were found to be unrecorded alcohol products, defined as any alcohol that is outside of legal and taxed production. Screening analysis showed that those samples contained various flavourings, including the hepatotoxic substance coumarin, at concentrations above the legal limit for foods. All other substance classes under study were found to be at levels of no toxicological concern. Although some problems with the quality of the alcohol samples were found, there is insufficient evidence from this pilot study to conclude that alcohol quality has an influence on health as reflected in alcohol-attributable mortality rates. Given the extent of alcohol-attributable disease burden in central and eastern European countries, future research should focus on collection of large, representative samples, particularly of unrecorded sources, which was the most problematic product group in our study.

  5. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I..., without recourse to the Government, for the settlement and satisfaction of all contractual and...

  6. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  7. Engineering Brevibacterium flavum for the production of renewable bioenergy: C4-C5 advanced alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, HaiFeng; Lin, JiaFu; Wang, YuanHong; Chen, Qiao; Wang, GuangWei; Tan, FuRong

    2017-09-01

    Biosynthesis of advanced biofuels by engineered non-natural microorganisms has been proposed to be the most promising approach for the replacement of dwindling fossil fuel resources. Brevibacterium flavum (Bf) is a model brevibacterium aerobe which lacks basic and applied research that could enable this species to produce biofuels. There are no reports regarding engineering this microorganism to produce advanced alcohols before. Here, for the first time, we developed the bacterium as a novel biosynthetic platform for advanced alcohols production via the mutagenesis and engineering to produce 2-ketoacids derived alcohols. In order to enhance the strain's capability of producing advanced alcohols, we preferentially improved intrinsic metabolism ability of the strain to obtain improved expression host (IEH) via generating mutagenesis libraries by whole cell mutagenesis (WCM). The IEH was determined via screening out the mutant strain with the highest production of branched-chain organic acids (BCOA) using high throughput screening method.. Subsequently, a novel vector system for Bf was established, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway of directing carbon flux into the target advanced alcohols was recruited to make the bacterium possess the capability of producing advanced alcohols and further enhance the production using the IEH. Specifically, we generated bioengineered strains that were able to synthesize up to the highest 5362 and 4976 mg/L isobutanol, 1945 and 1747 mg/L 2-methyl-1-butanol (2 MB), and 785.34 and 781 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol (3 MB) from pure glucose and duckweed substrates, respectively. Our findings confirmed the feasibility and potential of using Bf as a novel biosynthetic platform to generate advanced biofuels with glucose and inexpensive renewable feedstock-duckweed as a fermentation substrate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1946-1958. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. production of ethyl alcohol from molasses using continuous process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Sugar cane molasses from Nigerian Sugar processing factory Bacita were used for ethanol production. A special ethanol resistant yeast strain Sacch:iromyces cerevisiae. (DIST/IPF/90) employed as inoculum was propagated on clarified molasses. Fermentation of clarified molasses to ethanol was brought about at room ...

  9. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Gica Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John; Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the

  10. Potential and limitations of biomass production for energy purposes: Vegetable oils compared with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.S.; Rosa, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since Brazil has favourable conditions for biomass production, as regards land mass, soil and climate, several agricultural products have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. An analysis is made of the potential and limitations of energy systems using biomass production aimed at the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines compared with the experience acquired in Brazil with alcohol fuel in Otto engines. The current status of the national programme for alcohol production (PNA) within the framework of Brazilian agriculture in the last few years is presented, taking into account its objectives, achievements and impacts. Regarding vegetable oils, it must be emphasized that freight and mass passenger transport is being researched in every aspect - from the agricultural production of oleaginous plants to the use of oils in diesel engines. To assess the potential of oleaginous plant production, land needs for the years 1990 and 2000 have been estimated. From the study of some selected oleaginous plants and their potential expansion in a realistic way it was concluded that the viability of this alternative to diesel oil is limited in the short and medium term compared with alcohol, which provides better conditions for great expansion in the short term. It is believed that the option is viable, provided that it is launched gradually to avoid repeating the negative impacts that (according to some experts) were generated by PNA. (author)

  11. Biodiesel production by esterification of oleic acid with short-chain alcohols under ultrasonic irradiation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Okitsu, Kenji; Nishimura, Rokuro; Maeda, Yasuaki [Department of Applied Material Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dong, Nguyen The [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2009-03-15

    Production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from oleic acid (FFA) with short-chain alcohols (ethanol, propanol, and butanol) under ultrasonic irradiation was investigated in this work. Batch esterification of oleic acid was carried out to study the effect of: test temperatures of 10-60 C, molar ratios of alcohol to oleic acid of 1:1-10:1, quantity of catalysts of 0.5-10% (wt of sulfuric acid/wt of oleic acid) and irradiation times of 10 h. The optimum condition for the esterification process was molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid at 3:1 with 5 wt% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 60 C with an irradiation time of 2 h. (author)

  12. The commercial use of digital media to market alcohol products: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Jernigan, David

    2017-01-01

    The rising use of digital media in the last decade, including social networking media and downloadable applications, has created new opportunities for marketing a wide range of goods and services, including alcohol products. This paper aims to review the evidence in order to answer a series of policy-relevant questions: does alcohol marketing through digital media influence drinking behaviour or increases consumption; what methods of promotional marketing are used, and to what extent; and what is the evidence of marketing code violations and especially of marketing to children? A search of scientific, medical and social journals and authoritative grey literature identified 47 relevant papers (including 14 grey literature documents). The evidence indicated (i) that exposure to marketing through digital media was associated with higher levels of drinking behaviour; (ii) that the marketing activities make use of materials and approaches that are attractive to young people and encourage interactive engagement with branded messaging; and (iii) there is evidence that current alcohol marketing codes are being undermined by alcohol producers using digital media. There is evidence to support public health interventions to restrict the commercial promotion of alcohol in digital media, especially measures to protect children and youth. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    To describe the consumption, distribution, production and chemical composition of alcohol, including cuxa (pronounced 'coo sha'), in Nahualá, a highland Mayan municipality in Guatemala. Cuxa is a sugarcane-derived spirit, in part produced clandestinely, that has been distributed in the community for several decades. Key informant interviews with alcohol distributors and consumers, cuxa producers and health professionals, as well as analyses of questionnaires from a sample of 47 spouses who came to the local health centre for problems related to their husband's drinking. Sampling and chemical analysis of cuxa from 12 of 13 identified sales points in the head-town of Nahualá and its nearby settlements (10 km radius). Fieldwork was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008. Alcohol consumption was found to be integrated culturally in this community. The overall drinking culture was marked by irregular heavy drinking occasions, especially around market days, with substantial inebriation and health problems, especially among street inhabiting drinkers. Cuxa contributed to these problems, and cuxa drinking was socially stigmatized. Cuxa was produced both clandestinely and industrially, and sold legally by taverns and illegally by clandestine distributors. The alcoholic strength of the samples was typically between 17 and 19% vol.; clandestinely produced cuxa samples showed acetaldehyde contamination. Measures should be taken to reduce the harm associated with alcohol in this community, including efforts to reduce acetaldehyde levels in cuxa.

  14. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  16. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M

    2014-07-18

    Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas

  17. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. E.; Torres Neto, A. B.; Silva, W. B.; Silva, F. L. H.; Swarnakar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent v...

  18. Hyphal-like extension and pseudohyphal formation in industrial strains of yeasts induced by isoamyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccato-Antonini Sandra Regina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts can produce pseudohyphae and hyphal-like extensions under certain growth conditions like isoamyl alcohol (IAA induction, a chief constituent of fusel oil, which is a subproduct from the ethanolic fermentation. The morphology switch from yeast to a filamentous form can be troublesome to the process. In this work it was studied the influence of fusel alcohols, nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate and leucine and glifosate (a chemical maturator for sugar cane added to a complex medium on some industrial strains of yeasts isolated from the fermentative process. Two industrial strains showed transition to hyphal-like extensions or pseudohyphae (clusters of cells upon addition of IAA from 0.3 to 0.9% /v. The alterations were reversible when the yeasts were reinoculated in YEPD without IAA. Although pseudohyphae are a result of nitrogen-limited medium, we observed them as a result of IAA addition. No influence of the nitrogen source or isopropilic alcohol or glifosate was detected for any strain studied in the concentrations used.

  19. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  20. Chemical changes of starch during boiling, in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotskaya, B P; Smirnova, V A

    1961-01-01

    The chemical conversion of potato starch during heating was dependent upon the pH and the heat regime. Under mild conditions, at pH 6.5 the molecular weight remained similar to that of the native starch and the reducing value increased only 0.0007%; at pH 3.5 the molecular weight dropped to about 3900 and the reducing value increased to 3.83%, and at pH 2.4 a mixture of glucose and oligosaccharides was formed. Under a more rigorous regime, at pH 6.5, the molecular weight decreased 6 to 7 times and the reducing value was 0.45%. At pH 2.4 glucose was the conversion product formed.

  1. Products and mechanism of the reaction of Cl atoms with unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Soto, Amparo; Bravo, Iván; Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Notario, Alberto; Aranda, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    The products of the chlorine atom initiated oxidation of different unsaturated alcohols were determined at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, in a 400 L teflon reaction chamber using GC-FID and GC-MS for the analysis. The major products detected (with molar yields in brackets) are: chloroacetaldehyde (50 ± 8%) and acrolein (27 ± 2%) from allyl alcohol; acetaldehyde (77 ± 11%), chloroacetaldehyde (75 ± 18%), and methyl vinyl ketone (17 ± 2%) from 3-buten-2-ol; acetone (55 ± 4%) and chloroacetaldehyde (59 ± 8%) from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol; chloroacetone (18 ± 1%) and methacrolein (8 ± 1%) from 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol; acetaldehyde (20 ± 1%), crotonaldehyde (6 ± 3%), 3-choloro-4-hydroxy-2-butanone (2 ± 2%) and 2-chloro-propanal (4 ± 5%) from crotyl alcohol; and acetone (24 ± 3%) from 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol. The experimental data suggests that addition of Cl to the double bond of the unsaturated alcohol is the dominant reaction pathway compared to the H-abstraction channel.

  2. Production of furfural and ethyl alcohol from cottonseed hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobovnikov, B M; Tsirlin, Yu A; Chepigo, S V; Shpuntova, M E

    1957-01-01

    Cottonseed hulls (8.3 tons per digester) and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution at temperature of 100/sup 0/ were added to the digester simultaneously. The final H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration of the charge was approximately 0.7%. The pentosans were hydrolyzed at 133/sup 0/ and 2 atmosphere for 6 hours and 15 minutes, then the temperature was raised to 179/sup 0/ at the top and to 150/sup 0/ at the bottom of the digester for 5 hours and 30 minutes. The hydrolytic products of pentosan were separated, neutralized, and transferred to a dehydration tank. The hexosans were then hydrolyzed at 179 to 187/sup 0/. Dry hulls gave 19.4% of pentose reducing sugars, of which 81.4% were fermented. One ton of dry hulls gave 74 to 79 l. of ethanol. The optimum condition for dehydration was at 165 to 175/sup 0/ for no longer than 4 to 4.5 hours. 2-Furaldehyde was produced in the following steps: the pentosan hydrolyzate was dehydrated with steam, the vapor-furaldehyde mixture was then reheated and finally distilled in a continuous column. The yield of furaldehyde was 36 to 37% of incoming pentoses (7% of dry hulls).

  3. Engineering high-level production of fatty alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Ghosh, Amit; Runguphan, Weerawat

    2017-01-01

    to similar to 20% of the maximum theoretical yield from glucose, the highest titers and yields reported to date in S. cerevisiae. We further demonstrate high-level production from lignocellulosic feedstocks derived from ionic-liquid treated switchgrass and sorghum, reaching 0.7 g/L in shake flasks......Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2......% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing. We compared four...

  4. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  7. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  8. Relation between ethyl alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Iraqi dates, pure sugar solution, and the amount of inoculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, N.D.; Al-Talibi, A.A.; Abboud, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was initiated to investigate the production of ethyl alcohol using Zahdi data extraction and pure sugar (sucrose) solutions in different concentrations as media and S. cerevisiae as a starter. Through this investigation the following facts have been found: 0.5% ammonium phosphate as a source of nutrient was satisfactory, date extraction of 25% and inoculum of 12% gave the highest yield of ethyl alcohol; however 15% of pure sucose solution gave the maximum yield with a slight difference when compared with 20%; increasing the inoculum shortened the time of fermentation with no effect on inhibitory phenomenon; the rate of alcohol production was associated with the rate of yeast proliferation.

  9. Hydrogen production by reforming of hydrocarbons and alcohols in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Belen; Brey, J. Javier; Viera, Inmaculada G. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A. Avda. de la Buhaira, 2. 41018 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose; Rico, Victor J. [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University Sevilla), Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    This work reports about the use of plasmas to obtain hydrogen by reforming of hydrocarbons or alcohols in mixtures with CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O. The plasma is activated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor working at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures (i.e., about 100 C). The reactor presents a great versatility in operation and a low manufacturing cost. Results are presented for the reforming of methane, methanol and ethanol. Methane transforms up to a 70% into CO and H{sub 2} without formation of any kind of superior hydrocarbon. For the two alcohols 100% conversion into the same products is found for flows much higher than in the case of methane. The work reports a description of the reactor and the operational conditions of the power supply enabling the ignition of the plasma and its steady state operation. (author)

  10. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  11. Impact of the 1994 alcohol production and sales deregulation policy on traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Dutt, Namrata; Arason, Neil; Pike, Ian

    2012-09-01

    . Many studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on the Japanese population by comparing fatal and nonfatal motor vehicle crash rates before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Participants and method. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in the population. To control for potential confounders, per capita alcohol consumption, unemployment rate, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) were also added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to the IRRs. . Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities and other traffic crashes in Japan. In the overall study results, nighttime fatalities were reduced statistically significantly by 6% since the implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Discussion. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation. Further well-designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  12. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for limonene and perillyl alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Chan, Rossana; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Petzold, Christopher J; Lee, Taek Soon

    2013-09-01

    Limonene is a valuable monoterpene used in the production of several commodity chemicals and medicinal compounds. Among them, perillyl alcohol (POH) is a promising anti-cancer agent that can be produced by hydroxylation of limonene. We engineered E. coli with a heterologous mevalonate pathway and limonene synthase for production of limonene followed by coupling with a cytochrome P450, which specifically hydroxylates limonene to produce POH. A strain containing all mevalonate pathway genes in a single plasmid produced limonene at titers over 400mg/L from glucose, substantially higher than has been achieved in the past. Incorporation of a cytochrome P450 to hydroxylate limonene yielded approximately 100mg/L of POH. Further metabolic engineering of the pathway and in situ product recovery using anion exchange resins would make this engineered E. coli a potential production platform for any valuable limonene derivative. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  15. Externalities, Border Trade and Illegal Production: An Optimal Tax Approach to Alcohol Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Sjögren, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income and commodity taxation in an economy, where alcohol is an externality-generating consumption good. In our model, alcohol can be bought domestically, imported (via border trade) or produced illegally. Border trade implies an incentive to set the domestic alcohol tax below the marginal social damage of alcohol, and to tax (subsidize) commodities which are complementary with (substitutable for) alcohol. In addition, since leisure and alcohol consumption are g...

  16. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits can act synergistically on superoxide-anion production by human granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnyas, Ervin M; Pál, László; Kovács, Csilla; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2012-10-01

    Aliphatic alcohols present in illegally produced spirits in a large number of low and middle income countries have been implicated in the etiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Previous studies have confirmed that chronic alcoholism can lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reduced superoxide-anion (O(2)·(-)) production by granulocytes could provide a mechanism by which antimicrobial defense is impaired in alcoholics. In vitro experiments have also demonstrated that ethanol can inhibit granulocyte O(2)·(-) generation. Aliphatic alcohols consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence O(2)·(-) production thereby contributing to a decrease in microbicidal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate this possibility. It measured the O(2)·(-) production by human granulocytes following treatment of the cells with aliphatic alcohol contaminants found in illicit spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human buffy coats with centrifugal elutriation and then treated with individual aliphatic alcohols and their mixture. The O(2)·(-) production was stimulated with phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and measured by superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits inhibited the FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production in a concentration dependent manner. They suppressed O(2)·(-) generation at 2.5-40 times lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Aliphatic alcohols found in illegally produced spirits can inhibit FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production by granulocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit O(2)·(-) formation in heavy episodic drinkers.

  17. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M; Arroyo, V; Inigo, B; Garrido, J M

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  18. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  19. Economic, energy, and environmental impacts of alcohol dehydration technology on biofuel production from brown algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasahati, Peyman; Liu, J. Jay

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of alcohol recovery technology on the economics, energy consumption, and environment of bioethanol production from brown algae. The process under consideration is the anaerobic digestion of brown algae to produce VFAs (volatile fatty acids), which are then hydrogenated to produce mixed alcohols. Three alternative processes, i.e., hybrid pervaporation/distillation (PV), hybrid vapor-permeation/distillation (VP), and classical molecular-sieves/distillation (classical), are considered for the dehydration and recovery of ethanol. The alternatives are analyzed in terms of product value (i.e., minimum ethanol selling price – MESP), capital costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. For a plant scale of 400,000 ton/year of dry brown algae, the MESPs for the PV (Pervaporation), VP (vapor permeation), and classical processes were calculated to be $1.06/gal, $1.08/gal, and $1.24/gal, respectively. Results show that the PV, VP, and classical processes have $2.0, $2.6, and $4.6 million/year utility costs, respectively, for the recovery of alcohols and produce 23.1, 30.2, and 62.2 kton CO_2-eq/year greenhouse gases. Therefore, PV is more economical and environmentally friendly process, with lower MESP, CO_2 emissions, and utility requirements. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the selling price of the heavier alcohols and biomass price have the highest impact on the economics of bioethanol production from brown algae. - Highlights: • Biofuel production through anaerobic digestion of brown algae is assessed. • Three alternative dehydration technologies were considered for ethanol recovery. • MESP for PV, VP, and classic processes are 1.06, 1.08, and 1.24$/gal, respectively. • PV and VP were superior over classic process in terms of energy and GHG emissions. • PV has an energy cost of 20.2 mm$/y and GHG emissions of 23.1 kton CO_2-eq/year.

  20. Influence of Uranium and Polivinyl Alcohol Concentration in the Feed of Sol Gel Process on the Gel Spherical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra Suryawan; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    The gel particles have been made at various uranium and polyvinyl alcohol concentration in the sol gel process. The variables of uranium concentration were 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5; 1.7; 1.9 and 2.1 M The variables of polyvinyl alcohol concentration were 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; 1.2; 1.5; 1.8; 2.1 and 2.4 M After drying the sol gel process products were heated at 300, 500 and 750°C during 4 hours. The gel particles were characterized using an optic microscope to know the shape and condition morphology of gel. From experimental result using uranium concentration of 0.3 until 2.1 M and polyvinyl alcohol of 1.8 until 2.4 M spherical and gel was formed elastic, after heating at 750°C it was unbreakable. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.3 to 0.5 M, the gel product was soft and broken after being dried. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.6 to 0.8 M, the dried gel product was not perfect. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.9 to 1.7 M, the gel product of gelation process was spherical and it was broken after being heated up to 300°C. (author)

  1. Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Adams, Paul; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Anup

    2011-07-13

    Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudo-kinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 mu L volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 mu M respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 mu g/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 mu g/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 mu M coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 mu M when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 mu g/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

  2. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  3. Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania: production, quality and changes in quality attributes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüsekwa, A B; Mosha, T C; Laswai, H S; Towo, E E

    2000-03-01

    Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania play an important role in the daily social, economic, nutritional and cultural life of the people. Production, quality and changes in quality attributes during ambient temperature storage were investigated in traditional Tanzanian beers (Mbege and Komoni) and wines (Mnanasi, Wanzuki and Mofru). The quality attributes of the alcoholic beverages indicated that pH levels were in the range of 4.15-4.20 and 3.9-5.5 for the beers and wines respectively. Total, fixed and volatile acidity in the beers were in the range of 0.41-0.62, 0.28-0.38 and 0.06-0.09 g/100 mL respectively while in the wines acidity levels were in the range of 0.23-0.66, 0.13-0.33 and 0.05-0.06 g/100 mL for the total, fixed and volatile acidity respectively. Concentration of total solids in the beers ranged between 7.00 and 12.80 degrees Brix while in the wines ranged between 3.45 and 6.65 degrees Brix. Specific gravity of the beers ranged between 1.0097 and 1.0374 while for wines the specific gravity was lower, ranging between 0.9971 and 0.9989. Alcohol concentration was higher in wines (range 3.84-9.75 g/100 mL) than in beers (range 1.72-2.76 g/100 mL). Storage of the beverages under ambient temperatures for various lengths of time resulted in significant (P Wines were more stable during storage than beers, with Mofru wine being the most stable. The rates of total acid production per hour were Mnanasi (0.0196 g/100 mL), Wanzuki (0.0047 g/100 mL) and Mofru (0.0005 g/100 mL). Use of low brewing technologies involving uncontrolled fermentation, unsanitary conditions and use of rudimentary equipment for processing, packaging and storage resulted in beers and wines of low quality and short shelf-life. To foster commercial exploitation of the products, there is a need to develop appropriate small and medium-level brewing technologies that will improve the quality of the traditional alcoholic beverages and extend their shelf-life through hygienic and controlled

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT PROCESSING INTO ALCOHOL AND PROTEIN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Romanyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the alcohol industry it is important to create non-waste technology for grain processing into alcohol. The aim of research was the development of technology for wheat processing into ethanol and protein product. We studied the process of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch with glucoamylase of Glucogam preparation. We determined the optimal dosage of the enzyme 8 units. GlA/g of starch, and the temperature of 55°C. In the study of protein hydrolysis by the concomitant to glucoamylase protease of enzyme Glucogam preparation accumulation of amino nitrogen of 4.5 mg / cm 3 in 7 hours of bioconversion takes place. Separation of the resulting saccharified mass was carried out by centrifugation into the filtrate and protein mass. Centrifugation was carried out at a rotational speed of 2500 rev / min for 8 minutes. Protein was dried to 5% moisture content at temperatures not exceeding 35°C, milled, and examined its properties in comparison with native wheat gluten. The resulting product had the following characteristics: the solubility of 10%, water-holding capacity of 1.53 g / g, and fat binding capacity of 1.9 g /g. We investigated the process of fermentation of clarified wort with the dry solids concentration of 14%. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of race XII and Saccharomyces cerevisiae of race IMB Y-5007 in the dose of 120 million cells per 1 cm3 of wort. Optimum composition of mineral salts was determined. For the yeasts of race XII and IMB Y-5007 fertilizing with diammonium phosphate in a dosage of 1.5 g / dm3 is necessary. The alcohol yield when using the yeasts of race IMB Y-5007 was 60.7 dal/ ton of conditional starch, when using yeasts of race XII it accounts 60,6 dal / ton of conditional starch.

  5. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic engineering on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols during Chinese Baijiu fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Acetate esters and higher alcohols greatly influence the quality and flavor profiles of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor). Various mutants have been constructed to investigate the interactions of ATF1 overexpression, IAH1 deletion, and BAT2 deletion on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols. The results showed that the overexpression of ATF1 under the control of the PGK1 promoter with BAT2 and IAH1 double-gene deletion led to a higher production of acetate esters and a lower production of higher alcohols than the overexpression of ATF1 with IAH1 deletion or overexpression of ATF1 with BAT2 deletion. Moreover, deletion of IAH1 in ATF1 overexpression strains effectively increased the production of isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by reducing the hydrolysis of acetate esters. The decline in the production of higher alcohol by the ATF1 overexpression strains with BAT2 deletion is due to the interaction of ATF1 overexpression and BAT2 deletion. Mutants with varying abilities of producing acetate esters and higher alcohols were developed by genetic engineering. These strains have great potential for industrial application.

  6. Continuous aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using a trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Wilkins, Mark R

    2018-05-01

    An A. nidulans strain with a pyridoxine marker was used for continuous production of aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). Modified medium with reduced zinc, no copper, and 5 g/L ascorbic acid that reduced melanin production and increased AAO productivity under growth limited conditions was used. Two air flow rates, 0.11 L/min (0.1 vvm) and 1.1 L/min (1.0 vvm) were tested. More melanin formation and reduced protein productivity were observed with air flow rate of 1.1 L/min. Three random packings were used as support for the fungus inside the TBR column, two of which were hydrophobic and one which was hydrophilic, and three different dilution rates were tested. The use of GEA BCN 030 hydrophobic packing resulted in greater AAO yield and productivity than the other packings. Increasing dilution rates favored melanin formation and citric, lactic and succinic acid accumulation, which decreased AAO yield and productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Enhanced ethanol production, volatile compound biosynthesis and fungicide removal during growth of a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on enriched pasteurized grape musts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarris, Dimitris; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens (Greece); Linga, Maria [Oinognosia, Wine analysis and consulting, Kiato (Greece)

    2009-02-15

    The kinetic behavior of a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, grown on pasteurized grape musts enriched with industrial sugars, was studied after the addition of various concentrations [0.0 (reference), 0.4 and 2.4 mg/L] of the fungicide quinoxyfen to the medium. Batch-flask cultures were carried out. Significant quantities of biomass (10.0{+-}0.8 g/L) were produced regardless of quinoxyfen addition to the medium; therefore, the addition of the fungicide did not seriously inhibit biomass production. Ethanol was synthesized in very high quantities in all trials (highest concentrations 106.4-119.2 g/L). A slight decrease of ethanol production in terms of both absolute value and conversion yield of ethanol produced per sugar consumed was, however, observed when the quinoxyfen concentration was increased. The addition of quinoxyfen led to significantly lower ethylic ester levels, which also pertains to the acetates analyzed in this study. Fusel alcohol synthesis seemed to be activated when 0.4 mg/L quinoxyfen was added, but at 2.4 mg/L of added fungicide, no statistically significant differences were observed compared with the control trial. Volatile acid levels did not present a uniform trend in relation with the added fungicide. Finally, the fermentation was accompanied by a significant reduction of the fungicide concentration (79-82 wt% fungicide removal). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Isobutanol production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 using heterologous and endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isobutanol is a flammable compound that can be used as a biofuel due to its high energy density and suitable physical and chemical properties. In this study, we examined the capacity of engineered strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 containing the α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis and different heterologous and endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH for isobutanol production. A strain expressing an introduced kivd without any additional copy of ADH produced 3 mg L−1 OD750−1 isobutanol in 6 days. After the cultures were supplemented with external addition of isobutyraldehyde, the substrate for ADH, 60.8 mg L−1 isobutanol was produced after 24 h when OD750 was 0.8. The in vivo activities of four different ADHs, two heterologous and two putative endogenous in Synechocystis, were examined and the Synechocystis endogenous ADH encoded by slr1192 showed the highest efficiency for isobutanol production. Furthermore, the strain overexpressing the isobutanol pathway on a self-replicating vector with the strong Ptrc promoter showed significantly higher gene expression and isobutanol production compared to the corresponding strains expressing the same operon introduced on the genome. Hence, this study demonstrates that Synechocystis endogenous AHDs have a high capacity for isobutanol production, and identifies kivd encoded α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase as one of the likely bottlenecks for further isobutanol production.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  12. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with γ rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, γ irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10 5 - 10 6 rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10)

  13. Production of acids and alcohols from syngas in a two-stage continuous fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A two-stage continuous system with two stirred tank reactors in series was utilized to perform syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans. The first bioreactor (bioreactor 1) was maintained at pH 6 to promote acidogenesis and the second one (bioreactor 2) at pH 5 to stimulate solventogenesis. Both reactors were operated in continuous mode by feeding syngas (CO:CO 2 :H 2 :N 2 ; 30:10:20:40; vol%) at a constant flow rate while supplying a nutrient medium at different flow rates of 8.1, 15, 22 and 30 ml/h. A cell recycling unit was added to bioreactor 2 in order to recycle the cells back to the reactor, maintaining the OD 600 around 1 in bioreactor 2 throughout the experimental run. When comparing the flow rates, the best results in terms of solvent production were obtained with a flow rate of 22 ml/h, reaching the highest average outlet concentration for alcohols (1.51 g/L) and the most favorable alcohol/acid ratio of 0.32. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol production by selected yeast strains in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, V S; Green, R; Sullivan, B C; Holsinger, V H

    1977-07-01

    Ethanol production by Kluyveromyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using cottage cheese whey in which 80 to 90 percent of the lactose present had been prehydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. Complete fermentation of the sugar by K. fragilis required 120 hr at 30/sup 0/C in lactase-hydrolyzed whey compared to 72 hr in nonhydrolyzed whey. This effect was due to a diauxic fermentation pattern in lactase-hydrolyzed whey with glucose being fermented before galactose. Ethanol yields of about 2 percent were obtained in both types of whey when K. fragilis was the organism used for fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced alcohol from glucose more rapidly than K. fragilis, but galactose was fermented only when S. cerevisiae was pregrown on galactose. Slightly lower alcohol yields were obtained with S. cerevisiae, owing to the presence of some lactose in the whey which was not fermented by this organism. Although prehydrolysis of lactose in whey and whey fractions is advantageous in that microbial species unable to ferment lactose may be utilized, diauxic and galactose utilization problems must be considered.

  15. Yeast Extract Promotes Cell Growth and Induces Production of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Degrading Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol-degrading enzymes (PVAases have a great potential in bio-desizing processes for its low environmental impact and low energy consumption. In this study, the effect of yeast extract on PVAases production was investigated. A strategy of four-point yeast extract addition was developed and applied to maximize cell growth and PVAases production. As a result, the maximum dry cell weight achieved was 1.48 g/L and the corresponding PVAases activity was 2.99 U/mL, which are 46.5% and 176.8% higher than the control, respectively. Applying this strategy in a 7 L fermentor increased PVAases activity to 3.41 U/mL. Three amino acids (glycine, serine, and tyrosine in yeast extract play a central role in the production of PVAases. These results suggest that the new strategy of four-point yeast extract addition could benefit PVAases production.

  16. Effects of Maillard reaction products in a glucose-glycine alcoholic solution on antioxidative and antimutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Wen-Chang; Zeng, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ru-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2018-04-12

    Marinating meat with alcohol, such as wine and beer, is a common culinary practice in cultures worldwide. This study we use a model marination solution comprising 0.2 M glucose-0.2 M glycine buffered to pH 4.3 containing either 0% or 50% ethanol and mimicked the cooking process by heating for 12 h. Antioxidative and antimutagenic characteristics of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated. Reducing power, antioxidant activity (Fe 2+ chelating ability) and free radical neutralization ability generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Ames testing was performed. Results indicate that MRPs from aqueous and alcoholic solution exhibit four antioxidative assays in a dose-dependent manner from 0.16 to 10.00 mg mL -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model was superior. In Ames testing, MRPs from both models are neither toxic nor mutagenic at the test concentrations of 0.63-10.00 mg plate -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model exhibited a higher inhibitory effect on the direct-acting mutagen 4-NQNO compared to the aqueous model. This result is consistent with the observation that MRPs with higher antioxidative capacity exhibit superior antimutagenic activity, suggesting that there are more different products in the alcoholic model. Our results add to the current knowledge about the antioxidative and antimutagenic properties of Maillard reaction products arising when food is cooked in the presence of ethanol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Aplicação de óleo fúsel isolado e em mistura com glifosato na pós-emergência tardia de plantas daninhas Fusel oil as herbicide at late weed postemergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no Centro de Cana IAC, Ribeirão Preto, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do óleo fúsel isolado e em mistura com glifosato, aplicado na pós-emergência tardia de plantas daninhas de uma comunidade natural. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados (DBC, com 13 tratamentos em quatro repetições, sendo 52 parcelas de 3 x 3 m cada. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada em 22/3/2006, com equipamento costal pressurizado munido de barra com quatro pontas de pulverização Teejet 110.02 TT, regulado para volume de calda de 212 L ha-1. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de controle aos 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias após a aplicação do tratamento (DAA e a massa seca, aos 42 DAA. Para a maioria dos tratamentos somente não houve 100% de controle devido à presença de plantas daninhas dos gêneros Commelina e Cyperus spp., que, mesmo com partes amareladas, foram mais tolerantes à aplicação dos produtos. O controle obtido com óleo fúsel aplicado isoladamente não ultrapassou 20%, aos 42 DAA.This work was carried out at the Sugarcane Center (Centro de Cana IAC, Ribeirão Preto-SP, to evaluate the effectiveness of fusel oil alone and mixed with glyphosate applied at late weed post-emergence of a natural community. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, totaling 52 plots 3x3m each. Application of the treatments was accomplished on 03/22/2006, with pressurized back sprayer. The control percentages were evaluated at 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after treatment (DAA and weed dry matter was obtained by using a square 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted two times on the plots at 42 DAA. The less satisfactory results under the control at the end of the experiment were when fusel oil was applied alone. The lack of 100% control in the main treatments evaluated was due to the presence of the weeds Commelina and Cyperus spp., which were more tolerant to herbicide application. The control

  18. Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase is essential for glyceric acid production in Acetobacter tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470 can produce highly enantiomerically pure D-glyceric acid (D-GA; >99 % enantiomeric excess) from glycerol. To investigate whether membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH) is involved in GA production in A. tropicalis, we amplified part of the gene encoding mADH subunit I (adhA) using polymerase chain reaction and constructed an adhA-disrupted mutant of A. tropicalis (ΔadhA). Because ΔadhA did not produce GA, we confirmed that mADH is essential for the conversion of glycerol to GA. We also cloned and sequenced the entire region corresponding to adhA and adhB, which encodes mADH subunit II. The sequences showed high identities (84-86 %) with the equivalent mADH subunits from other Acetobacter spp.

  19. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of

  20. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  1. Suitability of the hydrocarbon-hydroxylating molybdenum-enzyme ethylbenzene dehydrogenase for industrial chiral alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataruch, M; Heider, J; Bryjak, J; Nowak, P; Knack, D; Czerniak, A; Liesiene, J; Szaleniec, M

    2014-12-20

    The molybdenum/iron-sulfur/heme protein ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EbDH) was successfully applied to catalyze enantiospecific hydroxylation of alkylaromatic and alkylheterocyclic compounds. The optimization of the synthetic procedure involves use of the enzyme in a crude purification state that saves significant preparation effort and is more stable than purified EbDH without exhibiting unwanted side reactions. Moreover, immobilization of the enzyme on a crystalline cellulose support and changes in reaction conditions were introduced in order to increase the amounts of product formed (anaerobic atmosphere, electrochemical electron acceptor recycling or utilization of ferricyanide as alternative electron acceptor in high concentrations). We report here on an extension of effective enzyme activity from 4h to more than 10 days and final product yields of up to 0.4-0.5g/l, which represent a decent starting point for further optimization. Therefore, we expect that the hydrocarbon-hydroxylation capabilities of EbDH may be developed into a new process of industrial production of chiral alcohols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  3. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products, cellular fatty acids, and alcohols of Mycobacterium xenopi.

    OpenAIRE

    Luquin, M; Lopez, F; Ausina, V

    1989-01-01

    The fatty acids, alcohols, and mycolic acids of 26 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi were studied by capillary gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. All strains contained alpha-, keto-, and omega-carboxymycolates. The primary mycolic acid cleavage product was hexacosanoic acid. The fatty acid patterns and, especially, the presence of 2-docosanol are characteristic markers of M. xenopi.

  4. Flavor formation and cell physiology during the production of alcohol-free beer with immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Dieren, van B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    1999-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor operating in downflow. This ensures a highly controllable system with optimal reactor design. In the present study, we report on changes in the physiology of immobilized yeast cells in the reactor.

  5. Dual platinum and pyrrolidine catalysis in the direct alkylation of allylic alcohols: selective synthesis of monoallylation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Ryozo; Lin, Lu; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Mashima, Kazushi; Ohshima, Takashi

    2014-04-22

    A dual platinum- and pyrrolidine-catalyzed direct allylic alkylation of allylic alcohols with various active methylene compounds to produce products with high monoallylation selectivity was developed. The use of pyrrolidine and acetic acid was essential, not only for preventing undesirable side reactions, but also for obtaining high monoallylation selectivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  7. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  8. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  9. Marketing messages in food and alcohol magazine advertisements, variations across type and nutritional content of promoted products: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, A; Burke, W; Adams, J

    2014-09-01

    'Marketing messages' are the themes used in advertisements to promote products. We explored the frequency of different marketing messages used in food and alcohol advertisements in UK women's magazines and associations with the type and nutritional content of products promoted. All advertisements for food and alcohol in 108 issues of popular UK monthly women's magazines were identified and text-based marketing messages classified using a bespoke coding framework. This information was linked to existing data on the type (i.e. food group) and nutritional content of advertised products. A total of 2 687 marketing messages were identified in 726 advertisements. Consumer messages such as 'taste' and 'quality' were most frequently found. Marketing messages used in advertisements for food and alcohol were notably different. The relationship between type and nutritional content of products advertised and marketing messages used was not intuitive from a consumer perspective: advertisements for foods 'high in fat and/or sugar' were less likely to use messages related to health, but more likely to use messages emphasizing reduced amounts of specific nutrients. Almost all advertisements included consumer-related marketing messages. Marketing messages used were not always congruent with the type or nutritional content of advertised products. These findings should be considered when developing policy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Low fermentation pH is a trigger to alcohol production, but a killer to chain elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon eGanigué

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of organic wastes coupled to syngas fermentation allows the recovery of carbon in the form of commodity chemicals, such as carboxylates and biofuels. Acetogenic bacteria ferment syngas to mainly two-carbon compounds, although a few strains can also synthesize four-, and six-carbon molecules. In general, longer carbon chain products have a higher biotechnological (and commercial value due to their higher energy content and their lower water solubility. However, de-novo synthesis of medium-chain products from syngas is quite uncommon in bacteria. An alternative to de-novo synthesis is bioproduction of short-chain products (C2 and C4, and their subsequent elongation to C4, C6 or C8 through reversed β-oxidation metabolism. This two-step synergistic approach has been successfully applied for the production of up to C8 compounds, although, the accumulation of alcohols in these mixed cultures remained below detection limits. The present work investigates the production of higher alcohols from syngas by open mixed cultures (OMC. A syngas-fermenting community was enriched from sludge of an anaerobic digester for a period of 110 days in a lab-scale reactor. At the end of this period, stable production of ethanol and butanol was obtained. C6 compounds were only transiently produced at the beginning of the enrichment phase, during which Clostridium kluyveri, a bacterium able to carry out carbon chain elongation, was detected in the community. Further experiments showed pH as a critical parameter to maintain chain elongation activity in the co-culture. Production of C6 compounds was recovered by preventing fermentation pH to decrease below pH 4.5-5. Finally, experiments showed maximal production of C6 compounds (0.8 g/L and alcohols (1.7 g/L of ethanol, 1.1 g/L of butanol and 0.6 g/L of hexanol at pH 4.8. In conclusion, low fermentation pH is critical for the production of alcohols, although detrimental to C. kluyveri. Fine control of

  11. Recovery of uranium and lanthanides during the production of nitrophosphate fertilizers using tertiary amyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F; Awadalla, F T

    1986-01-01

    When phosphate rock is dissolved in nitric acid, phosphoric acid and uranium can be selectively extracted by tertiary amyl alcohol; other impurities including the lanthanides remain in the aqueous phase. Uranium can be recovered from the alcohol phase by selective stripping and the lanthanides from the raffinate by extraction with tributyl phosphate.

  12. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  13. Chemical and morphological changes during production of conducting carbons from ferrocene-poly (furfuryl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, J.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Carbons are obtained by heating organic substances up to 1000 deg C under inert atmosphere. The electronic properties of carbons change dramatically during this carbonisation process. By controlled preparation, it is possible to obtain electronically functional materials. The addition of iron to the organic starting material has a strong modifying effect and, in particular, carbonising a ferrocene-poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) mixture at 700 deg C produces a carbon with a comparable electron transfer rate to platinum. 57 Moessbauer spectra showed that the first transformation of the ferrocene is to magnetite, at 200-300 deg C. At 600 deg C, the magnetite is converted to wustite, while at 650 deg C α-iron starts to appear. The final products at 800 deg C were α-iron, γ-iron and cementite, Fe 3 C. Morphological changes were studied by SEM. The tentative explanation for these results is that the iron promotes the elimination of oxygen from the initial PFA structure to produce magnetite. At 600-650 deg C , the magnetite is carbothermically reduced to wustite and α-iron, forming glassy carbon. Above 700 deg C, the iron dissolves carbon atoms to make a solid solution. On cooling, some of this fractionates into graphitic carbon, cementite and γ-iron stabilised by the carbon atoms. We believe that the furry surface is produced in this cooling process

  14. Chemical and morphological changes during production of conducting carbons from ferrocene-poly (furfuryl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, J [Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan (Japan). Institute of Chemical Reaction Science; Cashion, J D; Brown, L J [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Carbons are obtained by heating organic substances up to 1000 deg C under inert atmosphere. The electronic properties of carbons change dramatically during this carbonisation process. By controlled preparation, it is possible to obtain electronically functional materials. The addition of iron to the organic starting material has a strong modifying effect and, in particular, carbonising a ferrocene-poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) mixture at 700 deg C produces a carbon with a comparable electron transfer rate to platinum. {sup 57} Moessbauer spectra showed that the first transformation of the ferrocene is to magnetite, at 200-300 deg C. At 600 deg C, the magnetite is converted to wustite, while at 650 deg C {alpha}-iron starts to appear. The final products at 800 deg C were {alpha}-iron, {gamma}-iron and cementite, Fe{sub 3}C. Morphological changes were studied by SEM. The tentative explanation for these results is that the iron promotes the elimination of oxygen from the initial PFA structure to produce magnetite. At 600-650 deg C , the magnetite is carbothermically reduced to wustite and {alpha}-iron, forming glassy carbon. Above 700 deg C, the iron dissolves carbon atoms to make a solid solution. On cooling, some of this fractionates into graphitic carbon, cementite and {gamma}-iron stabilised by the carbon atoms. We believe that the furry surface is produced in this cooling process

  15. Production and Characterization of a New Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying induce the appearance of larger pores (circa 1–3 µm in average diameter in dried BC/PVA membranes. Both types of treatments also affect the permeability of the composite, as assessed by the diffusion coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG molecules (900, 8,000, 35,000 and 100,000 Da across the membranes. Finally, the Young’s modulus of dry pristine BC decreases following PVA incorporation, resulting in a change from 3.5 GPa to 1 GPa and a five-fold loss in tensile strength.

  16. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  17. Traditional grain alcohol (bai jiu, [Symbol: see text]) production and use in rural central China: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M; Xiong, Wen; Feng, Yanyu

    2015-12-19

    An estimated 25% of the alcohol consumed in China is traditional unrecorded alcohol produced and distributed informally. Consequently there is concern about its safety and its contribution to public health risk. Little has been written about this type of alcohol in China. Researchers observed the manufacture of traditional bai jiu in a rural area of Hubei Province, Central China. Two hundred fifty-nine individuals were interviewed, either individually or in small groups, about their use of and attitudes toward bai jiu. Individuals who made or sold bai jiu were interviewed about local production, distribution, and sale. Key community leaders were asked about risks from local bai jiu production, sale, and use. All of the bai jiu makers followed the same basic traditional procedure. Most had learned their craft from a family member or by apprenticeship, and their product was sold to neighbors or nearby villagers. Bai jiu makers typically had a business license and a health certificate. The shops that bought and sold traditional bai jiu were family-run businesses that sold both traditional bai jiu and commercial alcohol to clientele within a close social network. Alcohol (all types) was consumed by 79.9% of interviewed villagers (89.7% of males, 50.0% of females). Of the 207 drinkers in the sample, 72.9% drank bai jiu, 59.4% drank beer, and 22.7% drank commercial spirits. Bai jiu was most often consumed at mealtimes. Bai jiu drinkers believed moderate drinking was healthy and that drinking improved the social atmosphere, and about one-third of them believed drinking too much could result in quarrels and family problems. The bai jiu business provided two sources of income for makers because spent grain from the distillation process could be fed to livestock. Production, sale, and use of traditional bai jiu occurred within the context of local traditions, values, customs, and social networks. The data did not suggest any significant issues related to contamination

  18. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyph...

  20. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Betel-quid and alcohol use were associated with lipid accumulation product among male factory workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Chen, Chao-Tung; Wang, Pei-Ming; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-05-01

    In this study, cardiometabolic risk associated with betel-quid, alcohol and cigarette use, based on a simple index-lipid accumulation product (LAP), was investigated in Taiwanese male factory workers. Male factory workers were recruited during their annual routine health examination at a hospital in south Taiwan. The risk of cardiometabolic disorders was estimated by the use of LAP, calculated as (waist circumference [cm]-65)×(triglyceride concentration [mmol/l]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk factors of natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Of the 815 participants, 40% (325/815) were current alcohol users, 30% (248/815) were current smokers and 7% (53/815) were current betel-quid users. Current betel-quid use, alcohol use, older age, lack of exercise and higher body mass index were found to be significant and independent factors associated with natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Betel-quid and alcohol, but not cigarette use, were independent risk factors of logarithm-transformed LAP, adjusting for age, exercise and body mass index in male Taiwanese factory workers. LAP can be considered as a simple and useful method for screening of cardiometabolic risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Kang, Aram; Baidoo, Edward; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Soon Lee, Taek

    2015-01-01

    Branched five carbon (C5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulation by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the phosphatase (Idi1~NudB) along with a reductase (NemA) to diversify production to 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Finally, we used an oleyl alcohol overlay to improve alcohol recovery, achieving final titers of 2.23 g/L of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (~70% of pathway-dependent theoretical yield), 150 mg/L of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 300 mg/L of 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:26052683

  3. Collaborative research and action to control the geographic placement of outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco products in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, D P; Schnopp-Wyatt, D; Katz, D; Williams, J; Silvestri, B; Pfleger, M

    2001-01-01

    Community activists in Chicago believed their neighborhoods were being targeted by alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertisers, despite the Outdoor Advertising Association of America's voluntary code of principles, which claims to restrict the placement of ads for age-restricted products and prevent billboard saturation of urban neighborhoods. A research and action plan resulted from a 10-year collaborative partnership among Loyola University Chicago, the American Lung Association of Metropolitan Chicago (ALAMC), and community activists from a predominately African American church, St. Sabina Parish. In 1997 Loyola University and ALAMC researchers conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey of alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertising. Computer mapping was used to locate all 4,247 licensed billboards in Chicago that were within 500- and 1,000-foot radiuses of schools, parks, and playlots. A 50% sample of billboards was visually surveyed and coded for advertising content. The percentage of alcohol and tobacco billboards within the 500- and 1,000-foot zones ranged from 0% to 54%. African American and Hispanic neighborhoods were disproportionately targeted for outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco. Data were used to convince the Chicago City Council to pass one of the nation's toughest anti-alcohol and tobacco billboard ordinances, based on zoning rather than advertising content. The ordinance was challenged in court by advertisers. Recent Supreme Court rulings made enactment of local billboard ordinances problematic. Nevertheless, the research, which resulted in specific legislative action, demonstrated the importance of linkages among academic, practice, and grassroots community groups in working together to diminish one of the social causes of health disparities.

  4. Influence of lactose hydrolysis and solids concentration on alcohol production by yeast in acid whey ultrafiltrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' leary, V S; Sutton, C; Bencivengo, M; Sullivan, B; Holsinger, V H

    1977-11-01

    Alcohol yields of 6.5 percent were obtained with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey permeate containing 30 to 35 percent total solids. Maximum alcohol yields obtained with Kluyveromyces fragilis were 4.5 percent in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey permeate at a solids concentration of 20 percent and 3.7 percent in normal permeate at a solids concentration of 10 percent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently converted the glucose present in lactase-hydrolyzed whey permeates containing 5 to 30 percent total solids (2 to 13 percent glucose) to alcohol. However, the galactose, which comprised about half the available carbohydrate in lactase-hydrolyzed whey, was not utilized by S. cerevisiae, so that even though alcohol yields were higher when this organism was used, the process was wasteful in that a substantial proportion of the substrate was not fermented. For the process to become commercially feasible, an efficient means of rapidly converting both the galactose and glucose to alcohol must be found.

  5. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and

  6. Regulating ehrlich and demethiolation pathways for alcohols production by the expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Jia, Kai-Zhi; Xia, Shi-Tao; Xu, Yang-Hua; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-02-10

    Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways as two competing branches converted amino acid into alcohols. Controlling both pathways offers considerable potential for industrial applications including alcohols overproduction, flavor-quality control and developing new flavors. While how to regulate ehrlich and demethiolation pathways is still not applicable. Taking the conversion of methionine into methionol and methanethiol for example, we constructed two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of Clonostachys rosea by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology for screening regulators controlling the conversion. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene HUWE1 screened from forward SSH library was validated to be related with the biosynthesis of end products. Overexpressing HUWE1 in C. rosea and S. cerevisiae significantly increased the biosynthesis of methanethiol and its derivatives in demethiolation pathway, while suppressed the biosynthesis of methional and methionol in ehrlich pathway. These results attained the directional regulation of both pathways by overexpressing HUWE1. Thus, HUWE1 has potential to be a key target for controlling and enhancing alcohols production by metabolic engineering.

  7. Formaldehyde as an antiseptic in the production of alcohol from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, V J; Stros, F

    1962-01-01

    The effect of formaldehyde as an antiseptic for the noncontaminated alcohol fermentation of molasses was examined with five different yeasts mash batches containing formaldehyde 0.01%. Following 24 hour cultivation, increase in the activity of formaldehyde-inoculated mash was lowered by 47%; the formaldehyde decreased the alcohol fermentation and lessened the rate of fermentation of sugar by 20% in noncontaminated mash. The decrease in the fermentation rate was also observed during the entire course of fermentation. On the other hand, formaldehyde addition to molasses contaminated with lactic acid bacteria accelerated the fermentation rate.

  8. A case study of a sugar and alcohol plant: prospects for the production of alcohol and exceeding energy; Um estudo de caso de uma usina de acucar e alcool: perspectivas para a producao de alcool e energia excedente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cristhalmeman@gmail.com; Halmenan, Radames Juliano [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Brazil stands out in the world scene as the largest producer and exporter of sugar and the main producer of ethanol derived from sugar cane, which generates the bagasse used to produce electrical energy for the plant as well as for electricity companies. Energy products from sugar cane, such as ethanol and bagasse have contributed significantly to reduce the gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by replacing fossil fuels, that is, gasoline and diesel. The research is defined as exploratory and descriptive, the data were obtained in June, 2009 in a sugar cane and alcohol plant located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was sought through direct interviews, to check what the prospects for the processing of sugar cane, alcohol production and generation of exceeding energy are. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to contextualize the current production of alcohol and electrical energy, with projections up to 2016. (author)

  9. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-06-20

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production.

  10. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  11. Use of antiseptics in preparing feed yeast for the production of alcohol from cereals and potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocaru, C; Iliescu, V

    1959-01-01

    When the breeding vessels are made antiseptic by NH/sub 4/F, fermentation starts immediately upon seeding. The fermentation cycle is shortened by 16%. No abnormal increase in acidity is observed. The alcohol yield is increased by 1.8%.

  12. Simulation of the kinetics of enzymic hydrolysis of starch in standard apparatus used in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinskii, L A; Yarovenko, V L

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is described for kinetics of enzymic hydrolysis of starch in standard apparatus used in alcohol fermentation. The apparatus with uniform mixing and displacement was highly superior compared with other apparatuses. Differences of temperature with the apparatus significantly affects the rate of starch hydrolysis compared with constant temperature.

  13. Optimisation of Lab-Scale Continuous Alcohol-Free Beer Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnert, R.; Novák, Pavel; Macieira, F.; Kuřec, M.; Teixeira, J.A.; Brányik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 267-275 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : alcohol-free beer * continuous reactor * immobilised yeast Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2009

  14. Novel Strategies for Production of Medium and High Chain Length Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Kuit, W.; Springer, J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation-derived ethanol is currently widely used as transport fuel, both as such or as a blending component in gasoline (Antoni et al. 2007; Mielenz 2001). However, longer chain alcohols have higher energy densities and are less soluble in water than ethanol, which are important advantages for

  15. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed

  16. "On-water" rhodium-catalysed hydroformylation for the production of linear alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diebolt, O.H.; Müller, Christian; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the rhodium-catalysed aldehyde hydrogenation under hydroformylation conditions showed that water used as co-solvent enhances both rate and selectivity towards primary alcohols. One-pot hydroformylation–hydrogenation using rhodium as the only transition

  17. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to the...

  18. Effect of fermentation parameters on bio-alcohols production from glycerol using immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: an optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Swati; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of effect of fermentation parameters for conversion of glycerol (in both pure and crude form) into three value-added products, namely, ethanol, butanol, and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum and thereby addresses the statistical optimization of this process. The analysis of effect of different process parameters such as agitation rate, fermentation temperature, medium pH, and initial glycerol concentration indicated that medium pH was the most critical factor for total alcohols production in case of pure glycerol as fermentation substrate. On the other hand, initial glycerol concentration was the most significant factor for fermentation with crude glycerol. An interesting observation was that the optimized set of fermentation parameters was found to be independent of the type of glycerol (either pure or crude) used. At optimum conditions of agitation rate (200 rpm), initial glycerol concentration (25 g/L), fermentation temperature (30°C), and medium pH (7.0), the total alcohols production was almost equal in anaerobic shake flasks and 2-L bioreactor. This essentially means that at optimum process parameters, the scale of operation does not affect the output of the process. The immobilized cells could be reused for multiple cycles for both pure and crude glycerol fermentation.

  19. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, M.Y.; Chung, S.L.; Telhada, M.A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  1. Are 1994 alcohol production and the sales deregulation policy in Japan associated with increased road traffic fatalities among adult and teenage males and females in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Scime, Giulia; Sasges, Deborah; Pike, Ian; Shimizu, Shinji

    2009-10-01

    International studies have shown a significant association between alcohol availability and traffic crashes that involve alcohol-impaired drivers. A key limitation to previous alcohol availability and motor vehicle crash (MVC) evaluation research is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the policies. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on different segments of the Japanese population by comparing MVC fatality rates from before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRR) in adult males, adult females, teenage males and teenage females. To control potential confounders, unemployment rate, vehicle miles of travel (VMT), vehicle registration, and number of drivers licensed in Japan were added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to incidence rate ratios. Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities among adult or teenage males or females in Japan. We found that male adult fatalities demonstrated a statistically significant decline following enactment of the deregulation policy in 1994. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation in Japanese society following implementation of the deregulation policy in 1994. Further well designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  2. Economic analyse of industrial production and electric energy consumption on a sugar-alcohol plant; Analise economica da producao industrial e do consumo de energia eletrica em uma usina sucro-alcooleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, Aderson

    1993-10-01

    Economic aspects of industrial production of sugar cane and automotive alcohol fuel, the relation between its production and electric energy consumption, electric energy costs to self generated electric power and concessionary supply, involved in plant production on Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, are presented. Studies to verify the relationships between sugar and alcohol production with milling ours as well as sugar cane processed with sugar and alcohol produced are also discussed 27 refs., 12 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase on ceramic silicon carbide membranes for enzymatic CH3 OH production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Ma, Nicolaj; Berendt, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyzes oxidation of CH3OH to CHOH during NAD+ reduction to NADH. ADH can also accelerate the reverse reaction, which is studied as part of cascadic enzymatic conversion of CO2 to CH3OH. In the present study, immobilization of ADH onto macropor......BACKGROUND Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyzes oxidation of CH3OH to CHOH during NAD+ reduction to NADH. ADH can also accelerate the reverse reaction, which is studied as part of cascadic enzymatic conversion of CO2 to CH3OH. In the present study, immobilization of ADH onto......‐of‐concept for the use of NaOH‐treated SiC membranes for covalent enzyme immobilization and biocatalytic efficiency improvement of ADH during multiple reaction cycles. These data have implications for the development of robust extended enzymatic reactions....

  4. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  5. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  6. Produção de álcoois superiores por linhagens de Saccharomyces durante a fermentação alcoólica Production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces strains during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de álcoois superiores pelas leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 e levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae foi estudada em diversas condições de temperatura, concentração de sacarose, pH, fontes de nitrogênio e com inibidor 2-4 dinitrofenol (DNP. Em todas as condições estudadas, a levedura Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 apresentou a menor formação de álcoois superiores enquanto a levedura de panifícação apresentou os teores mais elevados. Com o aumento de temperatura e da concentração de sacarose ocorreu maior formação de álcool isoamílico pelas leveduras estudadas. Em pH 4,5 ocorreu menor produção de álcoois superiores do que em pH 3,0. Na presença do inibidor DNP ocorreu significativa redução (pThe production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 and baker's yeast (5. cerevisiae was studied under several temperature conditions, sucrose level, pH, nitrogen sources and with 2-4 dinitrophenol (DNP. The yeast IZ-1904 showed lower production of higher alcohols than other yeasts in all conditions studied. With the increase of temperature and higher level of sucrose an increase of isoamyl alcohol production was observed. A lower formation of higher alcohols was observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 3.0. With the addition of DNP occurred a significant reduction in isoamyl alcohol content. The yeasts did not show the sanie production of higher alcohols in relation to urea and ammonium sulfate.

  7. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  8. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  9. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Information-based cues at point of choice to change selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco products: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrice; Bignardi, Giacomo; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-03-27

    Reducing harmful consumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products would prevent many cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placing information-based cues in the environments in which we select and consume these products has the potential to contribute to changing these behaviours. In this review, information-based cues are defined as those which comprise any combination of words, symbols, numbers or pictures that convey information about a product or its use. We specifically exclude cues which are located on the products themselves. We conducted a systematic review of randomised, cluster- randomised, and non-randomised controlled trials to assess the impact of such cues on selection and consumption. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 12 targeted food (most commonly fruit and vegetables), one targeted alcohol sales, and none targeted tobacco products. Ten studies reported statistically significant effects on some or all of the targeted products, although studies were insufficiently homogenous to justify meta-analysis. Existing evidence suggests information-based cues can influence selection and consumption of food and alcohol products, although significant uncertainty remains. The current evidence base is limited both in quality and quantity, with relatively few, heterogeneous studies at unclear or high risk of bias. Additional, more rigorously conducted studies are warranted to better estimate the potential for these interventions to change selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco products. PROSPERO. 2016; CRD42016051884 .

  11. Process for the production of starch and alcohol from substances containing starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N B; McFate, H A; Eubanks, E M

    1969-01-01

    Almost complete extraction of starch from wheat, rice, maize, etc., is achieved more economically then by conventional processes. Starch-containing cereal is soaked, the magma is broken and the seed removed. The magma is then drained and separated into a liquid filtrate consisting of starch, gluten and fine fibers, and a solid residue made up of coarse fibers, husks and grit. The liquid filtrate is sieved to remove the fine fibers, and then centrifuged to obtain pure, gluten-free starch. The solid residue is treated with a mineral acid in a converter to give sugar, thus forming a material which is fermented and distilled to give alcohol.

  12. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  13. Formaldehyde as an antiseptic in the production of alcohol from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M; Vernerova, J; Stros, F

    1962-01-01

    The effect of formaldehyde as an antiseptic for the noncontaminated alcohol fermentation of molasses was examined with five different yeast-mash batches containing formaldehyde 0.01%. Following 24 hour cultivation, increase in the activity of formaldehyde-inoculated mash was lowered by 47%; the formaldehyde decreased the alcohol fermentation and lessened the rate of fermentation of sugar by 20% in noncontaminated mash. The decrease in the fermentation rate was also observed during the entire course of fermentation. On the other hand, formaldehyde addition to molasses contaminated with lactic acid bacteria accelerated the fermentation rate by inhibiting the bacterial growth; the degree of retardation due to the contamination was greater than that due to the antiseptic. The view that formaldehyde decreased the effectiveness of growth substances by binding the amino acid present in mash mixtures could not be confirmed; it was believed that formaldehyde was absorbed by yeast cells even through the entities thus destroyed could not be differentiated from living cells by methylene blue. Higher resistance of yeast cultures to formaldehyde was obtained by repeated transfers of the yeast in media containing formaldehyde. It was concluded that formaldehyde added to contaminated molasses inhibited the further growth of the contamination, increased yield of ethanol on the basis of the sugar, and simultaneously decreased the net yield of ethanol in contrast to the yield from noncontaminated mashes in the absence of formaldehyde.

  14. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  15. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  16. International codes and agreements to restrict the promotion of harmful products can hold lessons for the control of alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Jane; Lobstein, Tim; Godfrey, Fiona; Johns, Paula; Brookes, Chris; Jernigan, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children. Methods Narrative review of qualitative accounts of the processes that created and monitor existing codes and treaties to restrict the marketing of consumer products, specifically breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco. Findings The development of treaties and codes for market restrictions include: (i) evidence of a public health crisis; (ii) the cost of inaction; (iii) civil society advocacy; (iv) the building of capacity; (v) the management of conflicting interests in policy development; and (vi) the need to consider monitoring and accountability to ensure compliance. Conclusion International public health treaties and codes provide an umbrella under which national governments can strengthen their own legislation, assisted by technical support from international agencies and non-governmental organizations. Three examples of international agreements, those for breast milk substitutes, unhealthy foods and tobacco, can provide lessons for the public health community to make progress on alcohol controls. Lessons include stronger alliances of advocates and health professionals and better tools and capacity to monitor and report current marketing practices and trends. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Seletividade e eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas pela associação entre óleo fúsel e herbicidas em cana-de-açúcar Selectivity and weed control efficacy of fusel oil and herbicide association in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pizzo

    2010-06-01

    . Entretanto, diuron+hexazinone e amicarbazone em dose completa associados com óleo fúsel não foram seletivos à concentração de sólidos solúveis no caldo e na produção de colmos, respectivamente.This work aimed to study the selectivity of fusel oil and herbicide association in the sugarcane cultivar IAC93-3046, and the efficacy of controlling the species Panicum maximum, Amaranthus deflexus, Ipomoea quamoclit, Brachiaria decumbens and Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was set up at the Instituto Agronômico/Centro de Cana in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, in a randomized block design with 10 treatments and 4 replicates. The plots were composed of six 4 m sugarcane lines, 1.50 m (36 m² spaced, with half being sown with weeds for control evaluation, and the other half without weeds for selectivity evaluation. The treatments were diuron+hexazinone (1,170+330 g ha ¹; diuron+hexazinone (1,170+330 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1; diuron+hexazinone (819+231 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1; metribuzin (1,920 g ha-1; metribuzin (1,920 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1; metribuzin (1,344 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1; amicarbazone (1,400 g ha-1; amicarbazone (1,400 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1 and amicarbazone (980 g ha-1 + fusel oil (25.0 L ha-1 and no herbicides. The application was performed with pressurized sprayer and 250 L ha-1 volume under post-emergence of the culture (30 cm and weeds (10-2 cm. The herbicides diuron+hexazinone, metribuzin and amicarbazone were effective in controlling all the species alone, but only I. quamoclit and E. heterophylla did not present a satisfactory control at full dose and 70% of the dose combined with fusel oil. The same treatments were also selective for sugarcane cultivar IACSP 93-3046, when the variables height, stand, diameter and stalk yield, as well as the qualitative attributes were compared to the control. However, diuron + hexazinone and amicarbazone at a full dose associated with fusel oil were not selective for Brix% juice

  18. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Economics of the complex utilization of raw materials in the production of alcohol from beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelikman, G F

    1959-01-01

    Yields of the by-products in the fermentation of beet molasses, such as liquid CO/sub 2/, bakers' and feed yeasts, glycerol and products from the wastes, and the money to be gained from their recovery are discussed.

  20. Thermal Processing of Low-Grade Glycerol to Alcohols for Biodiesel Fuel Production, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of crude glycerol to value added products can broaden its use and ultimately reduce the cost of biodiesel production. During the second year of the project, results from previous experiments were used to comprehensively investigate the the...

  1. Thiol dioxygenase turnover yields benzothiazole products from 2-mercaptoaniline and O2-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Thapa, Pawan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Pierce, Brad S

    2017-10-01

    Thiol dioxygenases are non-heme mononuclear iron enzymes that catalyze the O 2 -dependent oxidation of free thiols (-SH) to produce the corresponding sulfinic acid (-SO 2 - ). Previous chemical rescue studies identified a putative Fe III -O 2 - intermediate that precedes substrate oxidation in Mus musculus cysteine dioxygenase (Mm CDO). Given that a similar reactive intermediate has been identified in the extradiol dioxygenase 2, 3-HCPD, it is conceivable that these enzymes share other mechanistic features with regard to substrate oxidation. To explore this possibility, enzymatic reactions with Mm CDO (as well as the bacterial 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase, Av MDO) were performed using a substrate analogue (2-mercaptoaniline, 2ma). This aromatic thiol closely approximates the catecholic substrate of homoprotocatechuate of 2, 3-HPCD while maintaining the 2-carbon thiol-amine separation preferred by Mm CDO. Remarkably, both enzymes exhibit 2ma-gated O 2 -consumption; however, none of the expected products for thiol dioxygenase or intra/extradiol dioxygenase reactions were observed. Instead, benzothiazoles are produced by the condensation of 2ma with aldehydes formed by an off-pathway oxidation of primary alcohols added to aqueous reactions to solubilize the substrate. The observed oxidation of 1º-alcohols in 2ma-reactions is consistent with the formation of a high-valent intermediate similar to what has been reported for cytochrome P450 and mononuclear iron model complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Catalytic production of biofuels (butene oligomers) and biochemicals (tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol) from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jaewon; Han, Jeehoon

    2016-07-01

    A strategy is presented that produces liquid hydrocarbon fuels (butene oligomers (BO)) from cellulose (C6) fraction and commodity chemicals (tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA)) from hemicellulose (C5) of corn stover based on catalytic conversion technologies using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) solvents. This strategy integrates the conversion subsystems based on experimental studies and separation subsystems for recovery of biomass derivatives and SBP solvents. Moreover, a heat exchanger network is designed to reduce total heating requirements to the lowest level, which is satisfied from combustion of biomass residues (lignin and humins). Based on the strategy, this work offers two possible process designs (design A: generating electricity internally vs. design B: purchasing electricity externally), and performs an economic feasibility study for both the designs based on a comparison of the minimum selling price (MSP) of THFA. This strategy with the design B leads to a better MSP of $1.93 per kg THFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Soy bean seed-coat, potential renewable raw-material for alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra Srivastava

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat was shaken for different periods of time, from 12 hr to 96 hr in sterile distilled water pre-adjusted to pH 8. The contents of the flask filtered and pH adjusted to 4.6. Next the solution was heated for 20 min at 90° C in a water bath, filtered and media prepared from the filtrate. These media were inoculated with 10% volume of a strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The suspension shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 30°C ± 1°C for 48 hr after which the culture filtrate was distilled and the amount of alcohol measured according to the alcoholometry tables of the U.S. Pharmacopeias. Thus up to 1.3% of alcohol could be obtained.Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados sobre obtenção de álcool a partir de casca de soja. A casca foi agitada por diferentes períodos de tempo de 12h a 96h em água destilada esterilizada, pré-ajustada para pH 8. Os conteúdos do frasco foram filtrados, o pH ajustado para 4,6; os conteúdos cozidos, esfriados e filtrados. Os filtrados com ou sem suplementação com extrato de levedura, peptona e glicose em conjunto ou separadamente foram usados como mosto para fermentação por S. cerevisiae. As suspensões foram agitadas a 250 rpm e 30° C ± l°C48h, e após este período, a quantidade de álcool calcula­da de acordo com a tabela alcoolométrica da Farmacopia dos Estados Unidos, foi de até 1.3%.

  4. Biodiesel production by direct esterification of fatty acids with propyl and butyl alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial A. Zaher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected depletion of natural petroleum resources in the near future and pollution of the environment due to excessive carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuel and its adverse effect on global warming constitute two major problems facing the whole world. In view of these problems, much research work is now directed worldwide to find fuels alternative to those derived from petroleum which should be renewable and more environmentally friendly fuels. Biodiesel fuel which is a blend of fatty acid esters with alcohols is considered the most suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this scope of research work, a previous study (Soliman et al., 2013 has been made to explore the opportunity of utilizing the fatty acids that can be obtained from the waste of edible oil industry in Egypt to produce biodiesel fuel by direct esterification with methanol as well as ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. This paper is a continuation of that work where two other alcohols of a chain length longer than ethanol have been used being propanol and butanol. The performance of a diesel engine running using a 50% blend of regular diesel fuel and each of the two biodiesels prepared was compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and the brake thermal efficiency at full engine loading were almost the same in all cases. This indicates that the produced fuel could be used as an efficient fuel substitute for diesel engines. By comparing the results of the present work to those reported in our previous work, it appeared that methanol which has the shortest carbon chain length is the most recommended in view of the brake thermal efficiency of a diesel engine at full loading.

  5. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  7. Room Temperature Reactivity Of Silicon Nanocrystals With Solvents: The Case Of Ketone And Hydrogen Production From Secondary Alcohols: Catalysis?

    KAUST Repository

    El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Holt, Christopher; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Al-Talla, Zeyad; Saih, Youssef; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2015-01-01

    Although silicon nanoparticles dispersed in liquids are used in various applications ranging from bio-labeling to hydrogen production, their reactivities with their solvents and their catalytic properties re-main still unexplored. Here, we discovered that, because of their surface structures and mechanical strain, silicon nanoparticles react strongly with their solvents and may act as catalysts for the dehydrogenation, at room temperature, of secondary alcohols (e.g. isopropanol) to ketones and hydrogen. This catalytic reaction was followed by gas chromatography, pH measurements, mass spectroscopy and solidstate NMR. This discovery provides new understanding of the role played by silicon nanoparticles, and nanosilicon in general, in their stability in solvents in general as well as being candidates in catalysis.

  8. Room Temperature Reactivity Of Silicon Nanocrystals With Solvents: The Case Of Ketone And Hydrogen Production From Secondary Alcohols: Catalysis?

    KAUST Repository

    El Demellawi, Jehad K.

    2015-05-29

    Although silicon nanoparticles dispersed in liquids are used in various applications ranging from bio-labeling to hydrogen production, their reactivities with their solvents and their catalytic properties re-main still unexplored. Here, we discovered that, because of their surface structures and mechanical strain, silicon nanoparticles react strongly with their solvents and may act as catalysts for the dehydrogenation, at room temperature, of secondary alcohols (e.g. isopropanol) to ketones and hydrogen. This catalytic reaction was followed by gas chromatography, pH measurements, mass spectroscopy and solidstate NMR. This discovery provides new understanding of the role played by silicon nanoparticles, and nanosilicon in general, in their stability in solvents in general as well as being candidates in catalysis.

  9. Optimization of important production factors of a non-alcoholic beverage from roselle calyx, sorghum stem sheath and local spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekanye, B.R.,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RSM was used to optimize the important processing variables for a non-alcoholic beverage (NAB from roselle calyx, sorghum stem sheath and two local spices. A CCRD consisting of six variables reduced to five for mathematical convenience [Roselle Calyx/Sorghum Stem Sheath, (RC/SSS, 0-75/25-100 g, ginger (0-1.50 g/100ml, Alligator Pepper (AP, 0-1.50 g/100ml, Extraction Temperature (ET, 80-100oC and Time of Extraction (TOE, 20-40 min] with five coded levels (-2,-1, 0, +1, +2 were studied with two replications, making 54 experiments. Mathematical models were developed for the responses [Vitamin C (VC, Total Carotenoids (TC, 1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Total Phenols (TP, pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA] for making a prediction during NAB production. Storage stability indices [pH, VC, TTA, Total Viable (TVC and coliform counts] of the beverage were monitored for 28 days. The optimum processing variables were RC/SSS, 66.67 g/33.33 g; ginger, 0.375 g/100ml; AP, 0.375 g/100ml; ET, 85°C; and TOE, 35 min, yielding actual values of 15.33, 1757.2, 0.306 (mg/100ml, 89.21% for VC, TC, TP and DPPH respectively. The developed mathematical models for the measured responses could be successfully used for their prediction during non-alcoholic beverage production with a correlation coefficient (R2 ranging from 0.84-0.99. Reduction in pH (4.98-2.66 and VC (15.33 -12.69 mg/100 ml were observed while TTA increased (1.70-5.02% during storage. There was no coliform growth throughout the storage period, however, after 7 days, TVC was 7x102 CFU/ml.

  10. Production of longer-chain alcohols from biomass - butanol, isopropanol and 2,3-butanediol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Kuit, W.; Siemerink, M.A.J.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Springer, J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bioethanol is one of the main biofuels capable of substituting petroleum usage in vehicles, and has had one of the largest impacts to date. The first generation of bioethanol production has had a worldwide impact, though it is restricted by energy intensive grain-to-bioethanol production technology,

  11. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation.

  12. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  13. Improvement of operational stability of Ogataea minuta carbonyl reductase for chiral alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kohsuke; Inoue, Mizuha; Ono, Tomohiro; Okano, Kenji; Dekishima, Yasumasa; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Directed evolution of enantio-selective carbonyl reductase from Ogataea minuta was conducted to improve the operational stability of the enzyme. A mutant library was constructed by an error-prone PCR and screened using a newly developed colorimetric assay. The stability of a mutant with two amino acid substitutions was significantly higher than that of the wild type at 50°C in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis showed that the improved stability of the enzyme can be attributed to the amino acid substitution of V166A. The half-lives of the V166A mutant were 11- and 6.1-times longer than those of the wild type at 50°C in the presence and absence, respectively, of 20% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide. No significant differences in the substrate specificity and enantio-selectivity of the enzyme were observed. The mutant enzyme converted 60 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-(-)-α-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol in a molar yield of 71% whereas the conversion yield with an equivalent concentration of the wild-type enzyme was 27%. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dried culture of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae for saccharification in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazhner, T M; Ashkinuzi, Z K; El' chits, S V

    1963-01-01

    Dried A. oryzae in place of malt in saccharification of starch-containing grain mash is known to save valuable grain, labor, and space. Laboratory tests showed adequate amylolytic, dextrinolytic, and maltase activity even after nine months storage. Treatment with 0.1% formalin for one hour or with the filtrate of a calcium hypochlorite solution containing 700 mg/l active chlorine for two hours prevented growth of contaminating microflora for 24 hours of fermentation and was not detrimental. Reduction of dried culture needed for saccharification from 8 to 10 to 3.5 to 4% by weight of the starch in the raw material was possible by 2 methods: (1) a l-stage addition at 40/sup 0/, or (2) a 2-stage introduction: 20 to 25% into the sugaring vessel at 57 to 59/sup 0/ and the rest into the fermentation vat after yeast is added. Method 2 avoids the viscosity problem. Alcohol yield was essentially the same as with malt. An industrial test for a 66-hour fermentation confirmed the advantages of the 2-stage method. Higher acidity of final broth did not affect the results because mold enzymes are more resistant to this factor than are those of malt. Nor is higher dry content, the result of breakdown of hemicellulose, cellulose, and pentosans by mold enzymes, a marked disadvantage.

  15. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  16. Optimisation of trans-cinnamic acid and hydrocinnamyl alcohol production with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of cinnamyl methyl ketone as a by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Manuela; Grün, Peter; Bode, Helge B; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2017-12-01

    Trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and hydrocinnamyl alcohol (HcinOH) are valuable aromatic compounds with applications in the flavour, fragrance and cosmetic industry. They can be produced with recombinant yeasts from sugars via phenylalanine after expression of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and an aryl carboxylic acid reductase. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a PAL enzyme from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens was superior to a previously used plant PAL enzyme for the production of tCA. Moreover, after expression of a UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (FaGT2) from Fragaria x ananassa, tCA could be converted to cinnamoyl-D-glucose which is expected to be less toxic to the yeast cells. Production of tCA and HcinOH from glucose could be increased by eliminating feedback-regulated steps of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and diminishing the decarboxylation step of the competing Ehrlich pathway. Finally, an unknown by-product resulting from further metabolisation of a carboligation product of cinnamaldehyde (cinALD) with activated acetaldehyde, mediated by pyruvate decarboxylases, could be identified as cinnamyl methyl ketone providing a new route for the biosynthesis of precursors, such as (2S,3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3-diol, necessary for the chemical synthesis of specific biologically active drugs such as daunomycin. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Bio production of Alcohols as Alternative Fuels From Some Agricultural Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd ElTawab, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable depletion of the world’s energy supply, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in alternative sources of energy. It’s now understood that it is important to use biomass energy as a means of providing modern energy to the billions who lack it. Bi oethanol continues to be offered as a viable solution for complex problems ranging from global warming and national energy security to local economic development. Fuel bi oethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, is derived from renewable agricultural products. The aim of the current study is the isolation of local yeast isolate has the ability to produce bi oethanol from molasses. The local isolate of yeast E10 from sugar cane waste (bagasse) which identified as(Candida tropicalis strain JH8 26S ribosomal RNA gen) was employed for ethanol production in submerged fermentation conditions compared with standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae EMCC number 71"T. The production of bi oethanol is influenced to a great extent by a variety of physical factors (incubation time, temperature, ph, agitation speed) also; bi oethanol production by yeast depends upon the nature and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimization of these factors is prerequisite for the development of commercial process. The use of seed culture inocula (24 h) age at rate of (8% v/v) also enhances the production. The results showed that, the maximum ethanol production in local strain Candida tropicalis was 30.28 g/l achieved at incubation temperature 30 °C, with ph 5, incubation time 48 hr, agitation rate 150 rpm. Also, the best ethanol production in standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 42.57 g/l at the same conditions. . Low doses of gamma radiation (0.2 kGy) stimulate bi oethanol production and microbial growth by the local Candida isolate. Batch fermentation was also investigated

  18. What's in a name? The effect of congruent and incongruent product names on liking and emotions when consuming beer or non-alcoholic beer in a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Voss, Hans Peter; Zyl, van Hannelize; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study concerns the expectations, liking and emotions related to the consumption of conventional beer and non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which are related but different products. These beverages are derived from the same raw materials and have undistinguished visual sensory cues. However consumers

  19. Reduced Production of Higher Alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Red Wine Fermentation by Simultaneously Overexpressing BAT1 and Deleting BAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Huang, Shiyong; Du, Liping; Tang, Ping; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-08-16

    In red wine, the contents of higher alcohols and ethyl carbamate (EC) are two significant health concerns. To reduce the production of higher alcohols by wine yeast YZ22 with low production of EC, one BAT2 was replaced by a BAT1 expression cassette first and then another BAT2 was deleted to obtain the mutant SYBB3. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of BAT1 in SYBB3 improved 28 times compared with that in YZ22. The yields of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol produced by mutant SYBB3 reduced by 39.41% and 37.18% compared to those by the original strain YZ22, and the total production of higher alcohols decreased from 463.82 mg/L to 292.83 mg/L in must fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. Meanwhile, there were no obvious differences on fermentation characteristics of the mutant and parental strain. This research has suggested an effective strategy for decreasing production of higher alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. BIOCATALYTIC PRODUCTION OF PERILLYL ALCOHOL USING WHOLE CELLS OF Aspergillusniger DSM 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA ASTRID PRIETO S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estudió la producción de alcohol perílico (AP mediante biotransformación del (R-(+-limoneno utilizando células completas de Aspergillus nigerDSM 821 a escala de laboratorio. Para tal fin se determinóla influencia de diferentes variables sobre la selectividad del microorganismo hacia un producto determinado y el rendimiento de biotransformación. Se evaluó el efecto de la fase del crecimiento del hongo y el efecto inductor del sustrato. De igual forma se incluyeron las siguientes variables: pH, medio de biotransformación y concentración del sustrato. La mayor velocidad específica de crecimientose alcanzó utilizando Agar Extracto Malta(MEA como medio de cultivo a 28°C. Además se obtuvieron 246 mg/L de AP, utilizando 12 mM de (R-(+- limoneno encaldo Malta y Extracto de Levadura (MYB. Esta producción fue 1,9 y 3,1 veces mayor que la obtenida en caldo de Levadura, Extracto de Malta, Peptonay Glucosa (YMPG y Caldo de Extracto de Levadura y Glucosa (YG, respectivamente. Las mayores concentraciones de AP (405 mg/L fueron obtenidas cuando A. nigerDMS 821 fue cultivado en medio suplementado con 50 mL de limoneno durante la fase exponencial (a las 72 h, en MYB a pH 5,0, 28°C, 300 rpm y 6 días de biotransformación. Adicionalmente se obtuvieron otros subproductos: limoneno-1,2-diol, linalol, carvona, fenil etanol y etil ésteres de ácidos palmitico, oleico y linoleico.

  1. 27 CFR 19.608 - Cases of industrial alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cases of industrial alcohol. 19.608 Section 19.608 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Cases of industrial alcohol. (a) Mandatory marks. Each case, including encased containers, of alcohol...

  2. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel alcohol...

  3. Optimización energética para la producción simultánea de azúcar y alcohol en Tucumán, R. Argentina Energetic optimization for simultaneous sugar and alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Diez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se analiza la producción simultánea de azúcar y alcohol en la industria azucarera de la provincia de Tucumán, R. Argentina, y se establece una metodología analítica que permite determinar los rangos productivos para cada uno de los productos finales, minimizando el consumo energético de la planta. Se trabajó sobre un modelo productivo de azúcar blanco directo con destilería anexa. Para lograr los resultados expuestos, se partió de datos históricos o relevados de la planta y de los resultados obtenidos para el consumo del vapor de baja presión, con los simuladores de las operaciones de calentamiento-evaporación y cocimiento (SIMCE y CALCO, ambos programas desarrollados por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC. Se analizaron diferentes opciones productivas: empleo de dos o tres cocimientos, diferentes niveles de uso de los vapores vegetales y cambio en la pureza de la miel final, entre otras. Los resultados obtenidos justifican numéricamente el uso de dos cocimientos para incrementar la producción de alcohol y del valor ideal de la pureza de la miel final. Cuando se requiere producir aún más alcohol, surge como recomendable desde el punto de vista energético, el desvío de jugo a la destilería anexa. La metodología utilizada permite además cuantificar el impacto de minimizar el consumo de vapor por litro de alcohol a producir en destilación, como así también las mejoras en los valores de eficiencia en el proceso de fermentación. Desde el punto de vista energético, el análisis permite cuantificar las mejoras esperadas en los valores de retorno energético para cada opción analizada.Simultaneous sugar and alcohol production in sugar factories in the province of Tucumán, Argentina, is analyzed, presenting an analytical method for establishing productive ranges for both products, while optimizing energy use. A model for direct production of sugar with an attached distillery was

  4. Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu--a non alcoholic cereal beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffa, T; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing techniques and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha (Digitalis exilis) were used in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 12-72 h, depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, calabashes or basins or 5-7 h in warm water (60-70 degrees C). The grains were dry or wet milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper, clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki, Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko, Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes of the society.

  5. The effect of Maillard reaction products and yeast strain on the synthesis of key higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Rachael E; Black, Gary W; Koutsidis, Georgios; Usher, St John

    2017-10-01

    The effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), formed during the production of dark malts, on the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Higher alcohol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in dark malt fermentations, while the synthesis of esters was inhibited, due to possible suppression of enzyme activity and/or gene expression linked to ester synthesis. Yeast strain also affected flavour synthesis with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A01 producing considerably lower levels of higher alcohols and esters than S288c and L04. S288c produced approximately double the higher alcohol levels and around twenty times more esters compared to L04. Further investigations into malt type-yeast strain interactions in relation to flavour development are required to gain better understanding of flavour synthesis that could assist in the development of new products and reduce R&D costs for the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, A. van; Cavalcanti, P.F.F. [Univ. of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Since the seventies Brazil maintains a large production program of alcohol from sugar cane. However, the conventional production process is not very efficient: only 40% of the chemical energy of the cane plant are converted into alcohol. On the other hand large amounts of residues are generated, which in many cases have an adverse impact on the environment. In this paper it is shown that what is perceived as a residue, is in fact a subproduct that can be transformed into useful products that can be used in the industrial or agricultural activities of distilleries and sugar mills or be commercialized, thus increasing the profitability of the companies and reducing the environmental impact of these industries. The most important subproducts are bagasse (the solid phase of the cane plant) and stillage (the waste water resulting from the distillation operation). One possibility for application of bagasse is combustion for electric energy generation, which has a potential of 1 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. By applying anaerobic digestion to stillage, it is possible to generate methane which can be used for electric power generation in explosion motors with a potential of 0,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. Thus there is a production potential of 1,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol from the subproducts generated at alcohol distilleries. These operations are already installed at full scale at some industries in Brazil and hold the promise not only to increase substantially the output of useful products, but also have the potential to reduce the environmental impact and can increase the profitability of the entreprises. At lab scale it was demonstrated that there are perspectives of an even larger increase of electric power production if anaerobic digestion of bagasse is applied. The application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is a promising development for the near future to increase the useful energy output even further. The production potential of electric

  8. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  9. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  10. Production of alcohol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of low-grade wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio das Neves

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of low-grade wheat flour, namely low-grade 1 (LG1 and low-grade 2 (LG2, with different carbohydrate and fibrous content, were used as substrates. The samples were liquefied using various concentrations of alpha- or beta-amylase, in order to optimize the production of fermentable sugars; the enzyme alpha-amylase revealed higher performance. After liquefaction, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted in a jar fermentor. Amyloglucosidase was used for saccharification, and dry baker's yeast, S. cerevisiae, for fermentation simultaneously. Glucose was consumed promptly in both cases, LG1 and LG2; ethanol production was considerably higher in LG1 (38.6 g/L, compared to LG2 (24.9 g/L. The maximum ATP production was observed early in the SSF process. LG1 revealed higher potential as substrate for ethanol production.Dois lotes de amostras de resíduo de farinha de trigo com teor reduzido de amido, especificamente designadas como amostra 1 (LG1 e amostra 2 (LG2, foram utilizados como substrato para fermentação alcoólica. Inicialmente as amostras foram hidrolisadas utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de alfa- ou beta-amilase, com o objetivo de otimizar a produção de açúcares fermentáveis; a enzima alfa-amilase apresentou melhor desempenho. O processo simultâneo de sacarificação e fermentação foi conduzido logo após a hidrólise do amido, em um fermentador com volume de 2 L; o meio contendo amido hidrolisado foi inoculado com amiloglucosidase (enzima utilizada para sacarificação e levedura de panificação desidratada (para fermentação, simultaneamente. Amostras do meio de fermentação foram retiradas regularmente para análise dos teores de glucose, maltose, açúcares redutores e etanol. O teor de Adenosina Tri-Fosfato (ATP também foi analisado. O açúcar glucose foi completamente consumido no início da fermentação, tanto no caso da amostra LG1, quanto LG2, sendo que a produção de etanol

  11. Interaction of neptunium (7) with some oxidation products of normal and secondary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tananaev, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of neptunium (7) with formaldehyde and acetone -products of methane and isopropanol oxidation in alkali medium -was studied. With increase in KOH concentration neptunium (7) reduction rate decreases. The reaction order in the range of 0.2-1.0 mol/l KOH equals -1. The reaction order with regard to reducing agent is 0.9 at acetone concentrations 0.07-0.35 mol/l and 1.0 at formaldehyde concentration 2.5-10 mmol/l. Activation energies are equal to 49±2 kJ/mol for neptunium (7) reduction by acetone and 59±4 kJ/mol - by formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is oxidized by neptunium (7) to formic acid

  12. 21 CFR 328.10 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 328.10 Section 328.10 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Ingredients § 328.10 Alcohol. (a) Any over-the-counter (OTC) drug product intended for oral ingestion shall not contain alcohol...

  13. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36...

  14. Alcohol production as an adaptive livelihood strategy for women farmers in Tanzania and its potential for unintended consequences on women's reproductive health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I McCoy

    Full Text Available Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women's sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health.Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD with female (n = 11 and male farmers (n = 2 and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10 and village agro-dealers (n = 10.Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women's central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior.Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi-sectoral approaches from health and agriculture

  15. Alcohol Production as an Adaptive Livelihood Strategy for Women Farmers in Tanzania and Its Potential for Unintended Consequences on Women’s Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women’s sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Methods Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Results Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women’s central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Conclusions Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi

  16. Alcohol production as an adaptive livelihood strategy for women farmers in Tanzania and its potential for unintended consequences on women's reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women's sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women's central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi-sectoral approaches from health and agriculture and

  17. Production of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/microbial synthesized silver nanoparticles scaffold for the treatment of fungating wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaei, Behrooz; Manafi, Sahebali; Fahimi, Bijan; Arabzadeh, Sepideh; Pourali, Parastoo

    2018-03-01

    Fungating wounds usually develop in patients with advanced cancer, which responds poorly to treatments. Such wounds can be treated using suitable dressings. For this purpose, a recent research produced a new type of wound dressing with antibacterial and anticancer properties. The culture supernatant of Fusarium oxysporum was challenged with silver nitrate and heated for 5 min. Production of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) was confirmed using spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A solution of 10% (w/w) poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and different volumes of SNP solutions were provided, where each solution was separately used for electrospinning. The obtained PVA/SNPs film evaluated under morphological characterization using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and its antibacterial and anticancer activities were measured. Results confirmed the presence of SNPs in the reaction mixture with sizes less than 50 nm, spherical and oval in shapes. FE-SEM results confirmed that SNPs were seen inside and entrapped between PVA in the PVA/SNPs membrane, composed of 50% of each material. This film had acceptable antibacterial properties against four different bacterial strains and a good anticancer activity against the human melanoma cell line (COLO 792) in contrast to the control one. A recent research introduced a new and fast biological method for the synthesis of SNPs, having acceptable antibacterial and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed to support the obtained results.

  18. Production and Characterization of a Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Banana Waste (Musa cavendishii from Selected Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eli de Matos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most important fruits in the Brazilian diet and is mainly consumed naturally. Losses from crop to final consumer are high and estimated in about 30%. The aim of this work was to elaborate a distilled alcoholic beverage from discarded banana and to compare with commercial trademarks. Initially, yeast strains were isolated from banana fruit and characterized by their production of volatile aroma compounds. The highest aroma-producing yeast isolate was identified by ITS-rRNA gene sequencing as Pichia kluyveri. Pasteurized banana pulp and peel was fermented by the selected P. kluyveri at approximately 107 cells/mL. The sugars were converted quickly, and a high ethanol concentration (413 mg/L was achieved after 24 h of fermentation. The fermented banana must was distilled in a Femel Alambic, and the head, heart and tail fractions were collected. The banana brandy produced had highest concentration of volatile compounds compared to trademarks, such as isoamyl acetate (13.5 mg/L, ethyl hexanoate (0.8 mg/L and others. The results showed that whole banana must could be a good substrate for fermentation and distillation, and the sensory analysis performed revealed that the produced beverage had good acceptance by the tasters. This study demonstrates the potential of banana as a possible alternative to reduce waste and increase income to farmers.

  19. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  20. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  1. Emission of BTEX and PAHs from molding sands with furan cold setting resins containing different contents of free furfuryl alcohol during production of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Holtzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, furan resin is the largest selling no-bake system of moulding sands. The most commonly used furan no-bake binders (FNB are condensation products of furfuryl alcohol (FA urea, formaldehyde and phenol. They are generally cured by exposure to organic sulfonic acids. FNB provide excellent mold and core strength, cure rapidly and allow the sand to be reclaimed at fairly high yields, generally 75%-80%, especially in applications where due allowance is made for the need to keep total sulfur content below 0.1%. However, due to probable carcinogenic properties of furfuryl alcohol, the EU Directive limits the content of this substance (in a monomer form in resin to 25%. The classification of furfuryl alcohol and the resulting furan resin products has changed from "harmful" to "toxic" by inhalation? The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free furfuryl alcohol content in the resin on the emission of harmful substances from the BTEX (Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene & Xylene and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon group exposed to high temperature and how it affects the emissions allowance of reclaimed sand in the matrix. Three resins from a leading manufacturer were examined, which contain a free furfuryl alcohol content of 71%-72%, about 50% and < 25%, respectively. The hardener for each resin was 65% aqueous solution of paratoluenesulfonic acid. Tests were carried out in semi-industrial conditions where liquid cast-iron was poured into sample sand mold at 1,350 ìC. The matrix of the studied sands was reclaimed in the amount of 0, 50%, 100%, respectively. With the increase of free furfuryl alcohol content, the volume of evolved gases decreased. For all resins the main component from the BTEX group dominating in the emitted gases was benzene; however toluene also appeared in the amount of a few percentages. In contrast, ethylbenzene and xylenes occurred only in the gases emitted from resin-bonded sands with the largest furfuryl

  2. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  4. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva; Silvares, Raquel Rangel; Flores, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita; Rodrigues, Karine Lino; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; da Silva, Igor José; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de Castro; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Daliry, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA. The participation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and its receptor RAGE was evaluated by the measurement of gene and protein expression of RAGE by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively and by liver and serum quantification of fluorescent AGEs. Wistar rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) showed increase in epididymal and abdominal fat content, systolic arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and impairment of glucose and insulin metabolisms. Liver histology confirmed the presence of steatosis and ultrasound analysis revealed increased liver size and parenchymal echogenicity in HFD-fed rats. HFD causes significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on hepatic microcirculation and decrease in liver microvascular blood flow. Liver tissue presented increase in oxidative stress and inflammtion. At 20 weeks, there was a significantly increase in AGE content in the liver and serum of HFD-fed rats and an increase in RAGE gene expression in the liver. The increase in liver AGE levels and microcirculatory disturbances could play a role in the pathogenesis of liver injury and are key components of NAFLD.

  5. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  6. 27 CFR 20.104 - Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. 20.104 Section 20.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.104 Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. Commercial strength (40...

  7. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  8. 27 CFR 20.144 - Packages of completely denatured alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packages of completely denatured alcohol. 20.144 Section 20.144 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale...

  9. 27 CFR 20.261 - Records of completely denatured alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of completely denatured alcohol. 20.261 Section 20.261 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM...

  10. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  11. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Carreño, Víctor; Espelt, Albert; Villalbí, Joan R; Pearce, Jamie; Franco, Manuel

    Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  14. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Van Uden, W.; Frijlink, H.W.; Lerk, C.F.; Pras, N.; Malingre, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  15. Increased podophyllotoxin production in Podophyllum hexandrum cell suspension cultures after feeding coniferyl alcohol as a β-cyclodextrin complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H J; van Uden, W; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F; Pras, N; Malingré, T M

    Cell suspension cultures, derived from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), accumulate podophyllotoxin. In this study the use of β-cyclodextrin in feeding the poorly water-soluble precursor coniferyl alcohol to these cultures is described. By complexation with β-cyclodextrin, a

  16. Production and characterization of a thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Uria, A.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The gene, referred to as adhD, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The

  17. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  18. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  19. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  20. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH...... respectively. Using relative rate techniques, a value of k(Cl + CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO) = (1.84 +/- 0.30) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was determined. The yield of the perfluorinated acid, CF3(CF2)(3)COOH, from the 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol increased with the diluent gas oxygen concentration......, and CF3(CF2)(3)CH2C(O)OOH are secondary oxidation products. Further irradiation results in the formation of CF3(CF2)(3)COOH, COF2, and CF3OH. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, and CF3(CF2)(3)CH2C(O)OOH are formed from CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO oxidation in yields of 46 27 and less than or equal to 27...

  2. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  3. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  4. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rodents, the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) after chronic alcohol feeding was shown to depend on the activity of enzymes that are necessary for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the formation of ROS...... by resting and challenged phagocytes of patients with different stages of ALD in the presence of ethanol concentrations commonly found in the blood of alcohol abusers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The release of ROS and the phagocytosis of bacteria by neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 60 patients, who were...... produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  5. Yeast population dynamics reveal a potential 'collaboration' between Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum for the production of reduced alcohol wines during Shiraz fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-02-01

    The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 was able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration when used in sequential inoculation with a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, different inoculation regimes were explored to study the effect of yeast population dynamics and potential yeast interactions on the metabolism of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 during fermentation of non-sterile Shiraz must. Of all inoculation regimes tested, only ferments inoculated with M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 showed reduced ethanol concentration. Population dynamics revealed the presence of several indigenous yeast species and one of these, Saccharomyces uvarum (AWRI 2846), was able to produce wine with reduced ethanol concentration in sterile conditions. Both strains however, were inhibited when a combination of three non-Saccharomyces strains, Hanseniaspora uvarum AWRI863, Pichia kluyveri AWRI1896 and Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI2845 were inoculated into must, indicating that the microbial community composition might impact on the growth of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI 2846. Our results indicate that mixed cultures of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI2846 enable an additional reduction of wine ethanol concentration compared to the same must fermented with either strain alone. This work thus provides a foundation to develop inoculation regimes for the successful application of non-cerevisiae yeast to the production of wines with reduced alcohol.

  6. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    stage and starch-based adsorbent in adsorption stage, which can obtain ethanol content of 92,15% with acetic acid percentage of 0,001% and the rest is water. This result is qualified for ethanol food grade specification which is between 90 - 94 % of ethanol with maximum percentage of acetic acid is 0,003%, and passes in fusel oil and isopropyl alcohol test.

  7. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles with...

  8. Development and application of a validated stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, benzyl alcohol and their main degradation products in parenteral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail; El-Fatatre, Hamed; Emam, Ehab; Mubrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-06-30

    A simple, rapid and sensitive reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, benzyl alcohol, 1-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid (the main degradation product of granisetron) and benzaldehyde (the main degradation product of benzyl alcohol) in granisetron injections. The separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS C8 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm particle diameter) column using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:0.05 M KH(2)PO(4):triethylamine (22:100:0.15) adjusted to pH 4.8. The column was maintained at 25 degrees C and 20 microL of solutions was injected. Photodiode array detector was used to test the peak purity and the chromatograms were extracted at 210 nm. Naphazoline hydrochloride was used as internal standard. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantitation and limit of detection. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Identification of the pure peaks was carried out using library match programmer and wavelengths of derivative optima of the spectrograms of the peaks. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs and their degradation products in different batches of granisetron injections. The method was proved to be sensitive for the determination down to 0.03 and 0.01% of granisetron degradation product and benzaldehyde, respectively, which are far below the compendia limits for testing these degradation products in their corresponding intact drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three endoplasmic reticulum-associated fatty acyl-coenzyme a reductases were involved in the production of primary alcohols in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Xu, Feng; Li, Yang; Shi, Xue; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2018-03-05

    The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters. Primary alcohols account for more than 80% of the total wax load. Therefore, we cloned several genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases from wheat and analyzed their function in yeast and plants. We propose the potential use of these genes in wheat genetic breeding. We reported the cloning and characterization of three TaFARs, namely TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8, encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 were expressed at the higher levels in the seedling leaf blades, and were expressed moderately or weakly in stamen, glumes, peduncle, flag leaf blade, sheath, spike, and pistil. The heterologous expression of three TaFARs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to the production of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rice (Oryza sativa) led to increased accumulation of C24:0-C30:0 primary alcohols. Transient expression of GFP protein-tagged TaFARs revealed that the three TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The three TaFAR genes were transcriptionally induced by drought, cold, heat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) infection, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatments. These results indicated that wheat TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 are involved in biosynthesis of very-long-chain primary

  10. Production de méthanol et d'alcools supérieurs à partir de gaz via (CO + H2 Production of Methanol and Higher Alcohols from Gas via (Co + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre des procédés en développement pour la synthèse d'alcools à partir de syngas (CO + H2, ce mémoire présente certains résultats récents de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon. La première démonstration du procédé, sous programme R et D du RAPAD-Japon, a confirmé les performances et la faisabilité. Les alcools sélectivement produits, après fractionnement, présentent de bonnes propriétés pour l'usage carburant. L'optimisation de l'ensemble constitué par la production du syngas, la synthèse, le fractionnement des alcools, a permis une simplification sensible du procédé, une optimisation spécifique des performances, ce qui conduit à des données économiques plus favorables. Within the framework of processes being developed for alcohol synthesis from syngas, this article describes some recent results obtained by Idemitsu-Kosan (Japan and Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France. The first demonstration of the process as part of the RAPAD-Japan R & D program has confirmed both its performances and feasibility. The alcohols selectively produced, after suitable fractionation, present good properties as a blend for motor fuels. The optimization of the overall process for syngas production, alcohol synthesis and alcohol fractionation has led to a significant simplification of the process and to the optimization of its performances, leading to better economics.

  11. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  12. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  13. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at

  14. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  15. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, B C T; Henry, R M A; Schalkwijk, C G; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G; Feskens, E J M; Stehouwer, C D A

    2017-03-27

    Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy products and with moderate alcohol and red wine consumption. We investigated the associations between the above food groups and endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a population-based cohort of Dutch elderly individuals. Diet was measured by food frequency questionnaire (n = 801; women = 399; age 68.5 ± 7.2 years). Endothelial dysfunction was determined (1) by combining von Willebrand factor, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, endothelial selectin and thrombomodulin, using Z-scores, into a biomarker score and (2) by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and low-grade inflammation by combining C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumour necrosis factor α and sICAM-1 into a biomarker score, with smaller FMD and higher scores representing more dysfunction and inflammation, respectively. We used linear regression analyses to adjust associations for sex, age, energy, glucose metabolism, body mass index, smoking, prior CVD, educational level, physical activity and each of the other food groups. Moderate [β (95% CI) -0.13 (-0.33; 0.07)] and high [-0.22 (-0.45; -0.003)] alcohol consumption, and red wine [-0.16 (-0.30; -0.01)] consumption, but none of the other food groups, were associated with a lower endothelial dysfunction biomarker score and a greater FMD. The associations for FMD were, however, not statistically significant. Only red wine consumption was associated with a lower low-grade inflammation biomarker score [-0.18 (-0.33; -0.04)]. Alcohol and red wine consumption may favourably influence processes involved in atherothrombosis.

  16. Alcohol production from sterilized and non-sterilized molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on brewer's spent grains in two types of continuous bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Bekatorou, Argyro; Tzia, Constantina; Kanellaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this work an integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation of a cheap raw material (molasses) is described, involving yeast immobilized by a simple method on brewer's spent grains, able to ferment in the temperature range 30–40 °C, and two types of bioreactors, a Multistage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) and a Packed Bed reactor (PB). The MFBT bioreactor gave better results regarding ethanol concentration, productivity and conversion. Furthermore, the use of sterilized and non-sterilized molasses, fed in two similar MFBT bioreactors, showed that ethanol concentration (kg m −3 ) was significantly (p −3 at 35 °C and 44.2–48.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C), compared to sterilized molasses, where ethanol concentration ranged from 35.6 to 46.6 kg m −3 at 35 °C and 30.8–44.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C. During 32 days of continuous operation using non-sterilized molasses no contamination was observed. Industrialization of the proposed system seems to have a potential, mainly due to its high fermentation efficiency and the obtained high operational stability. -- Highlights: ► An integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation. ► Efficient conversion of non-sterilized molasses to ethanol. ► No need for additional treatments to prevent contamination. ► Results showed high fermentation efficiency and high operational stability.

  17. Diazo Reagents with Small Steric Footprints for Simultaneous Arming/SAR Studies of Alcohol-Containing Natural Products via O–H Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamni, Supakarn; He, Qing-Li; Dang, Yongjun; Bhat, Shridhar; Liu, Jun O.; Romo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products are essential tools for basic cellular studies leading to the identification of medically relevant protein targets and the discovery of potential therapeutic leads. The development of methods that enable mild and selective derivatization of natural products continues to be of significant interest for mining their information-rich content. Herein, we describe novel diazo reagents for simultaneous arming and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of alcohol-containing natural products with a small steric footprint, namely an α-trifluoroethyl (HTFB) substituted reagent. The Rh(II)-catalyzed O–H insertion reaction of several natural products, including the potent translation inhibitor lactimidomycin, was investigated and useful reactivity and both chemo- and site (chemosite) selectivities were observed. Differential binding to the known protein targets of both FK506 and fumagillol was demonstrated, validating the advantage of the smaller steric footprint of trifluoroethyl derivatives. A p-azidophenyl diazo reagent is also described that will prove useful for photoaffinity labeling of low affinity small molecule protein receptors. PMID:21894934

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  20. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  1. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  2. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  3. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols and their degradation products in biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongna; Wen, Bei; Hu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yali; Luo, Lei; Chen, Zien; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-07-24

    Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) was recognized as an additional source of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). Quantification of FTOHs and their degradation products can help shed light on the sources and fates of PFCAs in the environment. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the determination of 6:2 and 8:2 FTOHs, and their degradation products of poly- and perfluorinated acids, including fluorotelomer saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTCAs and FTUCAs), secondary polyfluorinated alcohols and PFCAs in biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The extract efficiencies of different methods including ethyl acetate and methanol (MeOH) for FTOHs and acetonitrile, MeOH, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), NaOH-MeOH and NaOH-MTBE for poly- and perfluorinated acids were tested. The results showed that 6:2 and 8:2 FTOHs and their degradation products could be simultaneously and satisfactorily extracted by MeOH, cleaned up by Envi-Carb graphitized carbon and solid phase extraction, respectively, and determined by UPLC-MS/MS separately. NaOH in the extractant caused the conversion of 6:2 FTCA and 8:2 FTCA into the corresponding FTUCAs. The selected methods have matrix recoveries ranged from 52% to 102%, and detection limits of 0.01-0.46ng/g dry weight for FTOHs and their degradation products in soil and plant. The optimized method was applied successfully to quantify FTOHs and their degradation products in two biosolids-amended soils and plants. The total concentrations of FTOHs in the soils were 44.1±5.8 and 82.6±7.1ng/g, and in plants tissues 3.58±0.25 and 8.33±0.66ng/g. The total concentrations of poly- and perfluorinated acids in the soils were 168.0±13.2 and 349.6±11.2ng/g, and in plants tissues 78.0±6.4 and 75.5±5.3ng/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... label may also state the alcohol content in degrees of proof if this information appears in direct... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  6. Effect of Precursors on Volatile Compounds in Papaya Wine Fermented by Mixed Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Rou Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the addition of fusel oil or amino acids on the volatile compounds in papaya wine fermented with a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 2251 at a ratio of 1:1000 was studied. Fusel oil addition increased the fraction of alcohols and promoted the production of isoamyl octanoate, isoamyl decanoate and isobutyl decanoate, while decreased the fraction of ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The addition of amino acids enhanced the formation of total volatile fatty acids, 2-phenylethanol and some ethyl esters. The papaya wine with added amino acids possessed more acidic and buttery notes than the control, while that with added fusel oil had an overall aroma profile comparable to that of the control. This study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with mixed yeasts in conjunction with the added fusel oil or selected amino acids may be another method of modulating the flavour of papaya wine.

  7. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  10. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  11. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  12. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  13. Quantitative production of compound I from a cytochrome P450 enzyme at low temperatures. Kinetics, activation parameters, and kinetic isotope effects for oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Sheng, Xin; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2009-08-05

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are commonly thought to oxidize substrates via an iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical cation transient termed Compound I, but kinetic studies of P450 Compounds I are essentially nonexistent. We report production of Compound I from cytochrome P450 119 (CYP119) in high conversion from the corresponding Compound II species at low temperatures in buffer mixtures containing 50% glycerol by photolysis with 365 nm light from a pulsed lamp. Compound I was studied as a reagent in oxidations of benzyl alcohol and its benzylic mono- and dideuterio isotopomers. Pseudo-first-order rate constants obtained at -50 degrees C with concentrations of substrates between 1.0 and 6.0 mM displayed saturation kinetics that gave binding constants for the substrate in the Compound I species (K(bind)) and first-order rate constants for the oxidation reactions (k(ox)). Representative results are K(bind) = 214 M(-1) and k(ox) = 0.48 s(-1) for oxidation of benzyl alcohol. For the dideuterated substrate C(6)H(5)CD(2)OH, kinetics were studied between -50 and -25 degrees C, and a van't Hoff plot for complexation and an Arrhenius plot for the oxidation reaction were constructed. The H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) at -50 degrees C were resolved into a large primary KIE (P = 11.9) and a small, inverse secondary KIE (S = 0.96). Comparison of values extrapolated to 22 degrees C of both the rate constant for oxidation of C(6)H(5)CD(2)OH and the KIE for the nondeuterated and dideuterated substrates to values obtained previously in laser flash photolysis experiments suggested that tunneling could be a significant component of the total rate constant at -50 degrees C.

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  15. 27 CFR 22.113 - Receipt of tax-free alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of tax-free alcohol. 22.113 Section 22.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Withdrawal and...

  16. The effect of increased branched-chain amino acid transaminase activity in yeast on the production of higher alcohols and on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mariska; Bauer, Florian F; Styger, Gustav; Lambrechts, Marius G; Pretorius, Isak S

    2006-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCAATases) are encoded by the BAT1 and BAT2 genes. BCAATases catalyse the transfer of amino groups between those amino acids and alpha-keto-acids. alpha-Keto-acids are precursors for the biosynthesis of higher alcohols, which significantly influence the aroma and flavour of yeast-derived fermentation products. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of BAT-gene expression on general yeast physiology, on aroma and flavour compound formation and on the sensory characteristics of wines and distillates. For this purpose, the genes were overexpressed and deleted in a laboratory strain, BY4742, and overexpressed in an industrial wine yeast strain, VIN13. The data show that, with the exception of a slow growth phenotype observed for the BAT1 deletion strain, the fermentation behaviour of the strains was unaffected by the modifications. The chemical and sensory analysis of fermentation products revealed a strong correction between BAT gene expression and the formation of many aroma compounds. The data suggest that the adjustment of BAT gene expression could play an important role in assisting winemakers in their endeavour to produce wines with specific flavour profiles.

  17. Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Özdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors.

  18. Catalytic synthesis of long-chained alcohols from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    fraction of higher alcohols in the product introduces a dilemma, because the presence of a sulfur sauce like H2S in the gas can lead to an undesirable incorporation of sulfur species into the alcohol product. It is observed that the sulfur content in the condensed alcohol product increases linearly...

  19. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  20. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  1. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanlayakrit, Werasit; Piadang, Nattayana; Maweang, Metinee

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  3. [The regulation of peroxisomal matrix enzymes (alcohol oxidase and catalase) formation by the product of the gene Mth1 in methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonovich, O A; Kurales, Iu A; Dutova, T A; Isakova, E P; Deriabina, Iu I; Rabinovich, Ia M

    2009-01-01

    Two independent mutant strains of methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica (mth1 arg1 and mth2 arg4) from the initial line 616 (ade1 ade5) were investigated. The mutant strains possessed defects in genes MTH1 and MTH2 which resulted in the inability to assimilate methanol as a sole carbon source and the increased activity of alcohol oxidase (AO). The function of the AUG2 gene encoding one of the subunits of AO and CTA1, a probable homolog of peroxisomal catalase of Saccharomyces cereviseae, was investigated by analyses of the molecular forms of isoenzymes. It was shown that optimal conditions for the expression of the AUG2 gene on a medium supplemented with 3% of methanol leads to an increasing synthesis of peroxisomal catalase. The mutant mth1 possessed a dominant formation of AO isoform with electrophoretic mobility which is typical for isogenic form 9, the product of the AUG2 gene, and a decreased level of peroxisomal catalase. The restoration of growth of four spontaneous revertants of the mutant mth1 (Rmth1) on the methanol containing medium was accompanied by an increase in activity of AO isogenic form 9 and peroxisomal catalase. The obtained results confirmed the functional continuity of the structural gene AUG2 in mutant mth1. The correlation of activity of peroxisomal catalase and AO isogenic form 1 in different conditions evidenced the existence of common regulatory elements for genes AUG2 and CTA1 in methilotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica.

  4. Hepatocyte oxidant stress and alcoholic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde de la Rosa, L.; Moshage, H.; Nieto, N.

    Acute and chronic alcohol consumption increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhances lipid peroxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. The mechanism by which alcohol causes cell injury is still not clear but a major role for ROS and lipid peroxidation-end products is

  5. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  6. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  7. Optimization of a low-cost defined medium for alcoholic fermentation--a case study for potential application in bioethanol production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-01-25

    In bioethanol production processes, the media composition has an impact on product concentration, yields and the overall process economics. The main purpose of this research was to develop a low-cost mineral-based supplement for successful alcoholic fermentation in an attempt to provide an economically feasible alternative to produce bioethanol from novel sources, for example, sugary industrial wastewaters. Statistical experimental designs were used to select essential nutrients for yeast fermentation, and its optimal concentrations were estimated by Response Surface Methodology. Fermentations were performed on synthetic media inoculated with 2.0 g L(-1) of yeast, and the evolution of biomass, sugar, ethanol, CO2 and glycerol were monitored over time. A mix of salts [10.6 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4; 6.4 g L(-1) MgSO4·7H2O and 7.5 mg L(-1) ZnSO4·7H2O] was found to be optimal. It led to the complete fermentation of the sugars in less than 12h with an average ethanol yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar. A general C-balance indicated that no carbonaceous compounds different from biomass, ethanol, CO2 or glycerol were produced in significant amounts in the fermentation process. Similar results were obtained when soft drink wastewaters were tested to evaluate the potential industrial application of this supplement. The ethanol yields were very close to those obtained when yeast extract was used as the supplement, but the optimized mineral-based medium is six times cheaper, which favorably impacts the process economics and makes this supplement more attractive from an industrial viewpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly Enantioselective Production of Chiral Secondary Alcohols Using Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 as a New Whole Cell Biocatalyst and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Durmuşhan; Şahin, Engin; Dertli, Enes

    2017-11-01

    Chiral secondary alcohols are valuable intermediates for many important enantiopure pharmaceuticals and biologically active molecules. In this work, we studied asymmetric reduction of aromatic ketones to produce the corresponding chiral secondary alcohols using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as new biocatalysts. Seven LAB strains were screened for their ability to reduce acetophenones to their corresponding alcohols. Among these strains, Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 was found to be the most successful at reducing the ketones to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction conditions were further systematically optimized for this strain and high enantioselectivity (99%) and very good yields were obtained. These secondary alcohols were further tested for their antimicrobial activities against important pathogens and significant levels of antimicrobial activities were observed although these activities were altered depending on the secondary alcohols as well as their enantiomeric properties. The current methodology demonstrates a promising and alternative green approach for the synthesis of chiral secondary alcohols of biological importance in a cheap, mild, and environmentally useful process. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Biogas Production and Removal COD – BOD and TSS from Wastewater Industrial Alcohol (Vinasse by Modified UASB Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Isni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production and decreased organic loading of vinasse using a modified UASB bioreactor has been done successfully. Vinasse is waste from the ethanol industry which contains COD: 9.360 mg / L , BOD : 4.013 mg/L, and TSS: 317.5 mg/L. The purpose of this research was to study the performance of bioreactors Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB to decompose the vinasse into biogas or methane. UASB operating principle is to distribute wastewater in the bioreactor to flow upward through the sludge blanket by setting the hidrolic retention time (HRT. Four UASB bioreactor columns were used in this experiment wherein each with a capacity of 50 L in volume; 23 cm inside diameter, and 120 cm. The variations of hydraulic capacity followed the variations of HRT in the range of 72-36 hours. Modifications were carried out on the top of column UASB with the aim of preventing gas losses and increasing the flowrate of gas out from the top of the column. The results showed that HRT increased from 36 h to 72 h followed by an increase in COD removal efficiency of 55.64% to 66.81%; BOD5 from 67.85% to 74.58%; and TSS from 66.69% to 84.19%. The maximum volume of biogas produced was in the range of 5.826 L / day (42.89% methane to 7.930 L / day (methane 58.06%.

  10. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    OpenAIRE

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, J?rgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volat...

  11. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  12. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Deaths and Injuries by Counterfeit Alcohol and Oplosan – Potential Consequences of an Alcohol Prohibition in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rofi Uddarojat

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesian House of Representatives is deliberating a bill that aims to prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic drinks containing between 1 and 55 per cent alcohol. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the adverse effects of alcohol in Indonesia. Alcohol consumption levels in Indonesia appear low when compared to other countries. Only about 500,000 Indonesians consume alcoholic beverages, mostly hard liquor. The Indonesian government already pursues a ran...

  14. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... years, both for commercial products and for unrecorded alcohol products, such as homemade spirits. ... related to alcohol taxation and pricing; -alcohol affordability in Vietnam and the likely ... New partnership to support Ebola research teams ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  15. Critical issues of alcohol safety in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vasil’evna Aksyutina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research into the economic and socio-demographic indicators associated with the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages. It discloses the analysis of the alcoholic beverage market structure in the Vologda Oblast. The authors have identified the threshold of the safe alcohol production volume in the region taking into account the World Health Organization standards of alcohol consumption and the share of illegally produced goods. The article states that the increased alcohol production contributes to the rise in tax revenues, but the state fiscal policy to regulate the alcoholic beverage market leads to an increase in the share of shadow turnover. The authors have calculated the economic loss connected with the illegal production of alcoholic beverages in the Vologda Oblast. The alcohol consumption is a destructive socio-demographic process and one of the threats to the health of the nation. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to alcohol dependence, regression of the society and increases the threat to national and economic security. The study reveals a direct correlation between the consumption of alcoholic beverages per capita and mortality rates in men and women of working age from the causes related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The study of the international experience to regulate alcohol consumption has showed the need to tighten state control in the sphere of production and turnover of alcoholic products. The conduct of the unified state alcohol policy substantiates the selection of the alcohol industry in the all-Russian classifier of economic activity types. The authors have elaborated the concept and conditions of alcoholic security from the point of view of economic growth and social development. The article substantiates the necessity to monitor alcohol safety indicators when considering the regional development. It presents the complex system of socio-economic and demographic

  16. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L. (comp.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Forecasting Alcohol Consumption in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Slováčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a forecast of developments in alcohol consumption based on current alcohol consumption per capita (expressed in litres of pure alcohol, and time series extrapolations. Alcohol consumption is to be considered from the vantage point of knowing the specifics of the product and the consequences of its excessive consumption. The predictive methodology makes use of the Box‑Jenkins method; the ARIMA model, taking into account the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation process, which is a prerequisite for the successful identification of a time series model; model parameter estimation; appropriate transformations of time series; determining the order of differentiation and subsequent verification of the model. The chosen methodology for future trends in alcohol consumptions is a prerequisite for the proposed optional measures to control alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Due to the long term nature of the process to draw up and implement alcohol consumption regulation measures, the forecast covers the forthcoming 10 years.

  19. Nontargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to detect hazardous substances including methanol in unrecorded alcohol from Novosibirsk, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hausler, Thomas; Okaru,  Alex O.; Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen; Kuballa, Thomas; Luy, Burkhard; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of alcoholic products in the context of health and safety control. A total of 86 samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in Novosibirsk and nearby cities in Russia. Sampling was based on interviews with alcohol dependent patients, and unrecorded alcohol thus defined included illegally or informally produced alcoholic products (e.g., counterfeit or home-made alcoholic beverages) or surrogate alcohol in the form of c...

  20. Critical issues of alcohol safety in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vasil’evna Aksyutina; Natal’ya Mikhailovna Ovsyankina

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of the research into the economic and socio-demographic indicators associated with the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages. It discloses the analysis of the alcoholic beverage market structure in the Vologda Oblast. The authors have identified the threshold of the safe alcohol production volume in the region taking into account the World Health Organization standards of alcohol consumption and the share of illegally produced goods. The article states t...

  1. Direct Wittig Olefination of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Qiang; Shah, Zaher; Qu, Jian-Ping; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2018-01-05

    A base-promoted transition metal-free approach to substituted alkenes using alcohols under aerobic conditions using air as the inexpensive and clean oxidant is described. Aldehydes are relatively difficult to handle compared to corresponding alcohols due to their volatility and penchant to polymerize and autoxidize. Wittig ylides are easily oxidized to aldehydes and consequently form homo-olefination products. By the strategy of simultaneously in situ generation of ylides and aldehydes, for the first time, alcohols are directly transferred to olefins with no need of prepreparation of either aldehydes or ylides. Thus, the di/monocontrollable olefination of diols is accomplished. This synthetically practical method has been applied in the gram-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals, such as DMU-212 and resveratrol from alcohols.

  2. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  3. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  4. Optimización energética para la producción simultánea de azúcar y alcohol en Tucumán, R. Argentina Energetic optimization for simultaneous sugar and alcohol production

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Diez; Carolina Cruz; Gerónimo J. Cárdenas

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo, se analiza la producción simultánea de azúcar y alcohol en la industria azucarera de la provincia de Tucumán, R. Argentina, y se establece una metodología analítica que permite determinar los rangos productivos para cada uno de los productos finales, minimizando el consumo energético de la planta. Se trabajó sobre un modelo productivo de azúcar blanco directo con destilería anexa. Para lograr los resultados expuestos, se partió de datos históricos o relevados de la planta y d...

  5. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  6. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  8. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  9. Perspectives of the alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation overviews the following aspects: antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported fuels, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol, consumption, trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data. Also problems with environmental impact of CO and CO2 are discussed and possible solutions, incentives to private sector for trading, tax reductions and legislation to support the production are included

  10. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  12. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and lipid accumulation product in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Tziomalos, K; Božić-Antić, I; Bjekić-Macut, J; Katsikis, I; Papadakis, E; Andrić, Z; Panidis, D

    2016-06-01

    What are the most relevant factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Insulin resistance (IR) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) are independently associated with NAFLD in PCOS. Obesity and IR are frequently present in both women with PCOS and subjects having NAFLD. The coexistence of PCOS and NAFLD might synergistically increase the risk for both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). LAP, calculated from waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides (TGs) concentrations [(WC-58) × TGs], has been shown to represent an integrated marker of cardiometabolic risk in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study included 600 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria between May 2008 and May 2013. The study was done at the university hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia and Thessaloniki, Greece. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and analyses of fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, total testosterone and SHBG, as well as liver tests (transaminases, γ-glutamyltransaminase, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase). Calculations for a NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) (with, accordingly, determination of metabolic syndrome and testing for T2DM) as well as homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), LAP as a marker of visceral adiposity, and free androgen index (FAI) were performed. We evaluated the prevance of NAFLD and analyzed associations of the above variables with NAFLD. NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with PCOS than in controls (50.6 versus 34.0%, respectively). Women with PCOS had higher readings for WC, LAP, insulin and HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TGs than controls (P risk of complications while magnetic resonance spectroscopy does not provide any information regarding the presence of fibrosis and is not routinely available. Another possible limitation could be the measurement of total testosterone by radioimmunoassay, which can be

  13. Heterologous transporter expression for improved fatty alcohol secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yating; Zhu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for industrial scale production of biofuels including fatty alcohols due to its robustness and tolerance towards harsh fermentation conditions. Many metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to generate high fatty alcohol production...... transporters tested, human FATP1 was shown to mediate fatty alcohol export in a high fatty alcohol production yeast strain. An approximately five-fold increase of fatty alcohol secretion was achieved. The results indicate that the overall cell fitness benefited from fatty alcohol secretion and that the acyl......-CoA synthase activity of FATP1 contributed to increased cell growth as well. This is the first study that enabled an increased cell fitness for fatty alcohol production by heterologous transporter expression in yeast, and this investigation indicates a new potential function of FATP1, which has been known...

  14. The development of alcohol policy in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, an increase in alcohol-related problems has been noted in China. Taking effective measures against the problem requires clear reviewing and understanding of the evolution of the Chinese alcohol policy. This study is aimed to evaluate the alcohol policy with special focus on reviewing the alcohol production and consumption situation in China and assessing the changes in Chinese alcohol policy along with other related fields. This article finishes with a set of recommended policy changes that could help solve the recent alcohol-related problems and analyze the major impediments.

  15. Alcohol and Acetaldehyde in Public Health: From Marvel to Menace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  16. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in public health: from marvel to menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages.

  17. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5580 - D-Pantothenyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D-Pantothenyl alcohol. 582.5580 Section 582.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5580 D-Pantothenyl alcohol. (a) Product. D-Pantothenyl alcohol. (b) Conditions of use...

  19. Process improvement for alcohol manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keo, L J

    1965-01-01

    K. claims to have isolated a superior yeast for blackstrap molasses fermentation into alcohol at a concentration of 20% sugar instead of the normal 12% in diluted molasses on a commercial scale. Further improvement of the product was effected by removal of aldehyde by distillation and impurities by oxidation. Flow diagrams are presented with details of each stage.

  20. The global alcohol industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H

    2009-02-01

    To describe the globalized sector of the alcoholic beverage industry, including its size, principal actors and activities. Market research firms and business journalism are the primary sources for information about the global alcohol industry, and are used to profile the size and membership of the three main industry sectors of beer, distilled spirits and wine. Branded alcoholic beverages are approximately 38% of recorded alcohol consumption world-wide. Producers of these beverages tend to be large multi-national corporations reliant on marketing for their survival. Marketing activities include traditional advertising as well as numerous other activities, such as new product development, product placement and the creation and promotion of social responsibility programs, messages and organizations. The global alcohol industry is highly concentrated and innovative. There is relatively little public health research evaluating the impact of its many marketing activities.

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  2. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  3. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  4. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  6. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Johnson, K K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third-grade children's perceptions of alcohol advertising, alcohol norms, expectancies for drinking, and behaviors toward alcohol. A Solomon four-group style experiment (N = 225) with two levels of the treatment factor assessed the effectiveness of in-school media literacy training for alcohol. The experiment compared a treatment that included the viewing of a videotape about television advertising along with the viewing of video clips of alcohol ads and discussion pertaining to alcohol advertising specifically versus one that included the viewing of the same general purpose media literacy videotape along with video clips of non-alcohol advertising and then discussion of advertising in general. The treatment had both immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects included the children's increased understanding of persuasive intent, viewing of characters as less similar to people they knew in real life and less desirable, decreased desire to be like the characters, decreased expectation of positive consequences from drinking alcohol, and decreased likelihood to choose an alcohol-related product. Indirect effects also were found on their perceptions of television's realism and their views of social norms related to alcohol. Delayed effects were examined and confirmed on expectancies and behavior. The treatment was more effective when alcohol-specific, and it also was more effective among girls than boys.

  9. Towards a global alcohol policy: alcohol, public health and the role of WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D. H.; Monteiro, M.; Room, R.; Saxena, S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 the World Health Assembly declared alcohol-related problems to be among the world's major health concerns. Since then, alcohol consumption has risen in developing countries, where it takes a heavy toll. Alcohol-related problems are at epidemic levels in the successor states of the Soviet Union and are responsible for 3.5% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. Substantial evidence exists of the relationship between the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption on the one hand and the incidence of alcohol-related problems on the other. Over the past 20 years, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of public policies involving, for example, taxation and restrictions on alcohol availability, in reducing alcohol-related problems. In the wake of rapid economic globalization, many of these policies at national and subnational levels have been eroded, often with the support of international financial and development organizations. Development agencies and international trade agreements have treated alcohol as a normal commodity, overlooking the adverse consequences of its consumption on productivity and health. WHO is in a strong position to take the lead in developing a global alcohol policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related problems, providing scientific and statistical support, capacity-building, disseminating effective strategies and collaborating with other international organizations. Such leadership can play a significant part in diminishing the health and social problems associated with alcohol use. PMID:10885168

  10. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, a tasteful biocatalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Mattevi, A.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The covalent flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO) is a versatile biocatalyst. It converts a wide range of phenolic compounds by catalysing oxidation, deamination, demethylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation reactions. The production of natural vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, coniferyl

  11. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Livestock Products Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, ... by alcohol-induced oxidative stress and ..... This work was supported by Konkuk University in. 2013. ... American Family Physician.

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  13. Misuse of social media marketing by alcohol companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirhusain A Shaikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.

  14. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  16. 27 CFR 19.372 - Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits, wines... Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.372 Receipt of spirits, wines and alcoholic.... 5215; or (4) Alcoholic flavoring materials. (b) Spirits and wines received in bulk containers or...

  17. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  18. [Alcohol intake--a two-edged sword. Part 1: metabolism and pathogenic effects of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    From the biomedical point of view alcohol is a Janus-faced dietary component with a dose-dependent effect varying from cardiovascular protection to cytotoxicity. Alcohol is absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract by passive diffusion, is quickly distributed throughout body water and is mostly eliminated through oxidation. The enzymatically-catalyzed oxidative degradation to acetaldehyde and further to acetate is primarily localized in the liver. In case of a low blood alcohol concentration (0.5 per thousand) are increasingly oxidized by the microsomal ethanoloxidizing system (MEOS). Alcohol consumption induces several metabolic reactions as well as acute effects on the central nervous system. Chronic alcohol consumption to some extent irreparably damages nearly every organ with the liver being particularly concerned. There are three stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and the liver damages mainly result from reaction products of alcohol degradation (acetaldehyde, NADH and reactive oxygen species). An especially dreaded clinical complication of the alcohol-induced liver disease is the hepatic encephalopathy. Its pathogenesis is a multifactorial and self-perpetuating process with the swelling of astrocytes being a crucial point. Swollen astrocytes induce several reactions such as oxidative/nitrosative stress, impaired signal transduction, protein modifications and a modified gene expression profile. The swelling of astrocytes and the change in neuronal activity are attributed to several neurotoxins, especially ammonia and aromatic amino acids. In alcohol addicted subjects multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. The status of folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and zinc is especially critical.

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  20. Determination of Alcohol Content in Alcoholic Beverages Using 45 MHz Benchtop NMR Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meden F. Isaac-Lam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol or ethanol is considered the most widely used recreational drug worldwide, and its production, consumption, and sale are strictly regulated by laws. Alcohol content of alcoholic beverages (wine, beers, and spirits is about 3–50% v/v. Analytical methods to determine the alcohol content must be reliable, precise, and accurate. In this study, the amount of ethanol in several alcoholic beverages was determined using a 45 MHz low-field benchtop NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Internal standard and standard addition analytical methods were utilized to quantify ethanol. For both methods, acetic acid or acetonitrile was used as internal standard to quantify alcohol content by using the peak area corresponding to the methyl peaks of ethanol, acetic acid, or acetonitrile. Results showed that internal standard method gave values of percent alcohol that are in close agreement with the indicated label as confirmed by running the samples in a 400 MHz high-field NMR spectrometer using acetic acid as internal standard. This study demonstrates the utility of a benchtop NMR spectrometer that can provide an alternative technique to analyze percent alcohol in alcoholic products.

  1. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  2. Treatment of chlorofluorocarbons in alcohol solutions by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiko; Sawai, Teruko

    1995-01-01

    A study was done on dechlorination of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC113) in neutral and alkaline alcohol solutions by means of γ-irradiation. The dechlorination yield (G (Cl - )) was found to depend on the kind of alcohol used as solvents and the presence of hydroxide ion. The order of G (Cl - ) value in alkaline solution was isopropyl alcohol>> ethyl alcohol > methyl alcohol. It was suggested that the high yield obtained in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution is explained by a chain process in dechlorination reaction. In case of alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution, CFC113 was dechlorinated to lower chlorinated ethane, and 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroetane was a main product. We have discussed on the chain dechlorination mechanism in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution. (author)

  3. Protection of aliphatic alcohols by thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanobashivili, E.M.; Chirakadze, G.G.; Panchvidze, M.V.; Gvilava, S.E.; Khidesheli, G.I.

    1973-01-01

    Study was made of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and penthyl alcohols. The aqueous solutions of the alcohols were X-irradiated. Results are presented of the action of high-energy particles on the solutions of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols in the presence and absence of the minor amounts of ethanthiol. Protective effect of the -SH group was established. Addition of 1.10 -6 mol/1 of ethanthiol to butyl alcohol protects it completely against radiation conversions up to a dose of 8.10 19 eV/ml. Consideration is given to the effect of thioalcohol additives on the formation of some products of alcohol radiation oxidation. Introduction of mercaptans to the system or that of the -SH group to the organic compound molecule enhances its radiation resistance [ru

  4. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Valorization of onion waste and by-products: MCR-ALS applied to reveal the compositional profiles of alcoholic fermentations of onion juice monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, José-María; Esteban-Díez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Tecedor, Sofía; Pizarro, Consuelo

    2008-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project, of which this study is a part, was to examine the feasibility of onion waste as a support-substrate for the profitable production of food-grade products. This study focused on the efficient production of ethanol from worthless onions by transforming the onion juice into onion liquor via alcoholic fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The onion bioethanol produced could be later used as a favorable substrate for acetic fermentation to finally obtain onion vinegar. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, has been used to reveal the compositional and spectral profiles for both substrates and products of alcoholic fermentation runs, that is, total sugars, ethanol, and biomass concentration. The ambiguity associated with the ALS calculation was resolved by applying suitable inequality and equality constraints. The quality of the results provided by the NIR-based MCR-ALS methodology adopted was evaluated by several performance indicators, including the variance explained by the model, the lack of fit and the agreement between the MCR-ALS achieved solution and the results computed by applying previously validated PLS reference models. An additional fermentation run was employed to test the actual predictive ability of the ALS model developed. For all the components resolved in the fermentation system studied (i.e., total sugars, ethanol, and biomass), the final model obtained showed a high predictive ability and suitable accuracy and precision, both in calibration and external validation, confirmed by the very good agreement between the ALS responses and the reference values (the coefficient of determination was, in all cases, very close to 1, and the statistics confirmed that no significant difference was found between PLS reference models and the MCR-ALS methodology applied). Thus, the proven reliability of the MCR-ALS model presented

  6. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Taylor, Benjamin J; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol should be reduced. This paper summarizes and evaluates the evidence base about policy and intervention options regarding unrecorded alcohol consumption. A systematic review of the literature using electronic databases. The literature on unrecorded consumption was sparse with less than 30 articles about policy options, mostly based on observational studies. The most simplistic option to reduce unrecorded consumption would be to lower recorded alcohol prices to remove the economic incentive of buying unrecorded alcohol. However, this may increase the net total alcohol consumption, making it an unappealing public health policy option. Other policy options largely depend on the specific sub-group of unrecorded alcohol. The prohibition of toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol) can improve health outcomes associated with surrogate alcohol consumption. Cross-border shopping can be reduced by either narrowing the tax differences, or stricter control. Actions limiting illegal trade and counterfeiting include introduction of tax stamps and electronic surveillance systems of alcohol trade. Education campaigns might increase the awareness about the risks associated with illegal alcohol. The most problematic category appears to be the home and small-scale artisanal production, for which the most promising option is to offer financial incentives to the producers for registration and quality control. Even though there are suggestions and theories on how to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, there is currently no clear evidence base on the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of available policy options. In addition, the differences in consumption levels, types of unrecorded alcohol, culture and tradition point to different measures in different parts of the world. Thus, the recommendation of a framework for moving forward in decision making

  7. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  8. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  9. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  10. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  11. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  13. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  14. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  15. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  17. Study and management of atmospheric exhaust gas in acetic acid fermentation developing a new process for alcohol vinegar production; Etude et maitrise des rejets atmospheriques en vinaigrerie, developpement d'un procede nouveau de conduite de la fermentation acetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochat Bohatier, C

    1999-12-06

    The aim of the study was to examine emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during acetic (acid) fermentation. The first part of the study presents the methodology developed to reproduce production cycles for spirit vinegar and to analyse gas effluents. The second part describes the origin and quantification of the emissions (ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate). The acetic acid is produced by bacterial metabolism while the ethyl acetate is a result of the chemical reaction of esterification. By modelling the emissions during batch processing we were able to identify the various parameters involved when VOCs are carried along by the fermentation gases. The quantities of ethyl acetate depend on the length of time the diluted alcohol is stored, and on its composition. By using a fed-batch method with a continuous supply of ethanol we could reduce alcohol emissions. The third part of the study develops the kinetics studies carried out to adapt the fed-batch process to acetic acid fermentation. The influence of ethanol, either in terms of deficiency or inhibition, is minimized between 8 and 16 g.1-1. A study of the growth rate of bacteria in relation to the amount of acetic acid showed that the latter was highly inhibitive. There is a critical concentration of acetic acid at which the growth of bacteria stops, and the death rate of the culture increases rapidly. The latter depends on the composition of the culture's medium; the corresponding pH of the concentration is between 2.25 and 2.28. By limiting the formation of ethyl acetate in the diluted alcohol and by controlling the concentration of ethanol at 16 g.l -1 per fermentation, the VOC emissions are reduced by 30% and the yield increases as a result. (author)

  18. Study and management of atmospheric exhaust gas in acetic acid fermentation developing a new process for alcohol vinegar production; Etude et maitrise des rejets atmospheriques en vinaigrerie, developpement d'un procede nouveau de conduite de la fermentation acetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochat Bohatier, C.

    1999-12-06

    The aim of the study was to examine emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during acetic (acid) fermentation. The first part of the study presents the methodology developed to reproduce production cycles for spirit vinegar and to analyse gas effluents. The second part describes the origin and quantification of the emissions (ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate). The acetic acid is produced by bacterial metabolism while the ethyl acetate is a result of the chemical reaction of esterification. By modelling the emissions during batch processing we were able to identify the various parameters involved when VOCs are carried along by the fermentation gases. The quantities of ethyl acetate depend on the length of time the diluted alcohol is stored, and on its composition. By using a fed-batch method with a continuous supply of ethanol we could reduce alcohol emissions. The third part of the study develops the kinetics studies carried out to adapt the fed-batch process to acetic acid fermentation. The influence of ethanol, either in terms of deficiency or inhibition, is minimized between 8 and 16 g.1-1. A study of the growth rate of bacteria in relation to the amount of acetic acid showed that the latter was highly inhibitive. There is a critical concentration of acetic acid at which the growth of bacteria stops, and the death rate of the culture increases rapidly. The latter depends on the composition of the culture's medium; the corresponding pH of the concentration is between 2.25 and 2.28. By limiting the formation of ethyl acetate in the diluted alcohol and by controlling the concentration of ethanol at 16 g.l -1 per fermentation, the VOC emissions are reduced by 30% and the yield increases as a result. (author)

  19. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a range of health and social harms that increase with the level of consumption. Policy makers are interested in effective and cost-effective interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and associated harms. Economic theory and research evidence demonstrate that increasing price is effective at the population level. Price interventions that target heavier consumers of alcohol may be more effective at reducing alcohol-related harms with less impact on moderate consumers. Minimum pricing per unit of alcohol has been proposed on this basis but concerns have been expressed that 'moderate drinkers of modest means' will be unfairly penalized. If those on low incomes are disproportionately affected by a policy that removes very cheap alcohol from the market, the policy could be regressive. The effect on households' budgets will depend on who currently purchases cheaper products and the extent to which the resulting changes in prices will impact on their demand for alcohol. This paper focuses on the first of these points. This paper aims to identify patterns of purchasing of cheap off-trade alcohol products, focusing on income and the level of all alcohol purchased. Three years (2006-08) of UK household survey data were used. The Expenditure and Food Survey provides comprehensive 2-week data on household expenditure. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the purchase of cheap off-trade alcohol, household income levels and whether the household level of alcohol purchasing is categorized as moderate, hazardous or harmful, while controlling for other household and non-household characteristics. Predicted probabilities and quantities for cheap alcohol purchasing patterns were generated for all households. The descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that low-income households are not the predominant purchasers of any alcohol or even of cheap alcohol. Of those who do purchase off-trade alcohol

  20. Avoidable cost of alcohol abuse in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  2. ACCELERATING COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF ETHANOL FROM FACTIONS OF INTERMEDIATE AND HEAD IMPURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Agafonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Nowadays purification of ethanol from the head and intermediate impurities is done with the selection of fractions of fusel alcohol and fusel oil from the distillation column and head and intermediate fractions impurities from condenser Epuration column operating accord-ing to the hydro-selection method. Due to this the fraction contains at least 13% ethyl alcohol, resulting in a reduced yield of the final product. Distillation of these fractions in the known acceleration columns requires increased consumption of heating steam for 6-8 kg / dal and increasing installation metal content. In this paper we investigate the process of distillation fraction from the condenser of Epura-tion column, fusel alcohol from the distillation column and subfusel liquid layer from the decanter, which is fed on a plate of supply of new accelerating column (AC, which operates on Epuration technology with the supply of hydro-selection water on the top plate and has in its composition concentration, boiling and stripping parts, a dephlagmator, a condenser, a boiler. Material balance equations of the column were obtained and ethyl alcohol concentration on its plates were determined by them. Having converted the material balance equations, we determined the dependences for the impurities ratio being drawn from the accelerating column with the Luther flows and ethyl alcohol fraction. Then we received the equation for determining the proportion of impurities taken from the column condenser with fraction. These calculations proved that the studied impurities are almost completely selected with this faction, ethyl alcohol content of it being 0.14% of the hourly output.

  3. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumienna, Małgorzata; Lasik, Małgorzata; Szambelan, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Winter triticale BOGO and "Ethanol Red" Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol) as well as protein and potassium concentrations. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage) constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.

  4. The alcohol program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jose R.; Goldemberg, Jose

    1999-01-01

    The rationale for the launching of the Alcohol Program from sugarcane in Brazil in the mid-1970s is described as an answer to the first ''oil crisis'' as well as a solution to the problem of the fluctuating sugar prices in the international market. The technical characteristics of ethanol as a fuel are given as well as a discussion of the evolution of the cost of production, environmental and social consequences. Regarding costs, ethanol production was close to 100 dollars a barrel in the initial stages of the Program in 1980 falling rapidly due to economies of scale and technological progress to half that value in 1990, followed by a slower decline in recent years. Considering the hard currency saved by avoiding oil importation through the significant displacement of gasoline by ethanol and the decrease in the amount of external debt that the displaced oil importation was able to provide it is possible to demonstrate that the Alcohol Program has been an efficient way of exchanging dollar debt by national currency subsidies which are paid by the liquid fossil fuel users. Even with this economic gains for society, the continuity of the Program is difficult to maintain. Two solutions to this problem are discussed: internal expansion of the use of ethanol and exports to industrialized countries where it could be used as an octane enhancer. The main attractiveness of the Program - the reduction of CO 2 emissions as compared to fossil fuels - is stressed, mainly as a solution for industrialized countries to fulfill their commitments with the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention. (Author)

  5. Production of Gentisyl Alcohol from Phoma herbarum Endophytic in Curcuma longa L. and Its Antagonistic Activity Towards Leaf Spot Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suruchi; Kaul, Sanjana; Singh, Baljinder; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    Endophytes from medicinal plants represent a potential source of bioactive compounds. During the present investigation, fungal endophytes were isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), an important medicinal plant. A total of 207 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from the rhizome of C. longa L. They were grouped into seven genera based on morphological and molecular data. The fungal endophytes of C. longa were evaluated for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of leaf spot of turmeric. The disease is a major cause for economic loss in turmeric cultivation. Endophytic Phoma herbarum showed significant activity against C. gloeosporioides and was therefore selected for further studies. A compound gentisyl alcohol was isolated from P. herbarum which showed effective antagonism against C. gloeosporioides. The organism could therefore be used as a biocontrol agent against C. gloeosporioides.

  6. The framing of alcohol in (non-)sponsored movies: A comparative content analysis of alcohol advertising and portrayals in sponsored and non-sponsored Dutch movies

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Kokkeler, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol advertising, in the form of product placement, has been shown to influence the viewer’s alcohol consumption. However, it is not just the portrayal itself that affects behavioural outcomes; the particular message that is conveyed in an alcohol portrayal may actually influence consumer behaviour in a manner known as “framing”. Therefore, the prevalence and framing of alcohol portrayals in movies was investigated by focussing on product placement strategies, several portrayal chara...

  7. Direct electrochemical synthesis of metal alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrejder, V.A.; Turevskaya, E.P.; Kozlova, N.I.; Turova, N.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions of electrochemical synthesis of Ga, Sc, Y, Ge, Ti, Zr, Nb and Ta alcoholates during anodic metal dissolution in absolute alcohols in the presence of background electrolyte are studied. R 4 NBr and R 4 NBF 4 salts are optimum background electrolytes. Application limits of this synthetical method using different metals as anode are determined. It is supposed that alkoxyhalogenides the nature of which determines further direction of electrode process, are the primary products of anodic oxidation of metals [ru

  8. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  9. Consumption Of Counterfeit Alcohol In Contemporary Russia: The Role Of Cultural And Structural Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Kotelnikova

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Russians believe that counterfeit alcohol may cause death. Nevertheless, alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in contemporary Russia as are branded clothes, accessories and audio products. This paper aims to reveal whether counterfeit alcohol consumers are distinctive in terms of structure and culture. It investigates the prevalence and structure of counterfeit alcohol purchasing and consumption; attitudes and beliefs about counterfeit alcohol; and predictors of counte...

  10. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  11. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  12. Importance of alcohol-related expectations and emotional expressivity for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of alcohol-dependent patients' emotional expressivity, alcohol-related expectations and socio-demographic factors for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. The study sample consisted of 136 alcohol-dependent patients (100 men and 36 women) undergoing treatment in Kaunas center for addictive disorders. Only higher expression of negative alcohol-related expectations (std. beta=0.192, P=0.023), higher emotional impulse intensity (std. beta=0.229, P=0.021) and higher expression of positive emotional expressiveness (std. beta=0.021, P=0.020) as well as gender (std. beta=0.180, P=0.049), education (std. beta=-0.137, P=0.038) and alcohol dependency treatment conditions (members of support group after rehabilitation program) (std. beta=0.288, P=0.001; std. beta=0.608, P=0.001) were significant factors for predicting the different level of alcohol-dependent patients motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. Negative alcohol-related expectations, emotional impulse intensity and positive emotional expressiveness were significant even though quite weak triggers for alcohol-dependent patients' different level of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. An assumption could be made that by changing these triggers it is possible to change addictive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  14. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  15. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  16. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  17. Interstellar Ices and Radiation-induced Oxidations of Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    Infrared spectra of ices containing alcohols that are known or potential interstellar molecules are examined before and after irradiation with 1 MeV protons at ∼20 K. The low-temperature oxidation (hydrogen loss) of six alcohols is followed, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. The formation of reaction products is discussed in terms of the literature on the radiation chemistry of alcohols and a systematic variation in their structures. The results from these new laboratory measurements are then applied to a recent study of propargyl alcohol. Connections are drawn between known interstellar molecules, and several new reaction products in interstellar ices are predicted.

  18. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  20. Production of medium-chain fatty acids and higher alcohols by a synthetic co-culture grown on carbon monoxide or syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H2, and CO2, is a promising renewable feedstock for bio-based production of organic chemicals. Production of medium-chain fatty acids can be performed via chain elongation, utilizing acetate and ethanol as main substrates. Acetate and ethanol are main

  1. Present crisis and the future of alcohol programs in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    After the oil shortages of the 1970s, an intensive program to enhance the use of alcohol as an automotive fuel substitute was instigated in Brazil. This program was successfully developed during the 1980s decade, to the extent that 90% of the demand for new automobiles has been carried by alcohol cars. Since 1989 the paradox of a current gasoline surplus and alcohol shortage has caused the sales of alcohol cars to plummet. The technical solutions presented by the authors for the alcohol crisis include changing the relative pricing of fuels and vehicles, reaching an equilibrium between fuel demand and production, and obtaining a recovery of alcohol credibility. Together, these factors may help improve sales of the alcohol-fueled car

  2. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoskins, Daniel L.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Separators are used to protect cathodes from biofouling and to avoid electrode short-circuiting, but they can adversely affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. A spray method was used to apply a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) separator to the cathode. Power densities were unaffected by the PVA separator (339 ± 29 mW/m2), compared to a control lacking a separator in a low conductivity solution (1mS/cm) similar to wastewater. Power was reduced with separators in solutions typical of laboratory tests (7-13 mS/cm), compared to separatorless controls. The PVA separator produced more power in a separator assembly (SEA) configuration (444 ± 8 mW/m2) in the 1mS/cm solution, but power was reduced if a PVA or wipe separator was used in higher conductivity solutions with either Pt or activated carbon catalysts. Spray and cast PVA separators performed similarly, but the spray method is preferred as it was easier to apply and use.

  5. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  6. Production of Methanol-Higher Alcohol Mixtures from Natural Gas via Syngas Chemistry Production de mélanges méthanol-alcools supérieurs à partir du gaz, via (CO + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevailing position of ethers (MTBE, TAME as octane boosters, and the low oil prices at present, alcohol synthesis remains one of the near future means of natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry. After a review of the available process development data in the field, this paper focuses on the IFP process studies, based on the CuCo and CuNi catalysts developed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFR, France and Idemitsu Kosan (Japan. The adequacy between the product specifications, and the optimization of the performances is then discussed in a technico-economic context, together with a presentation of lab scale, pilot scale and demonstration scale test results. As a conclusion, a prospective overall view brings together todays economics and some improvement guidelines dealing with investments, operating cost and catalyst performances. Cette publication présente les travaux de R & D (Recherche et Développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon en synthèse d'alcools. Elle situe les résultats dans le contexte technique et économique actuel. L'accroissement constant des ressources prouvées en gaz et, chronologiquement, les deux crises pétrolières, la suppression du plomb dans les essences, ont conduit le monde industriel à intensifier les recherches concernant la synthèse d'alcools. Très récemment, les effets bénéfiques de l'addition d'alcools sur les émissions de polluants ont été mis en évidence. Toutefois, l'additivation de carburants par les alcools est en voie de disparition au profit des éthers, alors que, indépendamment, les procédés de production d'ammoniac, de méthanol, d'acide acétique, également fondés sur le gaz, se sont seuls développés. La synthèse d'alcools a fait l'objet de nombreux travaux, résumés dans les tableaux 1 et 2. L'étude des différents aspects réactionnels amène à prendre en compte l'exothermicité importante des r

  7. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  8. Surrogate alcohol containing methanol, social deprivation and public health in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Hausler, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Surrogate alcohol, i.e. alcohol not intended or not officially intended for human consumption, continues to play an important role in alcohol consumption in Russia, especially for people with alcohol dependence. Among the different types of surrogate alcohol, there are windshield washer antifreeze liquids; these products are the cheapest kinds of non-beverage alcohol available and thus likely to be used by the most deprived and marginalised groups such as homeless people with alcohol dependence. Although it is well known, that non-beverage alcohol is used for consumption by various groups in Russia, and although there are laws to prohibit the use of methanol as part of windshield washer antifreeze liquids for the very reason that such products could be used as surrogate alcohol, we detected products in retail sale which were a mix of water and methanol only. Methanol poses serious health threats including blindness and death, and there had been repeated methanol deaths from surrogate alcohol in Russia over the last years. If law-enforcement does not change for surrogate products, we can expect more methanol-resulting deaths in the most deprived and marginalized groups of people with alcohol dependence in Russia. In addition, ingredients with questionable safety profiles such as formic acid should also be prohibited in non-beverage alcohol products that are likely to be consumed as surrogate alcohol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  10. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  12. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  13. Women and alcohol: cross-cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D B

    1991-01-01

    A review of the worldwide literature about women and alcohol contradicts many stereotypes and raises some new questions, interpretations, and practical implications. Norms, values, attitudes, and expectations may be at least as important as physiological differences between the sexes with respect to patterns of drinking and their outcomes. Women have been drinking as long as men have throughout history, and they drink about as often as men in many cultures; in a few instances, they even seem to drink more, in spite of the fact that the physical impact of a given dose of alcohol is greater for women. In nonindustrial societies, women usually have more easy access to alcoholic beverages; in fact, they often monopolize production and predominate in the distribution system. A cross-cultural perspective shows that too narrow a focus on the social, psychological, and physical problems that excessive drinkers incur has severely hampered the understanding of women's diverse roles with respect to alcohol.

  14. Effect of an excise tax increase on the demand for low alcohol wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    the per-capita alcohol consumption is 50% higher than the Australian average and likelihood of dying from alcohol is ten times the national rate. As a consequence, a comprehensive review of the Australian tax system has recommended wine to be taxed on a volumetric basis and that all alcoholic beverages...... be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. Even though Australia has somewhat unique circumstances, the quest for moderate alcohol consumption has become of global importance. Reducing or limiting the level of harm from alcohol consumption has been the focus of government intervention, national......Purpose: The study examines the demand for low and very low alcohol wine products under the current Australian volumetric alcohol system and under an increase of excise tax for wine under an alcohol tax equalisation. The penetration and market share of normal strength and low alcohol wine...

  15. The extent and nature of alcohol advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Roberts, Michele; Pescud, Melanie; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Current alcohol guidelines in Australia recommend minimising alcohol consumption, especially among minors. This study investigated (i) the extent to which children and the general population are exposed to television advertisements that endorse alcohol consumption and (ii) the themes used in these advertisements. A content analysis was conducted on alcohol advertisements aired over two months in major Australian cities. The advertisements were coded according to the products that were promoted, the themes that were employed, and the time of exposure. Advertising placement expenditure was also captured. In total, 2810 alcohol advertisements were aired, representing one in 10 beverage advertisements. Advertisement placement expenditure for alcohol products in the five cities over the two months was $15.8 million. Around half of all alcohol advertisements appeared during children's popular viewing times. The most common themes used were humour, friendship/mateship and value for money. Children and adults are regularly exposed to advertisements that depict alcohol consumption as fun, social and inexpensive. Such messages may reinforce existing alcohol-related cultural norms that prevent many Australians from meeting current intake guidelines. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  17. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2010-07-01

    This contribution aims to examine systematically the evidence on the impact of the quality of unrecorded alcohol products on health consequences. Systematic computer assisted review of the literature. There are a number of pathways related to alcohol quality that may lead to acute or chronic health problems. The following constituents and contaminants of alcoholic beverages were identified as likely contributors to these problems: (i) toxic metals (e.g. lead) from contaminated water sources or unsuitable distillation equipment; (ii) volatile constituents, such as acetaldehyde or higher alcohols, which may be produced in significant amounts due to faults in production technology or microbiological spoilage; (iii) ethyl carbamate (urethane), a carcinogenic contaminant with major occurrence in certain fruit and sugarcane spirits; (iv) biologically active flavour compounds (e.g. coumarin in cosmetics used as non-beverage alcohol); (v) toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol or diethyl phthalate). In addition, the often higher ethanol content may have detrimental health effects. These pathways should not be assumed as present for all subcategories of unrecorded alcohol, but are more relevant to certain types and geographic regions. A health impact of unrecorded alcohol over and above the effect of ethanol cannot be excluded. More research is urgently needed, especially with respect to liver disease and alcohol poisoning as endpoints. A feasible approach for new research on the effects of unrecorded alcohol could be based on a representative sample from low socioeconomic regions with high prevalence of unrecorded consumption.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  19. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  20. The framing of alcohol in (non-)sponsored movies : A comparative content analysis of alcohol advertising and portrayals in sponsored and non-sponsored Dutch movies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Kokkeler, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol advertising, in the form of product placement, has been shown to influence the viewer’s alcohol consumption. However, it is not just the portrayal itself that affects behavioural outcomes; the particular message that is conveyed in an alcohol portrayal may actually influence consumer

  1. 用清洁生产理念优化苯甲醇和苯甲酸的合成实验%Experiment of Synthesis Optimization for Benzyl Alcohol and Benzoic Acid by Stratagem of Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿桂芳; 赵喜芝; 王珩

    2009-01-01

    Preparing benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid by benzyalde is an important experiment in organic chemistry experiment teaching in colleges. But in conventional experiment some problem appears including great consumption of alkali and acid as well as pollution of benzene and hydrogen chloride on the laboratory. In the highlight of clean production such as source controlling, pollution reduction and efficiency enhancement, the parameters of traditional experiment were optimized for the purpose of reducing the pollution of laboratory. The stratagem of clean production may direct a new way for students' life.%以苯甲醛为原料制备苯甲醇与苯甲酸是高校有机化学实验教学中的一个重要实验,但在传统实验中,存在原料用量大,苯、氯化氢污染实验室环境等问题.文章利用清洁生产从源头控制、减污增效的思想,对本实验的传统参数进行了优化,从而减轻对实验室的污染.并在该思想的引领下,使学生了解清洁生产可从身边的事做起.

  2. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  3. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  4. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  5. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  6. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17.133 Section 17.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage...

  7. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  8. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  9. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  10. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  13. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  15. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  16. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  17. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  18. Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising on Billboards: Targeting with Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Caroline; Basil, Michael D.

    A study examined whether billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products is differentially targeted toward White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic neighborhoods. The study analyzed 901 billboards in neighborhood commercial districts in San Francisco, California, giving particular attention to tobacco and alcohol billboards. Neighborhood census…

  19. Pattern of alcohol consumption among males and females and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... majority engaged in problem drinking despite awareness of the health problems associated with alcohol consumption. Hence there is dire need for deliberate Government policy to regulate the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages in view of the health, social, and economic consequences associated ...

  20. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  1. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario

    1993-01-01

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country

  2. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Ho, Li-Ming; Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Jhe-Yo

    2013-09-08

    The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol's price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (-0.820), wine (-0.955), whisky (-0.587), brandy (-0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan.

  3. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  4. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at

  5. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  6. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  7. Brazil: good news for oil is bad news for alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    The impact of the doubling of oil prices and the devaluation of the Brazilian currency on the alcohol fuel programme is examined in this article, and the recent discovery by the Brazilian oil company, Petrobras, of a major new offshore oil field, the government's efforts to boost the consumption of alcohol fuel with subsidies and cheap loans, and the lower costs of running alcohol powered cars are discussed. Details of a major restructuring of the alcohol industry, the production of alcohol between 1994-1999, the boom in sugar exports, the glut of sugar cane, the falling confidence of motorists in alcohol powered cars, and the general move away from subsidies spearheaded by the World Trade Organisation are considered. (UK)

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  9. Alcohol Acute Effects in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    South Africe Figure 2. Country codes used in graphs. \\~i F]Fi~~ 100. Wine Consumption 70. 60. K3 Italy 50 E France 40 X M USSR 30 E3 West Germany 2...breakdown products are carbon dioxide and water. There are no minerals or vitamins in alcohol; hence, apart from calories, there is no nutritional value...when the BAC has decreased to 0 mg% (but normally only after it had peaked previously at an intoxicated level). Vitamin deficiencies and dehydration

  10. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  11. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Alcohol appearances (classified as 'alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances') were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of 'alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances' was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including 'alcohol brand appearances', were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people.

  12. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as ‘alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances’) were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of ‘alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances’ was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including ‘alcohol brand appearances’, were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people. PMID:22039199

  13. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  14. Is trivialisation of alcohol consumption a laughing matter? Alcohol incidence in a metropolitan daily newspaper's comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda; Donovan, Patrick; Handley, Claire

    2009-05-01

    A number of studies have looked at the incidence and nature of depictions of alcohol in various media, primarily in movies, television and magazines. However, there have been few studies of depictions of alcohol in comic strips in newspapers. This study analysed the content of the five comic strips in the 258 weekday editions of a metropolitan newspaper over a period of 1 year. Where alcohol was depicted, this was classified as either integral or incidental to the theme or story of that day's strip. As an indication of the nature of the depiction and in the absence of specific codes for the depiction of alcohol in comic strips, depictions were assessed against the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Of the 1 290 individual comic strips, 4% (n = 54) depicted alcohol. Depictions were equal in number incidental and integral to the 'story'. Over half of the strips depicting alcohol were deemed to breach the ABAC, with the most common breach related to trivialisation of alcohol consumption. One strip accounted for over 60% of all depictions with the majority breaching the ABAC. These results suggest that newspaper publishers should consider a code for depictions of alcohol (and other unhealthy or risky products/behaviours) in comics. At the very least, comics that trivialise the abuse of alcohol should be excluded under such a code.

  15. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  16. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use.

  17. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Villalbí, Joan R; Espelt, Albert; Franco, Manuel

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. 27 CFR 19.373 - Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines and... Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.373 Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor...

  19. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand name, kind, alcohol... Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.643 Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind. The label of distilled spirits shall state the brand...

  20. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  1. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  2. Alcohol Advertising on Social Media: Examining the Content of Popular Alcohol Brands on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Padon, Alisa A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hicks, Kristen K; Carreon, Amie K; Crowell, Jarrett R; Willingham, Kristen L; Merianos, Ashley L

    2018-06-11

    There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the content of promotional advertisements by alcohol brands on Instagram. For a 30-day period, Instagram profiles of 15 distinct alcohol brands were examined. Pictorial posts/updates from each profile were screen captured and individually documented. Approximately 184 distinct posts constituted our final sample. The Content Appealing to Youth Index was independently employed by two raters to assess each post. For each characteristic, Cohen's Kappa measures, and associated 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Posts increased throughout the week and peaked on Thursday and Friday. The production value of the posts examined was generally high, frequently featuring color, texture, shine, contrast, faces, and action. Character appeals and use of youth-oriented genres were uncommon. Many of the posts used product appeals and physical benefits to consumption. The posts also emphasized the following rewarding appeal characteristics: positive emotional experiences, achievement, individuality, and camaraderie. The most commonly coded risk-related feature was inappropriate use. Conclusions/Importance: This investigation represents an initial attempt to provide insights into the content alcohol brands are including in their promotional materials on social networking sites.

  3. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  4. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  5. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholic fermentation: an option for renewable energy production from agricultural residues; Fermentacion alcoholica: una opcion para la produccion de energia renovable a partir de desechos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, H. J [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: hjv@correo.azc.uam.mx; Dacosta, O [Oficina de Consejo, Desarrollo y Transferencia Tecnologica, Dijon (Francia)]. E-mail: statfor@yahoo.com

    2007-10-15

    Biotechnology offers several options for generating renewable energy. One of these technologies consists on producing bioethanol by fermentation. Bioethanol is mainly used to prepare fuel for motor vehicles. This paper presents a proposal to produce such as fuels with a hundred liters experimental fermentation pilot unit. Results derived from essays are similar, in terms of yield and productivity, to those presented by other systems, if we take into account that our unit works under non sterile conditions, which represents significant energy savings. This technology does not require specialized knowledge for its construction and it would accessible to groups of Mexican farmers. [Spanish] La biotecnologia ofrece diversas opciones para la generacion de energias renovables. Una de ellas es la produccion de bioetanol, el cual se obtiene mediante fermentacion. El bioetanol se usa en la preparacion de carburantes para vehiculos automotores. En este articulo se presenta una propuesta para la obtencion de este combustible mediante una unidad de fermentacion piloto experimental de 100 litros. Los resultados de nuestros ensayos, en rendimiento y productividad, son similares a los de otros laboratorios si se considera que esta unidad piloto funciona en condiciones no esteriles, lo que representa como ventaja un ahorro de energia no despreciable. Ademas, la tecnologia no requiere conocimientos especializados para su realizacion y estaria al alcance de grupos campesinos mexicanos.

  7. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  8. Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage from Cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta ) ... Nigerian Food Journal ... evaluation were conducted on the products to assess the highest preference.

  9. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  10. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders (FASDs) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Last Updated: November 21, 2017 This article was ... about pre-pregnancy planning, including tips on nutrition, exercise and healthy habits. About Support Us Copyright & Permissions ...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  13. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  14. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  15. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  16. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  17. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  18. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  19. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol and Cirrhosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  20. Alcohol and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.