WorldWideScience

Sample records for fused compound systems

  1. The phenomenon of nucleon emission at high angular momentum states of fused compound systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, T R; Santhosh-Kumar, S

    2003-01-01

    Nucleon emission from high spin fused compound systems is analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of hot rotating (STHR) nuclei. This is an elaborate version of our earlier work and we present our results for sup 1 sup 5 sup 6 Er, sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Er, sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Yb and sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Hg. We predict an increase in neutron emission for sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Er due to the abrupt decrease in neutron separation energy around I approx 55h. Since the drop in the separation energy is closely associated with the structural changes in the rotating nuclei, relative increase in neutron emission probability around certain values of angular momentum may be construed as evidence for the shape transition. A similar effect is predicted for sup 1 sup 6 sup 8 Yb around I approx 55h. We also extend the microscopic cranked Nilsson method (CNM) to hot nuclear systems and compare the results with that of the STHR method. The two methods yield different results for triaxially deformed nuclei although for biaxial d...

  2. The phenomenon of nucleon emission at high angular momentum states of fused compound systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Rajasekaran; S Selvaraj; S Santhosh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Nucleon emission from high spin fused compound systems is analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of hot rotating (STHR) nuclei. This is an elaborate version of our earlier work and we present our results for 156Er, 166Er, 168Yb and 188Hg. We predict an increase in neutron emission for 166Er due to the abrupt decrease in neutron separation energy around ≈ 55ħ. Since the drop in the separation energy is closely associated with the structural changes in the rotating nuclei, relative increase in neutron emission probability around certain values of angular momentum may be construed as evidence for the shape transition. A similar effect is predicted for 168Yb around ≈ 55ħ. We also extend the microscopic cranked Nilsson method (CNM) to hot nuclear systems and compare the results with that of the STHR method. The two methods yield different results for triaxially deformed nuclei although for biaxial deformations the results are identical. This is illustrated for 186Hg.

  3. Current advances in fused tetrathiafulvalene donor-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkamp, Jesse J; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia

    2015-02-21

    Electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) systems have been studied extensively. Among them, fused D-A systems have attracted much attention during the past decades. Herein, we will present the evolution of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) fused D-A systems and their potential applications in areas such as solar cells, OFETs, molecular wires and optoelectronics just to name a few. The synthesis and electrochemical, photophysical and intrinsic properties of fused D-A systems will be described as well.

  4. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Novel Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Tetrahydropyrimidine Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Marwa Sayed; Farhat, Mahmoud; Errayes, Asma Omar; Madkour, Hassan Mohamed Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    6-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile has been utilized for synthesis of the fused heterocyclic compounds namely thiazolopyrimidines, tetrazolopyrimidine, pyrimidoquinazoline, pyrimidothiazolopyrimidine, pyrimidothiazolotriazine and pyrrolothiazolopyrimidine derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antioxidant activities of all synthesized compounds were investigated.

  6. a -Oxo Ketene Dithioacetals Chemistry-A Facile Route to the Synthesis of Fused Heterocyclic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fused heterocyclic compounds 2 : imidazo [1,2-a] pyridine 2a-c and pyrido [1,2-a] pyrimidine 2d were obtained from the reaction of a -cinnamoyl ketene dibenzylthio acetals 1 with diamine. When a -cinnamoyl -a '-benzoyl ketene N, N-acetals 3a-b were treated by t-BuONa/t-BuOH solution, 8- benzoyl-pyrido[1,2-a] pyrimidine 4 was produced.

  7. Computational study on fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yujie; Zhang, Tongcun; Piao, Ying'ai; Zhang, Xiuli; Hu, Yanying; Zhang, Liming; Jia, Shiru; He, Huixin

    2017-02-01

    The structure, stability and electronic properties of two fused five membered heterocyclic compounds containing tertiary oxygen have been investigated with quantum chemistry computation. The results show that 3H-4λ3-furo[1,2-a]furan (M1) and 2a1λ4-oxacyclopenta[cd]pentalene (M2) both own three Csbnd O bonds and especially in M2 the three Csbnd O bonds and angles are approximately identical. The two compounds are comparatively stable and M2 with three pentacycles is more stable than compound M1 according to the Csbnd O bond lengths, bond orders, Egap, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), and aromaticity indexes. The aromaticity indexes such as NICS(0), NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz show that they both have strong aromaticity. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis shows that oxygen atom takes hybrid orbitals composed of s and p orbital components to form σ(Csbnd O) bonds in compounds M1 and M2. The second order perturbation analysis shows that the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule exists in compound M1.

  8. A Design of Penetration Ammunition Fuse System Based on Embedded Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; LIU Xiao-ming; XIE Xiao-mei

    2007-01-01

    The hard target smart fuse of penetration ammunition is developing to be smaller,lighter, smarter and multifunction. After analyzing the characteristics of high-g accelerating signals and the penetration algorithms, this paper provides a solution of penetration ammunition fuse system based on embedded technology. This fuse system realizes acquisition of the high-g accelerating signals and uses the appropriate penetration algorithms to process them. The fuse system can not only make the same type of penetration ammunition to attack different kinds of objects accurately, but also meet the other requirements of the function of penetration ammunition fuse system.

  9. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  10. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  11. Influence of System Parameters on Fuse Protection Use in Regenerative DC Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Salman Qamber

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current limiting fuses are widely used to protect the thyristors in DC drive systems. One very important problem is the choice of the correct voltage rating for fuses protecting regenerative DC drives, where many types of fault may occur, which makes fuse protection difficult. In the event of a commutation failure while regenerating, the fuses need to interrupt the loop supplied by the AC and DC voltages acting in series, which is the most difficult case for protection by fuses. In this paper a detailed study of the complete interruption process has been investigated by modeling of arcing process of the fuse protection against the regenerative circuit internal commutation fault. The effect of varying the motor time constant, supply impedance, number of fuses used to clear the fault and DC machine rating on the total transient response is studied. The model of a 200 A fuse is employed in this study. Fuses in series with both the semiconductor devices (F1 and fuses in AC lines (F2 are considered. Comparison was made between arc energy produced for fuses protecting the regenerative circuit if failure occurs, with the arc energy produced in a standard AC test in order to investigate the required voltage rating for the fuse.

  12. Covalent non-fused tetrathiafulvalene-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Flavia; Avarvari, Narcis

    2016-06-28

    Covalent donor-acceptor (D-A) systems have significantly contributed to the development of many organic materials and to molecular electronics. Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) represents one of the most widely studied donor precursors and has been incorporated into the structure of many D-A derivatives with the objective of obtaining redox control and modulation of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), in order to address switchable emissive systems and to take advantage of its propensity to form regular stacks in the solid state. In this review, we focus on the main families of non-fused TTF-acceptors, which are classified according to the nature of the acceptor: nitrogen-containing heterocycles, BODIPY, perylenes and electron poor unsaturated hydrocarbons, as well as radical acceptors. We describe herein the most representative members of each family with a brief mention of their synthesis and a special focus on their D-A characteristics. Special attention is given to ICT and its modulation, fluorescence quenching and switching, photoconductivity, bistability and spin distribution by discussing and comparing spectroscopic and electrochemical features, photophysical properties, solid-state properties and theoretical calculations.

  13. Characterization of Plasma-Polymerized Fused Polycyclic Compounds for Binding Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Norrman, Kion; Kingshott, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is made of the plasma polymerization of fused polycyclic monomers containing a dioxy-ring that is fused to an aromatic ring. These molecules provide the basis for very efficient polymerization mechanisms in which only the dioxy-ring undergoes ring opening during the polymerization...... with the remaining part of the monomer remaining intact. XPS, ToF-SIMS, and IR are used to investigate the chemistry of the films produced by plasma polymerization of EDT, which contains a high content of the aromatic group. We find that the plasma-polymerized films of EDT contain intact thiophene groups...

  14. Determination of free and bound phenolic compounds in soy isoflavone concentrate using a PFP fused core column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Riciputi, Ylenia; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-10-15

    In the last years, the consumption of soy-based foods has increased due to the health benefits related to soy bioactives like phenolic compounds. Thus, in the present study, a new chromatographic method using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (RP-HPLC/DAD) was developed using a fused core pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column. The established method allowed the determination of twenty-one free phenolic compounds and eleven bound phenolics in a soy isoflavone concentrate. The method was validated in terms of precision and recovery. Intra and inter-day precision were less than 5% (% RSD) and the recovery was between 97.4% and 103.6%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged between 0.093 and 0.443 μg/mL. Because of that, PFP stationary phase can be easily applied for routine determination of phenolic compounds in soy based foods.

  15. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition in the Preparation of New Fused Heterocyclic Compounds via Thermal Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Porubský

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of precursors with a benzo[b]furan skeleton for the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides prepared from N-substituted 3-allyl-aminobenzo[b]furan-2-aldehydes and secondary amines derived from α-amino acid esters. Reactions were initiated by heating. The products consisted of four fused rings with three stereogenic centers. Their structure and stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectra and X-ray measurements.

  16. Synthesis of fused indazole ring systems and application to nigeglanine hydrobromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Aaron C; Berryman, Orion B; Rebek, Julius

    2012-03-16

    The single-step synthesis of fused tricyclic pyridazino[1,2-a]indazolium ring systems is described. Structural details revealed by crystallography explain the unexpected reactivity. The method is applied to the gram scale synthesis of nigeglanine hydrobromide.

  17. Person Tracking System by Fusing Multicues Based on Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A person tracking algorithm by fusing multicues based on patches is proposed to solve the problem of distinguishing person, occlusion, and illumination variations. Kinect is mounted on the robot for providing color images and depth maps. A detector representing a person by using the fusion of multicues based on patches is proposed. The detector divides the person into many patches and then represents each patch by using depth-color histograms and depth-texture histograms. The appearance representation, considering depth, color, and texture information, has powerful discrimination ability to handle the problems of occlusion, illumination changes, and pose variations. Considering the motion of the robot and person, a tracker called motion extended Kalman filter (MEKF is presented to predict the person’s position. The result of the tracker is treated as a candidate sample of the detector, and then the result of the detector is the previous knowledge of the tracker. The detector and tracker supplement each other and improve the tracking performance. To drive the robot towards the given person precisely, a fuzzy based intelligent gear control strategy (FZ-IGS is implemented. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach can track a person in a complex environment and have an optimum performance.

  18. Expression, purification, and bioactivity of GST-fused v-Src from a bacterial expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xing-guo; JI Jing; XIE Jie; ZHOU Yuan; ZHANG Jun-yan; ZHONG Wen-tao

    2006-01-01

    v-Src is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in many signal transduction pathways and closely related to the activation and development of cancers. We present herethe expression, purification, and bioactivity of a GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused v-Src from a bacterial expression system. Different culture conditions were examined in an isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated expression, and the fused protein was purified using GSH (glutathione) affinity chromatography. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was employed to determine the phosphorylation kinase activity of the GST-fused v-Src. This strategy seems to be more promising than the insect cell system or other eukaryotic systems employed in earlier Src expression.

  19. A Systematic arranging method for recloser-fuse coordination in distribution system in appearance of DG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yunesi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and practical method is presented to investigate the effect of distributed generation (DG on recloser-fuse coordination. The main idea is evaluation of recloser-fuse coordination status in appearance of DG and also fault occurrence in each buses of the test system, and then sorting cases in coordination-hold or coordination-lost groups. After that, two steps are driven. The first one is finding the best location of DG, and the other is adjusting (changing the recloser and (or fuses setting in order to improve the overall coordination status. Faults occurrence probability are not equal and decreased as distance from substation increased. This proposed method has been implemented on the IEEE 37-node feeder, by writing the script in MATLAB and the results are presented.

  20. Recent advanced in bioactive systems containing pyrazole fused with a five membered heterocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Demetrio; Maggio, Benedetta; Raimondi, Maria Valeria; Cascioferro, Stella; Plescia, Fabiana; Cancemi, Gabriella; Daidone, Giuseppe

    2015-06-05

    In this review we report the recent advances in bioactive system containing pyrazole fused with a five membered heterocycle, covering the time span of the last decade. All of them are represented around the common structure of the pyrazole ring fused with another five membered heterocycle containing the nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen atoms in all their possible combinations. The classification we have used is based in terms of the therapeutic area providing, when possible, some general conclusions on the targets and mechanisms of action as well as the structure-activity relationships of the molecules.

  1. Analysis of Pre-tension Level upon Biaxial Behaviour of Fused Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Zubauskiene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of fused multilayer systems pre-tension level upon biaxial loading are presented in this research work. The values of initial pre-tension of fused multilayer systems in longitudinal and transverse directions were: 0.0 %, 0.4 %, 0.8 %, 1.2 %, 1.7 % and 2.1 %. The results of the investigations have shown that deformational characteristics (F, N and Hmax, mm in longitudinal and transverse directions differ with the increase of pre-tension level. Thus, seam allowances can be defined more accurately in more deformable direction at the stage of product development. Cotton fabric (100 % of plain weave was used as base material for fused systems. Biaxial tension testing was performed with three types of interlinings: woven, nonwoven and knitted, which differed not only in surface density, but in the density of adhesive layer, which was 52 and 76 dots/cm2, as well. The samples of fused systems were punched from the side of the main cotton fabric in order to maintain the same friction force between the punch and the specimen. Obtained results have shown that different number of force peaks, i.e. breakings is characteristic for different fused systems. For initial pre-tension from 0.0 % to 2.1 % the first breaking always appears in longitudinal direction irrespectfully to longitudinal or transverse pre-tension direction. It means that at low levels of pre-tension, e.g. 2.1 % it is possible to control the height of punching deformation, but not to change the location of critical stresses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5788

  2. Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems using Fused State Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Bharath; Vijay K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Replication is a standard technique for fault tolerance in distributed systems modeled as deterministic finite state machines (DFSMs or machines). To correct f crash or f/2 Byzantine faults among n different machines, replication requires nf additional backup machines. We present a solution called fusion that requires just f additional backup machines. First, we build a framework for fault tolerance in DFSMs based on the notion of Hamming distances. We introduce the concept of an (f,m)-fusion...

  3. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm(2) of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm(2) to 9.5 J/cm(2) of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  4. A Real-Time Embedded Control System for Electro-Fused Magnesia Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since smelting process of electro-fused magnesia furnace is a complicated process which has characteristics like complex operation conditions, strong nonlinearities, and strong couplings, traditional linear controller cannot control it very well. Advanced intelligent control strategy is a good solution to this kind of industrial process. However, advanced intelligent control strategy always involves huge programming task and hard debugging and maintaining problems. In this paper, a real-time embedded control system is proposed for the process control of electro-fused magnesia furnace based on intelligent control strategy and model-based design technology. As for hardware, an embedded controller based on an industrial Single Board Computer (SBC is developed to meet industrial field environment demands. As for software, a Linux based on Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI is used as the real-time kernel of the controller to improve its real-time performance. The embedded software platform is also modified to support generating embedded code automatically from Simulink/Stateflow models. Based on the proposed embedded control system, the intelligent embedded control software of electro-fused magnesium furnace can be directly generated from Simulink/Stateflow models. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed embedded control system, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL and industrial field experiments are both implemented. Experiments results show that the embedded control system works very well in both laboratory and industry environments.

  5. Theory of competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Torres, A

    2006-01-01

    A theory of the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system is proposed, which is based on a master equation and the two-center shell model. Fusion and quasi-fission arise from a diffusion process in an ensemble of nuclear shapes evolving towards the thermal equilibrium. The master equation describes the diffusion of the nuclear shapes due to quantum and thermal fluctuations. Other crucial physical effects like dissipation, ground-state shell effects, diabatic effects and rotational effects are also incorporated into the theory. The fusing system moves in a dynamical (time-dependent) collective potential energy surface which is initially diabatic and gradually becomes adiabatic. The microscopic ingredients of the theory are obtained with a realistic two-center shell model based on Woods-Saxon potentials. Numerical calculations for several reactions leading to $^{256}$No are discussed. Among other important conclusions, the results indicate that (i) the diabatic effects play a very im...

  6. Fused Zirconia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ScopeThis standard specifies the terms,definitions,classification,brands,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fused zirconia.This standard is applicable to monoclinic fused zirconia and partially stabilized fused zirconia.

  7. 'Zipbody' leucine zipper-fused Fab in E. coli in vitro and in vivo expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Fukui, Kansuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hashimura, Dai; Miyake, Shiro; Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Kojima, Takaaki; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A small antibody fragment, fragment of antigen binding (Fab), is favorable for various immunological assays. However, production efficiency of active Fab in microorganisms depends considerably on the clones. In this study, leucine zipper-peptide pairs that dimerize in parallel (ACID-p1 (LZA)/BASE-p1 (LZB) or c-Jun/c-Fos) were fused to the C-terminus of heavy chain (Hc, VH-CH1) and light chain (Lc, VL-CL), respectively, to accelerate the association of Hc and Lc to form Fab in Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro expression systems. The leucine zipper-fused Fab named 'Zipbody' was constructed using anti-E. coli O157 monoclonal antibody obtained from mouse hybridoma and produced in both in vitro and in vivo expression systems in an active form, whereas Fab without the leucine zipper fusion was not. Similarly, Zipbody of rabbit monoclonal antibody produced in in vitro expression showed significant activity. The purified, mouse Zipbody produced in the E. coli strain Shuffle T7 Express had specificity toward the antigen; in bio-layer interferometry analysis, the KD value was measured to be 1.5-2.0 × 10(-8) M. These results indicate that leucine zipper fusion to Fab C-termini markedly enhances active Fab formation in E. coli.

  8. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki [System Instruments Co., Ltd., 776-2 Komiya-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0031 (Japan); Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu [Division of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ikebukuro, Kazunori, E-mail: ikebu@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10{sup 6} copies.

  9. Damage in fused-silica spatial-filter lenses on the OMEGA laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatti, Amy L.; Smith, Douglas J.; Schmid, Ansgar W.; Papernov, Semyon; Kelly, John H.

    1999-04-01

    Vacuum surface damage to fused-silica, spatial-filter lenses is the most prevalent laser-damage problem occurring on the OMEGA laser system. Approximately one-half of the stage C- input and output, D-input, E-input, and F-input spatial- filter lenses are currently damaged with millimeter-scale fracture sites. With the establishment of safe operational damage criteria, laser operation has not been impeded. These sol-gel-coated lenses see an average fluence of 2 to 4 J/cm2 at 1053 nm/1 ns. Sol-gel coatings on fused-silica glass have small-spot damage thresholds at least a factor of 2 higher than this peak operational fluence. It is now known that the vacuum surface of OMEGA's spatial-filter lenses are contaminated with vacuum pump oils and machine oils used in the manufacture of the tubes; however, development-phase damage tests were conducted on uncontaminated witness samples. Possible explanations for the damage include absorbing defects originating form ablated pinhole materials, contamination nucleated at surface defects on the coating, or subsurface defects from the polishing process. The damage does not correlate with hot spots in the beam, and the possibility of damage from ghost reflections has been eliminated. Experiments have been initiated to investigate the long-term benefits of ion etching to remove subsurface damage and to replace sol-gel layers by dielectric oxide coatings, which do not degrade with oil contamination.

  10. Fusing Multiscale Charts into 3D ENC Systems Based on Underwater Topography and Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose an approach to fuse multiscale charts into three-dimensional (3D electronic navigational chart (ENC systems based on underwater topography and remote sensing image. This is the first time that the fusion of multiscale standard ENCs in the 3D ENC system has been studied. First, a view-dependent visualization technology is presented for the determination of the display condition of a chart. Second, a map sheet processing method is described for dealing with the map sheet splice problem. A process order called “3D order” is designed to adapt to the characteristics of the chart. A map sheet clipping process is described to deal with the overlap between the adjacent map sheets. And our strategy for map sheet splice is proposed. Third, the rendering method for ENC objects in the 3D ENC system is introduced. Fourth, our picking-up method for ENC objects is proposed. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system: automotive intelligent chart (AIC 3D electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS. And our method can handle the fusion problem well.

  11. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies.

  12. Dynamical collective potential energy landscape: its impact on the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Torres, A

    2006-01-01

    A realistic microscopically-based quantum approach to the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system is applied to several reactions leading to $^{256}$No. Fusion and quasi-fission are described in terms of a diffusion process of nuclear shapes through a dynamical collective potential energy landscape which is initially diabatic and gradually becomes adiabatic. The microscopic ingredients of the theory are obtained with a realistic two-center shell model based on Woods-Saxon potentials. The results indicate that (i) the diabatic effects play a very important role in the onset of fusion hindrance for heavy systems, and (ii) very asymmetric reactions induced by closed shell nuclei seem to be the best suited to synthesize the heaviest compound nuclei.

  13. Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Wind/Photo Voltaic System Using Z Source Inverter with Cuk-sepic Fused Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazar Ali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new method of design of z source inverter for improving the performance of the hybrid wind/photo voltaic system with cuk-sepic fused converter. The various drawbacks of the conventional converter are, it requires passive input filters, the generator current decreases its lifespan, increases the power loss due to heating. In proposed method, the Cuk-SEPIC fused converter is used, which eliminates the need of additional input filters to filter out high frequency harmonics. This configuration makes it possible for the wind source and photo voltaic source to supply the load separately or simultaneously depending on their availability. A simulation model for the hybrid wind/photovoltaic system has been developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  14. Performance Enhancement of Underwater Target Tracking by Fusing Data of Array of Global Positioning System Sonobuoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Shafie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An accurate knowledge of geographic positions of sonobuoys is critical for the conduct of antisubmarine warfare operations and detected target localization. Deployed from an airborne platform or a surface vessel, arrays of sonobuoys could be used to efficiently track and localize submarines. Lastly, some sonobuoys were being equipped with GPS for improving system accuracy and potentially allowing networked Sonobuoy positioning. However, the computation of the range using the propagation loss profile and the data of one sonobuoy usually leads to inaccurate target localization due to several effects and uncertainties. It was, alternatively, reported that if the target is within the detection rage of two or more sonobuoys, greatly improved target localization can be achieved. Approach: Aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of fusing data from a distributed field of GPS sonobuoys to create an Artificial Intelligence (AI based model for the error of the range computation in case of the target being detected by only one sonobuoy. Proposed module was designed utilizing Adaptive Neuron-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS to estimate the range error associated with the computation using the propagation loss profile when the target is within the detection range of only one sonobuoy. The architecture of the proposed ANFIS system had two unique features. First was the real-time cross-validation applied during the update (training procedure of the ANFIS-based module while the target was detected by two sonobuoys and the range was computed. Second feature was the use of non-overlapping and moving window for the real-time implementation of the ANFIS-based data fusion module. Results: Performance of the proposed system was examined with simulation data considering different scenarios for both the array of GPS sonobuoys and the target. Results showed that the corrected positioning by one sonobuoy is completely following the

  15. Switching system for image enhancement and analysis of fused thermal and RGBD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Sridharan, Vijay; Blanton, Michael, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    A number of methods have been developed in the past for color image enhancement, including retinex and color constancy algorithms. Retinex theory is based on psychophysical experiments using mondrian patterns. Recently, multi-scale retinex algorithms have been developed. They combine several "Retinex" outputs to produce a single output image which has both good dynamic range compression and color constancy, as well as good tonal rendition. Unfortunately, multi-scale retinex processing time is consuming. In this paper we present a new algorithm for color and thermal image enhancement. Additionally, an experimental prototype system for fusing the two data types with depth data to create a three-dimensional map of the datasets is presented. The image processing algorithm utilizes a combination of fourier domain and retinex algorithms. Different types of thermal and natural scene NASA images have been tested, along with other imagery. The primary advantages of the image processing algorithm are the reduced computational complexity and the contrast enhancement performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm works well with underexposed images. The algorithm also gives better contrast enhancement in most cases, thus bringing out the true colors in the image. It thus helps in achieving both color constancy and local contrast enhancement. We compare the presented method with enhancement based on NASA's Multi-scale Retinex. Statistically and quantitatively, we have shown that our technique indeed results in enhanced images, with our argument validated by conducting experiments on human observers. Additionally, the fusion of 2-dimensional (2D) thermal, 2D RGB, and 3-dimensional (3D) depth data (TRGBD) can be analyzed and researched for the purpose of extrapolating thermal conductance and other thermal properties within a scanned environment. This will allow for the determination of energy assessments regarding structural boundaries, the effectiveness of

  16. Optical properties in the Cu-fused silica system irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ranjana C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz East, Mumbai 400 098 (India); Kothari, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz East, Mumbai 400 098 (India)]. E-mail: kothari@mu.ac.in; Choudhari, R.J. [Nuclear Science Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Nuclear Science Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sahoo, P.K. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Lieb, K.P. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Klaumuenzer, S. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Swift heavy ions are used to study the effects of electronic energy loss on Cu cluster formation in fused silica after post-irradiation annealing. Fused silica substrates covered with 10 nm thin Cu-films were irradiated using beams of either 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ions or 350 MeV Au{sup 26+} ions at fluences ranging from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 1 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. After irradiation, the samples were annealed for 30 min in argon, at temperatures of 773-1200 K and characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The swift ion irradiations created E' and B{sub 2} defects in silica, which were partially eliminated during annealing. In addition, Cu cluster formation in silica was observed after annealing. Irradiation fluences exceeding 4 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and annealing temperatures above 1100 K are more effective in forming larger nanoclusters.

  17. Implant survivorship analysis after minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion using the iFuse Implant System®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher DJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cher,1 W Carlton Reckling,2 Robyn A Capobianco1 1Department of Clinical Affairs, SI-BONE, Inc., 2Department of Medical Affairs, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA Introduction: Surgical revision rate is a key outcome with all permanent implants. The iFuse Implant System® is a permanent implant used to perform minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion. The purpose of this study is to determine the surgical revision rate after sacroiliac joint fusion surgery with this system. Methods: Using two internal sources of information, revision surgeries were identified and linked to index surgeries. The likelihood of revision surgery was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier life table approach. Predictors of revision were explored. Results: Four-year survivorship free from implant revision was 96.46%. Revision rate did not differ by sex and was lower for age >65. In all, 24% of revisions occurred within the first 30 days after surgery; 63.5% occurred within year 1. Implant survivorship has improved annually since the device was introduced in 2009. Conclusion: The survivorship rate with this implant is high and improving; the rate is somewhat higher than total hip replacement but lower than that of lumbar spine procedures. Keywords: safety, sacroiliac joint fusion, iFuse Implant System, revision

  18. Nonlinear system compound inverse control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHANG; Zengqiang CHEN; Peng YANG; Zhuzhi YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A compound neural network is utilized to identify the dynamic nonlinear system.This network is composed of two parts: one is a linear neural network,and the other is a recurrent neural network.Based on the inverse theory a compound inverse control method is proposed.The controller has also two parts:a linear controller and a nonlinear neural network controller.The stability condition of the closed-loop neural network-based compound inverse control system is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov theory.Simulation studies have shown that this scheme is simple and has good control accuracy and robustness.

  19. About a New Type of Fuse Based on the Controllable Fusing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLESCA, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuses are among the best known of electrical devices and there are an extremely large number in use throughout the world. Beside of the advantageous features, the nowadays fuses have certain drawbacks. Therefore, a new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept is proposed and a study as regards the total clearing time is done. The new concept has been validated through many experimental tests at different current values. The new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept can be integrated within an overcurrent protection system especially to protect power semiconductors where the Joule integral criterion is better satisfied.

  20. MAARGHA: A Prototype System for Road Condition and Surface Type Estimation by Fusing Multi-Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rajamohan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in countries like India is expanding at a rapid pace and is becoming increasingly difficult for authorities to identify and fix the bad roads in time. Current Geographical Information Systems (GIS lack information about on-road features like road surface type, speed breakers and dynamic attribute data like the road quality. Hence there is a need to build road monitoring systems capable of collecting such information periodically. Limitations of satellite imagery with respect to the resolution and availability, makes road monitoring primarily an on-field activity. Monitoring is currently performed using special vehicles that are fitted with expensive laser scanners and need skilled resource besides providing only very low coverage. Hence such systems are not suitable for continuous road monitoring. Cheaper alternative systems using sensors like accelerometer and GPS (Global Positioning System exists but they are not equipped to achieve higher information levels. This paper presents a prototype system MAARGHA (MAARGHA in Sanskrit language means an eternal path to solution, which demonstrates that it can overcome the disadvantages of the existing systems by fusing multi-sensory data like camera image, accelerometer data and GPS trajectory at an information level, apart from providing additional road information like road surface type. MAARGHA has been tested across different road conditions and sensor data characteristics to assess its potential applications in real world scenarios. The developed system achieves higher information levels when compared to state of the art road condition estimation systems like Roadroid. The system performance in road surface type classification is dependent on the local environmental conditions at the time of imaging. In our study, the road surface type classification accuracy reached 100% for datasets with near ideal environmental conditions and dropped down to 60% for datasets with shadows and

  1. Tetrathiafulvalene-fused porphyrins via quinoxaline linkers: symmetric and asymmetric donor-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongpeng; Schmid, Belinda; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Monbaron, Philippe; Bhosale, Sheshanath V; Rivadehi, Shadi; Langford, Steven J; Sanguinet, Lionel; Levillain, Eric; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Morita, Ysushi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Decurtins, Silvio

    2012-10-08

    A tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor is annulated to porphyrins (P) via quinoxaline linkers to form novel symmetric P-TTF-P triads 1 a-c and asymmetric P-TTF dyads 2 a,b in good yields. These planar and extended π-conjugated molecules absorb light over a wide region of the UV/Vis spectrum as a result of additional charge-transfer excitations within the donor-acceptor assemblies. Quantum-chemical calculations elucidate the nature of the electronically excited states. The compounds are electrochemically amphoteric and primarily exhibit low oxidation potentials. Cyclic voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical studies allow differentiation between the TTF and porphyrin sites with respect to the multiple redox processes occurring within these molecular assemblies. Transient absorption measurements give insight into the excited-state events and deliver corresponding kinetic data. Femtosecond transient absorption spectra in benzonitrile may suggest the occurrence of fast charge separation from TTF to porphyrin in dyads 2 a,b but not in triads 1 a-c. Clear evidence for a photoinduced and relatively long lived charge-separated state (385 ps lifetime) is obtained for a supramolecular coordination compound built from the ZnP-TTF dyad and a pyridine-functionalized C(60) acceptor unit. This specific excited state results in a (ZnP-TTF)(⋅+) ⋅⋅⋅(C(60) py)(⋅-) state. The binding constant of Zn(II) ⋅⋅⋅py is evaluated by constructing a Benesi-Hildebrand plot based on fluorescence data. This plot yields a binding constant K of 7.20×10(4)  M(-1), which is remarkably high for bonding of pyridine to ZnP. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  3. Validation of chemical compound library screening for transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif inhibitors using GFP-fused transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shunta; Maruyama, Junichi; Kawano, Shodai; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Nishina, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) plays versatile roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. It is phosphorylated by large tumor suppressor kinases, the core kinases of the tumor-suppressive Hippo pathway. Phosphorylation induces the cytoplasmic accumulation of TAZ and its degradation. In human cancers, the deregulation of the Hippo pathway and gene amplification enhance TAZ activity. TAZ interacts with TEA domain family members (TEAD), and upregulates genes implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It also confers stemness to cancer cells. Thus, TAZ activation provides cancer cells with malignant properties and worsens the clinical prognosis. Therefore, TAZ attracts attention as a therapeutic target in cancer therapy. We applied 18 606 small chemical compounds to human osteosarcoma U2OS cells expressing GFP-fused TAZ (GFP-TAZ), monitored the subcellular localization of GFP-TAZ, and selected 33 compounds that shifted GFP-TAZ to the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, only a limited number of compounds suppressed TAZ-mediated enhancement of TEAD-responsive reporter activity. Moreover, the compounds that weakened TEAD reporter activity did not necessarily decrease the unphosphorylated TAZ. In this study, we focused on three compounds that decreased both TEAD reporter activity and unphosphorylated TAZ, and treated several human cancer cells with these compounds. One compound did not show a remarkable effect, whereas the other two compounds compromised the cell viability in certain cancer cells. In conclusion, the GFP-TAZ-based assay can be used as the first screening for compounds that inhibit TAZ and show anticancer properties. To develop anticancer drugs, we need additional assays to select the compounds.

  4. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of chromone-linked 2-pyridone fused with 1,2,4-triazoles, 1,2,4-triazines and 1,2,4-triazepines ring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Tarik El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Magdy Ahmed, E-mail: magdy_ahmed1977@yahoo.co [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education. Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Three series of novel fused nitrogen heterocyclic systems such as 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a ] pyridines (5-7 and 9), pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines (10, 11, 13 and 15), and pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazepines (17, 18, 20 and 22) linked with a chromone moiety were synthesized from the key intermediate 1,6-diamino-(6-chloro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5- dicarbonitrile (4) with some electrophilic reagents. The structures of the novel compounds were established by elemental analyses and spectral data. All the products were also screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds 7, 9 and 15 showed the highest activities when compared with the reference drugs. (author)

  5. Fusing Bayes Nets using Formal Argumentation in Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    We consider a multi-agent system where each agent is equipped with a Bayesian network, and present an open framework for the agents to compromise on a possible consensus network. The framework builds on formal argumentation, and unlike previous solutions on graphical consensus belief...

  6. Three-dimensional data-acquiring system fusing active projection and stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Zhao, Hong; Tan, Yushan

    2001-09-01

    Combining the active digitizing technique with the passive stereo vision, a novel method is proposed to acquire the 3D data from two 2D images. Based on the principle of stereo vision, and assisting the active dense structure light projecting, the system overcomes the problem of data points matching between two stereo images, which is the most important difficulty occurring in stereo vision. An algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed here to auto-get the threshold for image segment and extract the grid points. The system described here is mainly applied to digitize the 3D objects in time. Comparing with the general digitizers, it performs the translation from 2D images to 3D data completely, and gets over some shortcomings, such as slow image acquiring and data processing speed, depending on mechanical moving, painting on the object before digitizing, and so on. The system is the same with the non-contact and fast measurement and modeling for the 3D object with freedom surface, and can be employed widely in the fields of Reverse Engineering and CAD/CAM. Experiment proves the efficiency of the new use of shape from stereo vision (SFSV) in engineering.

  7. Dynamic Generalizations of Systems Factorial Technology for Modeling Perception of Fused Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    to make a decision. These sources can include information across multiple modal- ities, such as using a person’s voice and a facial image to identify...observable total completion time of such a system, when presented with input signals to both channels 1 and 2, can be mathematically expressed by min(T1...appearance of small spots. Journal of Vision, 8 (5), 15. Burns, D. M., Pei, L., Houpt, J. W., & Townsend, J. T. (2009). Facial percep- tion as a configural

  8. Evaluation of a virtual reality simulation system for porcelain fused to metal crown preparation at Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hirono; Ikeda, Masaomi; Araki, Koji

    2013-06-01

    The use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) is a new teaching modality in dentistry, and there is scope for further research evaluating its use under different educational programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how VRS with or without instructor feedback influenced students' learning and skills related to porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown preparation. In this study, forty-three dental students in their fifth year of study at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, were randomly divided into three groups: the first group used VRS (DentSim) with the instructor's feedback (DSF) (n=15), the second group used VRS without the instructor's feedback (DS) (n=15), and the third group neither used features of VRS (NDS) (n=13) nor received the instructor's feedback. All the students performed PFM crown preparation under the same setup once a week for four weeks. Total scores, preparation time, and twelve evaluation items were compared among the three groups and four experiments. The total scores of students in the DSF and DS groups were significantly higher than those in the NDS group. The presence of the instructor did not result in significant difference when VRS was used for training, while it shortened the preparation time at early stages. The results of this study suggested that the use of the VRS system improved student training for PFM crown preparation.

  9. Photophysical studies of fused phenanthrimidazole derivatives as versatile π-conjugated systems for potential NLO applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Perumal, Marimuthu Venkatesh

    2012-06-15

    Two new heterocyclic imidazole derivatives consists of π-conjugated system attached to a phenanthrimidazole moiety have been synthesized in moderate yield by the condensation of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione with substituted aromatic aldehydes and 4-methoxyaniline in the presence of ammonium acetate in ethanol medium. The photophysical properties of these imidazole derivatives were studied in several solvents. These derivatives were evaluated concerning their solvatochromic properties and molecular optical nonlinearities. Their electric dipole moment (μ) and hyperpolarizability (β) have been calculated theoretically and the results indicate that the extension of the π-framework of the ligands has an effect on the NLO properties of these imidazole derivatives. The non-zero tensor components of these imidazole derivatives reveal that they possess potent non-linear optical (NLO) behavior. The energies of the HOMO and LUMO levels and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) energy surface studies have exploited the existence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule.

  10. BaroFuse, a novel pressure-driven, adjustable-throughput perfusion system for tissue maintenance and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Rountree

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The very low flow rates and simplicity of design and operation of the BaroFuse device allow for the efficient generation of large number of kinetic profiles in OCR and other endpoints lasting from hours to days. The use of flow enhances the ability to make measurements on primary tissue where some elements of native three-dimensional structure are preserved. We offer the BaroFuse as a powerful tool for physiological studies and for pharmaceutical assessment of drug effects as well as personalized medicine.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Bioactive Six-Membered Heterocycles and Their Fused Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsine Driowya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the formation of six-membered heterocyclic compounds and their fused analogues under microwave activation using modern organic transformations including cyclocondensation, cycloaddition, multicomponents and other modular reactions. The review is divided according to the main heterocycle types in order of increasing complexity, starting with heterocyclic systems containing one, two and three heteroatoms and their fused analogues. Recent microwave applications are reviewed, with special focus on the chemistry of bioactive compounds. Selected examples from the 2006 to 2015 literature are discussed.

  12. Expression of H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin protein fused with protein transduction domain in an alphavirus replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-gui; Wo, Jian-er; Li, Min-wei; Mi, Fen-fang; Yu, Cheng-bo; Lv, Guo-liang; Cao, Hong-Cui; Lu, Hai-feng; Wang, Bao-hong; Zhu, Hanping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2010-01-01

    Alphavirus replicons, in which structural protein genes are replaced by heterologous genes, express high levels of the heterologous proteins. On the basis of the potencies of replicons to self-replicate and express foreign proteins and the remarkable intercellular transport property of VP22, a novel alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon system of VP22 fused with a model antigen, hemagglutinin (HA), of the human-avian H5N1 influenza virus, was explored in this study. Further, replicon particles expressing HA, VP22, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) individually were used as controls. By flow cytometry based on the analysis of transfection efficiency, SFV-EGFP replicon particle titer was 1.13 x 10(7)transducing units (TU)/ml. The titers of SFV-HA, SFV-VP22 and SFV-VP22-HA replicon particles, which were titrated by using SFV-EGFP replicon particles, were 1.42 x 10(7), 3.23 x 10(7), and 1.01 x 10(7)TU/ml, respectively. HA and VP22-HA expression was observed in SFV-HA- and SFV-VP22-HA-transfected BHK-21 cells, respectively. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the fluorescence intensity in the SFV-VP22-HA-transfected BHK-21 cells was more than that in the SFV-HA-transfected BHK-21 cells. Both SFV-VP22-HA and SFV-HA replicon particles presented a promising approach for developing vaccines against human-avian influenza. VP22-HA fusion protein with similar trafficking properties may also enhance vaccine potency.

  13. Polymer optical fiber fuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

  14. Fast and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas, mate, instant coffee, soft drink and energetic drink by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, M A; Manchón, N; D'Arrigo, M; Guillamón, E; Villares, A; García-Lafuente, A; Ramos, A; Martínez, J A

    2011-01-31

    A fast HPLC method with diode-array absorbance detector and fluorescence detector for the analysis of 19 phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols and caffeine in different types of samples was developed. Using a C(18) reverse-phase fused-core column separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 5 min with an overall sample-to-sample time of 10 min. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent reproducibility, resolution, selectivity and peak symmetry. Limits of detection for all analyzed compounds ranged from 0.5 to 211 μg L(-1), while limits of quantitation ranged between 1.5 and 704 μg L(-1). The developed method was used for the determination of analytes present in different samples, including teas (black, white, green), mate, coffee, cola soft drink and an energetic drink. Concentration of the analyzed compounds occurring in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 314 mg L(-1). Caffeine was the analyte found in higher concentrations in all samples. Phytochemical profiles of the samples were consistent with those reported in the literature.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and crystallographic behavior of a biologically relevant novel indole-fused heterocyclic compound - Experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Brahmachari, Goutam; Banerjee, Bubun; Nurjamal, Khondekar; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajnikant; Gupta, Vivek K.

    2016-08-01

    The present communication deals with the eco-friendly synthesis, spectral properties and X-ray crystal structure of an indole derivative - Ethyl 2'-amino-3'-cyano-6'-methyl-5-nitro-2-oxospiro [indoline-3,4'-pyran]-5'-carboxylate. The title compound was synthesized in 87% yield. The crystal structure of the molecule is stabilized by intermolecular Nsbnd H … N, Nsbnd H … O and Csbnd H … π interactions. The molecule is organized in the crystal lattice forming sheet like structure. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the vibrational frequencies were carried out using the Gaussian 09 program followed by the full optimizations done using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level. The combined use of experiments and computations allowed a firm assignment of the majority of observed bands for the compound. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap were presented. The electronic and charge transfer properties have been explained on the basis of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs), lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) and density of states (DOS). From the optimized geometry of the molecule, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the title compound have been calculated in the ground state theoretically. The theoretical results showed good agreement with the experimental values. First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compound.

  16. Analysis of postmarket complaints database for the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System®: a minimally invasive treatment for degenerative sacroiliitis and sacroiliac joint disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1,2 W Carlton Reckling,3 Jon E Block21Miller Scientific Consulting Inc, Arden, NC, 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, 3SI-BONE Inc, San Jose, CA, USABackground: The sacroiliac joint is a common but under-recognized source of low back and gluteal pain. Patients with degenerative sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint disruption resistant to nonsurgical treatments may undergo open surgery with sacroiliac joint arthrodesis, although outcomes are mixed and risks are significant. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis was developed to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury and to improve patient outcomes compared with open surgery.Methods: Between April 2009 and January 2013, 5319 patients were treated with the iFuse SI Joint Fusion System® for conditions including sacroiliac joint disruption and degenerative sacroiliitis. A database was prospectively developed to record all complaints reported to the manufacturer in patients treated with the iFuse device. Complaints were collected through spontaneous reporting mechanisms in support of ongoing mandatory postmarket surveillance efforts.Results: Complaints were reported in 204 (3.8% patients treated with the iFuse system. Pain was the most commonly reported clinical complaint (n = 119, 2.2%, with nerve impingement (n = 48, 0.9% and recurrent sacroiliac joint pain (n = 43, 0.8% most frequently cited. All other clinical complaints were rare (≤0.2%. Ninety-six revision surgeries were performed in 94 (1.8% patients at a median follow-up of four (range 0–30 months. Revisions were typically performed in the early postoperative period for treatment of a symptomatic malpositioned implant (n = 46, 0.9% or to correct an improperly sized implant in an asymptomatic patient (n = 10, 0.2%. Revisions in the late postoperative period were performed to treat symptom recurrence (n = 34, 0.6% or for continued pain of undetermined etiology (n = 6, 0.1%.Conclusion: Analysis of a postmarket

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  18. Mucosal adjuvanticity of fibronectin-binding peptide (FBP fused with Echinococcus multilocularis tetraspanin 3: systemic and local antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that a bacterial fibronectin attachment protein (FAP is able to stimulate strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses when it is used alone or co-administrated with other antigens (Ags. Thus, it has been suggested to be a promising adjuvant candidate for the development of efficient vaccines. However, the co-administered Ags and FAP were cloned, expressed and purified individually to date. In a recent study, we first evaluated the adjuvanticity of a fibronectin-binding peptide (FBP, 24 amino acids of Mycobacterium avium FAP fused with Echinococcus multilocularis tetraspanin 3 (Em-TSP3 by detecting systemic and local antibody responses in intranasally (i.n. immunized BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Em-TSP3 and FBP fragments were linked with a GSGGSG linker and expressed as a single fusion protein (Em-TSP3-FBP using the pBAD/Thio-TOPO expression vector. BALB/c mice were immunized i.n. with recombinant Em-TSP3-FBP (rEm-TSP3-FBP and rEm-TSP3+CpG and the systemic and local antibody responses were detected by ELISA. The results showed that both rEm-TSP3-FBP and rEm-TSP3+CpG evoked strong serum IgG (p<0.001 and IgG1 responses (p<0.001, whereas only the latter induced a high level IgG2α production (p<0.001, compared to that of rEm-TSP3 alone without any adjuvant. There were no significant differences in IgG and IgG1 production between the groups. Low level of serum IgA and IgM were detected in both groups. The tendency of Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses were assessed via detecting the IgG1/IgG2α ratio after the second and third immunizations. The results indicated that i.n. immunization with rEm-TSP3-FBP resulted in an increased IgG1/IgG2α ratio (a Th2 tendency, while rEm-TSP3+CpG caused a rapid Th1 response that later shifted to a Th2 response. Immunization with rEm-TSP3-FBP provoked significantly stronger IgA antibody responses in intestine (p<0.05, lung (p<0.001 and spleen (p<0.001 compared to those

  19. Functional Use Database (FUse)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are five different files for this dataset: 1. A dataset listing the reported functional uses of chemicals (FUse) 2. All 729 ToxPrint descriptors obtained from...

  20. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  1. 稠杂环化合物在红色磷光铱配合物中的应用%Application of Fused-Heterocyclic Compounds in Red Phosphorescent Iridium(Ⅲ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲霞; 梅群波; 颜芳; 田波; 翁洁娜; 张彬; 黄维

    2012-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted considerable attention during the last decade because of the potential advantages associated with their usage in full-color displays. Electroluminescent phosphorescent materials have also enjoyed similar levels of attention because of their excellent luminescent properties. The three primary colors, blue, green, and red, are essential for the practical application of phosphorescent complexes in flat-panel displays. Relative to the efficient green phosphorescent materials, red phosphorescent materials suffer many problems, including poor color purity, low efficiency, and low luminance, and the design of appropriate red colored materials therefore represents a significant challenge. Fused-heterocyclic compounds have been widely used in red phosphorescent iridium(Ⅲ) complexes because of their high quantum efficiency, color adjustability, and balanced charge injection and migration. This review summarizes the development and application of fused-heterocyclic compounds in recent years in small molecule, dendrimer and polymeric red phosphorescent iridium(Ⅲ) complexes. The influence of the molecular structures of iridium(Ⅲ) complexes on the optical and electrical properties and device performances has also been described. Finally, a discussion of the prospect of developing fused-heterocyclic compounds in the red phosphorescent materials has also been provided.%在过去的几十年里,有机发光二极管(OLED)由于潜在的优势,在全彩显示领域引起了高度重视.电致磷光材料因其优异的发光性能,引起了人们广泛关注.对于实际应用的平板显示器,蓝、绿、红三基色是必不可少的.相对于高效的绿光材料,红光磷光材料仍然存在色纯度差、效率低和亮度不足等问题,因此设计合适的红光材料成为具有挑战性的问题.稠杂环化合物因发光量子效率高、发光颜色可调、平衡电荷注入及迁移等优越性能而广泛

  2. About one problem of optimal stabilization of linear compound systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barseghyan V.R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal stabilization of linear compound system is investigated. Based on Lyapunov function method the method of building optimal stabilizing control action is suggested. The solution of the problem of optimal stabilization of a concrete compound system is given.

  3. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  4. Accretion and Outflow in Interacting Binary Systems FUSE Observations of the Novalike Cataclysmic Variable, UX Ursae Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    Froning, C S; Knigge, C

    2003-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet (905 -- 1182 A), time-series spectroscopy of the eclipsing, novalike cataclysmic variable, UX UMa, acquired with FUSE. The time-averaged spectrum is complex and is dominated by overlapping spectral features. The most prominent features are emission lines of CIII, NIII}, NIV, and OVI. They are broad (FWHM >= 1800 km/s) and double-peaked with a central absorption at zero velocity. During eclipse, the spectrum is simpler: the emission lines remain bright, but the absorption components of the lines and the weaker features between the emission lines disappear entirely, leaving a flat continuum. This behavior is also evident in GHRS (1149 -- 1660 A) spectra that we retrieved from the HST archive. The FUV spectra show flickering on time scales of several minutes. The flickering is seen primarily in the continuum and/or the weaker lines rather than in the prominent emission lines. The orbital light curve has a dip in the FUV flux between orbital phases 0.45 -- 0.65, similar to a pre-eclipse...

  5. Irradiation tests of ROHM 0.35um ASIC and Actel Anti-fuse FPGA for the ATLAS Muon Endcap Level-1 Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ichimiya, R; Arai, Y; Ikeno, M; Sasaki, O; Ohshita, H; Takada, N; Hane, Y; Hasuko, K; Nomoto, H; Sakamoto, H; Shibuya, K; Takemoto, T; Fukunaga, C; Toshima, K; Sakuma, T; 10th Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiments

    2004-01-01

    In order to implement a level-1 trigger logic in an efficient manner from timing and space consumption point of view, application specific IC chips (ASIC) as well as FPGA ones are vitally used in the ATLAS muon end-cap level-1 trigger system. Various subsidiary logics are implemented in FPGAs while the core trigger logic is implemented in ASICs. These components will suffer for ten years the radiation of approximately 100Gy of total ionizing dose (TID) and a hadron fluence of 2x10^10hadrons/cm^2, which will cause single event upset (SEU) or single event latch up (SEL). We intend to use Rohm 0.35um gate width CMOS technology for ASIC and Actel anti-fuse based FPGA. In this presentation we report the result of irradiation test of devices made with these technologies and discuss validity of them to use in the system.

  6. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  7. OPUS: the FUSE science data pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, James F.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Rose, M. A.; Swam, M.; Miller, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Oegerle, William R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how the OPUS pipeline, currently used for processing science data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was used as the backbone for developing the science data pipeline for a much smaller mission. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer (FUSE) project selected OPUS for its data processing pipeline platform and selected the OPUS team at the STScI to write the FUSE pipeline applications. A total of 105 new modules were developed for the FUSE pipeline. The foundation of over 250 modules in the OPUS libraries allowed development to proceed quickly and with considerable confidence that the underlying functionality is reliable and robust. Each task represented roughly 90 percent reuse, and the project as a whole shows over 70 percent reuse of the existing OPUS system. Taking an existing system that is operational, and will be maintained for many years to come, was a key decision for the FUSE mission. Adding the extensive experience of the OPUS team to the task resulted in the development of a complete telemetry pipeline system within a matter of months. Reusable software has been the siren song of software engineering and object- oriented design for a decade or more. The development of inexpensive software systems by adapting existing code to new applications is as attractive as it has been elusive. The OPUS telemetry pipeline for the FUSE mission has proven to be a significant exception to that trend.

  8. Domino reactions of 2H-azirines with acylketenes from furan-2,3-diones: Competition between the formation of ortho-fused and bridged heterocyclic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Khlebnikov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 3-Aryl-2H-azirines react with acylketenes, generated by thermolysis of 5-arylfuran-2,3-diones, to give bridged 5,7-dioxa-1-azabicyclo[4.4.1]undeca-3,8-diene-2,10-diones and/or ortho-fused 6,6a,12,12a-tetrahydrobis[1,3]oxazino[3,2-a:3′,2′-d]pyrazine-4,10-diones. The latter compounds, with a new heterocyclic skeleton, are the result of the coupling of two molecules of azirine and two molecules of acylketene and can be prepared only from 3-aryl-2H-azirines having no electron-withdrawing groups in the aryl substituent. Calculations at the DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d level for the various routes of bis[1,3]oxazino[3,2-a:3′,2′-d]pyrazine skeleton formation revealed a new domino reaction of 3-aryl-2H-azirines occurring in the presence of furandiones: acid-catalyzed dimerization to dihydropyrazine followed by consecutive cycloaddition of the latter to two molecules of acylketenes.

  9. Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmad Dargham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.

  10. SCOPE: A Scientific Compound Object Publishing and Editing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Cheung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SCOPE (Scientific Compound Object Publishing and Editing system which is designed to enable scientists to easily author, publish and edit scientific compound objects. Scientific compound objects encapsulate the various datasets and resources generated or utilized during a scientific experiment or discovery process, within a single compound object, for publishing and exchange. The adoption of “named graphs” to represent these compound objects enables provenance information to be captured via the typed relationships between the components. This approach is also endorsed by the OAI-ORE initiative and hence ensures that we generate OAI-ORE-compliant Scientific Compound Objects. The SCOPE system is an extension of the Provenance Explorer tool – which supports access-controlled viewing of scientific provenance trails. Provenance Explorer provided dynamic rendering of RDF graphs of scientific discovery processes, showing the lineage from raw data to publication. Views of different granularity can be inferred automatically using SWRL (Semantic Web Rules Language rules and an inferencing engine. SCOPE extends the Provenance Explorer tool and GUI by: 1 Adding an embedded web browser that can be used for incorporating objects discoverable via the Web; 2 Representing compound objects as Named Graphs, that can be saved in RDF, TriX, TriG or as an Atom syndication feed; 3 Enabling scientists to attach Creative Commons Licenses to the compound objects to specify how they may be re-used; 4 Enabling compound objects to be published as Fedora Object XML (FOXML files within a Fedora digital library.

  11. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... initiation systems, igniter cord and connectors, or other nonelectric initiation systems shall be used...

  12. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  13. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  14. CRYSTAL GROWTH OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS IN CLOSED SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Remarkable improvements have been made on the crystal growth of rare earth pnictides and chalchogenides by the development of new growth technique and the construction of several new equipments for the crystal growth such as electron beam welding system of tungsten crucible provided with large glove box and vacuum HF furnace. This system has really worked on obtaining excellent quality of single crystals and made easier to explore unknown materials of rare earth compounds. Interesting and att...

  15. TRIM68 negatively regulates IFN-β production by degrading TRK fused gene, a novel driver of IFN-β downstream of anti-viral detection systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Wynne

    Full Text Available In recent years members of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM family of E3 ubiquitin ligases have been shown to both positively and negatively regulate viral defence and as such are emerging as compelling targets for modulating the anti-viral immune response. In this study we identify TRIM68, a close homologue of TRIM21, as a novel regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR- and RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-driven type I IFN production. Proteomic analysis of TRIM68-containing complexes identified TRK-fused gene (TFG as a potential TRIM68 target. Overexpression of TRIM68 and TFG confirmed their ability to associate, with TLR3 stimulation appearing to enhance the interaction. TFG is a known activator of NF-κB via its ability to interact with inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit gamma (IKK-γ and TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK. Our data identifies a novel role for TFG as a positive regulator of type I IFN production and suggests that TRIM68 targets TFG for lysosomal degradation, thus turning off TFG-mediated IFN-β production. Knockdown of TRIM68 in primary human monocytes resulted in enhanced levels of type I IFN and TFG following poly(I:C treatment. Thus TRIM68 targets TFG, a novel regulator of IFN production, and in doing so turns off and limits type I IFN production in response to anti-viral detection systems.

  16. A Mobile Communication System Fused in GPRS and Embedded Linux%一种融合嵌入式Linux和GPRS的手机通信系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建勋; 李锦明; 李鹏; 张文栋

    2011-01-01

    A mobile communication system fused in GPRS and embedded Linux has been presented in the paper Through HuaHeng-ARM2410 experimental development platform, Linux Red Hat operating system. GPRS communication module to implemet the mobile' s communication functions, including building Linux development environment and programming system function interface, implementing data communication with the GPRS through theARM experimental development platform UART interface, using the GPRS-driven middleware programme and caller to achieve Multi-process mobile communications. The results showed that, the commands issued by the Linux operating system function interface and data transmission via GPRS, you can separately control the give and receive calls, send messages and other functions in mobile phones.%本文研究目标是基于嵌入式Linux和GPRS的手机通信系统功能设计与实现,利用HuaHengARM2410实验开发平台、Linux Red Hat操作系统和GPRS通信模块来实现手机的通信功能,主要包括构建Linux开发环境,编写系统功能界面,通过ARM实验开发平台上UART接口实现与GPRS的数据通信,使用GPRS驱动中间件编写并调用驱动程序以实现多进程的手机通信.试验结果显示,由Linux操作系统功能界面发出指令,通过GPRS数据传输,可以分别控制手机接打电话、发送消息等功能.

  17. PARALLEL COMPOUND METHODS FOR SOLVING PARTITIONED STIFF SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rong Chen; De-gui Liu

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the solution of partitioned systems of nonlinear stiff differential equations. Given a differential system, the user may specify some equations to be stiff and others to be nonstiff. For the numerical solution of such a system Parallel Compound Methods(PCMs) are studied. Nonstiff equations are integrated by a parallel explicit RK method while a parallel Rosenbrock method is used for the stiff part of the system. Their order conditions, their convergence and their numerical stability are discussed,and the numerical tests are conducted on a personal computer and a parallel computer.

  18. Complex-compound low-temperature TES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenfeller, U. [Rocky Research, Boulder City, NV (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Development of a complex-compound low-temperature TES system is described herein from basic chemical principles through current bench scale system development. Important application engineering issues and an economic outlook are addressed as well. The system described uses adsorption reactions between solid metal inorganic salts and ammonia refrigerant. It is the coordinative nature of these reactions that allows for storage of ammonia refrigerant within the solid salt crystals that function as a chemical compressor during on peak periods (substituting the mechanical compressor) and release ammonia during off peak periods while a mechanical vapor compression system provides the necessary reactor pressure and heat.

  19. Dragon exploration system on marine sponge compounds interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2013-02-16

    Natural products are considered a rich source of new chemical structures that may lead to the therapeutic agents in all major disease areas. About 50% of the drugs introduced in the market in the last 20 years were natural products/derivatives or natural products mimics, which clearly shows the influence of natural products in drug discovery. In an effort to further support the research in this field, we have developed an integrative knowledge base on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions (Dragon Exploration System on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions - DESMSCI) as a web resource. This knowledge base provides information about the associations of the sponge compounds with different biological concepts such as human genes or proteins, diseases, as well as pathways, based on the literature information available in PubMed and information deposited in several other databases. As such, DESMSCI is aimed as a research support resource for problems on the utilization of marine sponge compounds. DESMSCI allows visualization of relationships between different chemical compounds and biological concepts through textual and tabular views, graphs and relational networks. In addition, DESMSCI has built in hypotheses discovery module that generates potentially new/interesting associations among different biomedical concepts. We also present a case study derived from the hypotheses generated by DESMSCI which provides a possible novel mode of action for variolins in Alzheimer's disease. DESMSCI is the first publicly available (http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desmsci) comprehensive resource where users can explore information, compiled by text- and data-mining approaches, on biological and chemical data related to sponge compounds.

  20. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-03

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  1. Compound Wing Vertical Takeoff and Landing Small Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Motter, Mark A. (Inventor); Deloach, Richard (Inventor); Vranas, Thomas L. (Inventor); Prendergast, Joseph M. (Inventor); Lipp, Brittney N. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that enable robust operations of a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) using a compound wing. The various embodiments may provide a sUAS with vertical takeoff and landing capability, long endurance, and the capability to operate in adverse environmental conditions. In the various embodiments a sUAS may include a fuselage and a compound wing comprising a fixed portion coupled to the fuselage, a wing lifting portion outboard of the fixed portion comprising a rigid cross member and a controllable articulating portion configured to rotate controllable through a range of motion from a horizontal position to a vertical position, and a freely rotating wing portion outboard of the wing lifting portion and configured to rotate freely based on wind forces incident on the freely rotating wing portion.

  2. Fused aromatic thienopyrazines: structure, properties and function

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of a fused aromatic thieno[3.4-b]pyrazine system and their application in optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Introduction of a fused aromatic unit followed by side chain engineering, dramatically enhanced the charge carrier mobility in thin film transistor devices and mobilities up to 0.2 cm2/Vs were achieved. The optoelectronic properties of these fused aromatic thienopyrazine polymers (Eg = 1.3 to 1.6 eV, HOMO = -4.9 to -5.2 V) were tuned by introduction of various fused aromatic rings within thienopyrazine. By balancing the fundamental properties of these polymers, both high charge carrier mobilities and moderate PCEs in solar cells were achieved. Further, effects of copolymerizing units are discussed. Low band gap semiconducting polymer (Eg ∼ 1 eV) with high field effect mobility (0.044 cm2/Vs) was obtained using cyclopentadithiophene as copolymerizing unit. Finally, a molecular design approach to enhance the absorption coefficients is discussed, which resulted in improved power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Fused-Polished Fiber Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    We report on fused-polished fiber couplers with a new fabrication method. This structure so fabricated is promising while achieving high-performance all-fiber WDM devices. Potential advantages and prospects of our works are presented.

  4. Laser welding of fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  5. Misfit Layer Compounds and Ferecrystals: Model Systems for Thermoelectric Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin R. Merrill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class of metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe1+δ]m(TiSe2n family (m, n ≤ 3 are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.

  6. Thermal fatigue of electrical fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelet Jean-Louis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric Fuses have to respect different national or international standards such as IEC (International Electro-technical Commission 269. These standards define the characteristics of the fuses and describe the tests to be run in order to check fuse's ability to take up their main functions, i.e. current-conduction and operation under overloads and short-circuits. But fuses never carry current neither operate under standardized conditions. For example, rated current is evaluated under specified ambient temperature, without cooling air-flow, and with 1 meter-long connection-cables on both sides. In the field, temperature can reach up 80∘C, with or without air-flow and connection-parts are much more shorter. An issue is that current is never constant, often being cyclingly applied; equipments are frequently in use during the day and stopped in the night. ON-time and OFF-time generate alternative heating, then alternative stresses leading to thermal fatigue. MERSEN run many tests along the years, allowing to develop a method for choosing right fuses for each application. As a result, fuses don't melt unexpectedly in the field, but the method is supposed to be conservative and does not permit to get a better understanding of the phenomena neither an improvement of the products. The paper presents some specific ageing-tests run on conductive elements and tries to establish a correspondence between these tests and others carried out on complete fuses. Tests have been run on silver and copper, but their principle could be interesting for any structural material, especially because it underlines crack-opening.

  7. Simulation of a Marine Controllable Phase-Compounding Excitation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai-bo; WU Fu-yuan; CHEN Hui

    2007-01-01

    We first established the mathematical model of a marine synchronous generator and its controllable phase-compounding excitation system, and then made a simulation sketch with Saber simulation software. According to "Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Ocean-going Steel Ships" of the China Classification Society (CCS) , some experiments are designed to verify the property of the simulation model. Some experiments, such as free start, load sudden on and off, have been completed, and the result indicates that the model conforms to the requirements of the rules very well. It is qualified for a marine electrical propulsion simulation.

  8. Fused Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-stage immunogens with an Fc-delivery system as a promising approach for the development of a tuberculosis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavat, Arman; Soleimanpour, Saman; Farsiani, Hadi; Sadeghian, Hamid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. Currently, the Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available licensed TB vaccine, which has low efficacy in protection against adult pulmonary TB. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against TB needs global attention. In the present study, a novel multi-stage subunit vaccine candidate from culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) and heat shock protein X (HspX) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fused to the Fc domain of mouse IgG2a as a selective delivery system for antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was produced and its immunogenicity assessed. The optimized gene constructs were introduced into pPICZαA expression vectors, and the resultant plasmids (pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:Hspx:His) were transferred into Pichia pastoris by electroporation. The identification of both purified recombinant fusion proteins was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Then the immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins with and without BCG was evaluated in BALB/c mice by assessing the level of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β cytokines. Both multi-stage vaccines (CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a and CFP-10:HspX:His) induced Th1-type cellular responses by producing high level of IFN-γ (272 pg/mL, p<0.001) and IL-12 (191 pg/mL, p<0.001). However, the Fc-tagged recombinant protein induced more effective Th1-type cellular responses with a low level of IL-4 (10 pg/mL) compared to the CFP-10:HspX:His group. The production of IFN-γ to CFP-10:HspX:Fcγ2a was markedly consistent and showed an increasing trend for IL-12 compared with the BCG or CFP-10:HspX:His primed and boosted groups. Findings revealed that CFP-10:Hspx:Fcγ2a fusion protein can elicit strong Th1 antigen-specific immune responses in favor of protective immunity in mice and could provide new insight for introducing an effective multi-stage subunit vaccine against TB.

  9. New Treatment of Systems of Compounded Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Mweene, H V

    1999-01-01

    The approach to quantum mechanics which we hav used to derive the matrix treatment of spin from first principles is now employed to treat systems of compounded angular momentum. A general treatment is first given, which is then applied to the concrete cases of a spin-0 and a spin-1 system obtained by adding the spins of two spin-1/2 systems. Thus, the probability amplitudes for measurements on the systems are derived, as well as the matrix vectors and operators corresponding to the systems. The matrix operators and states thereby resulting are different from the standard forms and are much more generalized. The formulas so derived are applied to the case of joint measurements on the subsystems of such a system, a problem made very topical by the great interest in quantum foundations now obtaining. As a consequence of the insights arising from this treatment, we show that the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are amenable to generalization, and we give the generalized forms for these cases.

  10. Compounds produced by motor burnouts of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C.; Hawley-Fedder, R.; Foiles, L.

    1995-05-24

    The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons has necessitated the introduction of alternate refrigerants. R22 (CF{sub 2}ClH), R134a (CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F), and R507 (50/50 CHF{sub 2}CF{sub 3}/CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}) are newer fluids which are used in cooling systems. Recently, concern over the possible formation of toxic compounds during electrical arcing through these fluids has prompted us to identify their electrical breakdown products by electron ionization GC/MS. For example, it is known that perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB), which have an threshold limit value of 10 ppb (set by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists), is produced from the thermal and electrical breakdown of some refrigerants. We have used specially designed test cells, equipped with electrodes, to simulate the electrical breakdown of R22, R134a, and R507 in refrigeration systems.

  11. Aromaticity Competition in Differentially Fused Borepin-Containing Polycyclic Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Reid E; Siegler, Maxime A; Tovar, John D

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of borepin-based polycyclic aromatics bearing two different arene fusions. The borepin synthesis features streamlined Ti-mediated alkyne reduction, leading to Z-olefins, followed by direct lithiation and borepin formation. These molecules allow for an assessment of aromatic competition between the fused rings and the central borepin core. Crystallographic, magnetic, and computational studies yielded insights about the aromaticity of novel, differentially fused [b,f]borepins and allowed for comparison to literature compounds. Multiple borepin motifs were also incorporated into polycyclic aromatics with five or six rings in the main backbone, and their properties were also evaluated.

  12. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are two types of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) that use microorganisms to convert chemical energy in wastewaters into useful energy products such as (bio)electricity (MFC) or hydrogen gas (MEC). These two systems were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate trace organic compounds (TOrCs), commonly found in municipal wastewater, under closed circuit (current generation) and open circuit (no current generation) conditions, using acetate as the carbon source. A biocide was used to evaluate attenuation in terms of biotransformation versus sorption. The difference in attenuation observed before and after addition of the biocide represented biotransformation, while attenuation after addition of a biocide primarily indicated sorption. Attenuation of TOrCs was similar in MFCs and MECs for eight different TOrCs, except for caffeine and trimethoprim where slightly higher attenuation was observed in MECs. Electric current generation did not enhance attenuation of the TOrCs except for caffeine, which showed slightly higher attenuation under closed circuit conditions in both MFCs and MECs. Substantial sorption of the TOrCs occurred to the biofilm-covered electrodes, but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some of the compounds (carbamazepine, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and diphenhydramine) but not for others (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Atenolol also showed high levels of sorption despite being the most hydrophilic in the suite of compounds studied (log DpH 7.4=-1.99). Though BESs do not show any inherent advantages over conventional wastewater treatment, with respect to TOrC removal, overall removals in BESs are similar to that reported for conventional wastewater

  13. Structuring and Fusing Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    ontology. Our adaptation of SUMO has four principal components: people and organizations, competitive intelligence , telecommunications, and evidential...Volume 5096, pp. 463-472 (2003) [7] Steve Shaker and Victor Richardson. “Putting The System Back Into Early Warning,” Competitive Intelligence Magazine

  14. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  15. Fused heterocyclic compounds bearing bridgehead nitrogen as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs. Part 1: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Du, Deping; Rai, Diwakar; Wang, Liu; Liu, Huiqing; Zhan, Peng; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-04-01

    In our continuous efforts to identify novel potent HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel class of 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT4 cell cultures. Biological results showed that most of the tested compounds displayed excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with a wide range of EC50 values from 5.98 to 0.07μM. Among the active compounds, 5a was found to be the most promising analogue with an EC50 of 0.07μM against wild-type HIV-1 and very high selectivity index (SI, 3999). Compound 5a was more effective than the reference drugs nevirapine (by 2-fold) and delavirdine (by 2-fold). In order to further confirm their binding target, an HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay was also performed. Furthermore, SAR analysis among the newly synthesized compounds was discussed and the binding mode of the active compound 5a was rationalized by molecular modeling studies.

  16. Kadcoccitones A and B, two new 6/6/5/5-fused tetracyclic triterpenoids from Kadsura coccinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cheng-Qin; Shi, Yi-Ming; Luo, Rong-Hua; Li, Xing-Yao; Gao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Xiao-Nian; Yang, Liu-Meng; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Li, Yan; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

    2012-12-21

    A pair of new triterpenoid epimers, kadcoccitones A (1) and B (2), together with a new biogenetically related compound kadcoccitone C (3), were isolated from Kadsura coccinea. The epimers featured an unprecedented carbon skeleton with a 6/6/5/5-fused tetracyclic ring system unit and a C(9) side chain. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data, ECD calculation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 3 showed anti-HIV-1 activity with an EC(50) value of 47.91 and 32.66 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  18. P450BM3 fused to phosphite dehydrogenase allows phosphite-driven selective oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Nina; Kulig, Justyna K; Bartsch, Anette; Hayes, Martin A; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2017-03-01

    To facilitate the wider application of the NADPH-dependent P450BM3, we fused the monooxygenase with a phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The resulting monooxygenase-dehydrogenase fusion enzyme acts as a self-sufficient bifunctional catalyst, accepting phosphite as a cheap electron donor for the regeneration of NADPH.The well-expressed fusion enzyme was purified and analyzed in comparison to the parent enzymes. Using lauric acid as substrate for P450BM3, it was found that the fusion enzyme had similar substrate affinity and hydroxylation selectivity while it displayed a significantly higher activity than the non-fused monooxygenase. Phosphite-driven conversions of lauric acid at restricted NADPH concentrations confirmed multiple turnovers of the cofactor. Interestingly, both the fusion enzyme and the native P450BM3 displayed enzyme concentration dependent activity and the fused enzyme reached optimal activity at a lower enzyme concentration. This suggests that the fusion enzyme has an improved tendency to form functional oligomers.To explore the constructed phosphite-driven P450BM3 as a biocatalyst, conversions of the drug compounds omeprazole and rosiglitazone were performed. PTDH-P450BM3 driven by phosphite was found to be more efficient in terms of total turnover when compared with P450BM3 driven by NADPH. The results suggest that PTDH-P450BM3 is an attractive system for use in biocatalytic and drug metabolism studies.

  19. Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

  20. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  2. A desymmetrization route to fused Troger's base analogues: synthesis, isolation, and characterization of the first anti-anti diastereomer of a fused tris-Troger's base analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Anna; Wixe, Torbjörn; Bergquist, Karl-Erik; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2005-05-12

    A desymmetrization route to fused Troger's base analogues was developed. In this way, the synthesis of the first example of an anti-anti diastereomer of a fused tris-Troger's base analogue was accomplished. The resulting compound 5b is a nonlinear symmetric regioisomer obtained from p-bromoaniline in 7% yield. The corresponding syn-anti diastereomer 5a was obtained in 4% yield.

  3. Artificial Intelligence's Fusing Representation Model Based on Dynamics of Neural System%人工智能的神经系统动力学融合表示模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危辉

    2003-01-01

    The problem of representation is the most kernel and most key problem in artificial intelligence. The hy-pothesis of inconsequence of the lower order structure is our traditional choice, and use standing instead of standingfor to implement representation. Stemming from computational cognitive neuroscience, thus based on neuron infor-mation processing, massive representation by neural network and cognitive behaviors' dynamics model of neural sys-tem, this research aims to build a common and consistent groundwork within neuroscience to explain kinds of intelli-gent behaviors, and fuse indormation, system and processing procedure together fluently. This research is great sig-nificant for the structure simulation method of AI and the probe of intelligence's neural mechanism.

  4. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2009-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a dual-band Night Vision Goggles sensor system. The sensor system consists of two optically aligned NVGs fitted with filters splitting the sensitive range into a visual and a near-infrared band. The Color-the-night technique (Hogervorst & Toet, FUSION2008) was used to fuse

  5. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds.

  6. Methods and systems for producing compounded ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for producing compounded ultrasound images by beamforming a first and a second low-resolution image using data from a first ultrasound emission, beamforming a third and a fourth low-resolution image using data from a second ultrasound emission, summing said first and said...

  7. High Voltage Applications of Explosively Formed Fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, D. G.; Goforth, J. H.; Fowler, C. M.; Herrera, D. H.; King, J. C.; Lopez, E. A.; Martinez, E. C.; Oona, H.; Marsh, S. P.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Stokes, J.; Tabaka, L. J.; Torres, D. T.; Sena, F. C.; Kiuttu, G.; Degnan, J.

    2004-11-01

    At Los Alamos, we have primarily applied Explosively Formed Fuse (EFF) techniques to high current systems. In these systems, the EFF has interrupted currents from 19-25 MA, thus diverting the current to low inductance loads. The transferred current magnitude is determined by the ratio of storage inductance to load inductance and, with dynamic loads, the current has ranged from 12-20 MA. In a system with 18 MJ stored energy, the switch operates at a power of up to 6 TW. We are now investigating the use of the EFF technique to apply high voltages to high impedance loads in systems that are more compact. In these systems we are exploring circuits with EFF lengths from 43-100 cm, which have storage inductances large enough to apply 300-500 kV across high impedance loads. Experimental results and design considerations are presented. Using cylindrical EFF switches of 10 cm diameter and 43 cm length, currents of approximately 3 MA were interrupted producing ~200 kV. This indicates the switch had an effective resistance of ~100 mΩ where 150-200 mΩ was expected. To understand the lower performance, several parameters were studied including electrical conduction through the explosive products; current density; explosive initiation; insulator type and conductor thickness. The results show a number of interesting features, most notably that the primary mechanism of switch operation is mechanical and not electrical fusing of the conductor. Switches opening on a 1-10 μs time scale with resistances starting at 50 μΩ and increasing to perhaps 1 Ω now seem possible to construct using explosive charges as small as a few pounds.

  8. Development of a Novel Anti-HIF-1α Screening System Coupled with Biochemical and Biological Validation for Rapidly Selecting Potent Anti-Cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Madu, Chikezie; Masters, Jordan; Lu, Andrew; Li, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) is the most diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the American women. Adaptation to the hypoxic environment seen in solid tumors is critical for tumor cell survival and growth. The activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), an important master transcriptional factor that is induced and stabilized by intratumoral hypoxia, stimulates a group of HIF-1α-regulated genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), leading tumor cells towards malignant progression. Therefore, a promising therapeutic approach to cancer treatment is to target HIF-1α. The goal of this project was to develop and validate a screening system coupled with secondary screen/validation process that has the capability to screen large numbers of potential anti-cancer small-molecule compounds based on their anti-HIF-1α activities. Breast cancer MDA-231 cells were used as the model to select potent anti-HIF-1α compounds by their abilities to inhibit transactivation of a VEGF promoter fused to a luciferase reporter gene under hypoxia. Positive compounds were then validated by a series of assays that confirm compounds' anti-HIF-1α activities including measurement of HIF-1α downstream VEGF gene expression and angiogenic ability of BCa cells. Results of our pilot screening demonstrate that this prototype screening coupled with validation system can effectively select highly potent anti-HIF-1α agents from the compound library, suggesting that this prototype screen system has the potential to be developed into a high-throughput screen (HTS) coupled with automated validation process for the screening and identification of novel and effective anti-cancer drugs based on anti-HIF-1α mechanism.

  9. Seismic design or retrofit of buildings with metallic structural fuses by the damage-reduction spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shuchuan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the structural fuse has become an important issue in the field of earthquake engineering. Due to the trilinearity of the pushover curve of buildings with metallic structural fuses, the mechanism of the structural fuse is investigated through the ductility equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system, and the corresponding damage-reduction spectrum is proposed to design and retrofit buildings. Furthermore, the controlling parameters, the stiffness ratio between the main frame and structural fuse and the ductility factor of the main frame, are parametrically studied, and it is shown that the structural fuse concept can be achieved by specific combinations of the controlling parameters based on the proposed damage-reduction spectrum. Finally, a design example and a retrofit example, variations of real engineering projects after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures using buckling restrained braces as the structural fuses.

  10. Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxamusa, S; Miller, P E; Wong, L; Steele, R; Shen, N; Bude, J

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the laser damage threshold of fused silica have been driven by the successive elimination of near-surface damage precursors such as polishing residue, fractures, and inorganic salts. In this work, we show that trace impurities in ultrapure water used to process fused silica optics may be responsible for the formation of carbonaceous deposits. We use surrogate materials to show that organic compounds precipitated onto fused silica surfaces form discrete damage precursors. Following a standard etching process, solvent-free oxidative decomposition using oxygen plasma or high-temperature thermal treatments in air reduced the total density of damage precursors to as low as inorganic compounds are more likely to cause damage when they are tightly adhered to a surface, which may explain why high-temperature thermal treatments have been historically unsuccessful at removing extrinsic damage precursors from fused silica.

  11. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  12. Structure of fused-cast refractories of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ - Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ - ZrO/sub 2/ - SiO/sub 2/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.

    1985-03-01

    The processes of mineral formation and the features of the structure of fused-cast refractories of the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ - Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ - ZrO/sub 2/ - SiO/sub 2/ system by the methods of X-ray phase, petrographic and microprobe analyses are investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of synthesized chromalumozirconium refractories revealed the presence of two basic phases - Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and baddeleyite - ZnO/sub 2/. Chromium oxide in a form of a separate phase is not revealed. It has been found that the structure of the investigated samples, is not totally crystalline. The analysis of phase interrelations in refractories permitted to establish the order of melt crystallization.

  13. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    1996-01-01

    Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary value...

  14. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  15. Natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors for highly cycled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. [Corrosion Research Lab., Aligarh (India)

    1999-11-01

    Strict environmental legislations have led to the development of green inhibitors in recent years. In continuation of the authors` research work on development of green inhibitors, they have investigated the aqueous extracts of three plants namely: Azadirachta indica, Punica Granatum and Momordica charantia as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 3% NaCl using weight loss and electrochemical methods. All the investigated compounds exhibited excellent corrosion inhibition properties comparable to that of HEDP. Azadirachta showed better scale inhibition effect than HEDP.

  16. Analysis on Coordination System of Fuse and Warhead of Electromagnetic Pulse Bomb With Cascaded Flux Compression%爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹引战配合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛超; 刘忠; 邱志明; 卢发兴

    2012-01-01

    为了提高爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹作战使用效能,根据该弹定向辐射特点,分析了爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹定向辐射引战配合特性,建立了电磁脉冲弹引战配合的数学模型,给出了控制电磁脉冲弹引信最佳起爆时刻的数值计算方法.通过数值优化分析,给出了弹目交会参数对定向辐射天线对准精度的影响曲线.仿真图像表明,俯仰角参数对辐射天线对准精度影响最大.研究结论可为电磁脉冲弹攻击参数的计算和战术使用提供理论依据.%To improve the operational effectiveness of electromagnetic pulse bomb(EMPB) with cascaded flux compression,the characteristics of fuse and warhead matching were analyzed based on the directed radiation property,and the coordination system of EMPB was built. Based on the coordination system, the numerical method for the optimal detonation time of the fuse was proposed. By numerical optimization, the effect of parameters of bomb encountering target on reg- istration precision of active antenna was obtained. The calculation figures show that the pitching angle is the principal factor affecting the registration precision. The numerical simulation results offer theoretic basis for setting attack parameters and tactical use of EMPB.

  17. FUSE Observations of eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Iping, R C; Gull, T R

    2004-01-01

    Eta Carinae was observed by FUSE through the LWRS (30 arcsec x30 arcsec) and HIRS (1.25 arcsec x 20 arcsec) apertures in March and April 2004. There are significant differences between the two spectra. About half of the LWRS flux appears to be due to two B-type stars near the edge of the LWRS aperture, 14 arcsec from eta Carinae. The HIRS spectrum (LiF1 channel) therefore reveals the intrinsic FUV spectrum of eta Carinae without this stellar contamination. The HIRS spectrum contains strong interstellar H2 having high rotational excitation (up to J=8). Most of the atomic species with prominent ISM features (C II, Fe II, Ar I, P II, etc) also have strong blue-shifted absorption to v= ~ -580 km/s that is associated with expanding debris from the 1840 eruption.

  18. Scaffold-switching: an exploration of 5,6-fused bicyclic heteroaromatics systems to afford antituberculosis activity akin to the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraski, Garrett C; Oliver, Allen G; Markley, Lowell D; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott G; Miller, Marvin J

    2014-08-01

    A set of 5,6-fused bicyclic heteroaromatic scaffolds were investigated for their in vitro anti-tubercular activity versus replicating and non-replicating strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in an attempt to find an alternative scaffold to the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines that were previously shown to have potent activity against replicating and drug resistant Mtb. The five new bicyclic heteroaromatic scaffolds explored in this study include a 2,6-dimethylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamide (7), a 2,6-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (8), a 6-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (9), a 7-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (10), and a 5,7-dimethyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (11). Additionally, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines isomers (2 and 12) and a homologous imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine isomer (6) were prepared and compared. Compounds 2 and 6 were found to be the most potent against H37Rv Mtb (MIC's of 0.1 μM and 1.3 μM) and were inactive (MIC >128 μM) against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Against other non-tubercular mycobacteria strains, compounds 2 and 6 had activity against Mycobacterium avium (16 and 122 μM, respectively), Mycobacterium kansasii (4 and 19 μM, respectively), Mycobacterium bovis BCG (1 and 8 μM, respectively) while all the other scaffolds were inactive (>128 μM).

  19. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have tested a prototype dual-band NVG system consisting of two NVGs fitted with filters that split the NVG sensitive range into a short (visual) and a long wavelength (NIR) band. The Color-the-night technique (see Hogervorst & Toet, SPIE D&S ‘08) was used to fuse the images of the two sensors. We

  20. Delivery of complex organic compounds from evolved stars to the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2011-12-01

    Stars in the late stages of evolution are able to synthesize complex organic compounds with aromatic and aliphatic structures over very short time scales. These compounds are ejected into the interstellar medium and distributed throughout the Galaxy. The structures of these compounds are similar to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. In this paper, we discuss to what extent stellar organics has enriched the primordial Solar System and possibly the early Earth.

  1. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hy...

  2. Expression of L amino acid transport system 1 and analysis of iodine-123-methyltyrosine tumor uptake in a pancreatic xenotransplantation model using fused high-resolution-micro-SPECT-MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corinna von Forstner; Maaz Zuhayra; Ole Ammerpohl; Yi Zhao; Sanjay Tiwari; Olav Jansen; Holger Kalthoff; Eberhard Henze; Jan-Hendrik Egberts

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The specificity in discriminating pancreatitis is limited in the positron emission tomography (PET) using Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose.Furthermore,PETisnot widely available compared to the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Since amino acids play a minor role in metabolism of inflammatory cells, the potential of the SPECT tracer, 3-[123I]iodo-L-α-methyltyrosine (123I-IMT), for detecting pancreatic cancer was examined in xenotransplantation models of humanpancreaticcarcinomainmice. METHODS:  123I-IMT was injected to eight mice inoculated with subcutaneous or orthotopic pancreatic tumors. Fused high-resolution-micro-SPECT (Hi-SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The gene expression level of L amino acid transport-system 1 (LAT1) was analyzed and correlated with tumor uptake of 123I-IMT. RESULTS: A high uptake of 123I-IMT was detected in all tumor-bearing mice. The median tumor-to-background ratio (T/B) was 12.1 (2.0-13.2) for orthotopic and 8.4 (1.8-11.1) for subcutaneous xenotransplantation, respectively. Accordingly, the LAT1 expression in transplanted Colo357 cells was increased compared to non-malignant controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our mouse model could show a high 123I-IMT uptake in pancreatic cancer. Fused MRI scans facilitate precise evaluation of uptake in the specific regions of interest. Further studies are required to confirm these findings in tumors derived from other human pancreatic cancer cells. Since amino acids play a minor role in the metabolism of inflammatory cells, the potential for application of 123I-IMT to distinguish pancreatic tumor from inflammatory pancreatitis warrants further investigation.

  3. One-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-1,2-fused pyrimidones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIKANNU RAMESH; PON SARAVANAKUMAR; RAMASAMY DURAISAMY; ARVIND MATHUR; PIRAMA NAYAGAM ARUNACHALAM

    2017-03-01

    A facile and versatile method for the synthesis of alicyclic fused pyrimidones from aminoacrylates and lactams in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride is described. The results suggest that this method is widely applicable except for cyclobutyl fused systems. This method gives better yield than the method ofcondensing aminopyrrolidines with the beta keto esters.

  4. Fused combiners for photonic crystal bers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny

    The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis focuses on the fabrication of fused combiners for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. The main focus of the Ph.D. project was to further develop the fused pump combiners for airclad photonic crystal bers (PCFs), and implement a signal feed...

  5. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  6. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  7. Developing Central Nervous System and Vulnerability to Platinum Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernocchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the effects of the platinum complexes in use or in clinical trials are carried out in order to discover differences in the neurotoxic potential and the reversibility of neurotoxicity. In this paper, we summarized the current literature on neurotoxicity and chemoresistance of cisplatin (cisPt and discussed our recent efforts on the interference of cisPt and a new platinum compound [Pt(O,O′-acac(γ-acac(DMS] (PtAcacDMS, with high specific reactivity with sulphur ligands instead of nucleobases as cisPt, on some crucial events of rat postnatal cerebellum development. The acute effects of drug treatments on cell proliferation and death in the external granular layer and granule cell migration and the late effects on the dendrite growth of Purkinje cells were evaluated. Together with the demonstrated antineoplastic effectiveness in vitro, compared with cisPt, data suggest a lower neurotoxicity of PtAcacDMS, in spite of its presence in the brain that involves considerations on the blood brain barrier permeability.

  8. The Evolution of River–Lake and Urban Compound Systems: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization takes up a lot of wetlands, profoundly changing the natural connection of surrounding river–lake systems, all the while causing serious damage to the environment of connected catchments. Urban systems and river–lake systems are not isolated and static, there is a relation between them which is constantly changing. Based on the idea of system research, the urban system is simplified into four subsystems: environment, infrastructure, social, and economic. These four components interact together, influencing the river–lake system to form a compound system. This paper aims to reflect the features and evolution laws of the compound system, by building a Collaborative Development Model to study the changing of the compound system in Wuhan, China over a 10-year period. The results show that by implementing the Donghu Lake Ecological River Network Engineering Project, the damaged river–lake system in Wuhan showed some improvement. However, in order to improve the sustainability of the compound system in Wuhan, the status of the river–lake system, social system and environment system, which are still comparatively substandard, should be constantly improved. The Collaborative Development Model could also be used in other cities and regions, to provide the basis for sustainable development.

  9. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  10. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary values, the response of the projectile, flywheel and other components can be determined continuously for firing and in-flight conditions.

  12. Monitoring of PON System Using Compound Surveillance Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Chien Ko; Hsiu-Jung Chuang; Si-Chong Chen; Chih-Yih Wang; Sheng-Fwu Lin

    2015-01-01

    A passive optical network (PON) monitoring system combined light pulse and frequency sweep techniques is proposed and verified in a field test. The light pulse surveys over the all whole network and the frequency sweep are used to investigate any fault in the link. The field test is performed with 4 PONs. Each PON is monitored at 4 ports, one is the splitter port and the other three are arbitrary chosen multiple optical units(ONUs). All the tested PONs are monitored in turns once per hour. Faults at the feeder and branch fiber have been observed in this field test and have been analyzed with the monitoring system.

  13. Systems Biology based studies on anti-inflammatory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty Catharina Maria

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of the ‘omics’ techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and systems biology, has caused fundamental changes in the drug discovery process and many other fields in the life science area. In this thesis we explored the possibilities to apply these holistic technologi

  14. Brazilian National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices: program outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Hugo Guedes; Favaro, Alvaro; Andrade, Alba Lívia; Gomes, Lenir Yago; Garcez, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies in Brazil have to comply with a complex and strict set of drug manufacturing regulations. The authors reported in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding (November/December 2009, Volume 13, Issue 6) on the development and implementation of a National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil, a process-focused program aiming to help compounding pharmacies improve drug manufacturing processes and meet the standards set forth by the applicable legislation This article reports the results obtained in the first three editions of the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil (2006-2010) and presents new foci explored in the 2011 cycle. The results obtained over the years demonstrate that participating in the National System for the Monitoring and Improvement of Compounding Practices in Brazil has helped pharmacies achieve legal compliance and improve the quality of their preparations, which has contributed substantially to meeting quality standards never before achieved in the compounding sector in Brazil.

  15. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  16. Fused tricyclic pyrrolizinones that exhibit pseudo-irreversible blockade of the NK1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriello, Gregori J; Chicchi, Gary; Johnson, Tricia; Mills, Sander G; Demartino, Julie; Kurtz, Marc; Tsao, K L C; Zheng, Song; Tong, Xinchun; Carlson, Emma; Townson, Karen; Wheeldon, Alan; Boyce, Susan; Collinson, Neil; Rupniak, Nadia; Devita, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we had disclosed a novel class of hNK(1) antagonists based on the 5,5-fused pyrrolidine core. These compounds displayed subnanomolar hNK(1) affinity along with good efficacy in a gerbil foot-tapping (GFT) model, but unfortunately they had low to moderate functional antagonist (IP-1) activity. To elaborate on the SAR of this class of hNK(1) compounds and to improve functional activity, we have designed and synthesized a new class of hNK(1) antagonist with a third fused ring. Compared to the 5,5-fused pyrrolidine class, these 5,5,5-fused tricyclic hNK(1) antagonists maintain subnanomolar hNK(1) binding affinity with highly improved functional IP-1 activity (<10% SP remaining). A fused tricyclic methyl, hydroxyl geminally substituted pyrrolizinone (compound 20) had excellent functional IP (<2% SP remaining), hNK(1) binding affinity, off-target selectivity, pharmacokinetic profile and in vivo activity. Complete inhibition of agonist activity was observed at both 0 and 24h in the gerbil foot-tapping model with an ID(50) of 0.02 mpk at both 0 and 24h, respectively.

  17. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  18. Fuse Protects Parabolic-Dish Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding barrel and shutter protect against overheating. Downward movement of shutter initiated by melting of fuse wire that suspends it. Shutter lowered or raised under operator's control by depressuring or pressurizing hydraulic cylinder.

  19. Organometallic chemistry: Fused ferrocenes come full circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Rebecca A.; Manners, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Chemists have long been fascinated by electron delocalization, from both a fundamental and applied perspective. Macrocyclic oligomers containing fused ferrocenes provide a new structural framework -- containing strongly interacting metal centres -- that is capable of supporting substantial charge delocalization.

  20. Partition of volatile compounds in pea globulin-maltodextrin aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Dat; Lafarge, Céline; Murat, Chloé; Mession, Jean-Luc; Cayot, Nathalie; Saurel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on the assumption that the off-flavour of pea proteins might be decreased using the retention of volatile compounds by a mixture with another biopolymer. The partition of volatile compounds in an aqueous system containing pea protein and maltodextrins was followed under thermodynamic incompatibility conditions. Firstly, the phase diagram of the system was established. Then, the partition of aroma compounds between the phase rich in protein and the phase rich in maltodextrin was measured by SPME-GC-MS. There was a transfer of volatile compounds during phase separation. Variations of pH were also used to vary the retention of volatile compounds by proteins. The concentration of volatile compounds in protein solution at pH 2.4 was higher than at pH 7.2. It was possible to increase the transfer of volatile compounds from the phase rich in protein to the phase rich in maltodextrin using the effect of pH on protein denaturation.

  1. Safranal as a safe compound to mice immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate immunotoxic effect of safranal (SAF, a main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, using Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: SAF was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 ml/kg for 3 weeks. Hystopathological examination of spleen and bone marrow, cellularity of spleen, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH response, hemagglutination titer (HA, cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation assay were studied in various groups of animals. Results: Spleen cellularity for SAF groups (0.1 ml/kg SAF: 6.68 [± 0.88] × 107, 0.5 ml/kg SAF: 8.16 [± 1.33] × 107, 1 ml/kg SAF: 6.12 [± 0.59] × 107 did not significantly differ as compared to vehicle control (8.52 [± 1.36] × 107; p > 0.05. In addition, SAF at all doses could not produce any significant changes in hematological parameters, HA titer, DTH and lymphoproliferation responses, as well as in release of cytokines by isolated splenocytes (p > 0.05. Despite a few studies demonstrating some immunomodulatory effects for saffron extract, SAF as a major constituent of saffron did not induce any marked effects in immune system parameters of mice. Conclusion: Contrary to the toxicological studies which have indicated that SAF is more toxic than other active constituents in saffron stigma, at least it was found to be safe to mice immune system and has no toxicity on humoral and cellular immune responses.

  2. The Periodic Solutions of the Compound Singular Fractional Differential System with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XuTing Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives sufficient conditions on the existence of periodic solution for a class of compound singular fractional differential systems with delay, involving Nishimoto fractional derivative. Furthermore, for the particular functions, the necessary conditions on the existence of periodic solution are also derived. Especially, for two-dimensional compound singular fractional differential equation with delay, the criteria of existence of periodic solution are obtained. Finally, two examples are presented to verify the validity of criteria.

  3. Phytobioactive compound-based nanodelivery systems for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus - current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells. However, the poor solubility and lower permeability of these phyto products results in a loss of bioactivity during processing and oral delivery, leading to a significant reduction in the bioavailability of phytobioactive compounds to treat T2DM. Recently, nanotechnological systems have been developed for use as various types of carrier systems to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds and thus obtain a greater bioavailability. Furthermore, carrier systems in most nanodelivery systems are highly biocompatible, with nonimmunologic behavior, a high degree of biodegradability, and greater mucoadhesive strength. Therefore, this review focuses on the various types of nanodelivery systems that can be used for phytobioactive compounds in treating T2DM with greater antidiabetic effects. There is also additional focus on improving the effects of various phytobioactive compounds through nanotechnological delivery to ensure a highly efficient treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Video perceptual hashing fuse computational model of human visual system%融合HVS计算模型的视频感知哈希算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 高金花; 文振焜; 张盟; 刘朋飞; 杜以华

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual hashing is a function of mapping from multimedia digital presentations to a perceptual hash value, which provides a secure and reliable technical support in fields such as identification, retrieval, and certification of multimedia content. The current algorithms fail in taking sufficient human visual perceptual factors into consideration. With the improvement of their over-robustness, most of the algorithms can' t assure their securities. In this paper, a novel perceptual hashing algorithm is proposed. In order to simulate multi-channel features of the human visual system, a cortex transformation is combined with a computational model of the human visual system, which is designed by jointly considering four visual perceptual factors during the feature extraction stage, such as spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function, eye movement, lightness adaptation, and intra-band and inter-band masking. Additionally, a diffusion mechanism is introduced into the preprocessing stage. The results suggest our proposed method could achieve better trade-offs between robust and secure resilient to various content-preserving manipulations, and also reflects the uniformity between subjective perception and objective evaluation.%感知哈希(perceptual hashing)是多媒体数据集到摘要集的单向映射,为多媒体数字内容的标识、检索、认证等应用提供了安全可靠的技术支撑.目前关于感知哈希算法的研究主要集中在不断提高其鲁棒性和安全性上,忽略了人的主要视觉感知特性,导致了算法的过鲁棒性问题.将人类视觉系统可计算模型融入视频感知哈希算法框架中,用模拟人眼感受野特征提取特性的Cortex变换进行通道分解,并使用时-空域对比度敏感函数、眼球移动函数、亮度适应性调整函数、子带内和子带间对比度掩蔽函数综合计算最小视觉差提取感知特征.在保证较好鲁棒性的前提下,算法中使用扩散分块的机

  5. Improved Self Fused Check pointing Replication for Handling Multiple Faults in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Bansal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of checkpointing replication fault tolerance technique is severely bottlenecks due to handling of number of replicas generated for a large number of nodes to tolerate multiple faults such as multiple failure of nodes, processes etc. In fusion based approach, these checkpointing replicas stored at large number of computing nodes is aggregated into some data structure to handle efficiently through fused data structure. These impose higher overheads of fusing a large numbers of checkpointing replicas. In this paper, a self fused checkpointing replication (SFCR for cloud computing is proposed. All checkpointing replicas assigned to store at a particular node are stored in a self-fused-shared-checkpointing-replicas file already created and located at every node rather than storing as a separate checkpointing element and than fusing. Thus, iteliminates the need of further fusing of the checkpointing replicas stored at different checkpointing replicas storage nodes, as checkpointing replicas assign to store a particular node stored in an already created fuse file at every checkpointing replicas storage node. It improves the performance without affecting the specified fault tolerant capabilities as failure of any node will result in loss of all replicas irrespective of separate checkpointing file or shared checkpointing fused file. Costs to maintain these set of self fused shared files are obviously less than the number of separate replicated files in terms of time and efforts that it takes to create, and update a file. Thus, proposed approach is enhancement of performance without compromising the specified fault tolerancecapability. At the same time when system seems to be prone to many number of faults, some specific self fused shared files consist of important and critical data that can be further replicated to enhance the fault tolerant capability of a group of important and critical nodes or processes at run time. Thus, it also

  6. Fusing Laser and Radar Data for Enhanced Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    With an increasing traffic intensity the demands on vehicular safety is higher than ever before. Active safety systems that have been developed recent years are a response to that. In this master thesis Sensor Fusion is used to combine information from a laser scanner and a microwave radar in order to get more information about the surroundings in front of a vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter method has been used to fuse the information from the sensors. The process model consists partly of ...

  7. Coumarin-fused coumarin: antioxidant story from N,N-dimethylamino and hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gao-Lei; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2015-04-01

    Two coumarin skeletons can form chromeno[3,4-c]chromene-6,7-dione by sharing with the C ═ C in lactone. The aim of the present work was to explore the antioxidant effectiveness of the coumarin-fused coumarin via six synthetic compounds containing hydroxyl and N,N-dimethylamino as the functional groups. The abilities to quench 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical (ABTS(+•)), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), and galvinoxyl radical revealed that the rate constant for scavenging radicals was related to the amount of hydroxyl group in the scaffold of coumarin-fused coumarin. But coumarin-fused coumarin was able to inhibit DNA oxidations caused by (•)OH, Cu(2+)/glutathione (GSH), and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH) even in the absence of hydroxyl group. In particular, a hydroxyl and an N,N-dimethylamino group locating at different benzene rings increased the inhibitory effect of coumarin-fused coumarin on AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA about 3 times higher than a single hydroxyl group, whereas N,N-dimethylamino-substituted coumarin-fused coumarin possessed high activity toward (•)OH-induced oxidation of DNA without the hydroxyl group contained. Therefore, the hydroxyl group together with N,N-dimethylamino group may be a novel combination for the design of coumarin-fused heterocyclic antioxidants.

  8. One-atom-layer 4×4 compound in (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalyuk, A. N.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    An ordered 4×4-periodicity 2D compound has been found in the (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system and its composition, structure and electronic properties have been characterized using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy observations and density-functional-theory calculations. The compound has been concluded to contain 9 Tl atoms and 12 Pb atoms per 4×4 unit cell, i.e., 0.56 ML of Tl and 0.75 ML of Pb. Structural model was proposed for the 4×4-(Tl, Pb) compound where building blocks are a hexagonal array of 12 Pb atoms, a triangular array of 6 Tl atoms and a Tl trimer. The proposed structure has a C3 symmetry and occurs in the two equivalent orientations. The electron band structure of the compound contains two metallic spin-split surface-state bands. Bearing in mind the advanced properties of the known √{ 3 } ×√{ 3 } 2D compound in the same (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system (i.e., combination of giant Rashba effect and superconductivity), the found 4×4-(Tl, Pb) compound is believed to be a promising object for exploration of its superconductive properties.

  9. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronics Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large...

  10. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronics Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large...

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic structure identification, X-ray study and anticancer activities of new angularly fused quinobenzothiazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, K.; Szmielew, M.; Suwińska, K.; Latocha, M.

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of 16 new tetracyclic angularly fused azaphenothiazines, 8-, 9- and 10-substituted quinobenzo-1,4-thiazines (benzo[a]-3-azaphenothiazines) was based on the reactions of dichlorodiquinolinyl disulfide and diquinodithiin with substituted anilines. Whereas the reactions with p-fluoroaniline and p-methylthioaniline led to only one product, the reaction with m-triflouromethylaniline led to isomeric compounds. The obtained 8-10-substituted 12H-quinobenzothiazines were further transformed into 12-substituted derivatives through alkylation of the thiazine nitrogen atom. The structure analysis was based on 1D and 2D NMR (NOESY, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) spectra which enabled to distinguish the isomers and to exclude retro-Smiles rearrangement and the azine nitrogen atom alkylation pathways. This supposition was fully confirmed by X-ray analysis showing the quinobenzothiazine system to be folded and the substituent at the thiazine nitrogen atom in an equatorial position. Some compounds exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SNB-19 cell lines similar to a reference drug cisplatin. The structure-activity relationship of the compounds were discussed.

  12. Augmenting full colour-fused multi-band night vision imagery with synthetic imagery in real-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Son, R. van; Dijk, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of an all-day all-weather enhanced and synthetic-fused multi-band colour night vision surveillance and observation system. The system augments a fused and dynamic three-band natural-colour night vision image with synthetic 3D imagery in real-time.

  13. Inner hydrogen atom transfer in benzo-fused low symmetrical metal-free tetraazaporphyrin and phthalocyanine analogues: density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Cai, Xue; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Bai, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to study the inner hydrogen atom transfer in low symmetrical metal-free tetrapyrrole analogues ranging from tetraazaporphyrin H(2)TAP (A(0)B(0)C(0)D(0)) to naphthalocyanine H(2)Nc (A(2)B(2)C(2)D(2)) via phthalocyanine H(2)Pc (A(1)B(1)C(1)D(1)). All the transition paths of sixteen different compounds (A(0)B(0)C(0)D(0)-A(2)B(2)C(2)D(2) and A(0)B(0)C(m)D(n), m rings onto the TAP skeleton have significant effect on the potential energy barrier of the inner hydrogen atom transfer. Introducing fused benzene rings onto the hydrogen-releasing pyrrole rings can increase the transitivity of inner hydrogen atom and thus lower the transfer barrier of this inner hydrogen atom while fusing benzene rings onto the hydrogen-accepting pyrrole rings will increase the hydrogen transfer barrier to this pyrrole ring. The transient cis-isomer intermediate with hydrogen atoms joined to the two adjacent pyrrole rings with less fused benzene rings is much stable than the others. It is also found that the benzene rings fused directly onto pyrrole rings have more effect on the inner hydrogen atom transfer than the outer benzene rings fused onto the periphery of isoindole rings. The present work, representing the first effort towards systematically understanding the effect of ring enlargement through asymmetrical peripheral fusion of benzene ring(s) onto the TAP skeleton on the inner hydrogen transfer of tetrapyrrole derivatives, will be helpful in clarifying the N-H tautomerization phenomenon and detecting the cis-porphyrin isomer in bio-systems.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of a Transient Vibration Control Strategy Using a Switchable Mass Stiffness Compound System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Francisco Ledezma-Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical control strategy for residual vibration control resulting from a shock pulse is studied. The semiactive control strategy is applied in a piecewise linear compound model and involves an on-off logic to connect and disconnect a secondary mass stiffness system from the primary isolation device, with the aim of providing high energy dissipation for lightly damped systems. The compound model is characterized by an energy dissipation mechanism due to the inelastic collision between the two masses and then viscous damping is introduced and its effects are analyzed. The objective of the simulations is to evaluate the transient vibration response in comparison to the results for a passive viscously damped single degree-of-freedom system considered as the benchmark or reference case. Similarly the decay in the compound system is associated with an equivalent decay rate or logarithmic decrement for direct comparison. It is found how the compound system provides improved isolation compared to the passive system, and the damping mechanisms are explained.

  15. Research on Functional Characteristics of Karst Eco-economic Compound System in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the eco-economy theory,this paper analyzed the characteristics of the components of eco-economic compound system of karst region in Guizhou Province.The functional characteristics of eco-economic compound system of karst region in Guizhou Province were analyzed.The functional characteristics were as follows:low biological production of Guizhou Province;weak capacity of ecosystem;slow speed of storage and accumulation of material and serious environmental pollution;low production and efficiency of energy;serious wastes of energy.On the basis of functional characteristics of eco-economic compound System in Karst region.Some views in terms of maintenance and reconstruction of compound system,were put forward,including laying stress on improving ecological system;choosing and cultivating the advanced species that suit the Karst region;improving the amount and speed of material accumulation,at the same time,introducing into advanced production technologies and management experience;reducing the energy efficiency of each section in economic system and improving the transformation efficiency of energy.

  16. RESEARCH ON SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF CONVEYANCE CAPACITY IN SYMMETRIC COMPOUND CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ke-jun; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian

    2005-01-01

    Stage-discharge curves are particularly important in river basin management. For a compound channel, the stage-discharge curve is often difficult to be extrapolated to yield estimates of level for a given frequency of flow. By analyzing a large number of experimental data from Science and Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF) and applying system dynamics method, the authors established system dynamics model of conveyance capacity when rivers flow in an overbank mode, spilling onto the adjoining flood plain. The model was applied to a compound channel. And the corresponding simulated results are shown to attain high accurcy.

  17. Classification of fused face images using multilayer perceptron neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of image pixel fusion of visual and thermal faces, which can significantly improve the overall performance of a face recognition system. Several factors affect face recognition performance including pose variations, facial expression changes, occlusions, and most importantly illumination changes. So, image pixel fusion of thermal and visual images is a solution to overcome the drawbacks present in the individual thermal and visual face images. Fused images are projected into eigenspace and finally classified using a multi-layer perceptron. In the experiments we have used Object Tracking and Classification Beyond Visible Spectrum (OTCBVS) database benchmark thermal and visual face images. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the verification and identification performance and the success rate is 95.07%. The main objective of employing fusion is to produce a fused image that provides the most detailed and reliable information. Fusion of multip...

  18. Compound Generalized Function Projective Synchronization for Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified function projective synchronization for fractional-order chaotic system, called compound generalized function projective synchronization (CGFPS, is proposed theoretically in this paper. There are one scaling-drive system, more than one base-drive system, and one response system in the scheme of CGFPS, and the scaling function matrices come from multidrive systems. The proposed CGFPS technique is based on the stability theory of fractional-order system. Moreover, we achieve the CGFPS between three-driver chaotic systems, that is, the fractional-order Arneodo chaotic system, the fractional-order Chen chaotic system, and the fractional-order Lu chaotic system, and one response chaotic system, that is, the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system. Numerical experiments are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the CGFPS scheme.

  19. Fluid of fused spheres as a model for protein solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kastelic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examine thermodynamics of fluid with "molecules" represented by two fused hard spheres, decorated by the attractive square-well sites. Interactions between these sites are of short-range and cause association between the fused-sphere particles. The model can be used to study the non-spherical (or dimerized proteins in solution. Thermodynamic quantities of the system are calculated using a modification of Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory and the results compared with new Monte Carlo simulations under isobaric-isothermal conditions. In particular, we are interested in the liquid-liquid phase separation in such systems. The model fluid serves to evaluate the effect of the shape of the molecules, changing from spherical to more elongated (two fused spheres ones. The results indicate that the effect of the non-spherical shape is to reduce the critical density and temperature. This finding is consistent with experimental observations for the antibodies of non-spherical shape.

  20. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  1. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  2. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  3. Overcurrent protection of transformers. Part 2: Traditional and new fusing philosophies for small and large transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C. J.; Niemira, J. K.

    2003-07-01

    New and traditional fusing philosophies for protecting transformers are discussed. This second in a two-part paper covers selection criteria for a transformer-primary fuse to protect the transformer consistent with industry-accepted through-fault protection curves. Also covered are the principles of coordination as they relate to the proper selection of the primary-side fuse and power fuses and the principles underlying the protection of load-side conductors and cables. The critical nature of secondary fault protection on small three-phase transformers used on industrial, commercial, and institutional power systems, as well as small-to-medium size three-phase power transformers used in utility substations is emphasized, in view of the long lead time and expense involved in replacing these transformers. In contrast, no special protection recommendations are made for small-kVA overhead distribution transformers, since they are not considered likely to experience secondary faults, and the rare faults that do occur will not likely be detected and cleared by the primary fuse. Also of importance is the fact that these transformers are inexpensive and readily available. Overall, large fuse rating, used in combination with a tank-mounted surge arrester is recommended, because it can provide better transformer protection than the smaller fuse ratings traditionally employed. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  5. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: gas@cdtn.br, e-mail: pls@cdtn.br, e-mail: fcp@cdtn.br, e-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  6. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India))

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  7. Prediction of novel stable compounds in the Mg-Si-O system under exoplanet pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Haiyang; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Li, Dianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The Mg-Si-O system is the major Earth and rocky planet-forming system. Here, through quantum variable-composition evolutionary structure explorations, we have discovered several unexpected stable binary and ternary compounds in the Mg-Si-O system. Besides the well-known SiO2 phases, we have found two extraordinary silicon oxides, SiO3 and SiO, which become stable at pressures above 0.51 TPa and 1.89 TPa, respectively. In the Mg-O system, we have found one new compound, MgO3, which becomes stable at 0.89 TPa. We find that not only the (MgO)x(SiO2)y compounds, but also two (MgO3)x(SiO3)y compounds, MgSi3O12 and MgSiO6, have stability fields above 2.41 TPa and 2.95 TPa, respectively. The highly oxidized MgSi3O12 can form in deep mantles of mega-Earths with masses above 20 M+ (M+:Earth's mass). Furthermore, the dissociation pathways of pPv-MgSiO3 are also clarified, and found to be different at low and high temperatures. The low-temperature pathway is MgSiO3 -> Mg2SiO4 + MgSi2O5 -> SiO2 + Mg2SiO4 -> MgO + SiO2, w...

  8. Existence of a stable compound in the Au-Ge alloy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasci, E.S.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; Pasturel, A.; Jakse, N.

    2010-01-01

    First-principles electronic structure calculations predict the existence of a crystalline compound in the Au-Ge system. The structure is found by matching the theoretically determined local atomic structure in the liquid state with that for experimentally known crystal structures in other alloys. Su

  9. Combined removal of sulfur compounds and nitrate by autotrophic denitrication in bioaugmented activated sludge system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manconi, I.; Carucci, A.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    An autotrophic denitrification process using reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate and sulfide) as electron donor in an activated sludge system is proposed as an efficient and cost effective alternative to conventional heterotrophic denitrification for inorganic (or with low C/N ratio) wastewaters a

  10. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water – a thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, Jan A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  11. System model for gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water - A thermodynamic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.; Smeets, Jules R.; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a system model for the process of gasification of biomass model compounds in supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification of wet biomass (water content of 70 wt% or more) has as the main advantage that conversion may take place without the costly drying step. The therm

  12. 21 CFR 862.1185 - Compound S (11-deoxycortisol) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compound S (11-deoxycortisol) test system. 862.1185 Section 862.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  13. Optimal Control of Production-Inventory Systems with Constant and Compound Poisson Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, Remco; Foreest, Nicky D. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a production-inventory systems with finite production capacity and fixed setup costs. The demand process is modeled as a mixture of a compound Poisson process and a constant demand rate. For the backlog model we establish conditions on the holding and backlogging costs such

  14. Sampled MTF of fused fiber optic components and bonded assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Fused fiber optic devices are bundles of glass optical fibers that have been successively bundled and drawn to smaller and smaller sizes, effectively creating a "zero optical path window". Due to the nature of fiber's clad and core design, pixelization or sampling of the resulting image occurs; this sampling fundamentally degrades the image. Degradation of a resulting image caused by an optical system can be quantified by way of its Modulation Transfer Function. However, since fused fiber optic devices first sample then effectively project the original image, they do not meet the Fourier transform's prerequisite conditions of being linear and isoplanatic. Current technologies at SCHOTT Lighting and Imaging have initiated a study to determine methodology for measuring the sampled modulation transfer function of bonded assemblies such as bonded Faceplate-to-OLED and Faceplate-tosensor assemblies. The use of randomly generated targets imaged through the bonded assemblies proved to be a useful tactic. This paper discusses the test methods developed and subsequent measurement of the sampled modulation transfer function of fused fiber optic bundles and bonded assemblies.

  15. Adaptive Sliding Mode Robust Control for Virtual Compound-Axis Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure mode of virtual compound-axis servo system is proposed to improve the tracking accuracy of the ordinary optoelectric tracking platform. It is based on the structure and principles of compound-axis servo system. A hybrid position control scheme combining the PD controller and feed-forward controller is used in subsystem to track the tracking error of the main system. This paper analyzes the influences of the equivalent disturbance in main system and proposes an adaptive sliding mode robust control method based on the improved disturbance observer. The sliding mode technique helps this disturbance observer to deal with the uncompensated disturbance in high frequency by making use of the rapid switching control value, which is based on the subtle error of disturbance estimation. Besides, the high-frequency chattering is alleviated effectively in this proposal. The effectiveness of the proposal is confirmed by experiments on optoelectric tracking platform.

  16. Optical methods for creating delivery systems of chemical compounds to plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Arefeva, Oksana A.; Minin, Dmitryi V.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.

    2004-08-01

    Spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods have been used for creation and investigation of various systems of target delivery of chemical compounds to roots of plants. The possibility of using liposomes, incrusted by polysaccharides of the external surface of nitrogen-fixing rizospheric bacteria Azospirillum brasilense SP 245, and nanoparticles incrusted by polysaccharides of wheat roots, as the named systems has been shown. The important role of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the adsorption processes of bacteria on wheat roots has been demonstrated.

  17. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of <8 eV (measured by electron impact). The reaction products contain hydroxyl and keto groups. In one case, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, yielding anthraquinone from 9-methylanthracene, was detected. Kinetic constants and stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  18. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  19. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults w

  20. Demonstrating Earth Connections and Fuses Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Earth wires and fuses work together in UK mains circuits to keep users safe from electric shocks and are taught in many school contexts. The subject can be quite abstract and difficult for pupils to grasp, and a simple but visually clear and direct demonstration is described which would be easy for most physics departments to build and which can…

  1. Solid-State Phase Equilibria and Intermetallic Compounds of the Si-V-Zr Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanfang; Ye, Haimei; Chen, Xiaoxian; Jiang, Wenping; Yang, Wenchao; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2016-12-01

    Phase relations in the Si-V-Zr ternary system at 973 K (700 °C) were experimentally investigated using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal section at 973 K (700 °C) is governed by seventeen three-phase regions, thirty-two two-phase regions, and sixteen single-phase regions. Ten binary compounds and one ternary compound (SiVZr) were confirmed. There are two new ternary compounds found in this work for the first time. One of them (Si4V3Zr2) was found in the stoichiometric composition around V 38 pct, Si 50 pct, and Zr 12 pct. The existence of another one (V17Si12Zr3) was observed while analyzing the XRD results of large quantities of equilibrated samples in the region around 54 at. pct V, 33 at. pct Si, and 13 at. pct Zr.

  2. Impact of septic compounds and operational conditions on the microbiology of an activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Carl; Fitzsimmons, Mary Ann; Deschênes, Sophie; Paice, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In activated sludge (AS) biotreatment, septic compounds such as volatile organic acids and reduced sulphur compounds have been frequently cited as a major cause of Thiothrix and Type 021N filamentous bulking. These filaments are common in Canadian pulp and paper biotreatment systems, where they cause settling problems in secondary clarifiers. We conducted a 14-week study of a TMP/newsprint mill effluent to characterize the septic compounds entering the biotreatment, and to determine correlations with AS biomass characteristics and biotreatment operating parameters. A significant correlation was found between the sludge volume index, the abundance of Type 021N, and the propionic acid (PA) concentration in the primary clarified effluent. PA also induced a significant change in the flocculating bacteria size distribution determined by digital imaging. Consequently, the correlation observed between PA and Type 021N bulking is an indirect effect of inhibition of floc-forming microorganisms, giving a competitive advantage to filaments.

  3. Study of organic compounds-water interactions by partition in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Pedro P; Bessa, Ana; Teixeira, Miguel A; Álvares-Ribeiro, Luís; Aires-Barros, M Raquel; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2013-12-27

    Partition coefficients of fourteen organic compounds were determined in 10 or 20 different polymer/polymer aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) all at physiological pH (0.15M NaCl in 0.01M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4). Solute-specific coefficients characterizing different types of solute-water interactions for the compounds examined were determined by the multiple linear regression analysis. It is shown that (i) the partition behavior for the polar organic compounds is affected not only by dipole-dipole and hydrogen-bond interactions with aqueous environment but, notably, in most cases also by dipole-ion interactions; (ii) it is possible to predict partition behavior for compounds with pre-determined solute-specific coefficients in ATPS with characterized solvent features; and (iii) linear combinations of the solute-specific coefficients for the organic compounds might be useful in the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to describe their odor detection threshold.

  4. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties.

  5. Emerging strategies and integrated systems microbiology technologies for biodiscovery of marine bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Harrington, Catriona; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-06-10

    Marine microorganisms continue to be a source of structurally and biologically novel compounds with potential use in the biotechnology industry. The unique physiochemical properties of the marine environment (such as pH, pressure, temperature, osmolarity) and uncommon functional groups (such as isonitrile, dichloroimine, isocyanate, and halogenated functional groups) are frequently found in marine metabolites. These facts have resulted in the production of bioactive substances with different properties than those found in terrestrial habitats. In fact, the marine environment contains a relatively untapped reservoir of bioactivity. Recent advances in genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, synthetic biology, screening methods, expression systems, bioinformatics, and the ever increasing availability of sequenced genomes provides us with more opportunities than ever in the discovery of novel bioactive compounds and biocatalysts. The combination of these advanced techniques with traditional techniques, together with the use of dereplication strategies to eliminate known compounds, provides a powerful tool in the discovery of novel marine bioactive compounds. This review outlines and discusses the emerging strategies for the biodiscovery of these bioactive compounds.

  6. Emerging Strategies and Integrated Systems Microbiology Technologies for Biodiscovery of Marine Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rocha-Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms continue to be a source of structurally and biologically novel compounds with potential use in the biotechnology industry. The unique physiochemical properties of the marine environment (such as pH, pressure, temperature, osmolarity and uncommon functional groups (such as isonitrile, dichloroimine, isocyanate, and halogenated functional groups are frequently found in marine metabolites. These facts have resulted in the production of bioactive substances with different properties than those found in terrestrial habitats. In fact, the marine environment contains a relatively untapped reservoir of bioactivity. Recent advances in genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, synthetic biology, screening methods, expression systems, bioinformatics, and the ever increasing availability of sequenced genomes provides us with more opportunities than ever in the discovery of novel bioactive compounds and biocatalysts. The combination of these advanced techniques with traditional techniques, together with the use of dereplication strategies to eliminate known compounds, provides a powerful tool in the discovery of novel marine bioactive compounds. This review outlines and discusses the emerging strategies for the biodiscovery of these bioactive compounds.

  7. High-performance fused indium gallium arsenide/silicon photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yimin

    Modern long haul, high bit rate fiber-optic communication systems demand photodetectors with high sensitivity. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) exhibit superior sensitivity performance than other types of photodetectors by virtual of its internal gain mechanism. This dissertation work further advances the APD performance by applying a novel materials integration technique. It is the first successful demonstration of wafer fused InGaAs/Si APDs with low dark current and low noise. APDs generally adopt separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structure, which allows independent optimization of materials properties in two distinct regions. While the absorption material needs to have high absorption coefficient in the target wavelength range to achieve high quantum efficiency, it is desirable for the multiplication material to have large discrepancy between its electron and hole ionization coefficients to reduce noise. According to these criteria, InGaAs and Si are the ideal materials combination. Wafer fusion is the enabling technique that makes this theoretical ideal an experimental possibility. APDs fabricated on the fused InGaAs/Si wafer with mesa structure exhibit low dark current and low noise. Special device fabrication techniques and high quality wafer fusion reduce dark current to nano ampere level at unity gain, comparable to state-of-the-art commercial III/V APDs. The small excess noise is attributed to the large difference in ionization coefficients between electrons and holes in silicon. Detailed layer structure designs are developed specifically for fused InGaAs/Si APDs based on principles similar to those used in traditional InGaAs/InP APDs. An accurate yet straightforward technique for device structural parameters extraction is also proposed. The extracted results from the fabricated APDs agree with device design parameters. This agreement also confirms that the fusion interface has negligible effect on electric field distributions for devices fabricated

  8. Development of a fast GC/MS-system for airborne measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Ann-Kathrin; Wegener, Robert; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Wahner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) determine the radical chemistry of the atmosphere. They can serve both as sources, or sinks for radicals. Mass spectrometry linked to gas chromatography (GC/MS) is a widespread technique in environmental analysis since it can be used to separate and analyze any compound which can be evaporated and pass the analytical column with very high precision and a good sensitivity. The use of special chromatographic phases and long capillary columns enables the quantification of a wide range of compounds with little interference from other sample constituents. An in situ GC/MS consists in principle of three compartments, 1) a preconcentration unit where the sample is extracted from the air, focussed onto a small volume and volatilized, 2) a chromatographic system where the analytes are separated on the analytical column and 3) a mass spectrometer where the compounds are ionized and detected. VOC have to be preconcentrated due to their low concentration level and in order to get enough sensitivity for analysis. The aim of this project was to develop an in situ GC/MS system to analyze volatile Nonmethane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOC) for the High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft (HALO). In contrast to other analytical instruments a GC/MS works discontinuously. The preconcentration unit is either heated up when the compounds are volatilized or cooled down when substances are adsorbed. The same is true for the GC oven. It is heated up when the compounds are separated or it is cooled down to be ready for the next injection. On a system with a single GC oven, these processes will inevitably lengthen the whole analytical procedure. To speed up the analytical process the GC/MS system described here was equipped with two GC ovens and two adsorption units. While the components are adsorbed in one adsorption unit, in the other unit the components are desorbed and transferred to the GC unit. The second GC

  9. [Design of high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator system in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Lu, Qi-Peng; Peng, Zhong-Qi; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2013-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of system is necessary to obtain accurate blood components in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis. In order to improve SNR of analytical system, high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator (DCPC) system was researched, which was aimed at increasing light utilization efficiency. Firstly, with the request of collection efficiency in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis, the characteristic of emergent rays through compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) was analyzed. Then the maximum focusing angle range of the first stage CPC was determined. Secondly, the light utilization efficiency of truncated type was compared with standard DCPC, thus the best structure parameters of DCPC system were optimized. Lastly, combined with optical parameters of skin tissue, calculations were operated when incident wavelength is 1 000 nm. The light utilization efficiency of DCPC system, CPC-focusing mirror system, and non-optical collecting system was calculated. The results show that the light utilization efficiency of the three optical systems is 1.46%, 0.84% and 0.26% respectively. So DCPC system enhances collecting ability for human diffuse reflection light, and helps improve SNR of noninvasive biochemical analysis system and overall analysis accuracy effectively.

  10. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells.

  11. State estimation of a compound non-smooth sandwich system with backlash and dead zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zupeng; Tan, Yonghong; Xie, Yangqiu; Dong, Ruili

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel switching non-smooth observer is proposed to deal with the state estimation of compound non-smooth sandwich system with backlash and dead zone. Based on the characteristic of the system, two separate non-smooth state-space functions are constructed to describe the input-output relationships of backlash. Then, a Luenberger-type non-smooth observer is developed based on the two separate non-smooth state-space functions and the backlash and dead zone input output functions. The observer can switch among the different operating zones automatically in terms of the change of real operation conditions. The observability of the system has been analyzed and the convergence of the switching compound non-smooth observer has been verified. Finally motor servo hydraulic systems which can be represented as a compound non-smooth sandwich system have been studied as an application case. The comparisons between the proposed non-smooth scheme and the conventional method are illustrated. It is demonstrated that the proposed non-smooth approach can achieve much better performance in the aspects of state estimation accuracy and state estimation convergence speed than the conventional one.

  12. Development of a pretreatment system for the analysis of atmospheric reduced sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Suk; Lee, Gangwoong; Kim, Jo-Chun; Han, Jin-Seok

    2013-11-05

    A new pretreatment system was used to evaluate a technology to analyze reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs). To conduct this research, a self-developed custom dryer (Desolvator) and a thermal desorber system (TDS) were installed in the front of GC/PFPD. The syringe pump inside the TDS was devised in such a way that it can be desorbed in a relatively low desorption temperature and low vacuum (730 Pa). When comparing water removal efficiency of the Desolvator and frequently used Nafion dryer, the removal efficiency of the Desolvator stood between 94.6 and 96.1%, considerably higher and more stable than the Nafion dryer (81.3-94.5%). Moreover, analyses were made under various conditions in order to minimize the loss of samples when analyzing sulfur compounds using the TDS, and it was determined that adsorption temperatures less than -25 °C and a flow rate of 50 mL/min were appropriate for the efficient analysis of these sulfur compounds. Moreover, the desorption flow rate and the degree of a vacuum were found to be significant variables for the RSCs desorption. Besides, it was observed that a peculiar peak was formed by thermal decomposition when some sulfur compounds were rapidly desorbed at high desorption temperatures.

  13. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, María R.; Manca de Nadra,María C.; Arena, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arg...

  14. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REMOVING NITROGEN COMPOUNDS FROM WATER OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS USING CLINOPTILOLITE NATURAL ZEOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Georgeta Nicolae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From the constructive and functional point of view, a controlled aquaculture system can be assimilated with a classical water treatment system, functionally customized to the requirements of technology for intensive fish in confined spaces. A physicochemical process cheap, fast, secure which has the potential to replace the widespread technique of biologically removal of nitrogen compounds is based on the separation of nitrogen compounds from the water using zeolite. By using clinoptilolite, a zeolite with high affinity for nitrogen compounds, it was maintained in normal range the ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in a fish pound. The water recirculated in the controlled system was mechanically filtered and passed through the zeolite column. Clinoptilolite zeolite is an aluminosilicate from the microporous family solids which act as molecular sieve. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Agronomic Science and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. Advantages of this approach include: low dependence on temperature and absence of dependence on chemical toxins and bacterial predators, do not require a start-up period, the system can be turned off or on at will, fish is grown in much lower bacterial concentrations, reducing the possibility of disease or flavour loss.

  15. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to aluminium compounds: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sińczuk-Walczak, H

    2001-01-01

    This is a review of the literature on the effect of aluminum (Al) and its compounds on the nervous system. The role of aluminum in etiology of some degenerative diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or dementia, is presented. The special attention was turned to the effects of aluminum on the nervous system functions in persons occupationally exposed to metal-containing dusts and fumes, manifested mostly by neurobehavioral disorders and changes in the brain bioelectric functions and less frequently pronounced by clinical neurological symptoms.

  16. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  17. Sulphur compounds in sewage treatment systems; Compuestos de azufre en los sistemas de saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrades Balao, J. A.; Campos Florido, E. [Aguas de Jerez. Empresa Municipal (Spain); Macia Garcia, M.; Cantero Moreno, D. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Sulphur compounds have adverse effects on the operation, control and running of waste water treatment systems: bad odors, health risks, treatment problems and increased maintenance and operating costs. Following a description of such effects, possible measures to alleviate then are described. The importance of controlling these compounds is illustrated by means of real-life examples of the problems involved and the measures taken to combat them by Aguas de Jerez. A new system is being developed at the Jerez waste water treatment plant to reduce the H2S content of the biogas. The biogas is subjected to a chemical wash in an absorption tower using ferric sulphate as the reagent to oxidised the H2 S to elementary sulphur. The ferrous sulphate formed in the reaction is regenerated using a biochemical reactor in which it is oxidised back to ferric sulphate by means of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Development and implementation of a compound converter in solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. B. Hartman

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The converter proposed here is a compound photovoltaic converter system that has been implemented with a power rating of 1,5 kVA at an array voltage of 96 V, using a 24 V battery bank. The converter system combines the functions of inversion, battery regulation and maximum power point tracking of the solar array into a single cost-effective converter. Maximum power point tracking is performed by controlling the voltage and frequency of the AC output. A description of this converter, and an explanation of the control strategy employed, are provided together with practical results measured on the prototype converter. This compound topology has a high conversion efficiency from solar array to load.

  19. Thermodynamic description of the ternary compounds in the Cu-In-Se system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jianyun; W.K. Kim; SHANG Shunli; CHU Maoyou; CAO Song; T.J. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    A set of thermodynamic descriptions of the ternary compounds (mainly α-CuInSe2, δ-CuInSe2, CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8) in the Cu-In-Se system was established by adopting sub-lattice model. The model parameters are carefully evaluated by integrating the experimental data of thermodynamic properties, phase equilibrium and theoretical calculation of formation energies of different point defects. The evaluated Gibbs energies of the compounds reasonably agree with that estimated from EMF experiment and ab initio calculation. The calculated phase relationships in the Cu-In-Se system are in accord with the experimental phase diagrams. The obtained standard enthalpy of formation of CuInSe2 is close to that reported in the literatures.

  20. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J D [Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas, 10000 Burnet Rd, Austin, TX 78757 (United States); Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wilcox, M, E-mail: steveb@uwyo.ed [Department of Biology, United States Air Force Academy, CO 80840 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  1. Textiles: Some technocal information and data VI: fusing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, MP

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available results. However, complaints of problem do occur particularly with the technology becoming more sophisticated. Fusing interlinings are coated with an adhesive which enables them to be fused under certain conditions of temperature, time and pressure onto...

  2. Self-assembly of intramolecular charge-transfer compounds into functional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Liu, Taifeng; Liu, Huibiao; Tian, Mao-Zhong; Li, Yuliang

    2014-04-15

    Highly polarized compounds exhibiting intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) are used widely as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials and red emitters and in organic light emitting diodes. Low-molecular-weight donor/acceptor (D/A)-substituted ICT compounds are ideal candidates for use as the building blocks of hierarchically structured, multifunctional self-assembled supramolecular systems. This Account describes our recent studies into the development of functional molecular systems with well-defined self-assembled structures based on charge-transfer (CT) interactions. From solution (sensors) to the solid state (assembled structures), we have fully utilized intrinsic and stimulus-induced CT interactions to construct these functional molecular systems. We have designed some organic molecules capable of ICT, with diversity and tailorability, that can be used to develop novel self-assembled materials. These ICT organic molecules are based on a variety of simple structures such as perylene bisimide, benzothiadiazole, tetracyanobutadiene, fluorenone, isoxazolone, BODIPY, and their derivatives. The degree of ICT is influenced by the nature of both the bridge and the substituents. We have developed new methods to synthesize ICT compounds through the introduction of heterocycles or heteroatoms to the π-conjugated systems or through extending the conjugation of diverse aromatic systems via another aromatic ring. Combining these ICT compounds featuring different D/A units and different degrees of conjugation with phase transfer methodologies and solvent-vapor techniques, we have self-assembled various organic nanostructures, including hollow nanospheres, wires, tubes, and ribbonlike architectures, with controllable morphologies and sizes. For example, we obtained a noncentrosymmetric microfiber structure that possessed a permanent dipole along its fibers' long axis and a transition dipole perpendicular to it; the independent NLO responses of this material can be separated and

  3. Structures and spectroscopic properties of fluoroboron-subtriazaporphyrin derivatives: density functional theory approach on the benzo-fusing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2010-02-04

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were carried out to comparatively study the molecular structures, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, and electronic absorption spectra of fluoroboron-subtriazaporphyrin (SubTAP) and fluoroboron-subphthalocyanine (SubPc) as well as their benzo-fused low-symmetrical derivatives A(a)B(b)C(c) (3 > or = a, b, c > or = 0). The peripherally fused benzene rings are revealed to have a significant effect on the structure and charge density distribution of the inner nitrogen atoms of subtriazaporphyrin core, while the charge of the central fluoroboron group changes very little. The effect of peripherally fused benzene rings on the frontier molecular orbitals of different compounds is comparatively discussed. The nature of the electron excitation between the frontier molecular orbitals of the 20 compounds is assigned according to the calculation results. The benzene rings fused directly onto pyrrole rings have been revealed to show more effect on the inner nitrogen atom than the outer benzene rings fused onto the periphery of isoindole rings. The present work will be helpful toward systematically understanding the effect of ring enlargement through asymmetrically fusing benzene ring(s) onto the subtriazaporphyrin skeleton on the structures and properties of fluoroboron-subtriazaporphyrin and fluoroboron-subphthalocyanine analogues.

  4. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Uğur; Reyhan Nergiz Ünal

    2017-01-01

    During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein compositio...

  5. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the evaluation of anti-aging compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the causes of aging is a complex problem due to the multiple factors that influence aging, which include genetics, environment, metabolism and reproduction, among others. These multiple factors create logistical difficulties in the evaluation of anti-aging agents. There is a need for good model systems to evaluate potential anti-aging compounds. The model systems used should represent the complexities of aging in humans, so that the findings may be extrapolated to human studies, but they should also present an opportunity to minimize the variables so that the experimental results can be accurately interpreted. In addition to positively affecting lifespan, the impact of the compound on the physiologic confounders of aging, including fecundity and the health span--the period of life where an organism is generally healthy and free from serious or chronic illness--of the model organism needs to be evaluated. Fecundity is considered a major confounder of aging in fruit flies. It is well established that female flies that are exposed to toxic substances typically reduce their dietary intake and their reproductive output and display an artifactual lifespan extension. As a result, drugs that achieve longevity benefits by reducing fecundity as a result of diminished food intake are probably not useful candidates for eventual treatment of aging in humans and should be eliminated during the screening process. Drosophila melanogaster provides a suitable model system for the screening of anti-aging compounds as D. melanogaster and humans have many conserved physiological and biological pathways. In this paper, I propose an algorithm to screen anti-aging compounds using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system.

  6. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  7. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs Containing Substituted Thiazole/Fused-Bicyclic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen novel oxazolidinone analogs containing substituted thiazole/fused-bicyclic(imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine/imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) groups were designed and synthesized. A new method for the preparation of the key intermediate compound 11 was proposed. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and MS, and their in vitro antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Among them, compound 16a displays a promising antibacterial activity comparable to that of linezolid.

  8. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  9. A Novel System for Moving Object Detection Using Bionic Compound Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huabo Sun; Haimeng Zhao; Peter Mooney; Hongying Zhao; Daping Liu; Lei Yan

    2011-01-01

    Conventional moving target detection focuses on algorithms to improve detection efficiency. These algorithms pay less attention to the image acquisition means, and usually solve specific problems. This often results in poor flexibility and reusability. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target detection and these advantages have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. In this paper we proposed a new system for moving target detection. We used the detection mechanism of insect compound eyes for the simulation of the characteristics of structure, control, and function. We discussed the design scheme of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduced the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and object detection. After this the integrated system was described and discussed. Our paper presents a novel approach for moving target detection. This approach effectively tackles some of the well-known problems in the field of view, resolution, and real-time processing problems in moving target detection.

  10. Novel Stable Compounds in the C-H-O Ternary System at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Gabriele; Oganov, Artem R.

    2016-09-01

    The chemistry of the elements is heavily altered by high pressure, with stabilization of many new and often unexpected compounds, the emergence of which can profoundly change models of planetary interiors, where high pressure reigns. The C-H-O system is one of the most important planet-forming systems, but its high-pressure chemistry is not well known. Here, using state-of-the-art variable-composition evolutionary searches combined with quantum-mechanical calculations, we explore the C-H-O system at pressures up to 400 GPa. Besides uncovering new stable polymorphs of high-pressure elements and known molecules, we predicted the formation of new compounds. A 2CH4:3H2 inclusion compound forms at low pressure and remains stable up to 215 GPa. Carbonic acid (H2CO3), highly unstable at ambient conditions, was predicted to form exothermically at mild pressure (about 1 GPa). As pressure rises, it polymerizes and, above 314 GPa, reacts with water to form orthocarbonic acid (H4CO4). This unexpected high-pressure chemistry is rationalized by analyzing charge density and electron localization function distributions, and implications for general chemistry and planetary science are also discussed.

  11. Multimodal Plasmonics in Fused Colloidal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Teulle, Alexandre; Girard, C; Gurunatha, Kargal L; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen; Dujardin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the optical properties of noble metals down to the nanometer-scale is a key step towards fast and low-dissipative information processing. At the 10-nm length scale, metal crystallinity and patterning as well as probing of surface plasmon (SP) properties must be controlled with a challenging high level of precision. Here, we demonstrate that ultimate lateral confinement and delocalization of SP modes are simultaneously achieved in extended self-assembled networks comprising linear chains of partially fused gold nanoparticles. The spectral and spatial distributions of the SP modes associated with the colloidal superstructures are evidenced by performing monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy with a nanometer-sized electron probe. We prepare the metallic bead strings by electron beam-induced interparticle fusion of nanoparticle networks. The fused superstructures retain the native morphology and crystallinity but develop very low energy SP modes that are capable of supporting long range and s...

  12. Collaborative Filtering Fusing Label Features Based on SDAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huo, Huan; Liu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Deyuan

    2017-01-01

    problem, auxiliary information such as labels are utilized. Another approach of recommendation system is content-based model which can’t be directly integrated with CF-based model due to its inherent characteristics. Considering that deep learning algorithms are capable of extracting deep latent features......, this paper applies Stack Denoising Auto Encoder (SDAE) to content-based model and proposes LCF(Deep Learning for Collaborative Filtering) algorithm by combing CF-based model which fuses label features. Experiments on real-world data sets show that DLCF can largely overcome the sparsity problem...

  13. Biotoxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Liu, Chunyan; Zeng, Xinying; Xin, Qiao; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Yangwu; Dong, Wei

    2017-06-01

    A recent work has shown that hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in the micelle phase of some nonionic surfactants present substrate toxicity to microorganisms with increasing bioavailability. However, in cloud point systems, biotoxicity is prevented, because the compounds are solubilized into a coacervate phase, thereby leaving a fraction of compounds with cells in a dilute phase. This study extends the understanding of the relationship between substrate toxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system. Biotoxicity experiments were conducted with naphthalene and phenanthrene in the presence of mixed nonionic surfactants Brij30 and TMN-3, which formed a micelle phase or cloud point system at different concentrations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unable to degrade these compounds, was used for the biotoxicity experiments. Glucose in the cloud point system was consumed faster than in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase, indicating that the solubilized compounds had increased toxicity to cells in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase. The results were verified by subsequent biodegradation experiments. The compounds were degraded faster by PAH-degrading bacterium in the cloud point system than in the micelle phase. All these results showed that biotoxicity of the hydrophobic organic compounds increases with bioavailability in the surfactant micelle phase but remains at a low level in the cloud point system. These results provide a guideline for the application of cloud point systems as novel media for microbial transformation or biodegradation.

  14. Pressure evolution during HBC fuse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochette, D; Bussiere, W [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques (LAEPT)-CNRS UMR 6069, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, F 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of the silica sand grains on pressure during the energy release in a high breaking capacity (HBC) fuse. During the HBC fuse operation, the pressure evolution is the result of two opposite trends: the pressure increase due to the interaction of the silica plasma with the surrounding granular sand, and the pressure decrease due to the propagation of the pressure waves toward the porous medium. Due to the complex phenomena occurring during the current extinction by a fuse, two kinds of pressure are distinguished: the pressure inside the silica plasma and the pressure in the silica sand. From the simulations we show that the Forchheimer flow resistance is stronger than the Darcy flow resistance once the electric power is over 30% of the maximum value. A comparison of the calculated and measured pressures is made at various positions from the fuse element axis. Two different pressures are obtained experimentally: the pressure P{sub SAND} exerted on the sand grains due to the plasma pressure, and the pressure P{sub GAS} of the gas flowing through the interstices of the silica sand. We show that the experimental and calculated trends are similar and they both depend on the electric power level and the silica sand mean granulometry. The maximum pressures are observed at the same time as the maximum electric power levels. The ratio P{sub SAND}/P{sub GAS} is about 8 with P{sub GAS} values not exceeding 1.5 x 10{sup 5} Pa.

  15. Demonstrating Earth connections and fuses working together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Earth wires and fuses work together in UK mains circuits to keep users safe from electric shocks and are taught in many school contexts. The subject can be quite abstract and difficult for pupils to grasp, and a simple but visually clear and direct demonstration is described which would be easy for most physics departments to build and which can make the concepts much more immediately understandable.

  16. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  17. Exploring the electronic structure of an organic semiconductor based on a compactly fused electron donor-acceptor molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Pere; Canadell, Enric; Geng, Yan; Hauser, Jürg; Macchi, Piero; Krämer, Karl; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia

    2015-05-18

    A Mott-type semiconductor based on a compactly fused and partially oxidized electron donor-acceptor (D-A) molecule was recently prepared and identified to exhibit a large room-temperature conductivity of 2 S cm(-1) . In a marked contrast to the organic conductors characterized by relatively well decoupled and segregated uniform stacks of D and A moieties, the formally half-oxidized tetrathiafulvalene donors of the actual compound are organized in columnar π stacks only, whereby the coplanar electron-acceptor units, namely benzothiadiazole, are closely annulated along their ridges. Herein, we present a theoretical study that explores the electronic structure of this novel type of organic semiconductor. The highly symmetric-solid state material behaves as a one-dimensional electronic system with strong antiferromagnetic interactions (coupling constant>200 cm(-1) ). The unique shape and local dipole of this redox-active fused electron D-A molecule lays the basis for further investigations of the collective electronic structure, mainly in the function of different counterions embedded in the crystalline lattice. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Responses of rice-wheat rotation system in south Jiangsu to organic-inorganic compound fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng-Da; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Qiu-Jun; Xu, Da-Bing; Yibati, Halihashi; Xu, Jia-Le; Huang, Qi-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-2007, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of applying three kinds of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers [rapeseed cake compost plus inorganic fertilizers (RCC), pig manure compost plus inorganic fertilizers (PMC), and Chinese medicine residues plus inorganic fertilizers (CMC)] on the crop growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of rice-wheat rotation system in South Jiangsu. Grain yield of wheat and rice in the different fertilization treatments was significantly higher than the control (no fertilization). In treatments RCC, PMC and CMC, the wheat yield was 13.1%, 32.2% and 39.3% lower than that of the NPK compound fertilizer (CF, 6760 kg x hm(-2)), respectively, but the rice yield (8504-9449 kg x hm(-2)) was significantly higher than that (7919 kg x hm(-2)) of CF, with an increment of 7.4%-19.3%. In wheat season, the aboveground dry mass, N accumulation, and N use efficiency in treatments RCC, PMC, and CMC were lower than those of CF, but in rice season, these parameters were significantly higher than or as the same as CF. In sum, all the test three compound fertilizers had positive effects on the rice yield and its nitrogen use efficiency in the rice-wheat rotation system, being most significant for RCC.

  19. Improving the review of standard operating procedures: a novel electronic system for compounding pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brensel, Robert; Brensel, Scott; Ng, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Since the New England Compounding Center disaster in 2012, the importance of following correct procedures during every phase of customized pharmacy has been a focus of governmental interest and action as well as public scrutiny. Many pharmacies rely on the rote review of standard operating procedures to ensure that staff members understand and follow protocols that ensure the safety and potency of all compounds prepared, but that approach to continuing education can be cumbersome and needlessly time-consuming. In addition, documenting and retrieving evidence of employee competence can be difficult. In this article, we describe our use of online technology to improve our methods of educating staff about the full range of standard operating procedures that must be followed in our pharmacy. The system we devised and implemented has proven to be effective, easy to update and maintain, very inexpensive, and user friendly. Its use has reduced the time previously required for a read-over review of standard operating procedures from 30 or 40 minutes to 5 or 10 minutes in weekly staff meetings, and we can now easily document and access proof of employees' comprehension of that content. It is our hope that other small compounding pharmacies will also find this system of online standard operating procedure review helpful.

  20. Compression of compound images and video for enabling rich media in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Amir

    2004-01-01

    It is possible to improve the features supported by devices with embedded systems by increasing the processor computing power, but this always results in higher costs, complexity, and power consumption. An interesting alternative is to use the growing networking infrastructures to do remote processing and visualization, with the embedded system mainly responsible for communications and user interaction. This enables devices to behave as if much more "intelligent" to users, at very low costs and power. In this article we explain how compression can make some of these solutions more bandwidth-efficient, enabling devices to simply decompress very rich graphical information and user interfaces that had been rendered elsewhere. The mixture of natural images and video with text, graphics, and animations simultaneously in the same frame is called compound video. We present a new method for compression of compound images and video, which is able to efficiently identify the different components during compression, and use an appropriate coding method. Our system uses lossless compression for graphics and text, and, on natural images and highly detailed parts, it uses lossy compression with dynamically varying quality. Since it was designed for embedded systems with very limited resources, and it has small executable size, and low complexity for classification, compression and decompression. Other compression methods (e.g., MPEG) can do the same, but are very inefficient for compound content. High-level graphics languages can be bandwidth-efficient, but are much less reliable (e.g., supporting Asian fonts), and are many orders of magnitude more complex. Numerical tests show the very significant gains in compression achieved by these systems.

  1. Compound Natural Gas Hydrate: A Natural System for Separation of Hydrate-Forming Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Osegovic, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Natural processes that separate materials from a mixture may exert a major influence on the development of the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and other planetary bodies. Natural distillation and gravity separation, amongst others, are well known means of differentiating materials through liquid-gas partitioning. One of the least known attributes of clathrate (gas) hydrates is their potential effect on the evolution of planetary system oceans and atmospheres. Gas hydrates separate gases from mixtures of gases by concentrating preferred hydrate-forming materials (HFM) guests within the water-molecule cage structure of crystalline hydrate. Different HFMs have very different fields of stability. When multiple hydrate formers are present, a preference series based on their selective uptake exists. Compound hydrate, which is formed from two or more species of HFM, extract preferred HFM from a mixture in very different proportions to their relative percentages of the original mixture. These compound hydrates can have different formation and dissociation conditions depending on the evolution of the environment. That is, the phase boundary of the compound hydrate that is required for dissociation lies along a lower pressure - higher temperature course. Compound hydrates respond to variations in temperature, pressure, and HFM composition. On Earth, the primary naturally occurring hydrate of interest to global climate modeling is methane hydrate. Oceanic hydrate on Earth is the largest store of carbon in the biosphere that is immediately reactive to environmental change, and is capable of releasing large amounts of methane into the atmosphere over a short geological time span. Hydrate formation is essentially metastable and is very sensitive to environmental change and to gas flux. Where natural variations in temperature and pressure varies so that hydrate will form and dissociate in some cyclical manner, such as in oceans where sea level is capable of rising and

  2. Performance Evaluation of AOP/Biological Hybrid System for Treatment of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford S. Makgato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Process water from nuclear fuel recovery unit operations contains a variety of toxic organic compounds. The use of decontamination reagents such as CCl4 together with phenolic tar results in wastewater with a high content of chlorophenols. In this study, the extent of dehalogenation of toxic aromatic compounds was evaluated using a photolytic advanced oxidation process (AOP followed by biodegradation in the second stage. A hard-to-degrade toxic pollutant, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP, was used to represent a variety of recalcitrant aromatic pollutants in effluent from the nuclear industry. A UV-assisted AOP/bioreactor system demonstrated a great potential in treatment of nuclear process wastewater and this was indicated by high removal efficiency (>98% under various 4-CP concentrations. Adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a liquid catalyst further improved biodegradation rate but the effect was limited by the scavenging of OH• radicals under high concentrations of H2O2.

  3. Monitoring system for the study of autotrophic biofilms in bioremediation of polyaromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarie, Jean P.; Bruttig, A.; Miller, Gordon H.; Hill, Walter; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1999-02-01

    carcinogens in laboratory animal assays. The parent homocyclic species, which contain only carbon and hydrogen, are the familiar polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. In addition to the PAH compounds, there are thousands of substituted compounds that could have various substituent groups, such as alkyl, amino, chloro, cyano, hydroxy, oxy, or thio groups. In this study we investigate anthracene and pyrene as PAH model systems. A portable fiberoptic instrument capable of real-time measurements has been developed for field screening these PAHs in surface water and natural algae systems. Our preliminary studies investigated the detection limits of anthracene and pyrene and the adsorption properties of two algae using fluorescence monitoring. An exposure study of the algae to 5 ppb anthracene was performed to investigate the ability of the algae to adsorb PAHs.

  4. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  5. Synthesis of C-fused Penems By Br- or Cl-Promoted S-Heterocyclization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction In the past several years, much research work has been done for the synthesis of C-fused bicyclo-β-lactam compounds and a concise “Double Annulation” procedure has been developed. The β-lactam ring is formed by the classical Staudinger reaction[1—3] between α-(alkylthio) acyl chloride and an equivalent α,β-unsaturated imine. The sulfur ring is subsequently fused onto the β-lactam unit by means of a halogen-promoted heterocyclization process[4—6]. This procedure was applied to the synthesis of penem as illustrated in Fig.1. The obtained X-penems are a kind of important intermediates for synthesizing a series of β-lactam compounds, for example, they are carboxylated by coupling reactions on the C atom which is linked to halagen, forming penem[7]. An important purpose in the research field is to probe into new β-lactam medicines.

  6. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  7. Experimental Study on Vehicle Integration of a Compound Regeneration System for Diesel Particulate Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xinyun; Zhang, Weifeng; Yao, Guangtao; Xu, Zhengfei; He, Jinyong

    A compound regeneration system has shown potential in DPF regeneration. The system consists of FBC, burner and DOC to adapt to high sulfur in China. An aging test of 60,000 km and environmental compatibility test in cold zone, tropical zone and plateau is carried out, with the system integrated on Foton BJ1049V9JD6-SB light duty diesel. Statistics show aging of DPF promotes filtration efficiency because of microstructure change. Both DOC and engine aging are important elements of HC and CO increase. The working effect in cold zone and tropical zone and adaptability of regeneration device in plateau are discussed. The results reflect strong adaptability of regeneration device and discover the main difficulty for system application, which refers to overproof emissions due to aged DOC.

  8. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  9. Tree Classification with Fused Mobile Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hyyppä

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Laser Scanning data were collected simultaneously with hyperspectral data using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Sensei system. The data were tested for tree species classification. The test area was an urban garden in the City of Espoo, Finland. Point clouds representing 168 individual tree specimens of 23 tree species were determined manually. The classification of the trees was done using first only the spatial data from point clouds, then with only the spectral data obtained with a spectrometer, and finally with the combined spatial and hyperspectral data from both sensors. Two classification tests were performed: the separation of coniferous and deciduous trees, and the identification of individual tree species. All determined tree specimens were used in distinguishing coniferous and deciduous trees. A subset of 133 trees and 10 tree species was used in the tree species classification. The best classification results for the fused data were 95.8% for the separation of the coniferous and deciduous classes. The best overall tree species classification succeeded with 83.5% accuracy for the best tested fused data feature combination. The respective results for paired structural features derived from the laser point cloud were 90.5% for the separation of the coniferous and deciduous classes and 65.4% for the species classification. Classification accuracies with paired hyperspectral reflectance value data were 90.5% for the separation of coniferous and deciduous classes and 62.4% for different species. The results are among the first of their kind and they show that mobile collected fused data outperformed single-sensor data in both classification tests and by a significant margin.

  10. Influence of fused aromatic ring on the stability of charge transfer complex between iodine and some five membered heterocyclic molecules through ultrasonic and spectral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulagendran, V.; Balu, P.; Kannappan, V.; Kumar, R.; Jayakumar, S.

    2017-08-01

    The charge transfer (CT) interaction between two fused heterocyclic compounds with basic pyrrole group as donors, viz., indole (IND) and carbazole (CAR), and iodine (acceptor) in DMSO medium is investigated by ultrasonic and UV-visible spectral methods at 303 K. The formation of CT complex in these systems is established from the trend in acoustical and excess thermo acoustical properties with molar concentration. The frequency acoustic spectra (FAS) is also carried out on these two systems for two fixed concentrations 0.002 M and 0.02 M, and in the frequency range 1 MHz-10 MHz to justify the frequency chosen for ultrasonic study. The absorption coefficient values in solution are computed and discussed. The formation constants of these complexes are determined using Kannappan equation in ultrasonic method. The formation of 1:1 complexes between iodine and IND, CAR was established by the theory of Benesi - Hildebrand in the UV-visible spectroscopic method. The stability constants of the CT complexes determined by spectroscopic and ultrasonic methods show a similar trend. These values also indicate that the presence of fused aromatic ring influences significantly when compared with K values of similar CT complexes of parent five membered heterocyclic compound (pyrrole) reported by us earlier.

  11. A convenient approach to fused indeno-1,4-diazepinones through hypervalent iodine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamidou-Xenikaki, Elizabeth; Spyroudis, Spyros; Tsanakopoulou, Maria; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2009-10-02

    Indenocarboxamides, resulting from the sequential addition of two arylamine equivalents to indanedione ketene dimer, are oxidized by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene] to fused indeno-1,4-diazepinones in yields depending on the substituents on both aromatic rings. A plausible reaction pathway explaining the formation of the title compounds, as well as the formation of the two other minor products of the reaction, through a common intermediate, is suggested.

  12. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. An experimental and computational study on intramolecular charge transfer: a tetrathiafulvalene-fused dipyridophenazine molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunyang; Liu, Shi-Xia; Tanner, Christian; Leiggener, Claudia; Neels, Antonia; Sanguinet, Lionel; Levillain, Eric; Leutwyler, Samuel; Hauser, Andreas; Decurtins, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    To study the electronic interactions in donor-acceptor (D-A) ensembles, D and A fragments are coupled in a single molecule. Specifically, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-fused dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) compound having inherent redox centers has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Its electronic absorption, fluorescence emission, photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer, and electrochemical behavior have been investigated. The observed electronic properties are explained on the basis of density functional theory.

  14. Efficient one-pot four-component synthesis of fused thiazolopyridin-2-ones in ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Singh; Kamlesh Kumari; Gaurav Kaithwas; Gaurav Kaithwas

    2013-11-01

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of fused thiazolopyridinone derivatives (5-amino-6,7-diphenyl-4,7-dihydro-3H-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones) by four-component reaction of aldehyde, benzylcyanide, ammonium acetate and thiazolidine-2,4-dione in ionic liquid is reported. This protocol has the advantages of environmental friendliness, higher yields, less reaction time, and convenient operation. Also, optimization of the synthesized compounds has been done using Hyperchem 8.0.

  15. Planning the FUSE Mission Using the SOVA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, James; Heatwole, Scott; Ward, Philip R.; Civeit, Thomas; Calvani, Humberto; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Suchkov, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Three documents discuss the Sustainable Objective Valuation and Attainability (SOVA) algorithm and software as used to plan tasks (principally, scientific observations and associated maneuvers) for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. SOVA is a means of managing risk in a complex system, based on a concept of computing the expected return value of a candidate ordered set of tasks as a product of pre-assigned task values and assessments of attainability made against qualitatively defined strategic objectives. For the FUSE mission, SOVA autonomously assembles a week-long schedule of target observations and associated maneuvers so as to maximize the expected scientific return value while keeping the satellite stable, managing the angular momentum of spacecraft attitude- control reaction wheels, and striving for other strategic objectives. A six-degree-of-freedom model of the spacecraft is used in simulating the tasks, and the attainability of a task is calculated at each step by use of strategic objectives as defined by use of fuzzy inference systems. SOVA utilizes a variant of a graph-search algorithm known as the A* search algorithm to assemble the tasks into a week-long target schedule, using the expected scientific return value to guide the search.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of trans-fused iridoid lactones and their identification in the parasitoid wasp Alloxysta victrix, Part I: Dihydronepetalactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zimmermann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the enantiomers of limonene, all eight stereoisomers of trans-fused dihydronepetalactones were synthesized. Key compounds were pure stereoisomers of 1-acetoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-1-cyclopentene. The stereogenic center of limonene was retained at position 4a of the target compounds and used to stereoselectively control the introduction of the other chiral centers during the synthesis. Basically, this approach could also be used for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure trans-fused iridomyrmecins. Using synthetic reference samples, the combination of enantioselective gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that volatiles released by the endohyperparasitoid wasp Alloxysta victrix contain the enantiomerically pure trans-fused (4R,4aR,7R,7aS-dihydronepetalactone as a minor component, showing an unusual (R-configured stereogenic center at position 7.

  17. Effects of praseodymium doping on thermoelectric transport properties of CaMnO3 compound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鹏; 牛保成; 张坤书; 张忻; 路清梅; 张久兴

    2013-01-01

    The rare earth Pr doped Ca1-xPrxMnO3 (x=0, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12, and 0.14) compound bulk samples were prepared to study the effect of Pr doping on thermoelectric transport properties of CaMnO3 compound system. The doped samples exhibited sin-gle phase composition within the experimental doping range, with condensed bulk microstructure and small porosities. The electrical resistivity was remarkably reduced for doped samples, on account of the enhanced carrier concentration;the absolute value of See-beck coefficient was deteriorated mainly due to enhanced electron carrier concentration. The electrical performances of the doped samples reflected by resistivity and Seebeck coefficient fluctuations were optimistically tuned, with an optimized power factor value of 0.342 mW/(m·K2) at 873 K for x=0.08 sample, which was very much higher comparing with that of the un-doped sample. The lattice thermal conduction was really confined, leading to distinctly repressed total thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric per-formance was noticeably improved by Pr doping and the dimensionless figure of merit ZT for the Ca0.92Pr0.08MnO3 compound was favorably optimized with the maximum value 0.16 at 873 K.

  18. Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-21

    The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

  19. Screening for Antifibrotic Compounds Using High Throughput System Based on Fluorescence Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Stefanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroproliferative diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. They are characterized by reactive fibrosis caused by uncontrolled synthesis of type I collagen. There is no cure for fibrosis and development of therapeutics that can inhibit collagen synthesis is urgently needed. Collagen α1(I mRNA and α2(I mRNA encode for type I collagen and they have a unique 5' stem-loop structure in their 5' untranslated regions (5'SL. Collagen 5'SL binds protein LARP6 with high affinity and specificity. The interaction between LARP6 and the 5'SL is critical for biosynthesis of type I collagen and development of fibrosis in vivo. Therefore, this interaction represents is an ideal target to develop antifibrotic drugs. A high throughput system to screen for chemical compounds that can dissociate LARP6 from 5'SL has been developed. It is based on fluorescence polarization and can be adapted to screen for inhibitors of other protein-RNA interactions. Screening of 50,000 chemical compounds yielded a lead compound that can inhibit type I collagen synthesis at nanomolar concentrations. The development, characteristics, and critical appraisal of this assay are presented.

  20. Peculiarities of Crystal Structure of the Cubic System Compounds with T 4 and T 5 Space Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, M. L.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    We study symmetry peculiarities of crystalline compounds of a cubic system with the space groups T 4 and T 5 caused by the absence of point Wyckoff-sets in the unit cells of these groups. Due to the high multiplicity of the available Wyckoff positions, such compounds possess unit cells of complex composition. In these compounds, pseudosymmetry is realized with high probability when some group of atoms is located in positions close to the positions of higher-symmetry groups. We provide examples of crystalline compounds showing predicted specific structural features.

  1. Quartz/fused silica chip carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research and development effort was to develop monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) packaging which will operate efficiently at millimeter-wave frequencies. The packages incorporated fused silica as the substrate material which was selected due to its favorable electrical properties and potential performance improvement over more conventional materials for Ka-band operation. The first step towards meeting this objective is to develop a package that meets standard mechanical and thermal requirements using fused silica and to be compatible with semiconductor devices operating up to at least 44 GHz. The second step is to modify the package design and add multilayer and multicavity capacity to allow for application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) to control multiple phase shifters. The final step is to adapt the package design to a phased array module with integral radiating elements. The first task was a continuation of the SBIR Phase 1 work. Phase 1 identified fused silica as a viable substrate material by demonstrating various plating, machining, and adhesion properties. In Phase 2 Task 1, a package was designed and fabricated to validate these findings. Task 2 was to take the next step in packaging and fabricate a multilayer, multichip module (MCM). This package is the predecessor to the phased array module and demonstrates the ability to via fill, circuit print, laminate, and to form vertical interconnects. The final task was to build a phased array module. The radiating elements were to be incorporated into the package instead of connecting to it with wire or ribbon bonds.

  2. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  3. Geometrical characteristics of the enlarged fused hard sphere models of simple molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublík, Tomas

    2005-10-20

    The enlarged fused hard sphere model represents a compromise between fused hard sphere- and hard convex body models of repulsive interactions of nonspherical molecules. Geometric functionals of the enlarged fused hard sphere models, i.e., the hard body volume, surface area, and "mean radius" for 25 molecules of the linear and approximately planar shapes (cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds), neopentane and cyclohexane were determined from the bond lengths and bond angles and expressed in the dimensionless form. The hard sphere diameters, first approximated by the values found from the correlation of the second virial coefficients, were then adjusted to heats of vaporization of the studied compounds. Parameters of nonsphericity and molar volumes, evaluated from these characteristics, are compared with parameters of modern semiempirical equations of state (BACK, BACKONE, SAFT). The calculated geometric quantities for a series of compounds make it possible to improve methods of determining the characteristic parameters of the modern semiempirical equations of state, as well as those from the perturbation approaches.

  4. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Selected Mercapto Flavor Compounds on Acrylamide Elimination in a Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four mercapto flavor compounds (1,2-ethanedithiol, 1-butanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 2-furanmethanethiol on acrylamide elimination were investigated in model systems. The obtained results showed that mercaptans assayed were effective in elimination arylamide in a model system. Their reactivities for decreasing acrylamide content depended on mercaptan’s molecular structure and acrylamide disappearance decreased in the following order: 1,2-ethanedithiol > 2-methyl-3-furanthiol > 1-butanethiol > 2-furanmethanethiol. Mercaptans were added to acrylamide to produce the corresponding 3-(alkylthio propionamides. This reaction was irreversible and only trace amounts of acrylamide were formed by thermal heating of 3-(alkylthio propanamide. Although a large amount disappeared, only part of the acrylamide conversed into 3-(alkylthio propionamides. All of these results constitute a fundamental proof of the complexity of the reactions involved in the removal of free acrylamide in foods. This implies mercapto flavor/aroma may directly or indirectly reduce the level of acrylamide in food processing. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution on acrylamide elimination in a model system by the addition of mercapto flavor compounds.

  6. Reducing the variability of compound management delivery using visual management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Philip; Ratcliffe, Stuart; Cole, Shaun

    2014-04-01

    The globalization and externalization of a pharmaceutical company's research and development (R&D) places considerable demands on its underpinning compound management (CM) capability. More robust CM workflows are needed to support higher demands and cross-continent supply chains. The tracking and visibility of compound orders progressing through CM processes has become crucial to ensure prompt and reliable delivery to customers and project timelines worldwide. AstraZeneca at Alderley Park UK has successfully introduced and integrated a visual management system into its CM processes to support the company's global R&D strategy. A simple, low-cost approach has been employed to track solid processing and solubilization orders. This reduced variability and end-to-end cycle times by decreasing waiting time between processing steps. The visual tracking system has been quick to implement, adaptable to change, and able to be owned and run by delivery teams. Introduction of the visual tracking system has resulted in significant improvements in order processing, both in terms of variability and speed. The percentage of orders processed within 24 h rose from 81.5% to 92.5%, and reductions of 50% and 17.5% in the average processing time were seen for solid dispense and solubilization orders, respectively.

  7. Prediction of novel stable compounds in the Mg-Si-O system under exoplanet pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiyang; Oganov, Artem R.; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Li, Dianzhong

    2015-12-01

    The Mg-Si-O system is the major Earth and rocky planet-forming system. Here, through quantum variable-composition evolutionary structure explorations, we have discovered several unexpected stable binary and ternary compounds in the Mg-Si-O system. Besides the well-known SiO2 phases, we have found two extraordinary silicon oxides, SiO3 and SiO, which become stable at pressures above 0.51 TPa and 1.89 TPa, respectively. In the Mg-O system, we have found one new compound, MgO3, which becomes stable at 0.89 TPa. We find that not only the (MgO)x·(SiO2)y compounds, but also two (MgO3)x·(SiO3)y compounds, MgSi3O12 and MgSiO6, have stability fields above 2.41 TPa and 2.95 TPa, respectively. The highly oxidized MgSi3O12 can form in deep mantles of mega-Earths with masses above 20 M⊕ (M⊕:Earth’s mass). Furthermore, the dissociation pathways of pPv-MgSiO3 are also clarified, and found to be different at low and high temperatures. The low-temperature pathway is MgSiO3 ⇒ Mg2SiO4 + MgSi2O5 ⇒ SiO2 + Mg2SiO4 ⇒ MgO + SiO2, while the high-temperature pathway is MgSiO3 ⇒ Mg2SiO4 + MgSi2O5 ⇒ MgO + MgSi2O5 ⇒ MgO + SiO2. Present results are relevant for models of the internal structure of giant exoplanets, and for understanding the high-pressure behavior of materials.

  8. Synthesis of superheavy elements and dinuclear-system concept of compound-nucleus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Cherepanov, E.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dinuclear system concept is applied to the analysis of reactions used for the synthesis of elements with Z = 110, 112, 114, and 116. The inner fusion barriers obtained for these reactions are in good agreement with the experimental estimations resulted from the excitation energies of compound nuclei. A model is suggested for the calculation of the competition between complete fusion and quasifission in reactions with heavy nuclei. The fusion rate through the inner fusion barrier in mass asymmetry is found by using the multidimensional Kramers-type stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The influence of dissipative effects on the dynamics of nuclear fusion is considered.

  9. Rapid dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds by nickel/iron bimetallic system in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Shao-ping; WEI Hong; MA Chun-an; LIU Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    Detoxification of chlorinated organic compounds via reaction with nickel/iron powder was implemented in aqueous solution. Compared to iron, nickel/iron bimetallic powder had higher hydrodechlorination activities for both atrazine (ATR) and p-chlorophenol (pCP); nickel/iron (2.96%, w/w) was shown to have the largest specific surface area and the optimum proportion for the dechlorination of both ATR and pCP. Electrochemical measurements showed that the adsorbed hydrogen atom on the nickel must have been the dominant reductive agent for the dechlorination of both ATR andpCP in this system.

  10. Pressure induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2, Hf3O2, HfO and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges and a new stable high-pressure phase is found for Hf2O with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure. Both P62m-HfO and P4m2-Hf2O3 show semimetallic character. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide...

  11. Organic compounds as indicators for transport in an urban characterized complex karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, R.; Licha, T.; Nödler, K.; Geyer, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    In northern Hesse (Germany), sediments of the Upper Permian (Zechstein-Formations) are outcropping in a coastal facies along the western rim of the Rhenish Massif. The geologic section is characterized by a sequence of carbonate rocks (carbonates of the Werra-, Staßfurt- and Leine-Formations) and predominantly fine clastic sediments. The carbonate aquifers of the Werra-Formation and the Leine-Formation are used for drinking water abstraction of a provincial town and surrounding communities. Concurrently, the urban area is characterized by industrial and commercial uses. The groundwater flow system is composed of three potential karst aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes within a complex tectonically faulted area. The study area is divided into three spring catchment areas. However, the locations of the subsurface water divides are unknown. Traditional methods to determine the catchment areas (e.g. artificial tracer tests) are difficult to apply, due to a lack of adequate injection points. The presented work deals with the use of organic compounds as indicators for subsurface flow paths. Medical drugs, pesticides, corrosion inhibitors and such typical waste water compounds as caffeine (NÖDLER ET AL. 2010) are observed in approximately fifty groundwater observation points by regular sampling. The seasonal variability of the distribution pattern of organic compounds is low. The most common compounds are atrazine and its metabolites desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine, as well as the corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole. Since these substances are applied in different regions different input functions can be assumed. However, the highest concentrations are detected along a North-orientated axis, which also exhibits the greatest compound variety. This distribution pattern indicates preferential flow and transport pathways in the subsurface. The absence of organic compounds in other parts of the investigation area implies the existence of a water divide between

  12. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  13. Medicinal Chemistry Perspective of Fused Isoxazole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmade, Mahesh A; Murumkar, Prashant R; Sharma, Mayank Kumar; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen containing heterocyclic rings with an oxygen atom is considered as one of the best combination in medicinal chemistry due to their diversified biological activities. Isoxazole, a five membered heterocyclic azole ring is found in naturally occuring ibetonic acid along with some of the marketed drugs such as valdecoxib, flucloxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and danazol. It is also significant for showing antipsychotic activity in risperidone and anticonvulsant activity in zonisamide, the marketed drugs. This review article covers research articles reported till date covering biological activity along with SAR of fused isoxazole derivatives.

  14. Semiautomatic MDF deburring tool. [Mild detonating fuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonton, W.L.

    1976-03-31

    A device for semiautomatically deburring the ends of lengths of MDF (mild detonating fuse) was developed by the Automation Development group at Mound Laboratory. The device performs the deburring function by cutting a 0.002 in. x 0.002 in. chamfer on the MDF with small rotating blades. This air-operated, semiautomatic device provides improvement over the manual method of removing burrs by reduction in time and operator strain. A time study is underway to determine the time saved which is expected to be about 75 percent.

  15. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of Fused Silica Ceramics Prepared by Gelcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Huang, Chun-e.; Yang, Jian; Zeng, Jinzhen; Qiu, Tai

    2014-07-01

    Fused silica ceramics were fabricated by gelcasting, by use of a low-toxicity N' N-dimethylacrylamide gel system, and had excellent properties compared with those obtained by use of the low-toxicity 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and toxic acrylamide systems. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, mechanical and dielectric properties, and thermal shock resistance of the fused silica ceramics was investigated. The results showed that sintering temperature has a critical effect. Use of an appropriate sintering temperature will promote densification and improve the strength, thermal shock resistance, and dielectric properties of fused silica ceramics. However, excessively high sintering temperature will greatly facilitate crystallization of amorphous silica and result in more cristobalite in the sample, which will cause deterioration of these properties. Fused silica ceramics sintered at 1275°C have the maximum flexural strength, as high as 81.32 MPa, but, simultaneously, a high coefficient of linear expansion (2.56 × 10-6/K at 800°C) and dramatically reduced residual flexural strength after thermal shock (600°C). Fused silica ceramics sintered at 1250°C have excellent properties, relatively high and similar flexural strength before (67.43 MPa) and after thermal shock (65.45 MPa), a dielectric constant of 3.34, and the lowest dielectric loss of 1.20 × 10-3 (at 1 MHz).

  16. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  17. Electrostatic Discharge Properties of Fused Silica Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Allen; Sim, Charles; Dennison, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    The electric field value at which electrostatic discharge (ESD) occurs was studied for thin coatings of fused silica (highly disordered SiO2/SiOx) on conductive substrates, such as those encountered as optical coatings and in Si microfabrication. The electrostatic breakdown field was determined using an increasing voltage, while monitoring the leakage current. A simple parallel-plate capacitor geometry was used, under medium vacuum and at temperatures down to ˜150 K using a liquid N2 reservoir. The breakdown field, pre-breakdown arcing and I-V curves for fused silica samples are compared for ˜60 nm and ˜80 μm thick, room and low temperature, and untreated and irradiated samples. Unlike typical I-V results for polymeric insulators, the thin film silica samples did not exhibit pre-breakdown arcing, displayed transitional resistivity after initial breakdown, and in many cases showed evidence of a second discontinuity in the I-V curves. This diversity of observed discharge phenomena is discussed in terms of breakdown modes and defect generation on a microscopic scale.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of selected fused isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives and their antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAY V. DABHOLKAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available New potent antibacterials, fused isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives, were synthesized using 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (1 and 3-[(4-chlorobenzylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one (2 as synthons. Aromatic aldehydes on condensation with 1 and 2 gave 2-arylidene-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (3 and 5-arylidene-3-[(4-chlorobenzylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one (4, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 were forced to undergo heterocyclization reaction with nucleophilic reagents to give the title compounds. The newly synthesized heterocyles (5–8 were characterized based on their chemical properties and spectroscopic data, and were found to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

  19. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of pyrazole-fused 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyuan; Zhu, Peiqing; Liu, Jie; Lin, Yan; Yao, Hequan; Jiang, Jieyun; Ye, Wencai; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Jinyi

    2015-02-01

    A collection of pyrazole-fused 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activity. Most of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activity. Especially compound 15e displayed the most potent activity with the IC50 values of 5.58 and 6.13μM against B16 and SF763 cancer cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, the significant in vivo antitumor activity of 15e was validated in H22 liver cancer and B16 melanoma xenograft mouse models. The structure-activity relationships of these 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were also discussed based on the present investigation.

  20. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System with a Wing Type Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation study of a solar adsorption refrigeration system using a wing type compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is presented. The system consists of the wing type collector set at optimum angles, adsorption bed, a condenser and a refrigerator. The wing type collector captures the solar energy efficiently in the morning and afternoon and provides the effective temperature for a longer period of time compared to that achieved by a linear collector. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the system behavior, the effect of wing length, and to compare the performance of the systems with wing type and linear CPCs. A detailed dynamic simulation model was developed based on mass and energy balance equations. The simulation results show that the system performance with wing type CPC increases by up to 6% in the summer and up to 2% in the winter, compared to the performance with a linear CPC having same collector length. The ice production also increases up to 13% in the summer with the wing type CPC. This shows that the wing type CPC is helpful to increase the performance of the system compared to the linear CPC with the same collector length and without the need for tracking.

  2. High-pressure study of the new Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting compound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, P. H.; Gao, L.; Meng, R. L.; Huang, Z. J.; Wang, Y. Q.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrostatic effects on the superconducting transition temperature of the Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system, resistively, up to 19 kbar are investigated. It is found that pressure has little effect on the superconducting state of Y-Ba-Cu-O, in marked contrast to the behavior of the K2NiF4-phase La-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems. It is suggested that this effect may be due to chemical pressure associated with the smaller Y atoms already present in Y-Ba-Cu-O. X-ray powder-diffraction studies show that the high-temperature superconductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O can only be attributed to one or more phases with structures different from the cubic perovskite or tetragonal layered ones.

  3. Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; SONG Ling; LIU Qiang; QU Guangzhou; LI Guofeng; WU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions.The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

  4. Multiparametric Phenotypic Screening System for Profiling Bioactive Compounds Using Human Fetal Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshikuni; Murai, Norio; Sasaki, Takeo; Taniguchi, Sachie; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell research has been progressing rapidly, contributing to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. In this field, small-molecule compounds affecting stem cell proliferation/differentiation have been explored to understand stem cell biology and support regenerative medicine. In this study, we established a multiparametric screening system to detect bioactive compounds affecting the cell fate of human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), using human fetal hippocampal NSCs/NPCs, HIP-009 cells. We examined effects of 410 compounds, which were collected based on mechanisms of action (MOAs) and chemotypes, on HIP-009's cell fate (self-renewal, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation) and morphology by automated multiparametric assays and profiled induced cellular phenotypes. We found that this screening classified compounds with the same MOAs into subgroups according to additional pharmacological effects (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1] inhibitors and mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors among mTOR inhibitors). Moreover, it identified compounds that have off-target effects under matrix analyses of MOAs and structure similarities (e.g., neurotropic effects of amitriptyline among tri- and tetracyclic compounds). Therefore, this automated, medium-throughput and multiparametric screening system is useful for finding compounds that affect the cell fate of human NSCs/NPCs for supporting regenerative medicine and to fingerprint compounds based on human stem cells' multipotency, leading to understanding of stem cell biology.

  5. Compound interferometer system for large-scale optical components surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Sun, Tao; Han, Chengshun; Dong, Shen; Rodionov, A. Y.; Shirin, A. S.; Shekhtman, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    Large-scale optical components is being applied more and more widely in the astronomical optics, space optics, groundbased space target detection and identification, laser propagation in the atmosphere, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other fields, especially the large-scale aspherical optical component is one of key parts which play a supportive role in those fields. Large-scale optical components surface measurement instrument and technique has become a research focus of many scholars in recent years. In this paper introduced a compound interferometer system, which based on the principle of traditional Fizeau interferometer and lateral shear interferometer. In this system, produces two probe light beams by a He-Ne laser, one of probe light beams is used to measure flat optical surface by using comparison with the reference wavefront, and the other probe light beam is used to measure spherical and aspherical optical surface according to the principle of lateral shear interferometer and without using reference wavefront. Discussed in detail optical layout of the system as well as the principle of surface measurement, and the preliminary test results were given. The compound interferometer system has a compact, multi-function, and good anti-vibration performance can be used for large-scale optical plane (diameter less than 320mm), spherical and aspherical optical components surface measurement. Due to the information that lateral shear interferogram carries does not show directly the deviation between the wavefront under test and the ideal wavefront, but the wavefront difference, so the wavefront reconstruction method is more complex, and the wavefront reconstruction algorithm from lateral shearing interferograms is also analyzed and discussed.

  6. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Aydemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention.

  7. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  8. Nanosecond laser nanostructuring of fused silica surfaces assisted by a chromium triangle template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, P.; Grüner, C.; Frost, F.; Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K.

    2017-10-01

    The well-reproducible, fast and cost-effective nanostructuring is a big challenge for laser methods. The laser nanostructuring of fused silica assisted by chromium nanotriangles was studied using a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, Δtp = 25 ns, top hat beam profile). Therefore, a fused silica substrate was covered with periodically ordered polystyrene (PS) spheres with a diameter of 1.59 μm. Subsequently, this system was covered with 30 nm chromium by electron beam evaporation. Afterwards the PS spheres were removed and the bare and resultant periodic Cr triangles were irradiated. The laser irradiation with high laser fluences resulted in a removal of the chromium and in localized modifications of the fused silica like a localized ablation of the fused silica. The resultant structures were studied by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the surface composition was analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The laser process allows the production of well-defined periodic hole structures into the fused silica surface where the resultant surface structure depends on the laser parameters. The multi-pulse irradiation of the Cr/SiO2 sample with moderate laser fluences (Φ ∼ 650 mJ/cm2) allows the fabrication of periodic pyramidal-like structures (depth Δz = 130 nm).

  9. Split Bregman method for large scale fused Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Gui-Bo

    2010-01-01

    rdering of regression or classification coefficients occurs in many real-world applications. Fused Lasso exploits this ordering by explicitly regularizing the differences between neighboring coefficients through an $\\ell_1$ norm regularizer. However, due to nonseparability and nonsmoothness of the regularization term, solving the fused Lasso problem is computationally demanding. Existing solvers can only deal with problems of small or medium size, or a special case of the fused Lasso problem in which the predictor matrix is identity matrix. In this paper, we propose an iterative algorithm based on split Bregman method to solve a class of large-scale fused Lasso problems, including a generalized fused Lasso and a fused Lasso support vector classifier. We derive our algorithm using augmented Lagrangian method and prove its convergence properties. The performance of our method is tested on both artificial data and real-world applications including proteomic data from mass spectrometry and genomic data from array...

  10. A maize spermine synthase 1 PEST sequence fused to the GUS reporter protein facilitates proteolytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruri-López, Israel; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Olivares-Grajales, Juan Elías; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Polyamines are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds involved in various biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in all organisms. In plants, genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational level. In this research, we focused on the characterization of a PEST sequence (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) of the maize spermine synthase 1 (ZmSPMS1). To this aim, 123 bp encoding 40 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the ZmSPMS1 enzyme containing the PEST sequence were fused to the GUS reporter gene. This fusion was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines and onion monolayers transient expression system. The ZmSPMS1 PEST sequence leads to specific degradation of the GUS reporter protein. It is suggested that the 26S proteasome may be involved in GUS::PEST fusion degradation in both onion and Arabidopsis. The PEST sequences appear to be present in plant spermine synthases, mainly in monocots.

  11. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  12. Ternary compounds and isothermal section in Lu-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fusheng; Ao, Weiqin; Pan, Laicai; Wang, Qibao; Yan, Jialing; Li, Junqin

    2013-06-01

    The isothermal section of the Lu-Fe-Ga ternary system at 773 K was investigated and constructed based on X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Thirteen binary compounds, Lu2Fe17, Lu6Fe23, LuFe2, LuGa3, LuGa2, Lu3Ga5, LuGa, Lu3Ga2, Lu5Ga3, Fe3Ga, Fe6Ga5, Fe3Ga4, FeGa3, nine ternary solid solutions, T1-LuFe2-1.43Ga0-0.57, T2-LuFe1.34-0.92Ga0.68-1.08, T3-LuFe0.52-0.26Ga1.48-1.74, T5-LuFe2.04-1.72Ga0.96-1.28, T6-Lu6Fe23-21.4Ga0-1.6, T7-Lu2Fe17-14.5Ga0-3.5, T8-Lu2Fe12.9-8.1Ga4.1-8.9, T9-LuFe6.8-5.5Ga5.2-6.5, T10-LuFe5.2-4.5Ga6.8-7.5, and two ternary compounds, T4-LuFe2.35Ga0.65 and T11-Lu2FeGa8 have been confirmed. The structures of the five new ternary compounds or solid solution T2, T3, T4, T5 and T8 are determined by Rietveld refinement method.

  13. Detection of volatile organic compounds released by wood furniture based on a cataluminescence test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yanfeng; Deng, Fangming; Chen, Yulong; Guan, Huiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Wood furniture is an important source of indoor air pollution. To date, the detection of harmful substances in wood furniture has relied on the control of a single formaldehyde component, therefore the detection and evaluation of pollutants released by wood furniture are necessary. A novel method based on a cataluminescence (CTL) sensor system generated on the surface of nano-3TiO2-2BiVO4 was proposed for the simultaneous detection of pollutants released by wood furniture. Formaldehyde and benzene were selected as a model to investigate the CTL-sensing properties of the sensor system. Field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. The results showed that the as-prepared test system exhibited outstanding CTL properties such as stable intensity, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and short response and recovery times. In addition, the limit of detection for formaldehyde and benzene was below the standard permitted concentrations. Moreover, the sensor system showed outstanding selectivity for formaldehyde and benzene compared with eight other common volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The performance of the sensor system will enable furniture VOC limit emissions standards to be promulgated as soon as possible.

  14. Determination of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn and Al in compound fertilizers by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with fused glass disc sample preparation%熔融制样-X射线荧光光谱法快速测定复合肥中的磷、钾、钙、镁、锰、铁、铜、钠、锌和铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春生; 廖海平; 鲍惠君; 朱迪琦; 何阳

    2011-01-01

    为实现复合肥样品中多元素的同时分析,采用熔融片法制样,有效地消除了试样的粒度效应,用X射线荧光光谱法测定复合肥样品中磷、钾、钙、镁、锰、铁、铜、钠、锌和铝10个元素,对仪器工作条件进行了试验并选定最佳条件,使各元素测定所要求的灵敏度和准确度得到满足,以8个合成的样品作为校准样品,采用固定理论α影响系数进行回归及基体效应校正,方法精密度(RSD,n=8)≤1.36%,分析结果与化学法进行对照基本一致.%A method for the determination of including P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn and Al in compound fertilizers by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with fused glass disc sample preparation was reported in this paper.The granularity effect in the analysis was eliminated by the fusion method of sam pie-dissolution.The working conditions of the instrument were also studied and optimized to meet with the requirements of sensitivity and accuracy of determination.Eight composed samples were used as the calibration standards.The matrix effect was corrected with fixed theoretical alpha coefficient method.The precision of the method was RSD≤1.36% (n =8).The results were in agreement with those by chemical methods.

  15. Fused-Thiophene Based Materials for Organic Photovoltaics and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Kumaresan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaics (OPVs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have drawn great interest from both academics and industry, due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy at reasonable efficiencies. This review focuses on recent progress in molecular engineering and technological aspects of fused-thiophene-based organic dye molecules for applications in solar cells. Particular attention has been paid to the design principles and stability of these dye molecules, as well as on the effects of various electrolyte systems for DSSCs. Importantly, it has been found that incorporation of a fused-thiophene unit into the sensitizer has several advantages, such as red-shift of the intramolecular charge transfer band, tuning of the frontier molecular energy level, and improvements in both photovoltaic performance and stability. This work also examines the correlation between the physical properties and placement of fused-thiophene in the molecular structure with regard to their performance in OPVs and DSSCs.

  16. Applying Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jon

    2017-01-01

    A variety of transparent ceramics, such as AlONs and spinels, that were developed for military applications hold promise as spacecraft windows. Window materials in spacecraft such as the Space Shuttle must meet many requirements such as maintaining cabin pressure, sustaining thermal shock, and tolerating damage from hyper-velocity impact while providing superior optical characteristics. The workhorse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low density, low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits lower fracture toughness and impact resistance as compared to newer materials. Can these newer transparent ceramics lighten spacecraft window systems and might they be useful for applications such as phone screens? This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and demonstrate how weight can be saved.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of a gasifier particle sampling system using model compounds of different particle morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Patrik T.; Malik, Azhar; Pagels, Joakim; Lindskog, Magnus; Rissler, Jenny; Gudmundsson, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sanati, Mehri [Lund University, Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, P.O. Box 118, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this work was to design and evaluate an experimental setup to be used for field studies of particle formation in biomass gasification processes. The setup includes a high-temperature dilution probe and a denuder to separate solid particles from condensable volatile material. The efficiency of the setup to remove volatile material from the sampled stream and the influence from condensation on particles with different morphologies is presented. In order to study the sampling setup model, aerosols were created with a nebulizer to produce compact and solid KCl particles and a diffusion flame burner to produce agglomerated and irregular soot particles. The nebulizer and soot generator was followed by an evaporation-condensation section where volatile material, dioctylsebacete (DOS), was added to the system as a tar model compound. The model aerosol particles were heated to 200 C to create a system containing both solid particles and volatile organic material in gas phase. The heated aerosol particles were sampled and diluted at the same temperature with the dilution probe. Downstream the probe, the DOS was adsorbed in the denuder. This was achieved by slowly decreasing the temperature of the diluted sample towards ambient level in the denuder. Thereby the supersaturation of organic vapors was reduced which decreased the probability for tar condensation and nucleation of new particles. Both the generation system and the sampling technique gave reproducible results. A DOS collection efficiency of >99% was achieved if the denuder inlet concentration was diluted to less than 1-6 mg/m{sup 3} depending on the denuder flow rate. Concentrations higher than that lead to significant impact on the resulting KCl size distribution. The choice of model compounds was done to study the effect from the particle morphology on the achieved particle characteristics after the sampling setup. When similar amounts of volatile material condensed on soot agglomerates and

  18. Evaluation of the suitability of chromatographic systems to predict human skin permeation of neutral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Soriano-Meseguer, Sara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2013-12-18

    Several chromatographic systems (three systems of high-performance liquid chromatography and two micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems) besides the reference octanol-water partition system are evaluated by a systematic procedure previously proposed in order to know their ability to model human skin permeation. The precision achieved when skin-water permeability coefficients are correlated against chromatographic retention factors is predicted within the framework of the solvation parameter model. It consists in estimating the contribution of error due to the biological and chromatographic data, as well as the error coming from the dissimilarity between the human skin permeation and the chromatographic systems. Both predictions and experimental tests show that all correlations are greatly affected by the considerable uncertainty of the skin permeability data and the error associated to the dissimilarity between the systems. Correlations with much better predictive abilities are achieved when the volume of the solute is used as additional variable, which illustrates the main roles of both lipophilicity and size of the solute to penetrate through the skin. In this way, the considered systems are able to give precise estimations of human skin permeability coefficients. In particular, the HPLC systems with common C18 columns provide the best performances in emulating the permeation of neutral compounds from aqueous solution through the human skin. As a result, a methodology based on easy, fast, and economical HPLC measurements in a common C18 column has been developed. After a validation based on training and test sets, the method has been applied with good results to the estimation of skin permeation of several hormones and pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Pressure-induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Oganov, Artem R.; Li, Xinfeng; Xue, Kan-Hao; Wang, Zhenhai; Dong, Huafeng

    2015-11-01

    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2,Hf3O2 , HfO, and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges. Two new high-pressure phases are found for Hf2O : one with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure, another with space group I 41/amd. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide O2 - and peroxide [O-O]2 - anions. Remarkably, it is P 6 ¯2 m -HfO rather than OII-HfO2 that exhibits the highest mechanical characteristics among Hf-O compounds. Pnnm-Hf2O , Imm2-Hf5O2 ,P 3 ¯1 m -Hf2O , and P 4 ¯m 2 -Hf2O3 phases also show superior mechanical properties; theoretically these phases become metastable phases to ambient pressure and their properties can be exploited.

  1. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  2. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  3. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  4. Mid-IR fused fiber couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, G.; Woodbridge, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from our recent efforts on developing single-mode fused couplers in ZBLAN fibre. We have developed a custom fusion workstation for working with lower melting temperature fibres, such as ZBLAN and chalcogenide fibres. Our workstation uses a precisely controlled electrical heater designed to operate at temperatures between 100 - 250°C as our heat source. The heated region of the fibers was also placed in an inert atmosphere to avoid the formation of microcrystal inclusions during fusion. We firstly developed a process for pulling adiabatic tapers in 6/125 μm ZBLAN fibre. The tapers were measured actively during manufacture using a 2000 nm source. The process was automated so that the heater temperature and motor speed automatically adjusted to pull the taper at constant tension. This process was then further developed so that we could fuse and draw two parallel 6/125 μm ZBLAN fibres, forming a single-mode coupler. Low ratio couplers (1-10%) that could be used as power monitors were manufactured that had an excess loss of 0.76 dB. We have also manufactured 50/50 splitters and wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs). However, the excess loss of these devices was typically 2 - 3 dB. The increased losses were due to localised necking and surface defects forming as the tapers were pulled further to achieve a greater coupling ratio. Initial experiments with chalcogenide fibre have shown that our process can be readily adapted for chalcogenide fibres. A 5% coupler with 1.5 dB insertion loss was manufactured using commercial of the shelf (COTS) fibres.

  5. FUSE Spectroscopy of the Accreting Hot Components in Symbiotic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M.; Godon, Patrick; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Sabra, Bassem; Kolobow, Craig

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic analysis of the far-ultraviolet archival spectra of four symbiotic variables, EG And, AE Ara, CQ Dra, and RW Hya. RW Hya and EG And have never had a recorded outburst, while CQ Dra and AE Ara have outburst histories. We analyze these systems while they are in quiescence in order to help reveal the physical properties of their hot components via comparisons of the observations with optically thick accretion disk models and non-LTE model white dwarf photospheres. We have extended the wavelength coverage down to the Lyman limit with Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra. We find that the hot component in RW Hya is a low-mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 160,000 K. We reexamine whether or not the symbiotic system CQ Dra is a triple system with a red giant transferring matter to a hot component made up of a cataclysmic variable in which the white dwarf has a surface temperature as low as ∼20,000 K. The very small size of the hot component contributing to the shortest wavelengths of the FUSE spectrum of CQ Dra agrees with an optically thick and geometrically thin (∼4% of the WD surface) hot (∼120,000 K) boundary layer. Our analysis of EG And reveals that its hot component is a hot, bare, low-mass white dwarf with a surface temperature of 80,000–95,000 K, with a surface gravity {log}(g)=7.5. For AE Ara, we also find that a low-gravity ({log}(g)∼ 6), hot (T∼ {{130,000}} K) WD accounts for the hot component.

  6. Construction of 5,6-Ring Fused 2-Pyridones: An Effective Annulation Tactic Achieved in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Atasoylu, Onur; Beshore, Douglas C

    2009-01-01

    An efficient protocol for elaboration of the 5,6-fused 2-pyridone ring system, exploiting the tandem condensation of propiolamide and cyclic β-ketomethyl esters in water, followed by acid or base promoted intramolecular ring closure and decarboxylation, has been developed.

  7. Watermarking for Fused Deposition Modeling by Seam Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Felix W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage and application of 3D-printing or Additive Manufacturing (AM the question arises of how content providers or creators can ensure their intellectual property on such model data. Similar to other digital media such object information that is represented in a number of file formats is easy to copy and reproduce lossless. This research contributes by a proposition of a watermarking schema for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM type 3D-printers. This system embeds information into the 3D-printed object without alterations to the structure or geometry by altering the entry points of each layer in a specific manner. With such a watermarking schema employed objects can be embedded with additional information such as a serial number or other traceable information.

  8. Phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-Fused Subphthalocyanines: Synthesis, Structure, and Spectroscopic Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Houhe; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Chiming; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-07-01

    A series of four phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-fused subphthalocyanine derivatives 0-3 containing zero, one, two, and three phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline moieties, respectively, were isolated from the mixed cyclotrimerization reaction of 2,9-di-tert-butylphenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline-5,6-dicarbonitrile with 4,5-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy)phthalonitrile and characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods including MALDI-TOF mass, (1) H NMR, electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular structures for the compounds 0 and 2 were clearly revealed on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their electrochemical properties were also studied by cyclic voltammetry. In particular, theoretical calculations in combination with the electronic absorption and electrochemical analyses revealed the significant influence of the fused-phenanthro[4,5-fgh]quinoxaline units on the electronic structures.

  9. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-08-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process.

  10. Radiation-induced modifications of PVC compounds stabilized with non-lead systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Facio, A.; Benavides Cantú, R.; Martínez Pardo, M. E.; Carrasco Abrego, H.

    2004-09-01

    The radiation crosslinking of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) formulated with two different stabilizer systems (Ca/Zn and dibasic lead phthalate) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, a polyfunctional monomer, has been studied with the purpose of observing their behaviour and with the idea of replacing the lead stabilizer used in the typical wire and cable formulation for Ca/Zn systems. The compounds of PVC were irradiated by 60Co γ radiation at doses of 50, 75 and 100 kGy and two different atmospheres (argon and air). The dosimetry used to establish the irradiation times was carried out by both theoretical and experimental methods. The tensile test and gel measurements showed the highest values at 100 kGy although Young's Modulus showed that 75 kGy and argon atmosphere are optimum conditions for wire and cable formulations. The formulation with Ca/Zn stabiliser showed a very similar behaviour to the one made of lead, which, incidentally, produces high concentration of polyenes, in contrast to the Ca/Zn system.

  11. Radiation-induced modifications of PVC compounds stabilized with non-lead systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanda Facio, A.; Benavides Cantu, R.; Martinez Pardo, M.E.; Carrasco Abrego, H

    2004-10-01

    The radiation crosslinking of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) formulated with two different stabilizer systems (Ca/Zn and dibasic lead phthalate) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, a polyfunctional monomer, has been studied with the purpose of observing their behaviour and with the idea of replacing the lead stabilizer used in the typical wire and cable formulation for Ca/Zn systems. The compounds of PVC were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation at doses of 50, 75 and 100 kGy and two different atmospheres (argon and air). The dosimetry used to establish the irradiation times was carried out by both theoretical and experimental methods. The tensile test and gel measurements showed the highest values at 100 kGy although Young's Modulus showed that 75 kGy and argon atmosphere are optimum conditions for wire and cable formulations. The formulation with Ca/Zn stabiliser showed a very similar behaviour to the one made of lead, which, incidentally, produces high concentration of polyenes, in contrast to the Ca/Zn system.

  12. Compound Control Strategy for MDF Continuous Hot Pressing Electrohydraulic Servo System with Uncertainties and Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liang-kuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compound control strategy is investigated for Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF continuous hot pressing electrohydraulic servo system (EHSS with uncertainties and input saturation. Firstly, a hyperbolic tangent function is applied to approximate saturation nonlinearity in the system. And thus the mathematical model is continuous and differentiable. Subsequently, the slab thickness tracking controller is constructed by using a dynamic surface control (DSC method, which introduces first-order low-pass filters to calculate derivatives of virtual control input in each step. Compared with the conventional backstepping controller, complexity of the design procedure is alleviated obviously. Moreover, a composite disturbance of uncertainties and input saturation is estimated by a nonlinear disturbance observer for compensation of the control law. Finally, an appropriate Lyapunov function is chosen to prove that all signals of the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to zero asymptotically. Numerical simulation results are also exhibited to authenticate and validate the benefits of the proposed control scheme.

  13. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-17

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  14. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  15. Phytobioactive compound-based nanodelivery systems for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus – current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells. However, the poor solubility and lower permeability of these phyto products results in a loss of bioactivity during processing and oral delivery, leading to a significant reduction in the bioavailability of phytobioactive compounds to treat T2DM. Recently, nanotechnological systems have been developed for use as various types of carrier systems to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds and thus obtain a greater bioavailability. Furthermore, carrier systems in most nanodelivery systems are highly biocompatible, with nonimmunologic behavior, a high degree of biodegradability, and greater mucoadhesive strength. Therefore, this review focuses on the various types of nanodelivery systems that can be used for phytobioactive compounds in treating T2DM with greater antidiabetic effects. There is also additional focus on improving the effects of various phytobioactive compounds through nanotechnological delivery to ensure a highly efficient treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28223801

  16. FUSE Observations of Comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, P. D.; Weaver, H. A.; Christian, D.; Combi, M. R.; Krasnopolsky, V.; Lisse, C. M.; Mumma, M. J.; Shemansky, D. E.; Stern, S. A.

    2004-11-01

    We report observations of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) beginning 00:40 UT on 2004 April 24. This was the first moving target observation made by FUSE since the failure of two reaction wheels in December 2001. Spectra were obtained in the 905--1180 Å range at 0.3 Å spectral resolution using the 30'' × 30'' aperture and closely resemble the spectra of three comets observed in 2001 and reported previously. The principal features are the (0,0) bands of the CO Birge-Hopfield systems, atomic lines of \\ion{O}{1} and \\ion{H}{1}, and three lines of the H2 Lyman pumped by solar Lyman-β fluorescence. The CO C - X (0,0) band showed a nearly sinusoidal variation over the 27 hr observation interval with a period of 17.0 hr and a peak to minimum ratio of 1.56. The derived average CO production rate is Q(CO) = 8 × 1027 molecules s-1 which is about 4% that of H2O based on concurrent HST/STIS observations of OH emission. As in the previous observations, only upper limits are found for emission from \\ion{Ar}{1} and N2. A relatively strong feature near 1031.8 Å is most likely the H2 Werner (1,1) Q3 line pumped by solar \\ion{O}{6} and \\ion{N}{3}, as the corresponding lines in the (1,3) and (1,4) bands are also present. There may be evidence for weak \\ion{O}{6} emission at 1031.9 Å, in the wing of the H2 line, and at 1037.6 Å. The roughly two dozen other emissions that were not identified in the earlier spectra are also present in C/2001 Q4 at comparable strength to those in comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR). As C/2001 A2 had a comparable water production rate to that of C/2001 Q4 at the time of observation, the source(s) of these emissions may be ubiquitous in comets. This work is based on data obtained by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Financial support was partly provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  17. FUSE observations of the central star of Abell 78

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Koesterke, L; Kruk, J W

    2002-01-01

    FUSE high resolution spectra of two PG1159 type central stars (K1-16 and NGC 7094) have revealed an unexpected iron deficiency of at least 1 or 2 dex (Miksa et al. 2002). Here we present early results of FUSE spectroscopy of the CSPN Abell 78. It is shown that iron is strongly deficient in this star, too.

  18. Hamilton Systems of the Compound KdV Equation%组合KdV方程的Hamilton系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕书强; 蔡春; 马青华

    2014-01-01

    In this article, according to Hamilton Systems of the KdV Equation, and proved Hamilton Systems of the Compound KdV Equation.%本文根据KdV方程的Hamilton系统,构造并证明了组合KdV方程的Hamilton系统。

  19. Development and validation of a portable gas phase standard generation and calibration system for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Veres; J. B. Gilman; J. M. Roberts; W. C. Kuster; C. Warneke; I. R. Burling; J. de Gouw

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of an accurate, portable, dynamic calibration system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Mobile Organic Carbon Calibration System (MOCCS) combines the production of gas-phase VOC standards using permeation or diffusion sources with quantitative total organic carbon (TOC) conversion on a palladium surface to CO2 in the presence of...

  20. Theoretical studies on the one- and two-photon absorption properties of azulenylporphyrins and azulene-fused porphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-Chao; Feng Ji-Kang; Ren Ai-Min; Zhang Xiang-Biao; Sun Jia-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures, one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of the azulenylporphyrins and azulene-fused porphyrins have been comparatively studied by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d)and the ZINDO/SDCI method. With the number of azulenyl groups increasing, the OPA wavelengths of all molecules are red-shifted in 400-600 nm and the two-photon absorption cross section is gradually enlarged. The azulene-fused structures facilitate an expanding conjugated area and increasing TPA cross section. The origin of TPA properties of studied compounds is studied with a two-level model. In summary, the azulene-fused porphyrins exhibit strong two-photon absorption.

  1. Compounds in the system Cu 2SeAs 2Se 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnik, R.; Kurz, G.

    1984-11-01

    The phase diagram Cu 2SeAs 2Se 3 was investigated by thermal and X-ray methods. Cu 2Se has a limited solubility for As 2Se 3 (5 mole% at 769 K). The stoichiometric compound Cu 3AsSe 3 exists between 696 and 769 K. Cu 4As 2Se 5, a phase at 66.6 mole% Cu 2Se, decomposes peritectically at 746 K. The narrow homogeneity range (4 mole% at 683 K) extends far into the ternary space. CuAsSe 2 also decomposes peritectically at 683 K. A degenerated eutectic between CuAsSe 2 and As 2Se 3 was found at 641 K. Single crystals of Cu 4As 2Se 5 were grown in a salt melt. A metastable modification of the high-temperature phase Cu 3AsSe 3 can be obtained by quenching. Cu 4As 2Se 5 (space group R3, lattice constants a = 1404.0(1) pm, c = 960.2(1) pm), Cu 6As 4Se 9, obtained by Cambi and Elli, and Cu 7As 6Se 13 of Takeuchi and Horiuchi are different versions of a sphalerite-type compound with a broad homogeneity range in the system CuAsSe. CuAsSe 2 is possibly monoclinic with lattice parameters of a = 946.5(1) pm, b = 1229.3(1) pm, c = 511.7(1) pm, and β = 98.546(4)°. The enthalpy of mixing of Cu 2Se and As 2Se 3 in the liquid state is endothermic.

  2. Thermal performance of back-up current-limiting fuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, E.; Mazon, A.J.; Fernandez, E.; Zamora, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n, Bilbao 48013, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez, J.C. [MESA - Schneider Electric, Gatica 48110 (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The design and development of current-limiting power fuses requires considerable time and expense on testing to verify that the maximum temperature limits under the rated current established in international standards are not exceeded. This paper presents a new methodology that reproduces the thermal behaviour of high voltage current-limiting fuses under currents up to the rated value and so, it reduces the need for testing as prototypes, more similar to the final design, can be obtained. Firstly, the methodology solves the transient heating process of the fuse to obtain the values of the power dissipated and the heat transfer coefficient, corresponding to the steady state condition. Once these values have been calculated, the temperature distribution at the surface of the complete fuse is obtained. The validity of the method proposed has been verified by comparison of the numerical values calculated with those obtained by testing real fuses. (author)

  3. An analytical system for the measurement of stable hydrogen isotopes in ambient volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisehen, T.; Bühler, F.; Koppmann, R.; Krebsbach, M.

    2015-10-01

    Stable isotope measurements in atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an excellent tool to analyse chemical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere. While up to now isotope studies of VOCs in ambient air have mainly focussed on carbon isotopes, we herein present a new measurement system to investigate hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric VOCs. This system, consisting of a gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-P-IRMS) and a pre-concentration system, was thoroughly characterised using a VOC test mixture. A precision of better than 9 ‰ (in δ 2H) is achieved for n-pentane, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), n-heptane, 4-methyl-pentane-2-one (4-methyl-2-pentanone), methylbenzene (toluene), n-octane, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. A comparison with independent measurements via elemental analysis shows an accuracy of better than 9 ‰ for n-pentane, n-heptane, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene and n-octane. Above a minimum required pre-concentrated compound mass the obtained δ 2H values are constant within the standard deviations. In addition, a remarkable influence of the pyrolysis process on the isotope ratios is found and discussed. Reliable measurements are only possible if the ceramic tube used for the pyrolysis is sufficiently conditioned, i.e. the inner surface is covered with a carbon layer. It is essential to verify this conditioning regularly and to renew it if required. Furthermore, influences of a necessary H3+ correction and the pyrolysis temperature on the isotope ratios are discussed. Finally, the applicability to measure hydrogen isotope ratios in VOCs at ambient levels is demonstrated with measurements of outside air on 5 different days in February and March 2015. The measured hydrogen isotope ratios range from -136 to -105 ‰ forn-pentane, from -86 to -63 ‰ for toluene, from -39 to -15 ‰ for ethylbenzene, from -99 to -68 ‰ for m/p-xylene and from -45 to -34 ‰ for o-xylene.

  4. Enthalpies of formation of compounds in Al-Ni-Y system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The enthalpies of formation of the ternary compounds Al4NiY, Al2NiY, Al2Ni6Y3, Al16 Ni3Y, AlNiY, Al3Ni2Y, AlNi8Y3, Al7Ni3Y2, and of the binary comp ounds Al2Y containing nickel and Ni5Y containing aluminum have been determined by high temperature reaction calorimetry. The enthalpy values measured are compared to previously published results where available as well as extended Miedema model predictions. The melting points of the compounds were determined by DTA and X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the crystal structures of the compounds. The enthalpi es of formation of the ternary compounds show a maximum along the 50%Al (mole fr action) section. The ternary compounds appear along lines of constant yttrium content consistent with binary compound solubility extensions.

  5. Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of medicinal plants containing polyphenol compounds. Comparison of two extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratchanova, Maria; Denev, Petko; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Mihailov, Atanas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of extraction system on the extractability of polyphenol compounds and antioxidant activity of various medicinal plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total polyphenol content of 25 Bulgarian medicinal plants subjected to water or 80 % acetone extractions were investigated and compared. The type of extragent significantly influenced the efficiency of the polyphenol extraction and the antioxidant activity. In all cases ORAC results and total polyphenol content were higher for acetone extraction than for water extraction. The acetone extract of peppermint had the highest ORAC value - 2917 micromol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry weight (DW) and polyphenol content - 20216 mg/100 g DW. For water extraction thyme exhibited the highest ORAC antioxidant activity - 1434 micromol TE/g DW. There was a significant linear correlation between the concentration of total polyphenols and ORAC in the investigated medicinal plants. It can be concluded that the solvent used affects significantly the polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity of the extract and therefore it is recommended to use more than one extraction system for better assessment of the antioxidant activity of natural products. Several of the investigated herbs contain substantial amounts of free radical scavengers and can serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses.

  7. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of an Alternative Anticancer Compound in Comparison to Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise P. Wright

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many clinically available anticancer compounds are designed to target DNA. This commonality of action often yields overlapping cellular response mechanisms and can thus detract from drug efficacy. New compounds are required to overcome resistance mechanisms that effectively neutralise compounds like cisplatin and those with similar chemical structures. Studies have shown that 56MESS is a novel compound which, unlike cisplatin, does not covalently bind to DNA, but is more toxic to many cell lines and active against cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a transcriptional study of 56MESS in yeast has implicated iron and copper metabolism as well as the general yeast stress response following challenge with 56MESS. Beyond this, the cytotoxicity of 56MESS remains largely uncharacterised. Here, yeast was used as a model system to facilitate a systems-level comparison between 56MESS and cisplatin. Preliminary experiments indicated that higher concentrations than seen in similar studies be used. Although a DNA interaction with 56MESS had been theorized, this work indicated that an effect on protein synthesis/ degradation was also implicated in the mechanism(s of action of this novel anticancer compound. In contrast to cisplatin, the different mechanisms of action that are indicated for 56MESS suggest that this compound could overcome cisplatin resistance either as a stand-alone treatment or a synergistic component of therapeutics.

  9. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, María R; de Nadra, María C Manca; Arena, Mario E

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively). ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  10. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC, found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively. ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  11. Case retrieval in medical databases by fusing heterogeneous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Cazuguel, Guy; Roux, Christian; Cochener, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    A novel content-based heterogeneous information retrieval framework, particularly well suited to browse medical databases and support new generation computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems, is presented in this paper. It was designed to retrieve possibly incomplete documents, consisting of several images and semantic information, from a database; more complex data types such as videos can also be included in the framework. The proposed retrieval method relies on image processing, in order to characterize each individual image in a document by their digital content, and information fusion. Once the available images in a query document are characterized, a degree of match, between the query document and each reference document stored in the database, is defined for each attribute (an image feature or a metadata). A Bayesian network is used to recover missing information if need be. Finally, two novel information fusion methods are proposed to combine these degrees of match, in order to rank the reference documents by decreasing relevance for the query. In the first method, the degrees of match are fused by the Bayesian network itself. In the second method, they are fused by the Dezert-Smarandache theory: the second approach lets us model our confidence in each source of information (i.e., each attribute) and take it into account in the fusion process for a better retrieval performance. The proposed methods were applied to two heterogeneous medical databases, a diabetic retinopathy database and a mammography screening database, for computer aided diagnosis. Precisions at five of 0.809 ± 0.158 and 0.821 ± 0.177, respectively, were obtained for these two databases, which is very promising.

  12. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC COMPOUND CONTROL METHOD AND CHARACTERISTIC OF CONTROL FOR TENSION SYSTEM WITH HIGH INERTIA LOADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Tianyu; WANG Qingfeng; LI Yanmin; GONG Fangyou

    2006-01-01

    Based on the pressure regulation circuit adopting electro-hydraulic proportional relief valve to control tension, a new type of electro-hydraulic compound control circuit with throttle control unit is presented, which can obtain optimal dynamic damping ratio through real-time altering pressure-flow gain of the throttle control unit, improve the dynamic characteristic of tension follow-up control for the tension system with high inertia loads. Moreover, the characteristic when the cable linear velocity variation causes change of tension is investigated, and a compound control strategy is proposed. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the electro-hydraulic compound control circuit is effective and the characteristic of the compound control strategy is satisfactory.

  13. Phytobioactive compound-based nanodelivery systems for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus – current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Palanivel Ganesan,1,2 Palanisamy Arulselvan,3 Dong-Kug Choi1,2 1Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, 2Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells. However, the poor solubility and lower permeability of these phyto products results in a loss of bioactivity during processing and oral delivery, leading to a significant reduction in the bioavailability of phytobioactive compounds to treat T2DM. Recently, nanotechnological systems have been developed for use as various types of carrier systems to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds and thus obtain a greater bioavailability. Furthermore, carrier systems in most nanodelivery systems are highly biocompatible, with nonimmunologic behavior, a high degree of biodegradability, and greater mucoadhesive strength. Therefore, this review focuses on the various types of nanodelivery systems that can be used for phytobioactive compounds in treating T2DM with greater antidiabetic effects. There is also additional focus on improving the effects of various phytobioactive compounds through nanotechnological delivery to ensure a highly efficient treatment of type 2 diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, nanodelivery system, phytobioactive compounds

  14. Fused silica challenges in sensitive space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criddle, Josephine; Nürnberg, Frank; Sawyer, Robert; Bauer, Peter; Langner, Andreas; Schötz, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    Space bound as well as earthbound spectroscopy of extra-terrestrial objects finds its challenge in light sources with low intensities. High transmission for every optical element along the light path requires optical materials with outstanding performance to enable the measurement of even a one-photon event. Using the Lunar Laser Ranging Project and the LIGO and VIRGO Gravitational Wave Detectors as examples, the influence of the optical properties of fused silica will be described. The Visible and Infrared Surveillance Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) points out the material behavior in the NIR regime, where the chemical composition of optical materials changes the performance. Special fibers are often used in combination with optical elements as light guides to the spectroscopic application. In an extended spectral range between 350 and 2,200 nm Heraeus developed STU fiber preforms dedicated for broad band spectroscopy in astronomy. STU fibers in the broad spectral range as well as SSU fibers for UV transmission (180 - 400 nm) show also high gamma radiation resistance which allows space applications.

  15. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study, the e......-oleate or gelatine were considered to be the main potential foaming problem....

  16. Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Helicopters: Compounding the Quest for Speed,” Vertiflight, Summer 2006. 7. Spreuer, W.E. (1969) "Experimental Flight Tests of the XH-51A Compound...2000 mAh lithium ion polymer batteries (Sparkfun P/N PRT-08483)  One XBee Pro wireless transceiver with wire antenna (Sparkfun P/N WRL-10421)  One

  17. Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed-Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Helicopters: Compounding the Quest for Speed,” Vertiflight, Summer 2006. 7. Spreuer, W.E. (1969) "Experimental Flight Tests of the XH-51A Compound...2000 mAh lithium ion polymer batteries (Sparkfun P/N PRT-08483)  One XBee Pro wireless transceiver with wire antenna (Sparkfun P/N WRL-10421)  One

  18. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  19. Substituted fused bicyclic pyrrolizinones as potent, orally bioavailable hNK1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriello, Gregori J; Mills, Sander G; Johnson, Tricia; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Chicchi, Gary; DeMartino, Julie; Kurtz, Marc; Davies, P; Tsao, K L C; Zheng, Song; Tong, Xinchun; Carlson, Emma; Townson, Karen; Tattersall, F D; Wheeldon, Alan; Boyce, Susan; Collinson, Neil; Rupniak, Nadia; Moore, Stephen; DeVita, Robert J

    2010-03-15

    Previous work on human NK(1) (hNK(1)) antagonists in which the core of the structure is a 5,5-fused pyrrolizinone has been disclosed. The structural-activity-relationship studies on simple alpha- and beta-substituted compounds of this series provided several potent and bioavailable hNK(1) antagonists that displayed excellent brain penetration as observed by their good efficacy in the gerbil foot-tapping (GFT) model assay. Several of these compounds exhibited 100% inhibition of the foot-tapping response at 0.1 and 24h with ID(50)'s of less than 1 mpk. One particular alpha-substituted compound (2b) had an excellent pharmacokinetic profile across preclinical species with reasonable in vivo functional activity and minimal ancillary activity.

  20. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-xia; LIU Yu-bing; LIU Feng; ZHENG Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC)from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction.Methods The range of the independent variables,namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments.The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments.Subsequently,the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method.Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone,5.5 mg ammonium sulfate,with ultrasonic time for 5 min.Under these optimized conditions,the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g,much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE,29.0 mg/g).And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method.Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions.This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from Ⅰ.obliquus.

  1. Evaluation of Organogel Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery System for Lipophilic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Baptiste; Brouillet, Fabien; Franceschi, Sophie; Perez, Emile

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate organogel nanoparticles as a drug delivery system by investigating their stability, according to the formulation strategy, and their release profile. The gelled nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (above the gelation temperature) of an organogel in water, and cooling at room temperature. In the first step, we used DLS and DSC to select the most suitable formulations by optimizing the proportion of ingredients (HSA, PVA, castor oil) to obtain particles of the smallest size and greatest stability. Then, two lipophilic drug models, indomethacin and ketoconazole were entrapped in the nanoparticles made of castor oil gelled by 12-hydroxystearic acid. Thermal studies (DSC) confirmed that there was no significant alteration of gelling due to the entrapped drugs, even at 3% w/w. Very stable dispersions were obtained (>3 months), with gelled oil nanoparticles presenting a mean diameter between 250 and 300 nm. High encapsulation efficiency (>98%) was measured for indomethacin and ketoconazole. The release profile determined by in vitro dialysis showed an immediate release of the drug from the organogel nanoparticles, due to rapid diffusion. The study demonstrates the interest of these gelled oil nanoparticles for the encapsulation and the delivery of lipophilic active compounds.

  2. Secondary and compound concentrators for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Poon, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    A secondary optical element may be added to a parabolic dish solar concentrator to increase the geometric concentration ratio attainable at a given intercept factor. This secondary may be a Fresnel lens or a mirror, such as a compound elliptic concentrator or a hyperbolic trumpet. At a fixed intercept factor, higher overall geometric concentration may be obtainable with a long focal length primary and a suitable secondary matched to it. Use of a secondary to increase the geometric concentration ratio is more likely to e worthwhile if the receiver temperature is high and if errors in the primary are large. Folding the optical path with a secondary may reduce cost by locating the receiver and power conversion equipment closer to the ground and by eliminating the heavy structure needed to support this equipment at the primary focus. Promising folded-path configurations include the Ritchey-Chretien and perhaps some three element geometries. Folding the optical path may be most useful in systems that provide process heat.

  3. Secondary and compound concentrators for parabolic-dish solar-thermal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L.D.; Poon, P.T.

    1981-04-15

    A secondary optical element may be added to a parabolic dish solar concentrator to increase the geometric concentration ratio attainable at a given intercept factor. This secondary may be a Fresnel lens or a mirror, such as a compound elliptic concentrator or a hyperbolic trumpet. At a fixed intercept factor, higher overall geometric concentration may be obtainable with a long focal length primary and a suitable secondary matched to it. Use of a secondary to increase the geometric concentration ratio is more likely to be worthwhile if the receiver temperature is high and if errors in the primary are large. Folding the optical path with a secondary may reduce cost by locating the receiver and power conversion equipment closer to the ground and by eliminating the heavy structure needed to support this equipment at the primary focus. Promising folded-path configurations include the Ritchey-Chretien and perhaps some three-element geometries. Folding the optical path may be most useful in systems that provide process heat.

  4. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yan-xia; LIU; Yu-bing; LIU; Feng; ZHENG; Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC) from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction. Methods The range of the independent variables, namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments. Subsequently, the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method. Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone, 5.5 mg ammonium sulfate, with ultrasonic time for 5 min. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g, much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE, 29.0 mg/g). And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method. Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions. This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from I. obliquus.

  5. Fusing Visual and Audio Information in a Distributed Intelligent Surveillance System for Public Transport Systems%用于公众交通系统的分布式智能监控系统中的视听信息融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BennyPingLaiLo; JieSun; SergioA.Velastin

    2003-01-01

    提出了一个全新的概念,该概念表述了通过融合来自分布式视听处理系统的不同信息来提高事故检测鲁棒性以及提供更多的事件描述.最后利用来自伦敦和巴黎的现场测试验证了该系统的性能.本文是以欧盟的PRISMATICA项目为基础.%Extensive research has been conducted in applying video and audio processing algorithms for improving passenger safety and security in public transport systems. However, due to the complex and intense computations involved in the algorithms, most studies focus only on one aspect of the safety or security issues. In addition, as passengers′ behaviours and environments are fairly variable and unpredictable, the robustness of some algorithms is still in question and few of the reported results can be applied in all the different scenarios encountered in transport systems. To develop a complete and practical intelligent surveillance system, the EU project, PRISMATICA, is designed to integrate different intelligent detection devices, which includes local camera networks, crowd monitoring devices, intelligent cameras, contactless smart cards, wireless video/audio transmission, and audio surveillance systems, to monitor different safety and security concerns in railways. As different algorithms and techniques are applied in different devices, to fulfil the real-time requirement, the PRISMATICA system is designed as a distributed system where each device is a standalone process, and devices are linked and synchronized using a CORBA network. Although the resulting system is capable of monitoring and detecting different events, certain detected events could represent the same incident. In addition, the system could potentially generate too much information for operators to identify and react to incidents straight away. This paper presents a novel concept of fusing different evidences from a distributed visual and audio processing system to improve the robustness of incident

  6. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  7. A compound control strategy combining velocity compensation with ADRC of electro-hydraulic position servo control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingwei; Shao, Junpeng; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    In order to enhance the anti-jamming ability of electro-hydraulic position servo control system at the same time improve the control precision of the system, a compound control strategy that combines velocity compensation with Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is proposed, and the working principle of the compound control strategy is given. ADRC controller is designed, and the extended state observer is used for observing internal parameters uncertainties and external disturbances, so that the disturbances of the system are suppressed effectively. Velocity compensation controller is designed and the compensation model is derived to further improve the positioning accuracy of the system and to achieve the velocity compensation without disturbance. The compound control strategy is verified by the simulation and experiment respectively, and the simulation and experimental results show that the electro-hydraulic position servo control system with ADRC controller can effectively inhibit the external disturbances, the precise positioning control is realized after introducing the velocity compensation controller, and verify that the compound control strategy is effective.

  8. Intracellular Diagnostics: Hunting for the Mode of Action of Redox-Modulating Selenium Compounds in Selected Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Mániková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox-modulating compounds derived from natural sources, such as redox active secondary metabolites, are currently of considerable interest in the field of chemoprevention, drug and phytoprotectant development. Unfortunately, the exact and occasionally even selective activity of such products, and the underlying (bio-chemical causes thereof, are often only poorly understood. A combination of the nematode- and yeast-based assays provides a powerful platform to investigate a possible biological activity of a new compound and also to explore the “redox link” which may exist between its activity on the one side and its chemistry on the other. Here, we will demonstrate the usefulness of this platform for screening several selenium and tellurium compounds for their activity and action. We will also show how the nematode-based assay can be used to obtain information on compound uptake and distribution inside a multicellular organism, whilst the yeast-based system can be employed to explore possible intracellular mechanisms via chemogenetic screening and intracellular diagnostics. Whilst none of these simple and easy-to-use assays can ultimately substitute for in-depth studies in human cells and animals, these methods nonetheless provide a first glimpse on the possible biological activities of new compounds and offer direction for more complicated future investigations. They may also uncover some rather unpleasant biochemical actions of certain compounds, such as the ability of the trace element supplement selenite to induce DNA strand breaks.

  9. A system for the determination of trace-level polar and non-polar toxic organic compounds in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, A.; Dang, R.; Hoberecht, H. [Perkin Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States). Fresh Aire Lab.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatographic system is described for the determination of toxic organic compounds in ambient air. These compounds include all those specified within the US EPA Compendium Method TO14 and some polar additional analytes under consideration for the proposed TO15 Method. The system supports both on-line and off-line (passivated canisters and adsorption tubes) methods for sampling air--providing a fully automated analysis. A key feature of the system is that liquid cryogen is not required for either the analyte preconcentration or the subsequent chromatographic separation. Water management is achieved by dry-purging an adsorbent trap upon which the sample analytes have been retained. The performance of the system is demonstrated with conventional detection systems (electron capture and flame ionization) and with a mass spectrometer.

  10. An Algorithm for Improving Efficiency of Fused Deposition Molding 3 D Printing System%一种提高FDM三维打印系统成型效率的算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢海远; 刘景; 童晶; 张霞

    2014-01-01

    Currently,theFDM(FusedDepositionModeling)3Dprintingsystemisconductedwith long time and low efficiency.Considering process time and process accuracy,in control perspective of slice thickness and scan speed,an algorithm is proposed to reduce printing time and improve molding efficiency,which combining adaptive slice thickness based on the rate of change of the area and adaptive scan speed based on the rate of change of the perimeter.Firstly,the rate of change of the area is used to calculate the value of slicing thickness of each layer.According to the slicing data,then the mesh is sliced to obtain actual printing contours of each layer.Finally,the perimeter of two-dimensional polygon of each layer is computed and the rate of change of the perimeter is used to determine the appropriate scanning speed of each layer.The actual printing test results validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm and show that it can effectively reduce the printing time and improve the efficiency of forming.%目前,FDM三维打印系统制件加工时间比较长,成型效率较低。在权衡加工时间和加工精度的前提下,从切片层厚和层扫描速度控制的角度,提出了一种基于面积变化率的自适应切片层厚控制和基于周长变化率的自适应层扫描速度控制相结合的算法。首先通过二维轮廓面积变化情况计算每层切片数据的层厚值;然后用获得的层厚数据对模型进行切片,得到每层可打印的真实轮廓;最后计算每层二维多边形轮廓的周长,并根据周长的变化情况确定该层合适的扫描速度。实际打印测试结果表明,该算法可以有效降低打印时间,提高成型效率,验证了算法的有效性。

  11. Scaffold-fused riboregulators for enhanced gene activation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuta; Abe, Koichi; Nakashima, Saki; Ellinger, James J; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are an attractive host for biofuel production because they can produce valuable chemical compounds from CO2 fixed by photosynthesis. However, the available genetic tools that enable precise gene regulation for the applications of synthetic biology are insufficient. Previously, we engineered an RNA-based posttranscriptional regulator, termed riboregulator, for the control of target gene expression in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Moreover, we enhanced the gene regulation ability of the riboregulators in Escherichia coli by fusing and engineering a scaffold sequence derived from naturally occurring E. coli noncoding small RNAs. Here, we demonstrated that the scaffold sequence fused to the riboregulators improved their gene regulation ability in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To further improve gene regulation, we expressed an exogenous RNA chaperone protein that is responsible for noncoding small RNA-mediated gene regulation, which resulted in higher target gene expression. The scaffold sequence derived from natural E. coli noncoding small RNAs is effective for designing RNA-based genetic tools and scaffold-fused riboregulators are a strong RNA-tool to regulate gene expression in cyanobacteria. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  13. Identification of small molecule lead compounds for visceral leishmaniasis using a novel ex vivo splenic explant model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneth Osorio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New drugs are needed to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL because the current therapies are toxic, expensive, and parasite resistance may weaken drug efficacy. We established a novel ex vivo splenic explant culture system from hamsters infected with luciferase-transfected Leishmania donovani to screen chemical compounds for anti-leishmanial activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THIS MODEL HAS ADVANTAGES OVER IN VITRO SYSTEMS IN THAT IT: 1 includes the whole cellular population involved in the host-parasite interaction; 2 is initiated at a stage of infection when the immunosuppressive mechanisms that lead to progressive VL are evident; 3 involves the intracellular form of Leishmania; 4 supports parasite replication that can be easily quantified by detection of parasite-expressed luciferase; 5 is adaptable to a high-throughput screening format; and 6 can be used to identify compounds that have both direct and indirect anti-parasitic activity. The assay showed excellent discrimination between positive (amphotericin B and negative (vehicle controls with a Z' Factor >0.8. A duplicate screen of 4 chemical libraries containing 4,035 compounds identified 202 hits (5.0% with a Z score of <-1.96 (p<0.05. Eighty-four (2.1% of the hits were classified as lead compounds based on the in vitro therapeutic index (ratio of the compound concentration causing 50% cytotoxicity in the HepG(2 cell line to the concentration that caused 50% reduction in the parasite load. Sixty-nine (82% of the lead compounds were previously unknown to have anti-leishmanial activity. The most frequently identified lead compounds were classified as quinoline-containing compounds (14%, alkaloids (10%, aromatics (11%, terpenes (8%, phenothiazines (7% and furans (5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ex vivo splenic explant model provides a powerful approach to identify new compounds active against L. donovani within the pathophysiologic environment of the infected spleen

  14. A system-level investigation into the mechanisms of Chinese Traditional Medicine: Compound Danshen Formula for cardiovascular disease treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Li

    Full Text Available Compound Danshen Formula (CDF is a widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM which has been extensively applied in clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. However, the underlying mechanism of clinical administrating CDF on CVDs is not clear. In this study, the pharmacological effect of CDF on CVDs was analyzed at a systemic point of view. A systems-pharmacological model based on chemical, chemogenomics and pharmacological data is developed via network reconstruction approach. By using this model, we performed a high-throughput in silico screen and obtained a group of compounds from CDF which possess desirable pharmacodynamical and pharmacological characteristics. These compounds and the corresponding protein targets are further used to search against biological databases, such as the compound-target associations, compound-pathway connections and disease-target interactions for reconstructing the biologically meaningful networks for a TCM formula. This study not only made a contribution to a better understanding of the mechanisms of CDF, but also proposed a strategy to develop novel TCM candidates at a network pharmacology level.

  15. Synthesis, physical properties and self-assembly behavior of azole-fused pyrene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinchong; Xiao, Xuyu; Zhao, Yanlei; Wu, Bo; Liu, Zhenying; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Sujuan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Li

    2013-05-01

    A novel selenadiazole-fused pyrene derivative PySe was successfully synthesized and characterized. Its single structure is almost planar and adopts a sandwich-herringbone packing model. The self-assembly behaviors based on compound PySe and its analogue thiadiazole-fused pyrene derivative PyS were studied in detail and the as-formed nanostructures were fully characterized by means of UV-vis absorption, emission spectra, X-ray diffraction, field emission SEM and TEM. We attribute the bathochromic shift absorption and emission spectra of PyS and PySe in aqueous solution to the formation of J-type aggregation. In addition, our investigation demonstrated that the shape and size of the as-prepared nanostructures could be tuned by different chalcogen analogues and the volume ratio of water to organic solvent.A novel selenadiazole-fused pyrene derivative PySe was successfully synthesized and characterized. Its single structure is almost planar and adopts a sandwich-herringbone packing model. The self-assembly behaviors based on compound PySe and its analogue thiadiazole-fused pyrene derivative PyS were studied in detail and the as-formed nanostructures were fully characterized by means of UV-vis absorption, emission spectra, X-ray diffraction, field emission SEM and TEM. We attribute the bathochromic shift absorption and emission spectra of PyS and PySe in aqueous solution to the formation of J-type aggregation. In addition, our investigation demonstrated that the shape and size of the as-prepared nanostructures could be tuned by different chalcogen analogues and the volume ratio of water to organic solvent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TGA analysis, spectra characterization data for compound 1, 2, 3 and X-ray crystallographic data for compound PySe (2, CIF). CCDC 917821. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00523b

  16. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of fluoroquinolone C3 fused heterocycles (Ⅱ): From triazolothiadiazines to pyrazolotriazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qiang Hu; Wen Long Huang; Li Li Hou; Yong Yang; Lei Yi; Song Qiang Xie; Guo Qiang Wang; Nan Nan Duan; Tie Yao Chao; Xiao Yi Wen

    2011-01-01

    To further expand an effective modified route for the shift from an antibacterial fluoroquinolone (FQ) to an antitumor FQ, two series of title compounds based on an isostere of the FQ C3 carboxylic group with two fused heterocyclic rings, [l,2,4]triazolo[3,4-6][l,3,4]thiadiazine and pyrazolo[5,l-c][l,2,4]triazole, respectively, were designed and synthesized starting from the current antibacterial FQs, and their in vitro antitumor activity against L1210, CHO cell lines were evaluated via their respective IC50 values.

  17. Double Conjugate Addition of Dithiols to Propargylic Carbonyl Systems To Generate Protected 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneddon, Helen F.; Heuvel, Alexandra van den; Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Booth, Richard A.; Shaw, David M.; Gaunt, Matthew J.; Ley, Steven V.

    2006-01-01

    The work describes the efficient double conjugate addition of ethane and propane dithiols in the presence of sodium methoxide to a wide variety of propargylic carbonyl containing compounds. The products of these reactions are differentiated, 1,3-dicarbonyl systems useful for various synthesis progra

  18. Effects of compound carboxylate-urea system on nano Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings from trivalent chromium baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinkuai; Hou, Bailong; Cai, Youxing; Wu, Luye

    2013-03-01

    The effects of compound carboxylate-urea system on the nano Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings from trivalent chromium baths have been investigated in ultrasonic field. These results indicated that the SiC and Cr contents and the thickness of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings could be obviously improved by the compound carboxylate-urea system. The steady-state polarization curves showed that the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) could be significantly inhibited by the compound carboxylate-urea system, which was benefit to increase the SiC and Cr contents and the thickness of the composite coatings. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves showed that both of the Cr(III) and Ni(II) cathodic polarization could be increased in the bath containing the compound carboxylate-urea system. Thus, a compact Ni-Cr/SiC composite coating could be obtained using this technique. The surface morphology of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings checked with the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that the surface smoothness could be also improved and the microcracks and pinholes could be decreased due to the presence of the compound carboxylate-urea system. The phase composition of the as-posited coating was measured by the X-ray diffraction. XRD data showed that the as-posited coating was Ni-Cr/SiC composite coating. The chemical composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. The result showed the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings with 3.8 wt.% SiC and 24.68 wt.% Cr were obtained in this study, which had best corrosion resistance according to the results of the typical potentiodynamic polarization curves of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings.

  19. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  20. Determining the nonlinear refractive index of fused quartz by femtosecond laser Z-scan technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ren, Huan; Ma, Hua; Shi, Zhendong; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Feng, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Yurong; Chen, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Z-scan technology is an experimental technique for determining the nonlinear refractive index based on the principle of transformation of phase distortion to amplitude distortion when a laser beam propagates through a nonlinear material. For most of the Z-scan system based on the nanosecond or picosecond laser, the accumulation of thermal effects becomes a big problem in nonlinear refractive index measurement especially for the nonlinear materials such as fused quartz and neodymium glass which have a weak nonlinear refractive effect. To overcome this problem, a system for determining the nonlinear refractive index of optical materials based on the femtosecond laser Z-scan technology is presented. Using this system, the nonlinear refractive index of the fused quartz is investigated.

  1. Technical report on galvanic cells with fused-salt electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Crouthamel, C. E.; Fischer, A. K.; Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Johnson, C. E.; Shimotake, H.; Tevebaugh, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report is presented on sodium and lithium cells using fused salt electrolytes. It includes a discussion of the thermally regenerative galvanic cell and the secondary bimetallic cell for storage of electricity.

  2. Fused Cast Alumina Refractory Products for Glass Tank Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Keyin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 Subject and Scope The standard specifies the requirement, testing method, inspection rule and requirements for the labeling, packing, shipping and storing of the fused cast alumina refractory products for glass tanks.

  3. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William T.

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10-12 Pa-1. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented.

  4. Polymer Matrix Composites using Fused Deposition Modeling Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology that allows fabrication of complex three-dimensional geometries layer-by-layer. The goal of...

  5. IGBT Fuses for Protection Against Explosion in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Rasmussen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of electrical faults can be severe; not only to the equipment, but also in the worse case, to people if safety principles are not observed. Every year new applications based on DC-link Voltage Source Converters are added and the demand for protection of power electronics increases...... regarding the high-power IGBT modules. Due to the fact that the power level increases more energy is stored in the DC-link and even with an active protection, a high-power IGBT still has a risk of case rupture (explode) when a circuit failure condition occurs. A possible solution is a protection...... of the converter with standard High Speed Fuses or High Speed IGBT fuses. It is discussed that protection can be achieved by introduction of IGBT fuse located in the DC-link. Experiments show that explosion can be avoided by use of High Speed Fuse protection and the added inductance of standard High Speed...

  6. Development of a direct exposure system for studying the mechanisms of central neurotoxicity caused by volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used in work places are neurotoxic. However, it has been difficult to study the cellular mechanisms induced by a direct exposure to neurons because of their high volatility. The objective of this study was to establish a stable system for exposing brain slices to VOCs. With a conventional recording system for brain slices, it is not possible to keep a constant bath concentration of relatively highly volatile solvents, e.g. 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Here we ...

  7. Modeling daily variation of trihalomethane compounds in drinking water system, Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Embarka; Moschandreas, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) concentrations vary widely and periodically between 70 and 130 ppb. Data from the National Environmental Services Laboratory, Houston, Texas indicate that pH and free residual chlorine contribute minimally to the wide variability of TTHM levels. Temperature variation in drinking fluctuates from 11 to 27 degrees C. The objective of this research is to formulate a model that delineates more clearly the daily variations of the most prevalent volatile trihalomethane by-products: chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBr2Cl), and bromoform (CHBr3) levels from drinking water. This model simulates the daily fluctuation of THM at a single location and at any time during the day as a function of the water temperature and the average concentration of TTHM, which can be estimated. The hypothesis of this study is that observed daily fluctuations of TTHM, CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, and CHBr3 are periodic. This hypothesis is tested using autocorrelation functions and it is shown that for the series of pH the correlation coefficient is maximal at zero lags, rapidly decreases to zero, and increases again between 4- and 6-h period. Such pattern suggests random fluctuation unrelated to time. However, the series of free residual chlorine, temperature, TTHM, CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2, and CHBr3 suggest a different pattern. The correlation coefficient increases when the time-shift approaches 24 h. These repetitions in fluctuation of content over a 24-h period are statistically significant. The model formulated in this study provides insights in TTHM variation and is a necessary tool to reduce the error when estimating potential risk from exposure to trihalomethane compounds in drinking water system. In general, calculation of potential risk by using a value measured early morning or late afternoon concentrations were found minimal lead to an underestimation of the population risk.

  8. Organic compounds in hydrothermal systems on the Russian Far East: relevance to the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir

    instance, Simoneit et al. (2) established that the light oil associated with the Uzon caldera in Kamchatka was formed by pyrolysis of buried algal mats. More interesting would be to determine that the aromatics and alkanes are products of a Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis. Intermediately the possible in-put of the abiotic organics is confirmed with the availability of Cl-alkanes in the hot solution because these compounds cannot be produced in a living organism. Besides, concentrations of even and uneven carbon atoms are similar in the juvenile hot water from the central zone of Kuldur field (the intracontinental part) that indicates their probable abiotic origination, while the uneven carbon atoms much prevail over the even ones (in 5 times) in the lower-temperature meteoric water on the flank. The detected organic compounds could enter into the composi-tion of various prebiotic microsystems or aggregates existed in the changeable hydrothermal media suitable for the origin of life. It follows of the inversion approach to the origin of life (Kompanichenko, 2008) that synthesis of other biologically important molecules (sugars, ATP, nucleotides), which are not typical for hydrothermal medium, started at the moment of the in-version the ratio "free energy contribution to entropy contribution" in the network of chemical reactions. The re-organized and turned into negentropy way network might promote the syn-thesis of these molecules under higher temperature conditions than revealed for the laboratory experiments in Vitro (50-60C). References. 1. Mukhin L.M., Bondarev V.B., Vakin E.A., Iljukhina I.I., Kalinichenko V.I., Milekhina E.I., Safonova E.N., 1979. Amino acids in hydrothermal systems in Southern Kam-chatka. Doklady AN USSR 244 (4), 974-977, (In Russian). 2. Simoneit, B., Deamer, D.W. and Kompanichenko, V. 2009. Characterization of hydrothermally generated oil from the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. Applied Geochemistry 24: 303-309. 3. Kompanichenko V.N. 2008. Three stages of

  9. Effects of Vacuum of Fused Silica UV Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Zhen; LV Hai-Bing; YUAN Xiao-Dong; HUANG Jin; JIANG Xiao-Dong; WANG Hai-Jun; ZU Xiao-Tao; ZHENG Wan-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Damage points induced by 355 nm laser irradiation increase more quickly on the surface of fused silica in vacuum of about 10-3Pa than in atmospheric air at the same fluence.The larger concentration of point defects in vacuum is confirmed by photoluminescence intensity.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared absorption indicate the formation of sub-stoichiometric sillca on the surface.The degradation mechanism of fused silica in vacuum is discussed.

  10. Fusing Manual and Machine Feedback in Biomedical Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fusing manual and machine feedback in biomedical domain 1Jainisha Sankhavara, 1Fenny Thakrar, 2Shamayeeta Sarkar, 1Prasenjit Majumder 1DA-IICT...to obtain efficient biomedical document retrieval. We focused on fusing manual and machine feedback runs. Fusion run performs better and gives...retrieval of biomedical articles relevant for answering generic clini- cal questions about medical records. There are 30 topics provided, each

  11. ENDODONTIC MANAGEMENT OF FUSED MAXILLARY LATERAL INCISOR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavdhane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a rare occurrence and its definitive diagnosis is of prime importance for successful root canal treatment. This case report discusses the endodontic and esthetic management of fused maxillary right lateral incisor. Root canal treatment was performed on the fused tooth. Nickel Chromium with ceramic crown was fabricated in the shape of lateral incisor. The patient remained asymptomatic and there was a reduction in the size of periapical radiolucency after six months.

  12. A coordinate-wise optimization algorithm for the Fused Lasso

    OpenAIRE

    Höfling, Holger; Binder, Harald; Schumacher, Martin

    2010-01-01

    L1 -penalized regression methods such as the Lasso (Tibshirani 1996) that achieve both variable selection and shrinkage have been very popular. An extension of this method is the Fused Lasso (Tibshirani and Wang 2007), which allows for the incorporation of external information into the model. In this article, we develop new and fast algorithms for solving the Fused Lasso which are based on coordinate-wise optimization. This class of algorithms has recently been applied very successfully to so...

  13. Global equation of state for a glassy material: Fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for fused silica has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7387. This new EOS provides better agreement with experimental data than was achieved by all previous SESAME EOSs for fused silica. Material number 7387 also constitutes the most realistic SESAME-type EOS generated for any glassy material thus far.

  14. Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0037 Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense-Making Archan Misra SINGAPORE MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY Final Report...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 Dec 2013 to 10 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense-Making 5a...UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The proposed research was motivated by the observation that urban environments are

  15. Reversed-phase systems for the analysis of catecholamines and related compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombeen, J P; Kraak, J C; Poppe, H

    1978-12-21

    Phase systems using alkyl-modified silica as an absorbent, used as much and as a support for dynamically coated ion exchangers, were investigated for their capability in separating catecholamines and related compounds. Simple reversed-phase adsorption chromatography with C8-bonded silica is not able to separate these compounds very well because of (i) the very small retention of the more basic compounds in circumstances where the acidic compounds are well separated, (ii) bad peak shapes and (iii) low column efficiences, although the last drawback can be circumvented by the addition of inorganic anions to the eluent. The addition of a dynamically coated cation exchanger, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), to the eluent not only brings about drastic changes in the selectivity, but also makes available an additional degree of freedom for influencing the selectivity. The retention of the basic solutes increases upon addition of SDS and the retention becomes inversely proportional to the counter ion (Na+) concentration. Further, it was found that columns previously loaded with SDS can be used with SDS-free eluents when a pre-column, loaded with SDS, is used or with eluents containing a very small amount of SDS (less than 0.001%, w/v). These SDS-coated phase systems behave similarly to phase systems containing SDS in the eluent and show a better column stability and UV background.

  16. FUSE: a profit maximization approach for functional summarization of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seah Boon-Siew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein interaction network (PPI using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of PPIS remains a daunting task as it is challenging to make sense out of the deluge of high-dimensional interaction data. Specifically, techniques that automatically abstract and summarize PPIS at multiple resolutions to provide high level views of its functional landscape are still lacking. We present a novel data-driven and generic algorithm called FUSE (Functional Summary Generator that generates functional maps of a PPI at different levels of organization, from broad process-process level interactions to in-depth complex-complex level interactions, through a pro t maximization approach that exploits Minimum Description Length (MDL principle to maximize information gain of the summary graph while satisfying the level of detail constraint. Results We evaluate the performance of FUSE on several real-world PPIS. We also compare FUSE to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment by constructing the biological process landscape of the PPIS. Using AD network as our case study, we further demonstrate the ability of FUSE to quickly summarize the network and identify many different processes and complexes that regulate it. Finally, we study the higher-order connectivity of the human PPI. Conclusion By simultaneously evaluating interaction and annotation data, FUSE abstracts higher-order interaction maps by reducing the details of the underlying PPI to form a functional summary graph of interconnected functional clusters. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment.

  17. Observation of strong ferromagnetism in the half-Heusler compound CoTiSb system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, K.; Hantour, H.; Makram, N.; Said, Sh. A.

    2016-06-01

    Strong ferromagnetism has been detected in the semiconducting half-Heusler CoTiSb compound. The synthesis process was carried out by direct fusion of highly pure Co, Ti, and Sb in an evacuated quartz tube. The structural, micro structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The crystal structure was refined from X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. Applying the search match program, three nano-crystalline phases of CoTiSb, Ti3Sb and CoTi2 (50%, 33.3% and 16.7% respectively) were identified for the prepared system. The term "phase" is used to address the co-existence of different stable chemical composition for the same half-Heusler alloy. The scanning electron microscope SEM and the high resolution transmission electron microscope HR-TEM were applied to characterize the morphology, size, shape, crystallinity and lattice spacing. A mixture of ordered and disordered arrangement was detected. Well defined nano-crystalline structure with an average interatomic distance equals 0.333 nm and sharp diffraction spots were measured. Contrary to this, the HR-TEM and electron diffraction image shows distorted structured planes and smeared halo surrounded by weak rings. Thermo-magnetic measurements (M-T) have been measured between 640 °K and 920 °K. Clear magnetic phase transition is detected above 900 °K (Tc), in addition to a second possible phase transition (TFF) around 740 °K. The latter is clarified by plotting ΔM/ΔT vs. T. To determine the type of the detected phase transitions, the field dependence of magnetization was measured at 300 °K and 740 °K. Arrot plots (M2-H/M) confirm the ferromagnetic character at both temperatures. It may be reasonable to assume the TFF transition as an additional ferromagnetic contribution stemming from some sort of exchange interactions. A tentative magnetic phase diagram is given. Overall, the present results suggest that the prepared multiphases CoTiSb system does not obey the 18 valence electron/unit cell

  18. Nanocarriers as Tools in Delivering Active Compounds for Immune System Related Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soica, Codruta; Coricovac, Dorina; Dehelean, Cristina; Pinzaru, Iulia; Mioc, Marius; Danciu, Corina; Fulias, Adriana; Puiu, Maria; Sitaru, Cassian

    2016-01-01

    Immune system related pathologies affect an increasing number of patients every year, having potentially lethal consequences and requiring expensive and difficult tolerated treatments. This area of pathologies offers an excellent potential for the development of innovative solutions such as nanoformulations; this review aims to describe the main categories of nanostructured drug delivery platforms that have been developed in order to achieve a more effective, low toxic treatment in autoimmune pathologies. We conducted a systematic search of peer-reviewed original studies focusing on nanoformulations suitable for use against autoimmune disorders. Each study was evaluated by at least two reviewers who applied inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to establish the quality of the research reported in the selected papers. The systematic screening of the literature also identified the most recent patents issued in the field of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases which were included in the current paper. One hundred ninety-seven bibliographic titles were included in the review of which fifty-three recently published patents. Twenty-one papers were selected to define the interaction between nanoformulations and the immune system triggering either immunosuppression or immunostimulation. Thirty-seven papers outlined the characteristics of liposomal formulations that have been reported as treatment for several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis. Twentythree articles provided data on the main lipid nanoparticles of the first and second generation which may include physiological lipids with low cytotoxicity. Gold nanoparticles were described by thirteen papers which highlighted the advantages of the new hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles vs. the classical ionic gold compounds. Polymeric nanoformulations were the subject of fifty-nine papers that described their preparation as well as various advantages in the treatment of inflammatory disorders; dendrimers

  19. Odorous compounds in municipal wastewater effluent and potable water reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Eva; Lim, Mong Hoo; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

    2011-11-01

    The presence of effluent-derived compounds with low odor thresholds can compromise the aesthetics of drinking water. The potent odorants 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin dominated the profile of odorous compounds in wastewater effluent with concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude above their threshold values. Additional odorous compounds (e.g., vanillin, methylnaphthalenes, 2-pyrrolidone) also were identified in wastewater effluent by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry and olfactometry detection. Full-scale advanced treatment plants equipped with reverse osmosis membranes decreased odorant concentrations considerably, but several compounds were still present at concentrations above their odor thresholds after treatment. Other advanced treatment processes, including ozonation followed by biological activated carbon and UV/H(2)O(2) also removed effluent-derived odorants. However, no single treatment technology alone was able to reduce all odorant concentrations below their odor threshold values. To avoid the presence of odorous compounds in drinking water derived from wastewater effluent, it is necessary to apply multiple barriers during advanced treatment or to dilute wastewater effluent with water from other sources.

  20. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  1. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE) Observations Of The Antennae Galaxies (ngc4038/ngc4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iping, Rosina; Sonneborn, G.; Neff, S.

    2006-06-01

    The brightest UV region of the Antennae galaxies (NGC4038/4039), Knots R/S/T, has been observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. The observation used a 30x30 arcsec aperture, encompassing several stellar groups. The high-resolution FUV spectrum detects broad ( 150 km/s FWHM) O VI 1032, 1038 absorption blueward of the systemic velocity (1642 km/s) in the galactic outflow. This outflowing gas has a temperature of a few times 105 K and may dominate the radiative cooling of the supernova-heated interstellar medium. Strong C II 1036, H I 1026, S III 1012, 1015, S IV 1062, 1072 and Si IV 1122, 1128 have symmetric absorption features centered at the systemic velocity. These features probably originate from the OB stellar population in the galaxies. This work has been supported in part by a FUSE Guest Investigator grant from NASA (NAG5-13014) to the Catholic University of America.

  2. Multi-tube thermal fuse for nozzle protection from a flame holding or flashback event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Davis, Jr., Lewis Berkley; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David

    2012-07-03

    A protection system for a pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine, includes: a main body having an inlet portion, an outlet portion and an exterior wall that collectively establish a fuel delivery plenum; and a plurality of fuel mixing tubes that extend through at least a portion of the fuel delivery plenum, each of the plurality of fuel mixing tubes including at least one fuel feed opening fluidly connected to the fuel delivery plenum; at least one thermal fuse disposed on an exterior surface of at least one tube, the at least one thermal fuse including a material that will melt upon ignition of fuel within the at least one tube and cause a diversion of fuel from the fuel feed opening to at least one bypass opening. A method and a turbine engine in accordance with the protection system are also provided.

  3. Performance of the wet oxidation unit of the HPLC isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for halogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2014-08-05

    The performance of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) for polar halogenated compounds was evaluated. Oxidation capacity of the system was tested with halogenated acetic acids and halogenated aromatic compounds. Acetic acid (AA) was selected as a reference compound for complete oxidation and compared on the molar basis to the oxidation of other analytes. The isotope values were proofed with calibrated δ(13)C values obtained with an elemental analyzer (EA). Correct isotope values were obtained for mono- and dichlorinated, fluorinated, and tribrominated acetic acids and also for aniline, phenol, benzene, bromobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentafluorophenol, and nitrobenzene. Incomplete oxidation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) resulted in lower recovery compared to AA (37% and 24%, respectively) and in isotopic shift compared to values obtained with EA (TCA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 8.8‰, TFA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 6.0‰). Improvement of oxidation by longer reaction time in the reactor and increase in the concentration of sulfate radicals did not lead to complete combustion of TCA and TFA needed for δ(13)C analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such highly chlorinated compounds were studied with the LC-IRMS system. This work provides information for method development of LC-IRMS methods for halogenated contaminants that are known as potential threats to public health and the environment.

  4. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  5. Automated Target Planning for FUSE Using the SOVA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Scott; Lanzi, R. James; Civeit, Thomas; Calvani, Humberto; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Suchkov, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The SOVA algorithm was originally developed under the Resilient Systems and Operations Project of the Engineering for Complex Systems Program from NASA s Aerospace Technology Enterprise as a conceptual framework to support real-time autonomous system mission and contingency management. The algorithm and its software implementation were formulated for generic application to autonomous flight vehicle systems, and its efficacy was demonstrated by simulation within the problem domain of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle autonomous flight management. The approach itself is based upon the precept that autonomous decision making for a very complex system can be made tractable by distillation of the system state to a manageable set of strategic objectives (e.g. maintain power margin, maintain mission timeline, and et cetera), which if attended to, will result in a favorable outcome. From any given starting point, the attainability of the end-states resulting from a set of candidate decisions is assessed by propagating a system model forward in time while qualitatively mapping simulated states into margins on strategic objectives using fuzzy inference systems. The expected return value of each candidate decision is evaluated as the product of the assigned value of the end-state with the assessed attainability of the end-state. The candidate decision yielding the highest expected return value is selected for implementation; thus, the approach provides a software framework for intelligent autonomous risk management. The name adopted for the technique incorporates its essential elements: Strategic Objective Valuation and Attainability (SOVA). Maximum value of the approach is realized for systems where human intervention is unavailable in the timeframe within which critical control decisions must be made. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, launched in 1999, has been collecting science data for eight years.[1] At its beginning of life, FUSE had six gyros in two

  6. Light-Driven Amino Acid Uptake in Streptococcus cremoris or Clostridium acetobutylicum Membrane Vesicles Fused with Liposomes Containing Bacterial Reaction Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, Wim; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Molenaar, Douwe; Hellingwerf, K; Konings, Wilhelmus

    Reaction centers of the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris were introduced as proton motive force-generating systems in membrane vesicles of two anaerobic bacteria. Liposomes containing reaction center-light-harvesting complex I pigment protein complexes were fused with membrane

  7. The toxicity of the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride alone and in mixtures with other anionic compounds to bacteria in test systems with Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Kümmerer, K

    2008-10-01

    Mixtures of chemicals are present in the aquatic environment but standard testing methods assess only single compounds. One aspect of this question is the importance of the formation of ionic pairs, for example from quaternary ammonium compounds with organic anions, and the significance of the ionic pairs for bacterial toxicity in the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of the cationic quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against aquatic bacteria in the presence of substances commonly found in wastewater, such as the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS), and benzene sulfonic acid (BSA). The growth inhibition test with Pseudomonas putida and the Vibrio fischeri luminescent inhibition test were used to determine the toxicity of single compounds and compound mixtures. The results found in this study indicate that ion pair formation is of minor significance under the test conditions applied here.

  8. Exploring O-stannyl ketyl and acyl radical cyclizations for the synthesis of γ-lactone-fused benzopyrans and benzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Helen; Casana, Myriam I; Donner, Christopher D

    2014-01-07

    The synthesis of a series of γ-lactone-fused benzopyrans and benzofurans, analogues of the pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics, is reported. Preparation of the heterocycles was achieved by either O-stannyl ketyl or acyl radical cyclization of benzaldehyde precursors followed by oxidation to give the pyrano- and furanobenzoquinone systems. The observed diastereoselectivity during O-stannyl ketyl radical cyclization is influenced by aromatic substitution ortho to the aldehyde, whilst acyl radical cyclization followed by stereoselective reduction of the resulting pyranones provides a complimentary approach to forming the required γ-lactone-fused benzopyran systems.

  9. Design of a Floating-Point Fused Add-Subtract Unit Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Sharma,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A floating-point (FP fused add-subtract unit is presented that performs simultaneous floating-point operation of add-subtract on a common pair of single-precision data at the same time that it takes to perform in a single addition with a conventional floating-point adder. The system was placed and routed in 45nm process so that there will be less consumption of memory as well as power.

  10. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2010-09-17

    N-Annulated perylene fused porphyrins 1 and 2 were synthesized by oxidative dehydrogenation using a Sc(OTf)3/DDQ system. These newly synthesized hybrid molecules are highly soluble in organic solvents and exhibit remarkably intense near-IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Optical receiving system based on a compound parabolic concentrator and a hemispherical lens for visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Lan, Tian; Ni, Guoqiang

    2016-12-20

    We propose a scheme for designing a new optical receiving system that can reduce the received-energy spot size via integration of a compound parabolic concentrator with a hemispherical lens. SolidWorks is used to model the receiving system, while TracePro is employed for simulations. The field of view is set to 30° and the radius of the compound parabolic concentrator outlet is 5 mm, which is also the radius of the hemispherical lens. Ray-tracing results show that under the given simulation conditions, the radius of the spot area is reduced from 5 to 3 mm at the receiving system and the gain is 5.2. In regard to the relations between received power and the radius of the hemispherical lens R, and the received power and the distance d between the compound parabolic concentrator and hemispherical lens, our detailed analysis yields the following characteristics: (1) the received power increases as R increases, but decreases as d increases; (2) as R increases, the spot area increases and the received flux is dispersed over the receiving plane, which dispersion is disadvantageous for high-speed communication; (3) the gain of the receiving system also varies with R and d; (4) an increase in d leads to decrease in the received flux and gain when d>-2  mm. Based on these characteristics, we set R=5  mm and calculate the energy efficiency. We obtain maximum energy efficiencies for different detection areas.

  12. The Total Position Spread in mixed-valence compounds: A study on the H4+ model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; El Khatib, Muammar; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2014-04-15

    The behavior of the Total Position Spread (TPS) tensor, which is the second moment cumulant of the total position operator, is investigated in the case of a mixed-valence model system. The system consists of two H2 molecules placed at a distance D. If D is larger than about 4 bohr, the singly ionized system shows a mixed-valence character. It is shown that the magnitude of the TPS has a strong peak in the region of the avoided crossing. We believe that the TPS can be a powerful tool to characterize the behavior of the electrons in realistic mixed-valence compounds.

  13. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    An experiment developed for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course that can be used to introduce the catalytic hydrogenation reaction, catalysis electrochemical principles and gas chromatography is presented. The organic compounds hydrogenated by the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) process were styrene, benzaldehyde and…

  14. Mechanical analysis of lightweight constructions manufactured with fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagsik, A.; Josupeit, S.; Schoeppner, V.; Klemp, E.

    2014-05-01

    Additive production techniques have the advantage of manufacturing parts without needing a forming tool. One of the most used additive manufacturing processes is "Fused Deposition Modeling" (FDM) which allows the production of prototypes and end-use parts. Due to the manufacture layer by layer, also complex part geometries can be created in one working step. Furthermore, lightweight parts with specific inner core structures can be manufactured in order to achieve good weightrelated strength properties. In this paper the mechanical behavior of lightweight parts manufactured with the 3D production system Fortus 400mc from Stratasys and the material Polyetherimide (PEI) with the trade name Ultem*9085 is analyzed. The test specimens were built up with different inner structures and building directions. Therefore, test specimens with known lightweight core geometries (e.g. corrugated and honeycomb cores) were designed. A four-point bending test was conducted to analyze the strength properties as well as the weight-related strength properties. Additionally the influence of the structure width, the structure wall thickness and the top layer thickness was analyzed using a honeycomb structure.

  15. Explosively formed fuse opening switches for multi-joule applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Anderson, B.G.; Bartram, D.E. [and others

    1995-08-01

    High explosive pulsed power (HEPP) systems are capable of generating very high energies in magnetic fields. Such stored energy is usually developed on time scales of a few tens or hundreds of microseconds. Many applications require shorter pulses and opening switches provide one way to use the large energy available for faster applications. With current flowing in an inductive circuit, introducing resistance produces voltage that can be used to drive current into a load. For an opening switch with a fast rising resistance, the load current rise time is determined by the R/L time constant of the circuit. A significant fraction of the circuit energy must be dissipated in the process, and in applications where very large energies must be dealt with only a few types of switches can be used. Experiments with high explosive driven opening switches have produced a few switches that can carry tens of MA current, and open on the time scale of one or a few {mu}s. {sup 1} We have specialized in a type of switch that we call an explosively formed fuse (EFF) switch at levels of {approximately}3 TW for 2{mu}s has become routine, and we will describe its characteristics and give data from a number of tests.

  16. Fused Lasso Screening Rules via the Monotonicity of Subdifferentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fan, Wei; Ye, Jieping

    2015-09-01

    Fused Lasso is a popular regression technique that encodes the smoothness of the data. It has been applied successfully to many applications with a smooth feature structure. However, the computational cost of the existing solvers for fused Lasso is prohibitive when the feature dimension is extremely large. In this paper, we propose novel screening rules that are able to quickly identity the adjacent features with the same coefficients. As a result, the number of variables to be estimated can be significantly reduced, leading to substantial savings in computational cost and memory usage. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach is the first attempt to develop screening methods for the fused Lasso problem with general data matrix. Our major contributions are: 1) we derive a new dual formulation of fused Lasso that comes with several desirable properties; 2) we show that the new dual formulation of fused Lasso is equivalent to that of the standard Lasso by two affine transformations; 3) we propose a novel framework for developing effective and efficient screening rules for fused Lasso via the monotonicity of the subdifferentials (FLAMS). Some appealing features of FLAMS are: 1) our methods are safe in the sense that the detected adjacent features are guaranteed to have the same coefficients; 2) the dataset needs to be scanned only once to run the screening, whose computational cost is negligible compared to that of solving the fused Lasso; (3) FLAMS is independent of the solvers and can be integrated with any existing solvers. We have evaluated the proposed FLAMS rules on both synthetic and real datasets. The experiments indicate that FLAMS is very effective in identifying the adjacent features with the same coefficients. The speedup gained by FLAMS can be orders of magnitude.

  17. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  18. Fusing porphyrins with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Diev, Viacheslav; Hanson, Kenneth; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2015-08-18

    A compound that can be used as a donor material in organic photovoltaic devices comprising a non-activated porphyrin fused with one or more non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or one or more non-activated heterocyclic rings can be obtained by a thermal fusion process. The compounds can include structures of Formula I: ##STR00001## By heating the reaction mixture of non-activated porphyrins with non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or heterocyclic rings to a fusion temperature and holding for a predetermined time, fusion of one or more polycyclic rings or heterocyclic rings to the non-activated porphyrin core in meso,.beta. fashion is achieved resulting in hybrid structures containing a distorted porphyrin ring with annulated aromatic rings. The porphyrin core can be olygoporphyrins.

  19. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... to be fired, electric initiation systems, igniter cord and connectors, or other nonelectric initiation systems shall be used. Extraneous Electricity—Surface and Underground ...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12037 - Fuses in high-potential circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuses in high-potential circuits. 56.12037... § 56.12037 Fuses in high-potential circuits. Fuse tongs or hot line tools shall be used when fuses are removed or replaced in high-potential circuits....

  1. 30 CFR 57.12037 - Fuses in high-potential circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuses in high-potential circuits. 57.12037... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12037 Fuses in high-potential circuits. Fuse tongs or hotline tools, shall be used when fuses are removed or replaced in high-potential circuits....

  2. Novel stable compounds in the Mg-Si-O system under exoplanet pressures and their implications in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiyang; Oganov, Artem; Chen, Xingqiu; Li, Dianzhong

    The Mg-Si-O system is the major Earth and rocky planet-forming system. Here, through quantum variable-composition evolutionary structure explorations, we have discovered several unexpected stable binary and ternary compounds in the Mg-Si-O system. Besides the well-known SiO2 phases, we have found two extraordinary silicon oxides, SiO3 and SiO, which become stable at pressures above 0.51 TPa and 1.89 TPa, respectively. In the Mg-O system, we have found one new compound, MgO3, which becomes stable at 0.89 TPa. We find that not only the (MgO)x.(SiO2) y compounds, but also two (MgO3)x .(SiO3)y compounds, MgSi3O12 and MgSiO6, have stability fields above 2.41 TPa and 2.95 TPa, respectively. The highly oxidized MgSi3O12 can form in deep mantles of mega-Earths with masses above 20 M⊕ (M⊕:Earth's mass). Furthermore, the dissociation pathways of pPv-MgSiO3 are also clarified, and found to be different at low and high temperatures. The low-temperature pathway is MgSiO3 ==> Mg2SiO4 + MgSi2O5 ==> SiO2 + Mg2SiO4 ==> MgO + SiO2, while the high-temperature pathway is MgSiO3 ==> Mg2SiO4+ MgSi2O5 ==> MgO + MgSi2O5 ==> MgO + SiO2. Present results are relevant for models of the internal structure of giant exoplanets, and for understanding the high-pressure behavior of materials.

  3. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Xiaona; Li, Hua; Wang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-01-14

    Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)=O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.

  4. Simultaneous Activation of Iron- and Thiol-Based Sensor-Regulator Systems by Redox-Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Lok; Yoo, Ji-Sun; Oh, Gyeong-Seok; Singh, Atul K.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria in natural habitats are exposed to myriad redox-active compounds (RACs), which include producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophile species (RES) that alkylate or oxidize thiols. RACs can induce oxidative stress in cells and activate response pathways by modulating the activity of sensitive regulators. However, the effect of a certain compound on the cell has been investigated primarily with respect to a specific regulatory pathway. Since a single compound can exert multiple chemical effects in the cell, its effect can be better understood by time-course monitoring of multiple sensitive regulatory pathways that the compound induces. We investigated the effect of representative RACs by monitoring the activity of three sensor-regulators in the model actinobacterium Streptomyces coelicolor; SoxR that senses reactive compounds directly through oxidation of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, CatR/PerR that senses peroxides through bound iron, and an anti-sigma factor RsrA that senses RES via disulfide formation. The time course and magnitude of induction of their target transcripts were monitored to predict the chemical activities of each compound in S. coelicolor. Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) was found to be an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR and an effective ROS-producer that induced CatR/PerR with little thiol-perturbing activity. p-Benzoquinone was an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR, with slower ROS-producing activity, and an effective RES that induced the RsrA-SigR system. Plumbagin was an effective RAC that activated SoxR, an effective ROS-producer, and a less agile but effective RES. Diamide was an RES that effectively formed disulfides and a weak RAC that activated SoxR. Monobromobimane was a moderately effective RES and a slow producer of ROS. Interestingly, benzoquinone induced the SigR system by forming adducts on cysteine thiols in RsrA, revealing a new pathway to modulate RsrA activity. Overall, this study showed

  5. Analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds using a cold inlet system and electron impact mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproß, Jens

    2014-09-05

    This video presents a protocol for the mass spectrometrical analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds using electron impact ionization. The analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds by mass spectrometry is not easily achieved, as all state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods require at least one sample preparation step, e.g., dissolution and dilution of the analyte (electrospray ionization), co-crystallization of the analyte with a matrix compound (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), or transfer of the prepared samples into the ionization source of the mass spectrometer, to be conducted under atmospheric conditions. Here, the use of a sample inlet system is described which enables the analysis of volatile metal organyls, silanes, and phosphanes using a sector field mass spectrometer equipped with an electron impact ionization source. All sample preparation steps and the sample introduction into the ion source of the mass spectrometer take place either under air-free conditions or under vacuum, enabling the analysis of compounds highly susceptible to oxidation. The presented technique is especially of interest for inorganic chemists, working with metal organyls, silanes, or phosphanes, which have to be handled using inert conditions, such as the Schlenk technique. The principle of operation is presented in this video.

  6. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTIC PARTS PRODUCED BY A FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Beniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Prototyping systems are nowadays increasingly used in many areas of industry, not only for producing design models but also for producing parts for final use. We need to know the properties of these parts. When we talk about the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and FDM devices, there are many possible settings for devices and models which could influence the properties of a final part. In addition, devices based on the same principle may use different operational software for calculating the tool path, and this may have a major impact. The aim of this paper is to show the tensile strength value for parts produced from different materials on the Fused Deposition Modeling device when the horizontal orientation of the specimens is changed.

  8. Experimental study of nonlinear switching characteristics of conventional 2 × 2 fused tapered couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Liu; Qing Ye; Aiping Luo; Jianrong Qiu; Congshan Zhu; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear switching characteristics of fused fiber directional couplers were studied experimentally. By using femtosecond laser pulses with pulse width of 100 fs and wavelength of about 1550 nm from a system of Ti:sapphire laser and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), the nonlinear switching properties of a null coupler and a 100% coupler were measured. The experimental results were coincident with the simulations based on nonlinear propagation equations in fiber by using super-mode theory. Nonlinear loss in fiber was also measured to get the injected power at the coupler. After deducting the nonlinear loss and input efficiency, the nonlinear switching critical peak powers for a 100% and a null fused couplers were calculated to be 9410 and 9440 W, respectively. The nonlinear loss parameter PN in an expression of αNL = αP/PN was obtained to be PN = 0.23 W.

  9. Toxicity detection using lysosomal enzymes, glycoamylase and thioredoxin fused with fluorescent protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Tu; Shin, Hwa-Yoon; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2015-11-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the simplest and a favorite eukaryotic system that contains lysosome and thus, is a suitable organism for monitoring some toxic effects in environmental pollution. In this study, S. cerevisiae was transformed with two recombinant plasmids. Sporulation-specific glycoamylase (SGA1), which was upregulated in response to arsenic, was fused with the blue fluorescent protein (BFP) for the construction of an oxidative stress-causing chemicals sensor. Additionally, thioredoxin (TRX2), a protein overexpressed exclusively under tetracycline's influence, fused with the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to create a detector for this kind of chemical. In summary, we developed two recombinant S. cerevisiae that facilitate the detection of both kinds of toxic chemicals, specifically visualized by different color indicators.

  10. An expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die for use in stamping industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SACHIN SALUNKHE; DEEPAK PANGHAL; SHAILENDRA KUMAR; H M A HUSSEIN

    2016-08-01

    Process planning of sheet metal part is an important activity in the design of compound die. Traditional methods of carrying out this task are manual, tedious, time-consuming, error-prone and experiencebased. This paper describes the research work involved in the development of an expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die. The proposed system is organized in six modules. For development of system modules, domain knowledge acquired from various sources of knowledge acquisition is refined and then framed in form of ‘IF-Then’ variety of production rules. System modules are coded in AutoLISP language and user interface is created using visual basic (VB). The system is capable to automate various activities of process planning including blank modeling, blank nesting, determining punch force required, election of clearance between punch and die, identifying sheet metal operations, and determining proper sequence of operations for manufacturing the part. The proposed system can be implemented on a PC having VB and AutoCAD software, therefore its low cost of implementation makes it affordable even for small scale sheet metal industries.

  11. On Fusing Recursive Traversals of K-d Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; Kim, Jinsung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Pouchet, Louis-Noel; Rastello, Fabrice; Harrison, Robert J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2016-03-17

    Loop fusion is a key program transformation for data locality optimization that is implemented in production compilers. But optimizing compilers currently cannot exploit fusion opportunities across a set of recursive tree traversal computations with producer-consumer relationships. In this paper, we develop a compile-time approach to dependence characterization and program transformation to enable fusion across recursively specified traversals over k-ary trees. We present the FuseT source-to-source code transformation framework to automatically generate fused composite recursive operators from an input program containing a sequence of primitive recursive operators. We use our framework to implement fused operators for MADNESS, Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation. We show that locality optimization through fusion can offer more than an order of magnitude performance improvement.

  12. BEHAVIOUR OF SOME ISOLATED AND CONJUGATED UNSATURATED COMPOUNDS, ARENES AND AROMATIC HETEROCYCLES IN A Ni-Al/NaOH REDUCING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Suceveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of some experiments in which substrates representing various unsaturated and aromatic systems were tested in reduction reactions with Ni-Al alloy in aqueous NaOH and we highlight the relationships between the structure and the reactivity of the investigated compounds. We have found that unsaturated compounds containing isolated double bonds carbon-carbon and polynuclear condensed ring aromatics present an advanced inertness to the reduction process by the aluminum component of the Ni-Al/NaOH system. Unlike them, unsaturated compounds with C=C conjugated bonds are very reactive to the Ni-Al/NaOH system, 1,4 reduction processes being facilitated, behaviour attributed to the polar nature of the conjugated systems. The heterocyclic compounds have a higher reactivity than their homologues carbocyclic compounds.

  13. 一种基于多标定体融合的超宽带虚拟孔径雷达系统校正方法%A Calibration Method Based on Fusing Multiple Calibrators for Ultra Wide Band Virtual Aperture Radar System Using Stepped Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏宇; 周智敏; 宋千; 金添

    2011-01-01

    系统校正技术是影响超宽带(Ultra Wide Band,UWB)虚拟孔径雷达(Virtual Aperture Radar,VAR)对浅埋弱小目标穿地探测效果的重要因素,系统的超宽带特性及多通道不一致性使得常规高频窄带雷达基于单一标定体的校正方法不再适用,该文在对系统误差、标定体及地雷电磁特性分析的基础上,提出了多标定体-分频段融合的多通道校正方法,利用多个标定体对不同频段分别校正,该方法有效地校正了系统误差,提高了成像质量,实测数据验证了方法的有效性.%The system calibration is very important for the Ultra Wide Band-Virtual Aperture Radar (UWB-VAR) which could penetrate ground to detect the flush buried targets with weak scattering. The usual system calibration method used in narrow band radar with high frequency is based on one single calibration object, which can not be applied to the UWB-VAR system any more for its ultra bandwidth and inconsistentness among different channels. In this paper after analyzing the system errors and the electromagnetism of both calibration objects and landmines a new method basing on fusing multiple calibrators and multiband is introduced. This new method could not only calibrate the system errors efficiently, but also enhance the performance of imaging. Finally it is proved to be effective by the real data.

  14. Detoxification of phytotoxic compounds by TiO2 photocatalysis in a recycling hydroponic cultivation system of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Kayano; Ding, Xin Geng; Utami, Melia Sandya; Kawashima, Yoko; Miyama, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2008-06-25

    TiO 2 photocatalytic decomposition and detoxification of phytotoxic compounds released by the roots of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated from the viewpoint of conservation-oriented cultivation. The phytotoxically active fraction was extracted either from dried asparagus roots or from the recycled nutrient solution of an asparagus hydroponic cultivation system. We found that the phytotoxic activity gradually decreased in the fraction with TiO 2 powder under irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light at an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2). The growth of asparagus plants under actual cultivation conditions was also investigated by comparing asparagus grown in a hydroponic system where recycled waste nutrient solution was photocatalytically treated with solar light and a system with untreated recycled waste nutrient solution. The results showed, as measured by growth indices such as stem length and stem thickness, that asparagus growth in the photocatalytically treated system was superior to the untreated one. Furthermore, the yield of asparagus spears was 1.6-fold greater in the photocatalytically treated system, demonstrating the detoxification effect on the phytotoxic compounds and also the killing effect on pathogenic microorganisms.

  15. An improved, automated whole air sampler and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis system for volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Goldan, Paul D.; Graus, Martin; Hendershot, Roger; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel A.; Koss, Abigail; Kuster, William C.; Lueb, Richard A.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Peischl, Jeff; Sueper, Donna; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Tokarek, Travis W.; Warneke, Carsten; Yuan, Bin; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds were quantified during two aircraft-based field campaigns using highly automated, whole air samplers with expedited post-flight analysis via a new custom-built, field-deployable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument. During flight, air samples were pressurized with a stainless steel bellows compressor into electropolished stainless steel canisters. The air samples were analyzed using a novel gas chromatograph system designed specifically for field use which eliminates the need for liquid nitrogen. Instead, a Stirling cooler is used for cryogenic sample pre-concentration at temperatures as low as -165 °C. The analysis system was fully automated on a 20 min cycle to allow for unattended processing of an entire flight of 72 sample canisters within 30 h, thereby reducing typical sample residence times in the canisters to less than 3 days. The new analytical system is capable of quantifying a wide suite of C2 to C10 organic compounds at part-per-trillion sensitivity. This paper describes the sampling and analysis systems, along with the data analysis procedures which include a new peak-fitting software package for rapid chromatographic data reduction. Instrument sensitivities, uncertainties and system artifacts are presented for 35 trace gas species in canister samples. Comparisons of reported mixing ratios from each field campaign with measurements from other instruments are also presented.

  16. Dual-acting compounds targeting endocannabinoid and endovanilloid systems — a novel treatment option for chronic pain management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared with acute pain that arises suddenly in response to a specific injury and is usually treatable, chronic pain persists over time and is often resistant to medical treatment. Because of the heterogeneity of chronic pain origins, satisfactory therapies for its treatment are lacking, leading to an urgent need for the development of new treatments. The leading approach in drug design is selective compounds, though they are often less effective and require chronic dosing with many side effects. Herein, we review novel approaches to drug design for the treatment of chronic pain represented by dual-acting compounds, which operate at more than one biological target. A number of studies suggest the involvement of the cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors in pain. Interestingly cannabinoid system is in interrelation with other systems that comprise lipid mediators: prostaglandins, produced by COX enzyme. Therefore, in the present review, we summarize the role of dual-acting molecules (FAAH/TRPV1 and FAAH/COX-2 inhibitors that interact with endocannabinoid and endovanillinoid systems and act as analgesics by elevating the endogenously produced endocannabinoids and dampening the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. The plasticity of the endocannabinoid system and the ability of a single chemical entity to exert an activity on two receptor systems has been developed and extensively investigated. Here, we review up-to-date pharmacological studies on compounds interacting with FAAH enzyme together with TRPV1 receptor or COX-2 enzyme respectively. Multi-target pharmacological intervention for treating pain may lead to the development of original and efficient treatments.

  17. Bonding energy of Sylgard on fused quartz: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.

    2015-02-01

    The bonding energy between the polymer Sylgard and fused quartz is determined experimentally using a miniature bulge test combined with three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Based on the experimental observation, Mindlin plate theory is used to compute the bonding energy (adhesive energy or surface energy) between the Sylgard and the fused quartz. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of the miniature bulge test and the 3D-DIC provides a viable tool to directly measure interfacial and bonding properties.

  18. Iatrogenic mid-root perforation of fused teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is defined as a union between the dentin and/or enamel of two or more distinct dental sprouts that occurs at any stage of the dental organ. Its prevalence ranges from 0.5%-2.5% in the primary dentition alone and 0.1%-1% of the primary as well as the permanent dentition. These fused teeth can cause various problems such as caries, periodontal disease, abnormal eruption, impaction or an ectopic eruption of an adjacent tooth and reported in the literature. However this paper documented an unusual case of iatrogenic root perforation of fused permanent lower anterior teeth during inter maxillary fixation.

  19. Application of a Pyroprobe-Deuterium NMR System: Deuterium Tracing and Mechanistic Study of Upgrading Process for Lignin Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Haoxi; Jarvis, Mark W.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Foust, Thomas D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Biddy, Mary J.

    2016-04-21

    In this study, a pyroprobe-deuterium (2H) NMR system has been used to identify isotopomer products formed during the deuteration and ring opening of lignin model compounds. Several common model compounds for lignin and its upgraded products, including guaiacol, syringol, toluene, p-xylene, phenol, catechol, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and methylcyclopentane, have been examined for selective ring opening. Similar pathways for upgrading of toluene and p-xylene has been found, which will undergo hydrogenation, methyl group elimination, and ring opening process, and benzene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been found as major intermediates before ring opening. Very interestingly, the 2H NMR analysis for the deuterium-traced ring opening of catechol on Ir/..gamma..-Al2O3 is almost identical to the ring opening process for phenol. The ring opening processes for guaiacol and syringol appeared to be very complicated, as expected. Benzene, phenol, toluene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been determined to be the major products.

  20. TbNb6Sn6: the first ternary compound from the rare earth–niobium–tin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hlukhyy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, terbium hexaniobium hexastannide, TbNb6Sn6, is the first ternary compound from the rare earth–niobium–tin system. It has the HfFe6Ge6 structure type, which can be analysed as an intergrowth of the Zr4Al3 and CaCu5 structures. All the atoms lie on special positions; their coordination geometries and site symmetries are: Tb (dodecahedron 6/mmm; Nb (distorted icosahedron 2mm; Sn (Frank–Caspar polyhedron, CN = 14–15 6mm and overline{6}m2; Sn (distorted icosahedron overline{6}m2. The structure contains a graphite-type Sn network, Kagome nets of Nb atoms, and Tb atoms alternating with Sn2 dumbbells in the channels.

  1. Synthesis of Hydrotalcite-like Compound Pillared by Hetero-polyacid Anions in a Hydrothermal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hetero-polyacid anions (PW12O403-)-pillared hydrotalcite-like compound is directly and hydrothermally synthesized by the hot solution method. FTIR and XRD show that PW12O403- has been incorporated into the interstitial space with the dimension of 0.917 nm. The state of PW12O403- anion between the hydrotalcite sheets was also discussed. The title product can be expressed by formula [Zn0.68Al0.32(OH)2][PW12O40] 0. 113H2O after a serious study of TGA and chemical analysis.

  2. Microwave tomography of extremities: 2. Functional fused imaging of flow reduction and simulated compartment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Serguei; Nair, Bindu [School of Medicine, ISTM, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom); Kellam, James; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael [Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Sizov, Yuri [TRINITI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nazarov, Alexei [INTEGRIT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pavlovsky, Andrey, E-mail: s.semenov@pmed.keele.ac.uk [DIGIMEQ, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-07

    Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) microwave tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three dimensional (3D) in the spatial domain plus one dimensional (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short-term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using a dedicated MWT system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging.

  3. Dynamic behavior of aero-engine rotor with fusing design suffering blade off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan blade off (FBO from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, which will lead to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic behavior. The paper first presents a theoretical study on the response excited by sudden unbalance. The results reveal that the reaction force of the bearing located near the fan could always reach a very high value which may lead to the crush of ball, journal sticking, high stress on the other components and some other failures to endanger the safety of engine in FBO event. Therefore, the dynamic influence of a safety design named “fusing” is investigated by mechanism analysis. Meantime, an explicit FBO model is established to simulate the FBO event, and evaluate the effectiveness and potential dynamic influence of fusing design. The results show that the fusing design could reduce the vibration amplitude of rotor, the reaction force on most bearings and loads on mounts, but the sudden change of support stiffness induced by fusing could produce an impact effect which will couple with the influence of sudden unbalance. Therefore, the implementation of the design should be considered carefully with optimized parameters in actual aero-engine.

  4. Microwave tomography of extremities: 2. Functional fused imaging of flow reduction and simulated compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Nair, Bindu; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Pavlovsky, Andrey

    2011-04-01

    Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) microwave tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three dimensional (3D) in the spatial domain plus one dimensional (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short-term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using a dedicated MWT system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging.

  5. Single-Molecule Imaging of DNAs with Sticky Ends at Water/Fused Silica Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isailovic, Slavica [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) was used to study intermolecular interactions of DNAs with unpaired (sticky) ends of different lengths at water/fused silica interface at the single-molecule level. Evanescent field residence time, linear velocity and adsorption/desorption frequency were measured in a microchannel for individual DNA molecules from T7, Lambda, and PSP3 phages at various pH values. The longest residence times and the highest adsorption/desorption frequencies at the constant flow at pH 5.5 were found for PSP3 DNA, followed by lower values for Lambda DNA, and the lowest values for T7 DNA. Since T7, Lambda, and PSP3 DNA molecules contain none, twelve and nineteen unpaired bases, respectively, it was concluded that the affinity of DNAs for the surface increases with the length of the sticky ends. This confirms that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between sticky ends and fused-silica surface are driving forces for DNA adsorption at the fused-silica surface. Described single-molecule methodology and results therein can be valuable for investigation of interactions in liquid chromatography, as well as for design of DNA hybridization sensors and drug delivery systems.

  6. The Multidisciplinary Management of Fused Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a Supernumerary Tooth in Cleft Lip Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yagci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options.

  7. Coupling semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere: a quantum-dot microcavity with extremely high Q factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Palinginis, P; Lacey, S; Wang, H; Lonergan, M C

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate a quantum-dot microcavity by coupling core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere. We show that the composite microcavity can feature Q factors of the order of 10(8), providing a model system for investigating cavity QED and microlasers at the level of single quantum dots.

  8. Comparative evaluation of the intermediate systems employed in two-stage refrigeration cycles driven by compound compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, R.; Llopis, R.; Sanchez, D. [Jaume I University, Dep. of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Torrella, E. [Polytechnic University of Valencia, Dep. of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    This work presents an experimental evaluation, from an energy analysis point of view, for two of the most used inter-stage systems in two-stage vapour compression cycles driven by compound compressors: the direct liquid injection and subcooler systems. The evaluation considers the two-stage cycle with no intermediate systems as reference cycle, and was performed on a plant driven by a compound compressor using the refrigerant R404A for an evaporating temperature range of -36 to -20 C and for a condensing temperature range of 30-47 C. The analysis of the results shows that the inter-stage systems determine the performance of the energy parameters, which are discussed in the paper. The configuration yielding the best results was the two-stage compression cycle with subcooler, since the cooling capacity and COP values for this configuration were the highest. Conversely, the two-stage compression cycle working with direct liquid injection showed lower performance from an energy point of view, though this configuration allows a substantial reduction of the discharge temperature. (author)

  9. Fusing recommendations for social bookmarking web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, T.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Social bookmarking Web sites are rapidly growing in popularity. Recommender systems, a promising remedy to the information overload accompanying the explosive growth in content, are designed to identify which unseen content might be of interest to a particular user, based on his or her past preferen

  10. The Advanced Virgo monolithic fused silica suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisa, D.; Aisa, S.; Campeggi, C.; Colombini, M. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Conte, A. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Farnesini, L. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Majorana, E.; Mezzani, F. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Montani, M. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Naticchioni, L.; Perciballi, M. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Piergiovanni, F. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Piluso, A. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Puppo, P., E-mail: paola.puppo@roma1.infn.it [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Rapagnani, P. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Travasso, F. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Vicerè, A. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Vocca, H. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The detection of gravitational waves is one of the most challenging prospects faced by experimental physicists. Suspension thermal noise is an important noise source at operating frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 Hz, and represents a limit to the sensitivity of the ground based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Its effects can be reduced by minimizing the losses and by optimizing the geometry of the suspension fiber as well as its attachment system. In this proceeding we will describe the mirrors double stage monolithic suspension system to be used in the Advanced Virgo (AdV) detector. We also present the results of the thermal noise study, performed with the help of a finite elements model, taking into account the precise geometry of the fibers attachment systems on the suspension elements. We shall demonstrate the suitability of this suspension for installation in AdV. - Highlights: • Suspension system design for the test masses of the gravitational wave detectors. • Finite element model studies. • Suspension thermal noise studies.

  11. Cluster Fusion: Face-Fused Nine-Atom Deltahedral Clusters in [Sn14 Ni(CO)](4.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Luis G; Sevov, Slavi C

    2016-06-01

    The title anion was synthesized by heating dimethylformamide (DMF) solution of the known Ni-centered and Ni(CO)-capped tin clusters [Ni@Sn9 Ni(CO)](3-) . The new anion represents the first example of face-fused nine-atom molecular clusters. The two clusters are identical elongated tricapped trigonal prisms of nido-[Sn8 Ni(CO)](6-) with nickel at one of the capping positions. They are fused along a triangular face adjacent to a trigonal prismatic base and made of two Sn and one Ni atoms. The new anion is structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the compound (K[222-crypt])4 [Sn14 Ni(CO)]⋅DMF. Its presence in solution is corroborated by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electropolymerization of Extended Fused-Ring Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-Based Terthienyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L. Konkol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, and electropolymerization of a series of extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls are reported. The target terthienyls contain a central extended thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogue containing 2-thienyl units at the reactive α-positions of the central thiophene. The extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogues studied include acenaphtho[1,2-b]thieno[3,4-e]pyrazine, dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b]quinoxaline, and thieno[3′,4′:5,6]-pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. Comparison of the electrochemical and photophysical properties to simple thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls and their polymeric analogues are reported in order to provide structure-function relationships within this series of compounds and materials.

  13. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  14. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. PMID:28231092

  15. Neurotoxic Effects of Platinum Compounds: Studies in vivo on Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in the Immature Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Bernocchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Platinum compounds cause significant clinical neurotoxicity. Several studies highlight neurological complications especially in paediatric oncology patients with Central Nervous System (CNS and non-CNS malignancies. To understand the toxicity mechanisms of platinum drugs at cellular and molecular levels in the immature brain, which appears more vulnerable to injury than in the adult one, we compared the effects in vivo of the most used platinum compounds, i.e., cisdichlorodiammineplatinum (cisplatin, cisPt, and the new [Pt(O,O′-acac(γ-acac(DMS] (PtAcacDMS. As models of developing brain areas, we have chosen the cerebellum and hippocampus dentate gyrus. Both areas show the neurogenesis events, from proliferation to differentiation and synaptogenesis, and therefore allow comparing the action of platinum compounds with DNA and non-DNA targets. Here, we focused on the changes in the intracellular calcium homeostasis within CNS architecture, using two immunohistochemical markers, the calcium buffer protein Calbindin and Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase. From the comparison of the cisPt and PtAcacDMS effects, it emerges how essential the equilibrium and synergy between CB and PMCA1 is or how important the presence of at least one of them is to warrant the morphology and function of nervous tissue and limit neuroarchitecture damages, depending on the peculiar and intrinsic properties of the developing CNS areas.

  16. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  17. Crossed fused renal ectopia: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation, which is reported to be usually asymptomatic but may have varied presentations. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and the challenges posed in the management of this entity. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 6 patients diagnosed to have crossed fused renal ectopia during 1997-2010. The diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in one patient. In one patient it was detected on antenatal ultrasonography and in the other 4 patients it was detected during investigations for abdominal pain, abdominal mass, anorectal malformation and urinary tract infection. Results: The left moiety was crossed and fused with the right moiety in 4 cases. Ultrasonography was found to be a good screening investigation with useful diagnostic contributions from CT scans, radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance urography. Micturating cystourethrography revealed presence of VUR in 4 cases, 3 of whom have undergone ureteric reimplantation. Two patients required pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction; in one of these patients the upper ureter was entrapped in the isthmus. In one patient, a non-functioning moiety resulted in nephrectomy. All children were asymptomatic at last follow-up with stable renal functions. Conclusions: Crossed fused renal ectopia was detected in most patients during investigation for other problems. It was found more commonly in boys. The left moiety was crossed to the right in the majority of cases. Associated urological problems were found in most cases and required the appropriate surgical management.

  18. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  19. Solid-state recoverable fuse functions as circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Molded, conductive-epoxy recoverable fuse protects electronic circuits during overload conditions, and then permits them to continue to function immediately after the overload condition is removed. It has low resistance at ambient temperature, and high resistance at an elevated temperature.

  20. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouran Samimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8 and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10 and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well.

  1. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Pouran; Shirban, Mohammad-Reza; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8) and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10) and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well.

  2. New developments in fused deposition modeling of ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Shor, L.; Guceri, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To shift from rapid prototyping (RP) to agile fabrication by broadening the material selection, e.g. using ceramics, hence improving the properties (e.g. mechanical properties) of fused deposition modeling (FDM) products. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents the development...

  3. Influence of S-Oxidation on Cytotoxic Activity of Oxathiole-Fused Chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, Marek T; Buɬakowska, Anita; Pirska, Danuta; Konieczny, Wojciech; Skladanowski, Andrzej; Sabisz, Michal; Wojciechowski, Marek; Lemke, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis, in vitro cytotoxic activity, and interaction with tubulin of oxidized, isomeric 1-(5-alkoxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-6-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones and 1-(6-alkoxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-5-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones are described. Most of the compounds demonstrated cytotoxic activity at submicromolar concentrations. It was found that oxidation of sulfur atom of the oxathiole-fused chalcones strongly influenced activity of the parent compounds, and that depending on relative position of the sulfur atom in the molecule, the activity was either increased or diminished. For isomers with sulfur atom para to the chalcone carbonyl group, oxidation led to increase in activity, while for isomers with sulfur atom meta to the carbonyl the activity dropped down. It was demonstrated that the compounds interact with tubulin at the colchicine binding site, and the interaction was evaluated using molecular modeling. It was concluded that the observed profound influence of oxidation of the sulfur atom on cytotoxic activity cannot be solely related to interaction of the compounds with tubulin.

  4. Nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds in the Ni–Al–Cr system synthesized by mechanical alloying and their thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirani Bidabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Enayati, M.H.; Dastanpoor, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varin, R.A., E-mail: ravarin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Biglari, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Nanocrystalline NiAl is formed by mechanical alloying of Ni{sub 50}Al{sub 50} powder. •Nanocrystalline (Ni, Cr)Al is formed by mechanical alloying of Ni{sub 25}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 50} powder. •Nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al and Cr exist after mechanical alloying of Ni{sub 50}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} powder. •Upon annealing Ni{sub 3}Al and Cr are transformed into (Ni, Cr){sub 3}Al. •Formation of intermetallic compounds is in accord with the Miedema model. -- Abstract: Mechanical alloying (MA) of the ternary Ni–Al–Cr mixtures having the Ni{sub 50}Al{sub 50}, Ni{sub 25}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 50} and Ni{sub 50}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} compositions was investigated. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that for all three compositions the gradual interdiffusion of elements during MA leads to the development of different phases. The final structures for the Ni{sub 50}Al{sub 50} and Ni{sub 25}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 50} compositions are nanocrystalline NiAl and (Ni, Cr)Al intermetallic compounds, respectively. However MA of the Ni{sub 50}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} composition led to the formation of a Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic compound as well as Cr which transformed to the (Ni, Cr){sub 3}Al intermetallic compound after subsequent heat treatment. The structural transition upon annealing was investigated. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis using the Miedema model for all three systems is carried out and discussed in detail.

  5. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined adsorption and degradation of the off-flavor compound 2-methylisoborneol in sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaria, Snir; Nir, Shlomo; van Rijn, Jaap

    2017-02-01

    Off-flavor in fish poses a serious threat for the aquaculture industry. In the present study, removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), an off-flavor causing compound, was found to be mediated by adsorption and bacterial degradation in sludge derived from an aquaculture system. A numerical model was developed which augmented Langmuir equations of kinetics of adsorption/desorption of MIB with first order degradation kinetics. When laboratory-scale reactors, containing sludge from the aquaculture system, were operated in a recirculating mode, MIB in solution was depleted to undetectable levels within 6 days in reactors with untreated sludge, while its depletion was incomplete in reactors with sterilized sludge. When operated in an open flow mode, removal of MIB was significantly faster in reactors with untreated sludge. Efficient MIB removal was evident under various conditions, including ambient MIB levels, flow velocities and sludge loads. When operated in an open flow mode, the model successfully predicted steady MIB removal rates with time. During steady state conditions, most of the MIB removal was found to be due to microbial degradation of the adsorbed MIB. Findings obtained in this study can be used in the design of reactors for removal of off-flavor compounds from recirculating aquaculture systems.

  7. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaider, Laurel A., E-mail: schaider@silentspring.org; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. - Highlights: • We tested 20 domestic drinking water wells for 117 organic wastewater compounds. • PFASs, pharmaceuticals, and an artificial sweetener were most frequently detected. • Nitrate, boron, and well depth were all correlated with PFASs and pharmaceuticals. • Acesulfame

  8. Gibbs energies of formation of the intermetallic compounds of U-Sn system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanaik, Ashit K.; Kandan, R. [Fuel Chemistry Group, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Nagarajan, K., E-mail: knag@igcar.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Group, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Fuel Chemistry Group, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs energies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, USn{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2} and USn were determined by using high temperature molten salt galvanic cell electromotive force method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Gibbs energies of formation of USn{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2} and USn with respect to {alpha}-U and liquid Sn, in the temperature range 682-905 K were determined to be -172.8 + 0.061 T, -527.8 + 0.200 T, -174.9 + 0.073 T and -176.9 + 0.064 T kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs energy formation of the U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2} and USn are being reported for the first time. - Abstract: Gibbs energies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, USn{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2}, and USn were determined by using high temperature molten salt galvanic cells: U(s)//UCl{sub 3} in LiCl-KCl (eutectic)//U-Sn alloy, where pure uranium was used as one of the electrodes and a two phase alloy of uranium and tin as the other. The two phase alloys used in cells I, II, III and IV as the electrodes were Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket USn{sub 3} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket + {l_brace}Sn{r_brace}, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7} + USn{sub 3} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket USn{sub 2} + U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket USn + USn{sub 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , respectively. The Gibbs energies of formation ({Delta}{sub f}G{sup 0}) of USn{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2} and USn with respect to {alpha}-U and liquid Sn, in the temperature range 682-905 K, were determined to be given by (table) The Gibbs energy of formation for U{sub 3}Sn{sub 7}, USn{sub 2} and USn have been obtained for the first time.

  9. Risk Assessment System for New Chemical Substances: Implementation of atmospheric transport of organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet C; de Leeuw FAAM

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of a risk assessment system for new chemical substances, estimation methods concerning exposure of man and environment through air have been investigated. The pathways through which exposure through air takes place in this risk assessment system are exposure

  10. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  11. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  12. Stabilization of coacervate systems by products of abiogenic oxidation of low-molecular-weight compounds using the energy of. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evreinova, T.N.; Kuzin, A.M.; Kryukova, L.M.; Kameneva, T.G.; Khrust, Yu.R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of stabilization of protein-carbohydrate and protein-nucleic acid systems by products of the abiogenic oxidation of pyrocatechol, pyrogallol, and o-dianisidine using the energy of gamma radiation. The protein-nucleic acid system was produced by mixing the following reagents: histone, DNA, acetate buffer, and a solution of oxidized compounds. The protein-carbohydrate system was produced by mixing the following reagents: histone, gum arabic, acetate buffer, and a solution of oxidized compounds. Results indicated that the stabilization of coacervate systems occurs when stabilizing low-molecular-weight compounds of the type of quinones and the imino form of o-dianisidine are included in them. These compounds may be formed under the action of physical factors without the participation of enzymes. (HLW)

  13. A Green and Facile Solid-state Synthesis Method for the Preparation of Diazenecarboxamide Azo Compounds with Potassium Ferricyanide and Sodium Hydroxide System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xin XUE; Jian Ping LI; Yu Lu WANG

    2004-01-01

    Eleven new-typed azo compounds were synthesized in good yields by dehydrogenating the corresponding aryl substituted semicarbazides using potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide system under solid-state conditions.

  14. Yeast as a model system to study metabolic impact of selenium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Herrero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic Se forms such as selenate or selenite (the two more abundant forms in nature can be toxic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, which constitute an adequate model to study such toxicity at the molecular level and the functions participating in protection against Se compounds. Those Se forms enter the yeast cell through other oxyanion transporters. Once inside the cell, inorganic Se forms may be converted into selenide through a reductive pathway that in physiological conditions involves reduced glutathione with its consequent oxidation into diglutathione and alteration of the cellular redox buffering capacity. Selenide can subsequently be converted by molecular oxygen into elemental Se, with production of superoxide anions and other reactive oxygen species. Overall, these events result in DNA damage and dose-dependent reversible or irreversible protein oxidation, although additional oxidation of other cellular macromolecules cannot be discarded. Stress-adaptation pathways are essential for efficient Se detoxification, while activation of DNA damage checkpoint and repair pathways protects against Se-mediated genotoxicity. We propose that yeast may be used to improve our knowledge on the impact of Se on metal homeostasis, the identification of Se-targets at the DNA and protein levels, and to gain more insights into the mechanism of Se-mediated apoptosis.

  15. Intensity-based image registration for 3D spatial compounding using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoulatos, Niko; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin

    2002-04-01

    3D spatial compounding involves the combination of two or more 3D ultrasound (US) data sets, acquired under different insonation angles and windows, to form a higher quality 3D US data set. An important requirement for this method to succeed is the accurate registration between the US images used to form the final compounded image. We have developed a new automatic method for rigid and deformable registration of 3D US data sets, acquired using a freehand 3D US system. Deformation is provided by using a 3D thin-plate spline (TPS). Our method is fundamentally different from the previous ones in that the acquired scattered US 2D slices are registered and compounded directly into the 3D US volume. Our approach has several benefits over the traditional registration and spatial compounding methods: (i) we only peform one 3D US reconstruction, for the first acquired data set, therefore we save the computation time required to reconstruct subsequent acquired scans, (ii) for our registration we use (except for the first scan) the acquired high-resolution 2D US images rather than the 3D US reconstruction data which are of lower quality due to the interpolation and potential subsampling associated with 3D reconstruction, and (iii) the scans performed after the first one are not required to follow the typical 3D US scanning protocol, where a large number of dense slices have to be acquired; slices can be acquired in any fashion in areas where compounding is desired. We show that by taking advantage of the similar information contained in adjacent acquired 2D US slices, we can reduce the computation time of linear and nonlinear registrations by a factor of more than 7:1, without compromising registration accuracy. Furthermore, we implemented an adaptive approximation to the 3D TPS with local bilinear transformations allowing additional reduction of the nonlinear registration computation time by a factor of approximately 3.5. Our results are based on a commercially available

  16. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Cure Reaction Kinetics of Low Pressure Sheet Molding Compound System Thickened by Crystalline Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan; LIU Haihua; HUANG Zhixiong; MEI Qilin

    2007-01-01

    Several kinetic models for unsaturated polyester cure reaction and some existing parameter estimation techniques of these models were introduced. Correlated kinetic parameters and kinetic equations of the autocatalytic empirical kinetic model of LPSMC system were determined by using isothermal DSC to scan the system which was thickened by crystalline polymer (PEG-MAH). Through using a serial curing degree of the system to validate the model, the experimental results were basically identical with the predictions of the autocatalytic empirical kinetic model. This model could provide a theoretical reference to the determination of molding techniques of low pressure SMC.

  18. Fusing photovoltaic data for improved confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Steland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing and testing photovoltaic modules requires carefully made measurements on important variables such as the power output under standard conditions. When additional data is available, which has been collected using a different measurement system and therefore may be of different accuracy, the question arises how one can combine the information present in both data sets. In some cases one even has prior knowledge about the ordering of the variances of the measurement errors, which is not fully taken into account by commonly known estimators. We discuss several statistical estimators to combine the sample means of independent series of measurements, both under the assumption of heterogeneous variances and ordered variances. The critical issue is then to assess the estimator’s variance and to construct confidence intervals. We propose and discuss the application of a new jackknife variance estimator devised by [1] to such photovoltaic data, in order to assess the variability of common mean estimation under heterogeneous and ordered variances in a reliable and nonparametric way. When serial correlations are present, which usually a ect the marginal variances, it is proposed to construct a thinned data set by downsampling the series in such a way that autocorrelations are removed or dampened. We propose a data adaptive procedure which downsamples a series at irregularly spaced time points in such a way that the autocorrelations are minimized. The procedures are illustrated by applying them to real photovoltaic power output measurements from two different sun light flashers. In addition, focusing on simulations governed by real photovoltaic data, we investigate the accuracy of the jackknife approach and compare it with other approaches. Among those is a variance estimator based on Nair’s formula for Gaussian data and, as a parametric alternative, two Bayesian models. We investigate the statistical accuracy of the resulting confidence

  19. Diffusion of oligomers in latex systems A route to low volatile organic compound (VOC) coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fasano, David M; Fitzwater, Susan J; Lau, Willie; Sheppard, Aurelia C

    2010-01-01

    We synthesize specially designed latex polymer systems by an in situ emulsion polymerization process that yields latex particles with both a high molecular weight polymer phase and a low molecular weight oligomer phase...

  20. TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTE GASES USING A TRICKLING BIOFILTER SYSTEM: A MODELING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofiltration represents a novel strategy for controlling VOC emissions from a variety of industrial processes. As commercial applications of these systems increase, sophisticated theoretical models will be useful in establishing design criteria for providing insights into impor...

  1. EcoCyc: fusing model organism databases with systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Mackie, Amanda; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Fulcher, Carol; Huerta, Araceli M; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Schröder, Imke; Shearer, Alexander G; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Travers, Mike; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Weiss, Verena; Collado-Vides, Julio; Gunsalus, Robert P; Paulsen, Ian; Karp, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) is a model organism database built on the genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Expert manual curation of the functions of individual E. coli gene products in EcoCyc has been based on information found in the experimental literature for E. coli K-12-derived strains. Updates to EcoCyc content continue to improve the comprehensive picture of E. coli biology. The utility of EcoCyc is enhanced by new tools available on the EcoCyc web site, and the development of EcoCyc as a teaching tool is increasing the impact of the knowledge collected in EcoCyc.

  2. Functionally fused antibodies--a novel adjuvant fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin; Jensen, Kim Bak; Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies capable of recognizing key molecular targets isolated e.g. by phage display technology have been used in the pursuit of new and improved therapies for prevalent human diseases. These approaches often take advantage of non-immunogenic antibody fragments to achieve specific toxin-, radio...

  3. The ROC Curves of Fused Independent Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    spectral settings arises in many fields of study; in medicine, the detection of a cancer; in marketing , the detection of the best customer base; in the...p ≤ 0.4 p/3 + 2/3, 0.4 ≤ p ≤ 1.0 fB(p) = tanh( 4p ) fC(p) = p1/3 The following plots will show how these ROC curves combine, and how the optimal

  4. Fused polycyclic aromatics incorporating boron in the core: fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Aude; Ingleson, Michael J

    2015-04-14

    The incorporation of boron into the core structure of fused polycyclic aromatics generates compounds with highly attractive properties that have recently received significant attention. Embedding boron into the backbone of ladder or 2D poly aromatic hydrocarbons is an underexplored approach to modulate optoelectronic properties, with tricoordinate boron representing a novel acceptor moiety for organic optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, the incorporation of boron into polycyclics containing other heteroatoms (e.g., chalcogens or pnictogens) leads to more extensive structural diversity and considerable ability to modify the frontier orbital energies and character, often in a controlled manner, to fine tune material properties for specific applications. This feature article summarizes the recent key developments in this field.

  5. Thienoacene-fused pentalenes: Syntheses, structures, physical properties and applications for organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2014-11-27

    Three soluble and stable thienoacene-fused pentalene derivatives (1-3) with different π-conjugation lengths were synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed their unique geometric and electronic structures due to the interaction between the aromatic thienoacene units and antiaromatic pentalene moiety. As a result, they all possess a small energy gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour. Time dependent (TD) DFT calculations were used to explain their unique electronic absorption spectra. These new compounds exhibited good thermal stability and ordered packing in solid state and thus their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were also investigated. The highest field-effect hole mobility of 0.016, 0.036 and 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for solution-processed thin films of 1-3, respectively.

  6. Cortical conditions for fused binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B D; Pritchard, R

    1968-07-01

    alignment of the eyes sought the former percept in preference to the high contrast pattern.8. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mammalian visual system maintains binocular fusion by continuously hunting those eye directions that provide the greatest local cortical responses to saccadic movements, restricted to the smallest possible areas of the visual cortex.

  7. Attosecond nanotechnology: Quantum dots of nanoelectromechanical systems of CuInxGa1-xSe2 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Terentyeva, Yulia V.; Maslova, Olga A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Volkov, Dmitrii A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the problem of stability of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) compounds as the continuous solid solution composition CuInxGa1-xSe2 with the structure of chalcopyrite in the state of quantum dots of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is studied. Variations of energy, geometry, and paired radial distribution functions of atoms of stable NEMS quantum dots of CIGS at the three temperatures 0, 77, and 293 K are investigated. It is revealed that the relative change in parameters of sustainable CIGS nanolayers in the state of NEMS quantum dots is nonlinearly dependent on the concentration of indium atoms in the system. We show that this behavior is a result of the significant difference of energy and lengths of In-Se and Ga-Se bonds of NEMSs in the first coordination sphere of selenium atoms.

  8. Exploration of stable compounds, crystal structures, and superconductivity in the Be-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyin Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles variable-composition evolutionary methodology, we explored the high-pressure structures of beryllium hydrides between 0 and 400 GPa. We found that BeH2 remains the only stable compound in this pressure range. The pressure-induced transformations are predicted as I b a m → P 3 ̄ m 1 → R 3 ̄ m → C m c m → P 4 / n m m , which occur at 24, 139, 204 and 349 GPa, respectively. P 3 ̄ m 1 and R 3 ̄ m structures are layered polytypes based on close packings of H atoms with Be atoms filling all octahedral voids in alternating layers. Cmcm and P4/nmm contain two-dimensional triangular networks with each layer forming a kinked slab in the ab-plane. P 3 ̄ m 1 and R 3 ̄ m are semiconductors while Cmcm and P4/nmm are metallic. We have explored superconductivity of both metal phases, and found large electron-phonon coupling parameters of λ = 0.63 for Cmcm with a Tc of 32.1-44.1 K at 250 GPa and λ = 0.65 for P4/nmm with a Tc of 46.1-62.4 K at 400 GPa. The dependence of Tc on pressure indicates that Tc initially increases to a maximum of 45.1 K for Cmcm at 275 GPa and 97.0 K for P4/nmm at 365 GPa, and then decreases with increasing pressure for both phases.

  9. Efficient and Selective Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds to Aromatic Amines by NbCl{sub 5}/Indium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Woo; Kim, Duckil; Kim, Hyung Min; Kang, Sung Ho [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Aromatic amines find applicability in diverse fields including dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and photographic materials. To date, there are a variety of methods, which can be used to convert aromatic nitro compounds to their corresponding amines. Some of them include Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}/In, Al/NH{sub 4}Cl, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaBH{sub 4}, NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O/In, HI, Sm/I{sub 2}, In/NH{sub 4}Cl, B{sub 4}H{sub 10}/Pd/C, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}/H{sub 2}O and In/HCl. However, most methods still lack the desired chemo-selectivity when other reducible functional groups are present in the nitroarene and often require long reaction times, or harsh reaction conditions. Consequently, efficient and selective methods for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds continue to be developed. It has been reported that NbCl{sub 5}/Zn system is used as a reagent for reducing sulfoxides, epoxides, and amine N-oxides.12 Because of the close resemblance of indium to zinc in several respects, including first ionization potential, we considered that NbCl{sub 5}/In system can be an efficient reducing agent for the conversion of aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines. Recently, indium metal has attracted much attention for its unique properties such as low toxicity and high stability in water and air compared with other metals. In continuation of our interest in exploring the utility of metal-metal salt system in organic synthesis, we would like to report an efficient and chemo-selective method for the reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines by treatment with NbCl{sub 5}/In system (eq. 1). The new reduction system was generated by the addition of indium powder to a stirred solution of niobium(V) chloride in THF under sonication. The generation of low-valent niobium species was examined at room temperature with an excess of indium metal. The observations suggest that this procedure can be applied for the chemo

  10. US EPA 2012 Air Quality Fused Surface for the Conterminous U.S. Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains a polygon layer that depicts fused air quality predictions for 2012 for census tracts in the conterminous United States. Fused air quality...

  11. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  12. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries. PMID:27351915

  13. Comparison of the marginal fit of two kinds of all-ceramic and Au-Pt based porcelain-fused-metal crown systems%两种全瓷系统与金铂合金PFM冠边缘适合性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永斌; 孙迎春; 韦荣智; 包玮玮

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate two ceramic and PFM crown systems for their accuracy of marginal fit. Methods: A total of 30 experimental crowns, the first molar of mandibular, were fabricated from two all-ceramic systems (IPS e.max and VITA In-Ceram Zirconia) and Au-Pt PFM systems (n=10). All restorations were delivered to prefabricated stone dies with composite resin cement. Gap widths were measured by light microscopy (magnificationx200). Intergroup differences were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The results showed there were significant differences for the marginal gap widths (F=2488.6, P<0.05). IPS e.max system seemed to have the smallest gap width, even better than Au-Pt PFM, while VITA In-Ceram Zirconia had the largest. Conclusion: IPS e.max system combined with composite resin cement has excellent marginal fit, which indicated that all-ceramic restorations were acceptable for clinical use regarding to marginal fit.%目的:比较两种全瓷系统与金-铂合金烤瓷熔附金属全冠(Porcelain-fused-to-metal Crown,PFM)的边缘适合性,为临床修复材料的选择提供参考依据.方法:30个右下第一磨牙的标准预备体石膏模型随机分为3组(n=10),分别制作IPSe.max,VITA In-Ceram Zirconia和金-铂合金PFM全冠修复体,树脂粘接剂粘固后,200倍光学显微镜下测量冠边缘间隙大小.结果:三组材料制作的修复体边缘间隙大小差异有统计学意义(F=2488.6,P<0.05),边缘间隙由小到大依次为IPSe.max,金-铂合金PFM,VITA In-Ceram Zirconia.并且各组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:IPS e.max全瓷修复体用树脂水门汀粘接后,边缘适合性良好,优于传统的PFM修复.全瓷修复体的边缘适合性符合临床应用要求.

  14. New electrolyte systems for capillary zone electrophoresis of metal cations and non-ionic organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.

    1995-06-19

    Excellent separations of metal ions can be obtained very quickly by capillary electrophoresis provided a weak complexing reagent is incorporated into the electrolyte to alter the effective mobilities of the sample ions. Indirect photometric detection is possible by also adding a UV-sensitive ion to the electrolyte. Separations are described using phthalate, tartrate, lactate or hydroxyisobutyrate as the complexing reagent. A separation of twenty-seven metal ions was achieved in only 6 min using a lactate system. A mechanism for the separation of lanthanides is proposed for the hydroxyisobutyrate system.

  15. A new approach to construct a fused 2-ylidene chromene ring: highly regioselective synthesis of novel chromeno quinoxalines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Shiva; Rambabu, D; Prasad, Bagineni; Mujahid, Mohammad; Krishna, G Rama; Rao, M V Basaveswara; Reddy, C Malla; Vanaja, G R; Kalle, Arunasree M; Pal, Manojit

    2012-06-28

    Regioselective construction of a fused 2-ylidene chromene ring was achieved for the first time by using AlCl(3)-induced C-C bond formation followed by Pd/C-Cu mediate coupling-cyclization strategy. A number of chromeno[4,3-b]quinoxaline derivatives were prepared by using this strategy. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study of a representative compound e.g. 6-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)-4-methyl-6H-chromeno[4,3-b]quinoxalin-3-ol confirmed the presence of an exocyclic C-C double bond with Z-geometry. The crystal structure analysis and hydrogen bonding patterns of the same compound along with its structure elaboration via propargylation followed by Sonogashira coupling of the resulting terminal alkyne is presented. A probable mechanism for the formation of 2-ylidene chromene ring is discussed. Some of the compounds synthesized showed anticancer properties when tested in vitro.

  16. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.

    2016-09-06

    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: BIOREACTION SYSTEM CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a generic test plan for bioreaction systems that use biological tools to act as contaminant sorbers and biodegraders. These are usually biofilters and bioreactors which are packed bed reactors using peat, soil, etc., biotrickling filters which handle liquid phase ...

  18. Development of a direct exposure system for studying the mechanisms of central neurotoxicity caused by volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Masanari; Fueta, Yukiko; Ishidao, Toru; Aou, Shuji; Hori, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used in work places are neurotoxic. However, it has been difficult to study the cellular mechanisms induced by a direct exposure to neurons because of their high volatility. The objective of this study was to establish a stable system for exposing brain slices to VOCs. With a conventional recording system for brain slices, it is not possible to keep a constant bath concentration of relatively highly volatile solvents, e.g. 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Here we report a new exposure system for VOCs that we developed in which a high concentration of oxygen is dissolved to a perfused medium applying a gas-liquid equilibrium, and in which the tubing is made of Teflon, non adsorptive material. Using our system, the bath concentration of the perfused 1-BP remained stable for at least 2 h in the slice chamber. Both 6.4 and 2.2 mM of 1-BP did not change the paired-pulse response, but fully suppressed long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampal slices obtained from rats, suggesting that 1-BP decreases synaptic plasticity in the DG at the concentrations tested. Our new system can be applicable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the neurotoxicity of VOCs at the cellular level.

  19. Development of a direct exposure system for studying the mechanisms of central neurotoxicity caused by volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANEMITSU, Masanari; FUETA, Yukiko; ISHIDAO, Toru; AOU, Shuji; HORI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used in work places are neurotoxic. However, it has been difficult to study the cellular mechanisms induced by a direct exposure to neurons because of their high volatility. The objective of this study was to establish a stable system for exposing brain slices to VOCs. With a conventional recording system for brain slices, it is not possible to keep a constant bath concentration of relatively highly volatile solvents, e.g. 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Here we report a new exposure system for VOCs that we developed in which a high concentration of oxygen is dissolved to a perfused medium applying a gas-liquid equilibrium, and in which the tubing is made of Teflon, non adsorptive material. Using our system, the bath concentration of the perfused 1-BP remained stable for at least 2 h in the slice chamber. Both 6.4 and 2.2 mM of 1-BP did not change the paired-pulse response, but fully suppressed long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampal slices obtained from rats, suggesting that 1-BP decreases synaptic plasticity in the DG at the concentrations tested. Our new system can be applicable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the neurotoxicity of VOCs at the cellular level. PMID:26320726

  20. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  1. Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, M A; Adams, J J; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Jarboe, J A; Matthews, M; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L

    2007-10-29

    Growth of laser initiated damage plays a major role in determining optics lifetime in high power laser systems. Previous measurements have established that the lateral diameter grows exponentially. Knowledge of the growth of the site in the propagation direction is also important, especially so when considering techniques designed to mitigate damage growth, where it is required to reach all the subsurface damage. In this work, we present data on both the diameter and the depth of a growing exit surface damage sites in fused silica. Measured growth rates with both 351 nm illumination and with combined 351 nm and 1054 nm illumination are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of UV absorption coefficient in laser-modified fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negres, R A; Burke, M W; Sutton, S B; DeMange, P; Feit, M D; Demos, S G

    2006-08-21

    Laser-induced damage in transparent dielectrics leads to the formation of laser-modified material as a result of exposure to extreme localized temperatures and pressures. In this work, we used an infrared thermal imaging system in combination with a fluorescence microscope to map the dynamics of the local surface temperature and fluorescence intensity under cw, UV excitation of laser-modified fused silica within a damage site. Based on a thermal diffusion model, we estimate the energy deposited via linear absorption mechanisms and derive the absorption coefficient of the modified material. In addition, irreversible changes in the absorption following extended laser exposure were observed.

  3. Endodontic management of a supernumerary tooth fused to the maxillary permanent lateral Incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash A Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to present the endodontic management of a supernumerary tooth fused to the maxillary left lateral incisor. Such anomalies pose a challenge even to the most experienced clinician in treating these teeth. This report described a case of 21-year-old male patient with a classic case of complete fusion of maxillary left lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth. A modified access preparation was made and two separate root canal orifices were identified. Both root canal systems were prepared separately and obturated efficiently until accepted lengths. This reported case highlights the importance of clinical and radiographic correlation in arriving to a definitive diagnosis.

  4. Three-dimensional optical storage in fused silica using modulated femtosecond pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu(刘青); Guanghua Cheng(程光华); Yishan Wang(王屹山); Zhao Cheng(程昭); Wei Zhao(赵卫); Guofu Chen(陈国夫)

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional bitwise optical recording with a density of 500 Gb/cm3 in fused silica using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser modulated by binary digits is demonstrated. Laser pulses modulation is realized by modulating two circuits of trigger pulses signal which are used to control laser pulses trapping and switching out from cavity, respectively. Bits are optically readout in both a parallel reading (phase-contrast) and a serial reading (confocal-type) methods. The method for modulating laser pulses can also be used in all of pulsed laser systems which operate in cavity-dumping configuration.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Different Masonry Infill Walls with Structural Fuse Elements Based on In-Plane Cyclic Load Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kauffman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of a structural fuse concept developed for use as a seismic isolation system in the design and retrofit of masonry infill walls. An experimental program was developed and executed to study the behavior of the structural fuse system under cyclic loads, and to evaluate the performance of the system with various masonry materials. Cyclic tests were performed by applying displacement controlled loads at the first, second, and third stories of a two-bay, three-story steel test frame with brick infill walls; using a quasi-static loading protocol to create a first mode response in the structural system. A parametric study was also completed by replacing the brick infill panels with infill walls constructed of concrete masonry units and autoclaved aerated concrete blocks, and applying monotonically increasing, displacement controlled loads at the top story of the test frame.

  6. Investigate of Mechanical Fuse in Cardan Shaft Using FEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Poorya Rabiei; Reza Azarafza

    2014-01-01

    A Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect drive shaft to driven shaft that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. If overload is applied to cardan shaft, failure can occur in each part of the cardan shaft and maybe some irreparable damage occur to the cardan shaft. Thus it is important to investigate the existence of mechanical fuse in cardan shaft, and this subjcet ...

  7. Fused silica suspension for the VIRGO optics: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Amico, P; Carbone, L; Gammaitoni, L; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Vocca, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal noise in mirror suspension wires is the main limitation of low-frequency sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In order to minimize the pendulum thermal noise, a monolithic design, using a low dissipation material, is proposed for VIRGO. High mechanical Qs and high breaking strengths have been obtained for monolithic fused silica fibres. A low-dissipation and high-strength bonding technique using potassium silicate bonding is proposed.

  8. HEp-2 Cell Classification via Fusing Texture and Shape Information

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xianbiao; Zhao, Guoying; Li, Chun-Guang; Guo, Jun; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) HEp-2 cell image is an effective evidence for diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Recently computer-aided diagnosis of autoimmune diseases by IIF HEp-2 cell classification has attracted great attention. However the HEp-2 cell classification task is quite challenging due to large intra-class variation and small between-class variation. In this paper we propose an effective and efficient approach for the automatic classification of IIF HEp-2 cell image by fusing ...

  9. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Pouran Samimi; Mohammad-Reza Shirban; Farahnaz Arbabzadeh-Zavareh

    2012-01-01

    The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case o...

  10. Tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2012-01-01

    4-tert-Butylphenyl-substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins 1 and 2 are prepared for the first time. They show (1) intense one-photon absorption in the far-red/near-infrared region, (2) enhanced two-photon absorption compared with aromatic porphyrin monomers, and (3) amphoteric redox behavior. Their geometry and electronic structure are studied by DFT calculations. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Effects of a combined Diesel particle filter-DeNOx system (DPN) on reactive nitrogen compounds emissions: a parameter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-12-18

    The impact of a combined diesel particle filter-deNO(x) system (DPN) on emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) was studied varying the urea feed factor (α), temperature, and residence time, which are key parameters of the deNO(x) process. The DPN consisted of a platinum-coated cordierite filter and a vanadia-based deNO(x) catalyst supporting selective catalytic reduction (SCR) chemistry. Ammonia (NH₃) is produced in situ from thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO and NH₃ are both toxic and highly reactive intermediates. The deNO(x) system was only part-time active in the ISO8178/4 C1cycle. Urea injection was stopped and restarted twice. Mean NO and NO₂ conversion efficiencies were 80%, 95%, 97% and 43%, 87%, 99%, respectively, for α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2. HNCO emissions increased from 0.028 g/h engine-out to 0.18, 0.25, and 0.26 g/h at α = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, whereas NH₃ emissions increased from <0.045 to 0.12, 1.82, and 12.8 g/h with maxima at highest temperatures and shortest residence times. Most HNCO is released at intermediate residence times (0.2-0.3 s) and temperatures (300-400 °C). Total RNC efficiencies are highest at α = 1.0, when comparable amounts of reduced and oxidized compounds are released. The DPN represents the most advanced system studied so far under the VERT protocol achieving high conversion efficiencies for particles, NO, NO₂, CO, and hydrocarbons. However, we observed a trade-off between deNO(x) efficiency and secondary emissions. Therefore, it is important to adopt such DPN technology to specific application conditions to take advantage of reduced NO(x) and particle emissions while avoiding NH₃ and HNCO slip.

  12. Integrated system for rehabilitation of mine wastes and exploitation of added-value compounds from Cistus ladanifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S.; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitation of mining areas with sulfide materials, both abandoned and active mines, is a priority because these areas are sources of acid mine drainage and multielemental contamination and, consequently, environmental and health risk. The combined use of Technosols and Phytostabilisation accelerates the area recovery, and ensures the sustainability at long-term of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the rehabilitation due to the functional complementarity of the components. Nowadays the rehabilitation strategy of contaminated areas must be based on circular economy, environmental improvements and economic approaches. Cistus ladanifer L. is an autochthones and spontaneous species that contributes to natural rehabilitation of contaminated soils from mining areas. Moreover, bioextracts obtained from C. ladanifer growing in São Domingos mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt) presented several valuable compounds, which can provide an economic return by their use for fragrance and pharmaceutical approaches. This study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the efficiency of an integrated system for the rehabilitation of sulfide-rich and gossan tailings, which combines the application of Technosols and Phytostabilisation, and exploitation of added-value compounds from C. ladanifer bioextracts. The rehabilitation system comprised a surface layer of Technosol and a barrier of alkaline residues (biomass ashes and limestone wastes) that covered sulfide-rich wastes. Two Tecnosols composed of gossan wastes and different mixtures of agro-industrial wastes (from distilleries and greenhouse agriculture without any valorisation) at 150 Mg/ha were tested. In the Technosols was seeded C. ladanifer. After three years of plant growth, shoots biomass was quantified and used to obtain bioextracts (extraction with n-hexane). The organic composition of the bioextracts was determined and some compounds with added value (α-pinene, camphene, camphor

  13. 3D-printed eagle eye: Compound microlens system for foveated imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Simon; Arzenbacher, Kathrin; Gissibl, Timo; Giessen, Harald; Herkommer, Alois M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a highly miniaturized camera, mimicking the natural vision of predators, by 3D-printing different multilens objectives directly onto a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. Our system combines four printed doublet lenses with different focal lengths (equivalent to f = 31 to 123 mm for a 35-mm film) in a 2 × 2 arrangement to achieve a full field of view of 70° with an increasing angular resolution of up to 2 cycles/deg field of view in the center of the image. The footprint of the optics on the chip is below 300 μm × 300 μm, whereas their height is design iterations and can lead to a plethora of different miniaturized multiaperture imaging systems with applications in fields such as endoscopy, optical metrology, optical sensing, surveillance drones, or security. PMID:28246646

  14. Post-processing of fused silica and its effects on damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed UV lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-04-10

    HF-based (hydrofluoric acid) chemical etching has been a widely accepted technique to improve the laser damage performance of fused silica optics and ensure high-power UV laser systems at designed fluence. Etching processes such as acid concentration, composition, material removal amount, and etching state (etching with additional acoustic power or not) may have a great impact on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of treated sample surfaces. In order to find out the effects of these factors, we utilized the Taguchi method to determine the etching conditions that are helpful in raising the LIDT. Our results show that the most influential factors are concentration of etchants and the material etched away from the viewpoint of damage performance of fused silica optics. In addition, the additional acoustic power (∼0.6  W·cm-2) may not benefit the etching rate and damage performance of fused silica. Moreover, the post-cleaning procedure of etched samples is also important in damage performances of fused silica optics. Different post-cleaning procedures were, thus, experiments on samples treated under the same etching conditions. It is found that the "spraying + rinsing + spraying" cleaning process is favorable to the removal of etching-induced deposits. Residuals on the etched surface are harmful to surface roughness and optical transmission as well as laser damage performance.

  15. Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-11-04

    Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

  16. A mid-infrared sensor for the determination of perfluorocarbon-based compounds in aquatic systems for geosequestration purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Florian; Schwenk, Matthias; Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ho, Koon-Bay; Stalker, Linda; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-12-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds have been used as chemical tracer molecules to understand the movement of supercritical carbon dioxide for geosequestration monitoring and verification purposes. A commonly used method for detecting PFCs involves the collection of a sample from either soil-gas or the atmosphere via carbon-based sorbents which are then analyzed in a laboratory. However, PFC analysis in aquatic environments is neglected and this is an issue that needs to be considered since the PFC is likely to undergo permeation through the overlying water formations. This paper presents for the first time an innovative analytical method for the trace level in situ detection of PFCs in water. It reports on the development of a sensor based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (MIR-ATR) spectroscopy for determining the concentration of perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and perfluoro-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane (PDCH) in aquatic systems. The sensor comprises a zinc selenide waveguide with the surface modified by a thin polymer film. The sensitivity of this device was investigated as a function of polymer type, coating thickness, and solution flow rates. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 23 ppb and 79 ppb for PMCH and PDCH, respectively when using a 5 μm thick polyisobutylene (PIB) coated waveguide. This study has shown that the MIR-ATR sensor can be used to directly quantify PFC-based chemical tracer compounds in water over the 20-400 ppb concentration range.

  17. Equilibrium electrochemical synthesis diagrams of systems, forming homogeneous alloys and compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaptay G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper thermodynamic limitations will be derived and summarized in the form of Equilibrium Electrochemical Synthesis (EES diagrams, in order to predict the composition of the equilibrium phase, synthesized by galvanostatic co-deposition of components on inert electrodes. As a thermodynamic parameter, a difference of deposition potentials of pure components ( ∆E on inert cathodes is used (this parameter is a function of melt composition and temperature. Generally, the EES diagram predicts the equilibrium composition of the alloy as function temperature and ∆E. However, for systems with homogeneous alloy formation the composition- ∆E diagrams, drawn at a fixed temperature are more informative. As examples EES diagrams are constructed for the liquid Mg-Nd alloy, for some A(III-B(V (where A = Al, Ga, In and B = As, Sb, Si-C and for the Al-Ti system. For the Al-rich part of the Al-Ti system, also a semi-schematic non-equilibrium ES diagram is constructed. Based on these diagrams, the synthesis conditions of various phases has been discussed.

  18. Study of Fragmentation Process of Fused Fluxes Using Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the fragmentation process with air of fused fluxes is studied by means of a particular treatment of the interaction process between the air and flux fluids starting from physical and mathematical considerations of the collision phenomenon which are the result of the application of Newton's mechanics-classical theory. In the paper is schematized the impact and change of trajectory process of the incandescent fused flux flow because of the air mechanical action provided by a blowpipe and the equations referred to the interaction between the fluids are set. As a result, the equations for estimating the exit angle and the average velocities of the pellets formed are determined whenever the interacting air and flux fluxes are known as well as the incidence angles. From the theory developed the essential parameters of the granulation process with air of fused fluxes, by considering the average diameter of the particles to be obtained for their industrial performance can be estimated.

  19. Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Aritomi; N.Fujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To establish techniques for producing somatic and gennline chimeric chicken by transferring blastodennal cells fused with electroporation. Methods: Stage-X blastodermal cells isolated from freshly laid fertile unincubated white Leghom and Rhode Island red chicken eggs were fused with electroporation. The treated cell suspension was transferred to the recovery medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS) and was injected into the subgerminal cavity of recipient tmincubated embryos (stage X). Results: Of 177 recipient embryos injected with the fusing blastodermal cells, 6 (3.4%) survived to hatching. Somatic chimerism was examined in the melanocyte of the feather. The presence of feathers originating from the donor cell was observed in 1 bird (16.7%) out of the 6 hatched birds. After 21 days of incubation two birds out of five embryos were subjected to polymemse chain reaction (PCR) analysis for W-chromosome-specific DNA for each tissue. One bird possessed W-chromosome-specific DNA in the stomach, and the other exhibited the same DNA in the left and right gonads and other tissues, but not the stomach. Conclusion: Recipient embryo having electrofused blastodermal cells yields somatic and germline chimeric chickens more successfully.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:271-275)

  20. Phase equilibria and crystal structures of the compounds in the Pr-Ni-Sb system at 870 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chykhrij, S.I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, L' viv 79005 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: chykhrij@yahoo.com; Smetana, V.B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, L' viv 79005 (Ukraine)

    2005-09-01

    The isothermal section of the Pr-Ni-Sb system at 870 K over the whole concentration region has been built using X-ray analysis. At the temperature of the investigation three already known ternary antimonides PrNiSb, {approx}PrNiSb{sub 2} and {approx}PrNi{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} have been confirmed and three compounds {approx}Pr{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2}, PrNiSb{sub 3}, and PrNi{sub 2+x}Sb{sub 2-y} have been synthesized for the first time. The crystal structures of the obtained compounds belong to the following structure types: PrNiSb-ZrBeSi type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 0.43838(2) nm, c = 0.81068(6) nm; PrNiSb{sub 3}-CeNiSb{sub 3} type, space group Pbcm, a = 1.2579(2) nm, b = 0.62051(8) nm, c = 1.8371(2) nm; {approx}Pr{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2}-structure related to Y{sub 5}Ni {sub x}Sb{sub 3-x}-type, space group Pnma, a = 1.2457(1) nm, b = 0.9159(1) nm, c = 0.8118(1) nm. The PrNi{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} compound crystallizes with an orthorhombic or monoclinic unit cell and a structure related to the tetragonal CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} type. The PrNi{sub 2+x}Sb{sub 2-y} antimonide has a small homogeneity region and crystallizes with a tetragonal unit cell (space group P4/nmm) and lattice parameters a = 0.431256(9) - 0.4319(1) nm, c = 0.99830(2) - 1.0092(3) nm. The existence of a considerable homogeneity region of the PrNi{sub 0.62-1.35}Sb{sub 2} compound is caused by a deficiency of Ni atoms or their excess compared to the initial structure of stoichiometric composition and a corresponding transition from the HfCuSi{sub 2} type to the CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} type with preservation of the unit cell symmetry (a 0.43539(4) - 0.44130(2) nm, c = 0.9653(1) - 0.97643(5) nm)

  1. Comparative study of the results of compound tibial shaft fractures treated by Ilizarov ring fixators and limb reconstruction system fixators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandra Prakash Pal; Harish Kumar; Deepak Kumar; K.S.Dinkar; Vivek Mittal; Naveen Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ilizarov ring fixator and limb reconstruction system (LRS) fixators have been used in the management of complex tibial fractures with severe soft tissue injuries, compound tibial fractures, and infected tibial nonunion for which conventional internal fixation cannot be contemplated.Fracture union and distraction osteogenesis can be done simultaneously with these external fixators, allowing early weight bearing.Several previous studies have shown almost equal results of rail and ring fixators for the compound tibial shaft fractures.Thus we performed a prospective study to evaluate the union rate, functional outcome and amount of limb lengthening after the treatment of compound tibial shaft fractures with or without infected nonunion by ring or LRS fixators.Methods: This prospective study was done at Sarojini Naidu Medical College and Hospital, Agra, India and included 32 patients of compound tibial shaft fractures with or without infected nonunion.There were 26 males and 6 females and the average age was 40 years.Patients were randomly divided into two groups (n =16 for each): one underwent Ilizarov fixation and the other received LRS fixation.Cases were followed up for 3-24 months, 6 months on average from September 2012 to October 2014.Functional and radiological outcomes were assessed using the Association for the Study and Application of Methods of Ilizarov (ASAMI) criteria for both rail and ring fixators.Results: Union was achieved in all cases.Radiological outcome was found excellent in 68.75%, good in 18.75% and fair in 12.50% of cases treated by rail fixators whereas it was excellent in 56.25%, good in 18.75%, fair in 12.50% and poor in 12.50% of cases treated by ring fixators.Functional result was satisfactory in 75.00% of cases treated by rail fixator and 68.75% of cases treated by ring fixators whereas the corresponding rate of unsatisfactory was 25.00% vs.31.25%.Conclusion: In our short-term assessment, LRS fixators show a

  2. Cage-forming compounds in the Ba-Rh-Ge system: from thermoelectrics to superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falmbigl, M; Kneidinger, F; Chen, M; Grytsiv, A; Michor, H; Royanian, E; Bauer, E; Effenberger, H; Podloucky, R; Rogl, P

    2013-01-18

    Phase relations and solidification behavior in the Ge-rich part of the phase diagram have been determined in two isothermal sections at 700 and 750 °C and in a liquidus projection. A reaction scheme has been derived in the form of a Schulz-Scheil diagram. Phase equilibria are characterized by three ternary compounds: τ(1)-BaRhGe(3) (BaNiSn(3)-type) and two novel phases, τ(2)-Ba(3)Rh(4)Ge(16) and τ(3)-Ba(5)Rh(15)Ge(36-x), both forming in peritectic reactions. The crystal structures of τ(2) and τ(3) have been elucidated from single-crystal X-ray intensity data and were found to crystallize in unique structure types: Ba(3)Rh(4)Ge(16) is tetragonal (I4/mmm, a = 0.65643(2) nm, c = 2.20367(8) nm, and R(F) = 0.0273), whereas atoms in Ba(5)Rh(15)Ge(36-x) (x = 0.25) arrange in a large orthorhombic unit cell (Fddd, a = 0.84570(2) nm, b = 1.4725(2) nm, c = 6.644(3) nm, and R(F) = 0.034). The body-centered-cubic superstructure of binary Ba(8)Ge(43)□(3) was observed to extend at 800 °C to Ba(8)Rh(0.6)Ge(43)□(2.4), while the clathrate type I phase, κ(I)-Ba(8)Rh(x)Ge(46-x-y)□(y), reveals a maximum solubility of x = 1.2 Rh atoms in the structure at a vacancy level of y = 2.0. The cubic lattice parameter increases with increasing Rh content. Clathrate I decomposes eutectoidally at 740 °C: κ(I) ⇔ (Ge) + κ(IX) + τ(2). A very small solubility range is observed at 750 °C for the clathrate IX, κ(IX)-Ba(6)Rh(x)Ge(25-x) (x ∼ 0.16). Density functional theory calculations have been performed to derive the enthalpies of formation and densities of states for various compositions Ba(8)Rh(x)Ge(46-x) (x = 0-6). The physical properties have been investigated for the phases κ(I), τ(1), τ(2), and τ(3), documenting a change from thermoelectric (κ(I)) to superconducting behavior (τ(2)). The electrical resistivity of κ(I)-Ba(8)Rh(1.2)Ge(42.8)□(2.0) increases almost linearly with the temperature from room temperature to 730 K, and the Seebeck coefficient is negative

  3. A simple method to optimize the HSCCC two-phase solvent system by predicting the partition coefficient for target compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Quan-Bin; Wong, Lina; Yang, Nian-Yun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yiu, Hillary; Ito, Yoichiro; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-04-01

    A simple method was developed to optimize the solvent ratio of the two-phase solvent system used in the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation. Some mathematic equations, such as the exponential and the power equations, were established to describe the relationship between the solvent ratio and the partition coefficient. Using this new method, the two-phase solvent system was easily optimized to obtain a proper partition coefficient for the CCC separation of the target compound. Furthermore, this method was satisfactorily applied in determining the two-phase solvent system for the HSCCC preparation of pseudolaric acid B from the Chinese herb Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae). The two-phase solvent system of n-hexane/EtOAc/MeOH/H(2)O (5:5:5:5 by volume) was used with a good partition coefficient K = 1.08. As a result, 232.05 mg of pseudolaric acid B was yielded from 0.5 g of the crude extract with a purity of 97.26% by HPLC analysis.

  4. Absolute Definition of Phase Shift in the Elastic Scattering of a Particle from Compound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, A.

    1961-01-01

    The projection of the target wave function on the total wave function of a scattered particle interacting with the target system is used to define an absolute phase shift including any multiples of pi. With this definition of the absolute phase shift, one can prove rigorously in the limit of zero energy for s-wave electrons scattered from atomic hydrogen that the triplet phase shift must approach a nonzero multiple of pi. One can further show that at least one pi of this phase shift is not connected with the existence of a bound state of the H- ion.

  5. Techno-economical assessment of solar detoxification systems with compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Milow, B.; Maldonado, M.I. [CIEMAT- Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Madrid (Spain); Fallmann, H.; Krutzler, T.; Bauer, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, TU Vienna (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    This paper is focussed on a techno-economical analysis comparing TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate and Photo-Fenton methods for Solar Detoxification of pesticides from an industrial point of view and considering the photocatalytic system coupled with a pesticide bottles recycling plant. The analysis is based on the experiments performed at PSA Solar Detox facility with 250 L of a mixture of 10 commercial pesticides, which have been treated with both photocatalytic methods in the same CPC-type reactor system. The initial TOC of the pollutants was 100 mg/L (considering not only the active ingredient but also the rest of the commercial formulation components) and the final TOC 10 mg/L (plant design parameters). Different experiments have been performed to optimize both treatments. In the experiments with Photo-Fenton 80% of the initial TOC were removed in 75 to 90 minutes and 90% in approximately 2 hours. In the experiment with TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate, 80% of the TOC was removed in 3 hours and 90% of the TOC after 4 hours. (authors)

  6. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

  7. Theoretical study on volatile organic compound removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model was established for predicting the volatile organic compound (VOC) removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system (HP-SDC). The HP-SDC was proposed based on the combination of desiccant rotor with heat pump, and was designed...... for cooling, dehumidification and indoor air cleaning in normal office, commercial or residential buildings. The desiccant rotor was used for dehumidification and indoor air cleaning; the heat pump provided sensible cooling and regeneration heat for the desiccant rotor. The theoretical model consisted of two...... sub-models. One sub-model was used to simulate the heat, moisture and VOC transfer in the desiccant rotor; the other sub-model was used to predict the energy performance of the heat pump. Combining the two sub-models, the energy performance and VOC removal effect of the HP-SDC could be simulated...

  8. MODELING THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN UNSTEADY RIVER-ESTUARINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Chin CHEN; Jan-Tai KUO

    2002-01-01

    This research develops a generalized,one-dimensional,finite difference model for simulating the distribution of toxic substances in a river-estuarine system. The three sub-models for unsteady flow,sediment transport,and the reaction of toxic substances are also presented using an uncoupled numerical method. The paper also includes experimental work for sorption/desorption,field measurements of organic carbon content in the heavily polluted Keelung River,and a laboratory study of cohesive sediment transport for the model calibration and verification. In addition,this study simulates the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Keelung River in northern Taiwan as a case study. Encouraging results are obtained,and suggest that the modeling approach could be extended to simulate the fate and transport of sorbed pollutants in tidal river.

  9. Phase relationships in 500℃ isothermal section of Ho-Ni-Ti 牋爐ernary system and the fundamental characteristics of the related compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By means of X-ray powder diffraction (powder XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray electron dispersed spectrum microanalysis (EDS), the isothermal section at 500℃ in Ho-Ni-Ti ternary system is determined. Intermetallic phases in this section and the relationships among them are studied. In addition, the characteristics of some of these compounds are analyzed. This section consists of 13 singlephase regions, 23 two-phase regions and 11 three-phase regions. The existence of 10 binary compounds is confirmed.No ternary. compound is found.

  10. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2009-01-01

    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  11. Design galvanometer position detection unit based on single detector compound axis tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tong, Shoufeng; Song, Yansong; Chang, Shuai; Gao, Yinan; Zhao, Kewei

    2016-10-01

    The fine tracking unit of composite axis of acquisition, pointing and tracking(APT) is a key component of space laser communication system. In order to prevent the principal axis in open-loop without proper input of control after started the tracking of auxiliary axis, which led to the target out of field. In a single detector composite shaft structure, we need to provide the accurate position of PZT volume feedback for the principle axis to control. This article has made an galvanometer position detective method of the single detector composite shaft structure. It provided the theory of circuit design and optimization plan. Researchers conducted a multiple sets of experiments. The experimental result shows that the galvanometer 1 "per deflection Angle, the detection circuit can retrieve 13 mV voltage change. At the same time, compared with the traditional camera calibration, we put forward a new calibration method which using optical autocollimator that the maximum error control within 1 ". Finally, the control formula is given and the error should be within 0.01mrad. So that the calibration precision of the detecting plate is improved.

  12. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as “the world’s first killer” of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a “CVDs pathway” consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

  13. Production, chemical composition and stocking rate of forage systems compounds for coastcross-1 intercropped with ryegrass and clovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage production, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber level, stocking rate of three forage systems compounds for Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. + ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. Comum; Coastcross-1 + ryegrass + red clover (Trifolium pratense L., cv. Estanzuela 116 and Coastcross-1 + ryegrass + white clover (Trifolium repens L., cv. Yi. The experiment was carried out from April 2007 to April 2008, for 11 grazing cycles, six in winter season and five in summer season. Holstein cows receiving 0.9% of body weight/day feed supplement concentrate were used. The herbage mass of pre and post-grazing, botanical and morphological composition crude protein and neutral detergent fiber level were evaluated. A randomized complete design was used with three treatments (forage systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. Superior value (P<0.05 of forage production and daily dry matter accumulation rate were found in winter season for the forage systems with legume. No differences in dry matter disappearance rate and stocking rate averages were detected among pastures. Residual effects of red clover were observed on Coastcross-1 + ryegrass with superior result (P<0.05 on crude protein and lower neutral detergent fiber level.

  14. Vertex-fused metallaborane clusters: synthesis, characterization and electronic structure of [(eta5-C5Me5Mo)3MoB9H18].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Sahoo, Satyanarayan; Reddy, K Hari Krishna; Mobin, Shaikh M; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2010-02-01

    The reaction of the [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))MoCl(4)] complex with [LiBH(4).THF] in toluene at -70 degrees C, followed by pyrolysis at 110 degrees C, afforded dark brown [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5)Mo)(3)MoB(9)H(18)], 2, in parallel with the known [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5)Mo)(2)B(5)H(9)], 1. Compound 2 has been characterized in solution by (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and the structural types were unequivocally established by crystallographic studies. The title compound represents a novel class of vertex-fused clusters in which a Mo atom has been fused in a perpendicular fashion between two molybdaborane clusters. Electronic structure calculations employing density functional theory yield geometries in agreement with the structure determinations, and on grounds of density functional theory calculations, we have analyzed the bonding patterns in the structure.

  15. Removal of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using micellar solutions and fused reactions. Final report, 1995--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L.; Nalwaya, V.; Singh, P.; Fogler, H.S.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical treatments of paraffin and asphaltene deposition by means of cleaning fluids were carried out in this research project. Research focused on the characterization of asphaltene and paraffin materials and dissolution of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using surfactant/micellar fluids developed early in the project. The key parameters controlling the dissolution rate were identified and the process of asphaltene/paraffin dissolution were examined using microscopic apparatus. Numerical modeling was also carried out to understand the dissolution of paraffin deposits. The results show that fused chemical reaction systems are a promising way of removing paraffin deposits in subsea pipelines. The fused system may be in the form of alternate pulses, emulsions systems or encapsulated catalyst systems. Fused reaction systems, in fact, are extremely cost-effective--less than 10% of the cost of replacing entire sections of the blocked pipeline. The results presented in this report can have a real impact on the petroleum industry and the National Oil Program, if it is realized that the remediation technologies developed here can substantially delay abandonment (due to asphaltene/paraffin plugging) of domestic petroleum resources. The report also sheds new light on the nature and properties of asphaltenes and paraffin deposits which will ultimately help the scientific and research community to develop effective methods in eliminating asphaltene/paraffin deposition problems. It must also be realized that asphaltene remediation technologies developed and presented in this report are a real alternative to aromatic cleaning fluids currently used by the petroleum industry.

  16. Effects of Anthocyanin and Flavanol Compounds on Lipid Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Associated Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel A. van der Heijden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Naturally occurring substances from the flavanol and anthocyanin family of polyphenols have been proposed to exert beneficial effects in the course of obesity. We hypothesized that their effects on attenuating obesity-induced dyslipidemia as well as the associated inflammatory sequelae especially have health-promoting potential. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=52 received a control low-fat diet (LFD; 10 kcal% fat for 6 weeks followed by 24 weeks of either LFD (n=13 or high-fat diet (HFD; 45 kcal% fat; n=13 or HFD supplemented with 0.1% w/w of the flavanol compound epicatechin (HFD+E; n=13 or an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (HFD+B; n=13. Energy substrate utilization was determined by indirect calorimetry in a subset of mice following the dietary switch and at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 days and 4, 12, and 20 weeks after dietary switch and analyzed for systemic lipids and proinflammatory cytokines. Adipose tissue (AT histopathology and inflammatory gene expression as well as hepatic lipid content were analyzed after sacrifice. Results. The switch from a LFD to a HFD lowered the respiratory exchange ratio and increased plasma cholesterol and hepatic lipid content. These changes were not attenuated by HFD+E or HFD+B. Furthermore, the polyphenol compounds could not prevent HFD-induced systemic rise of TNF-α levels. Interestingly, a significant reduction in Tnf gene expression in HFD+B mice was observed in the AT. Furthermore, HFD+B, but not HFD+E, significantly prevented the early upregulation of circulating neutrophil chemoattractant mKC. However, no differences in AT histopathology were observed between the HFD types. Conclusion. Supplementation of HFD with an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract but not with the flavanol epicatechin may exert beneficial effects on the systemic early inflammatory response associated with diet-induced obesity. These systemic effects were transient

  17. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaider, Laurel A; Ackerman, Janet M; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1mg/L NO3-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study.

  18. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of uracil fused spirooxindoles as antioxidant agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robabeh Baharfar; Razieh Azimi

    2015-08-01

    Incorporating sulfanilic acid as a hydrophobic Brønsted acid inside the nanospaces of SBA-15 led to a water-tolerant solid acid catalyst, SBA-15-PhSO 3 H, which showed excellent catalytic performance in synthesis of uracil-fused spirooxindoles in aqueous ethanol. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay.

  19. A novel protocol for the facile construction of tetrahydroquinoline fused tricyclic frameworks via an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar nitrile oxide cycloaddition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthadoss, Manickam; Vinayagam, Varathan

    2015-10-21

    An efficient method towards the synthesis of quinoline fused tricyclic compounds involving an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar nitrile oxide cycloaddition reaction utilizing Baylis-Hillman derivatives in good yields has been described for the first time. A highly functionalized tricyclic framework was created by forming two rings and two adjacent stereocentres through the formation of two N-C bonds, one C-C bond and one O-C bond in a highly regio and diastereoselective manner.

  20. Phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of azomethine imines with electron-deficient alkenes: a facile access to dinitrogen-fused heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yu, Hao; Liu, Honglei; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Guo, Hongchao

    2014-02-03

    An efficient method for the phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of azomethine imines with diphenylsulfonyl alkenes to give dinitrogen-fused bi- or tricyclic heterocyclic compounds in high yields has been described. Moreover, two phenylsulfonyl groups installed on the heterocyclic products could be conveniently removed or transformed to other functional groups, making the reaction more useful. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.