WorldWideScience

Sample records for fused chlorides bath

  1. Technological study of electrochemical uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Damaris

    2002-01-01

    This study is applied to metallic fuels recycling, concerning advanced reactor concept, which was proposed and tested in LMR type reactors. Conditions for electrochemical non-irradiated uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath in laboratory scale were established. Experimental procedures and parameters for dehydration treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture and for electrochemical study of U 3+ /U system in LiCl-KCl were developed and optimized. In the voltammetric studies many working electrodes were tested. As auxiliary electrodes, graphite and stainless steels crucibles were verified, with no significant impurities inclusions in the system. Ag/AgCl in Al 2 O 3 with 1 w% in AgCl were used as reference electrode. The experimental set up developed for electrolyte treatment as well as for the study of the system U 3+ /U in LiCl-KCl showed to be adequate and efficient. Thermogravimetric Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and cyclic voltametry showed an efficient dehydration method by using HCl gas and than argon flux for 12 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry detected the presence of uranium in the cadmium phase. X-ray Diffraction and also Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry were used for uranium detection in the salt phase. The obtained results for the system U 3+ /U in LiCl-KCl showed the viability of the electrochemical reprocessing process based on the IFR advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  2. The electrochemical behaviour study of La3+ ion in fused chlorides bath. The LaNi5 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Cristiane

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of La 3+ ion was studied in fused chlorides bath, with purpose to obtain LaNi 5 formation parameters. The lanthanum reduction/reoxidation mechanism and intermetallic compound formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiommetry and galvanostatic electrodeposition. The electrolyte employed was eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl (1:1) with anhydrous LaCl 3 as solute, since 0,25 mol. L -1 up to 2 mol. L -1 , between 700 deg C and 800 deg C. The anhydrous LaCl 3 was prepared by lanthanum chloride slow dehydration with HCl flow and heating until 300 deg C. Over molybdenum, results depicted that lanthanum electrochemical behaviour was quasi-reversible and electrodeposition occurred in a charge transfer step with three electrons. In nickel, intermetallic compound formation was observed by interdiffusion. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis indicated that layers composition depend on temperature and solute concentration in fused bath. Mainly LaNi 5 intermetallic compound was formed with LaCl 3 anhydrous concentration of 2 mol. L -1 at 750 deg C, with cathodic current density until 100 mA.cm -2 . (author)

  3. Technological study of electrochemical uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath; Estudo tecnologico do reprocessamento eletroquimico de combustiveis de uranio em meio de cloretos fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Damaris

    2002-07-01

    This study is applied to metallic fuels recycling, concerning advanced reactor concept, which was proposed and tested in LMR type reactors. Conditions for electrochemical non-irradiated uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath in laboratory scale were established. Experimental procedures and parameters for dehydration treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture and for electrochemical study of U{sup 3+}/U system in LiCl-KCl were developed and optimized. In the voltammetric studies many working electrodes were tested. As auxiliary electrodes, graphite and stainless steels crucibles were verified, with no significant impurities inclusions in the system. Ag/AgCl in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 1 w% in AgCl were used as reference electrode. The experimental set up developed for electrolyte treatment as well as for the study of the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed to be adequate and efficient. Thermogravimetric Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and cyclic voltametry showed an efficient dehydration method by using HCl gas and than argon flux for 12 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry detected the presence of uranium in the cadmium phase. X-ray Diffraction and also Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry were used for uranium detection in the salt phase. The obtained results for the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed the viability of the electrochemical reprocessing process based on the IFR advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  4. The electrochemical behaviour study of La{sup 3+} ion in fused chlorides bath. The LaNi{sub 5} formation; Estudo do comportamento eletroquimico do ion La{sup 3+} em meio a cloretos fundidos. A formacao de LaNi{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Cristiane

    2002-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of La{sup 3+} ion was studied in fused chlorides bath, with purpose to obtain LaNi{sub 5} formation parameters. The lanthanum reduction/reoxidation mechanism and intermetallic compound formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiommetry and galvanostatic electrodeposition. The electrolyte employed was eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl (1:1) with anhydrous LaCl{sub 3} as solute, since 0,25 mol. L{sup -1} up to 2 mol. L{sup -1}, between 700 deg C and 800 deg C. The anhydrous LaCl{sub 3} was prepared by lanthanum chloride slow dehydration with HCl flow and heating until 300 deg C. Over molybdenum, results depicted that lanthanum electrochemical behaviour was quasi-reversible and electrodeposition occurred in a charge transfer step with three electrons. In nickel, intermetallic compound formation was observed by interdiffusion. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis indicated that layers composition depend on temperature and solute concentration in fused bath. Mainly LaNi{sub 5} intermetallic compound was formed with LaCl{sub 3} anhydrous concentration of 2 mol. L{sup -1} at 750 deg C, with cathodic current density until 100 mA.cm{sup -2}. (author)

  5. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  6. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni{sup 2+}). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e{sup -}) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni{sup 0}) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate.

  8. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  9. Electrodeposition and characterization of manganese-bismuth system from chloride based acidic bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfedda, B., E-mail: baya_pg@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux (LPCM), Universite M. Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Benbrahim, N.; Kadri, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux (LPCM), Universite M. Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Chainet, E. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la piscine, B.P. 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Charlot, F.; Coindeau, S. [C.M.T.C., Grenoble I.N.P. Bat Phelma Campus, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 75, 1260 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Mn-Bi system has been successfully electrodeposited on Cu/Si substrates from aqueous ammonium chloride containing electrolyte. A thermodynamic study of the electrolysis bath highlights the possible formation of manganese complexes (MnCl{sup +}, MnCl{sub 2},MnCl{sub 3}{sup -}) and bismuth complexes (BiCl{sup 2+},BiCl{sub 2}{sup +}, BiCl{sub 3},BiCl{sub 4}{sup -},BiCl{sub 5}{sup 2-},BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3-}). The mechanism process involving Mn and Bi electrodeposition is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Mn-Bi films can be grown under potentiostatic control. The physico-chemical, morphological and structural characterizations of the deposits were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays analysis (XRD). The results reveal a granular surface quality and a heterogeneous chemical composition of the films. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals the presence of manganese and bismuth peaks whose relative intensities vary according to the imposed potential and the position on the sample. The X-rays diffraction analysis showed three different crystalline phases: {alpha}-manganese (body centred cubic system), {gamma}-manganese (body centred tetragonal system) and bismuth (rhombohedral system).

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the mechanism of the electrorefining of uranium in fused salt baths (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1961-01-01

    Very pure uranium can be obtained by electrorefining under the following conditions: electrolyte: UCl 3 (ca. 30 per cent wt.) dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic, cathode: molybdenum, atmosphere: argon, temperature: 400-450 deg. C. The detailed mechanism of the refining process has been hitherto unknown. Electrode-potential studies undertaken to fill this gap have shown that: 1. UCl prepared according to Newton contains an impurity (perhaps UH 3 ) that interferes with the yield of the cathode deposit. We propose a treatment to eliminate this impurity. 2. The quasi-reversible character of the system U +3 ↔U 0 is the principal reason for the production of high purity uranium. The cathodic deposition and anodic dissolution seem to be primary reactions. 3. The presence of moisture in the molten bath has a very harmful influence on the overall electrorefining process: the uranium obtained contains many impurities; the cathode current efficiency falls from 80 to about 10 per cent; and the anode is substantially corroded, the apparent anode current efficiency rising from 90 to about 120 per cent. An interpretation of these effects is given, based on the experimental polarization curves. (authors) [fr

  11. Zn–Mn alloy coatings from acidic chloride bath: Effect of deposition conditions on the Zn–Mn electrodeposition-morphological and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukil, N., E-mail: nloukil87@gmail.com; Feki, M.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Mn co-deposition from an additives-free chloride bath is possible. • Effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration and current density on Zn-Mn electrodeposition and particularly Mn content into Zn-Mn deposits were investigated. • A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration as well as the applied potential on Zn-Mn nucleation process. • Effect of current density on the morphology and structure of Zn-Mn alloys deposits. • A transition from crystalline to amorphous structure may occur in the Mn alloy electrodeposits at high current densities. - Abstract: Zn–Mn alloy electrodeposition on steel electrode in chloride bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric techniques. Cyclic voltammetries (CV) reveal a deep understanding of electrochemical behaviors of each metal Zn, Mn, proton discharge and Zn–Mn co-deposition. The electrochemical results show that with increasing Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath, Mn{sup 2+} reduction occurs at lower over-potential leading to an enhancement of Mn content into the Zn–Mn deposits. A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration on Zn–Mn nucleation process. It was found that the nucleation process is not extremely affected by Mn{sup 2+} concentration. Nevertheless, it significantly depends on the applied potential. Several parameters such as Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration, current density and stirring were investigated with regard to the Mn content into the final Zn–Mn coatings. It was found that the Mn content increases with increasing the applied current density j{sub imp} and Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath. However, stirring of the solution decreases the Mn content in the Zn–Mn coatings. The phase structure and surface morphology of Zn–Mn deposits are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning

  12. Structures and textures of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloys from chloride baths. Estructuras y textura de la aleaciones Zn-Ni electrodepositadas con baos de cloruros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcel, A.C.; Ferrer-Gimenez, C.

    1993-01-01

    Structures and surface textures of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloys have been identified by an XRD method. Alloys in the range 0-30% Ni were obtained onto deep drawing steel sheet from chloride baths at high current densities. Two-Phase [eta] + [gamma] structures were identified below 10.20% Ni, and only [gamma] phase was detected in layers with nickel content between 10,20 to 30%, showing significant changes in surface textures. A high density of (411) planes laying parallel to surface were detected in the range of maximum corrosion resistance 11-14% Ni. Textures also affect surface aspect, which changes from typical matter grey to bright when nickel content exceeds 15%. In addition to (411) planes, both (422) and (222) planes parallel to surface were detected for these alloys. (Author)

  13. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  14. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  15. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  16. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  17. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  18. Electrolysis of uranium tetrafluorure fused salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic preparation of U has been unsuccessful because the metal formed is in easily oxidized state. Electrolytic depositions were made under various conditions from fused NaCl-KCl baths containing UF 4 . X-ray diffraction studies were made of the products. The results indicate that mixed U with several oxides phases are produced. It was concluded that the method was unlikely to be efficient for the production of U metal. (Author) [es

  19. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  20. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  1. Illicit bath salts: not for bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Patrick B; Iverson, Richard B; Gajagowni, Raghavendran G; Spencer, Lee

    2011-12-01

    There has been an increase in the popularity of designer drugs known as "Bath Salts" in the United States. These products commonly contain mephedrone, mephylone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), or other cathinone derivatives with psychoactive properties similar to amphetamine and cocaine. Although recently outlawed, abuse of these products continues to occur in Mississippi. We report a 19-year-old male who presented with paranoia and auditory as well as visual hallucinations. Auditory effects included voices that prompted him to kill people. The patient displayed anxiety, paranoia, and exhibited repeated bouts of inappropriate laughter. Urine toxicology analysis via GC/ MS detected MDPV, a compound structurally similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Clinicians should be aware that these designer drugs are not detected with common immunoassay drug screens. Symptoms most commonly associated with these substances include tachycardia, delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. Psychosis, self harm, and death have been associated with some cases.

  2. Baby Bath Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bath. Most parents start with the baby's face and move down to dirtier parts of the body. This keeps rinsed areas from getting soapy again. If your newborn has hair and you think it needs washing, go ahead. With your free hand gently massage a drop of mild baby shampoo into your ...

  3. Functional Use Database (FUse)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are five different files for this dataset: 1. A dataset listing the reported functional uses of chemicals (FUse) 2. All 729 ToxPrint descriptors obtained from...

  4. The bath: a nursing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Z R

    1993-06-01

    This article examines the bath as a nursing ritual, using examples from the literature from the 1880s to the present time. Selections from nursing periodicals and other literature are used to support the connections between past and present nursing practices in relation to bathing and hygienic care. The bath represents part of the essential character of nursing and is rooted in the beliefs, art, and science of the profession. It is a channel for many other nursing activities and responses, and as such, occupies a necessary part of nursing's repertoire and identity.

  5. OLED panel with fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  6. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  7. Electrochemical treatment of spent tan bath solution for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benhadji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A spent tanning bath contains high concentration of salts, chromium and protein. The treatment system for removal of chlorides or chromium from this effluent is expensive. In this context this waste has to be reused. Our study focuses on the application of advanced oxidation processes for protein removal present in a tanning bath. To improve the quality of the chromium tanning bath, two electrochemical processes (electrooxidation and peroxi-electrocoagulation process, PEP are investigated in a batch reactor. The effects of operational parameters such as reactor configuration, current density and electrolysis time on chemical oxygen demand (COD and protein removal efficiency are examined. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for process, the COD and protein removal efficiency reached 53 and 100%, respectively. The optimum values are determined for the hybrid process (PEP under 0.13 A·cm−2 over 2 h. The treated tanning bath is used as a tanning solution in leather processing. The influence of chromium salt dose, pH solution, stirring time and contact time on the leather characteristic is evaluated. The hides tanned after the addition of 0.25% of commercial chromium salt, at pH solution, leaving them stirring for 4 h with a contact time of 2 days, and showed good hydrothermal stability and physical characteristics of leather.

  8. Fused Lasso Additive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN.

  9. Climate change and bathing water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2007-01-01

    In the new European bathing water directive, 2006/7/EG, two microbiological indicators, i.e. intestinal enterococci and Escherichia coli, are used to assess the state of the official outdoor bathing waters. In this directive also cyanobacteria are included, being a cause of insufficient bathing

  10. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled...

  11. Ferrocene-fused derivatives of acenes, tropones and thiepins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Bidhya Laxmi

    This research project is concentrated on tuning the properties of small organic molecules, namely polyacenes, tropones and thiepins, by incorporating redox-active transition metal centers pi-bonded to terminal cyclopentadienyl ligands. Organometallicfused acenequinones, tropones, thiepins and cyclopentadiene-capped polyacenes were synthesized and characterized. This work was divided into three parts: first, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused acenequinones, cyclopentadiene-capped acenequinones and their subsequent aromatization to polyacenes; second, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused tropones, thiotropones and tropone oxime; and third, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused thiepins. Ferrocene-fused quinones are the precursors to our target complexes. Our synthetic route to ferrocenequinones involved two-fold aldol condensation between 1,2- diformylferrocene and naphthalene-1,4-diol or anthracene-1,4-diol, and four-fold condensation between 1,2-diformylferrocene and 1,4-cyclohexanedione. Reduction of ferrocene-fused quinones with borane in THF resulted in ferrocene-fused dihydroacenes. Attempts to reduce ferrocene-fused acenequinones with sodium dithionite led to metalfree cyclopentadiene- (Cp-) capped acenequinones. Cp-capped acenequinones were aromatized to bis(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl polyacenes by using lithium (triisopropylsilyl)acetylide (TIPSC≡CLi) with subsequent dehydroxylation by stannous chloride. The compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. Further, the electronic properties of these compounds were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry showed oxidation potentials of Cp-capped TIPS-tetracene and bis-Cp-capped TIPS-anthracene as 0.49 V and 0.61 V, respectively (vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium). The electrochemical band gaps were 2.15 eV and 2.58 eV, respectively. Organic thin-film transistor device performance of Cp-capped polyacenes was studied using solution deposition

  12. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Stroke Occurring while Bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Oshima, Takeo; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Imai, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Stroke can occur during any human activity. Although cardiac arrests or drowning accidents while bathing have been studied extensively, there are few studies focusing on stroke occurring while bathing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of stroke occurring while bathing and the association between stroke and drowning accidents. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CIs], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICHs], and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAHs]) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing-related strokes to strokes occurring during other activities was evaluated. Moreover, the demographics of these 2 groups were compared in each stroke type. Among the 1939 patients, 78 (CI, 32; ICH, 28; and SAH, 18) sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing to other activities in the SAH group was the highest (8.6%), followed by the ICH group (5.5%), whereas that in the CI group was the lowest (2.6%). Regardless of stroke type, only a minority of patients were found to have collapsed inside the bathtub. The higher ratio of bathing in hemorrhagic strokes may indicate that there is a small risk of hemorrhagic stroke while bathing in vulnerable subjects. This retrospective study did not establish a causal relationship between bathing and stroke nor identify risk factors, which means that future prospective studies are warranted. The finding that the great majority of bathing-related stroke patients were found to have collapsed outside the bathtub suggests that the involvement of stroke in drowning accidents in the bathtub may be small. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  15. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  16. Alternatives to hexachlorophene bathing of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    In controlled trials newborn infants were bathed with Lactacyd, pHisoHex, Hibitane, Lanohex or tap water. Bacteriologic samples were taken from three sites (groin, axilla and cord) immediately after birth, following an initial bath with one of the test agents, and on day 3 or 5 after a water bath. Initial bathing with all agents, including water, reduced the concentration of bacteria on the skin to a similar extent. However, comparisons of bacterial flora at birth versus those on days 3 and 5 indicated differences in the actions of the various agents on pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. Lactacyd and Hibitane appeared to be suitable alternatives to hexachlorophene in the control of pathogenic bacteria on the skin of newborns. However, their absorption and toxicity in the newborn are unknown and, unless use of a skin disinfectant is warranted, routine bathing of newborns with tap water appears to be satisfactory. PMID:328126

  17. Perspectives of Older Persons on Bathing and Bathing Disability: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C.; Gill, Thomas M.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Fried, Terri R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bathing is an important and potentially challenging self-care activity, and disability in bathing is associated with several adverse consequences. Little is known about older persons’ experiences with and perspectives on bathing. Objectives To understand the bathing experiences, attitudes, and preferences of older persons in order to inform the development of effective patient-centered interventions. Design Qualitative Study using the Grounded Theory framework. Participants Twenty-three community-living persons, age ≥ 78 years, identified from the Precipitating Events Project (PEP). Approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the participant’s home. Results Three themes emerged: 1) the importance and personal significance of bathing to older persons, 2) variability in attitudes, preferences, and sources of bathing assistance, and 3) older persons’ anticipation of and responses to bathing disability. Discussion The bathing experiences described by study participants underscore the personal significance of bathing and the need to account for attitudes and preferences when designing bathing interventions. Quantitative disability assessments may not capture the bathing modifications made by older persons in anticipation of disability and may result in missed opportunities for early intervention. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of targeted, patient-centered interventions that can subsequently be tested in clinical trials. PMID:20158554

  18. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  19. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  20. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-01-01

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO 3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI 2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  1. Water bath accelerated curing of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Water bath methods for accelerating the strength development of portland cement concrete were investigated in a two phase study as follows. Phase I - Participation in a cooperative accelerated strength testing program sponsored by the American Societ...

  2. Bath and Shower Diverter Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    An often-overlooked source of wasted water, many bath and shower diverters continuously leak a small amount of water from the tub spout while they are engaged, and water is being diverted from the bathtub to the showerhead.

  3. Water thermostatic bath to compare gallium cells

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, José Felipe Neves; Petkovic, Slavolhub Garcia; Moreira, Valquimar Marvila

    2001-01-01

    In general, gallium cells can be realised in any water thermostatic bath, however, some manufactures have developed air furnaces or heat-cooling ovens (with peltier cells and heating resistors) to avoid mechanic vibrations, electromagnetic interference, and to allow for easier and dedicated operation mode. Generally, all of these devices are dedicated and they are used with only one cell. As we want to compare two different gallium cells, we have developed a water thermostatic bath, whi...

  4. Reaction rate in a heat bath

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Maurice René Michel

    1992-01-01

    We show in detail how the presence of a heat bath of photons effectively gives charged particles in the final state of a decay process a temperature-dependent mass, and changes the effective strength of the force responsible for the decay. At low temperature, gauge invariance causes both these effects to be largely cancelled by absorption of photons from the heat bath and by stimulated emission into it, but at high temperature the temperature-dependent mass is the dominant feature.

  5. Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The need to investigate the perceptions of helpless patients to bed bathing by nurses is a very important aspect of quality assurance in nursing care. Aim: To determine the perceptions of helpless patients to the need for bed bath, the timing of bed bath, nurse's attitude during bed bath and the patient's attitude to ...

  6. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  7. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  8. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kotaro; Akiyoshi, Toshiki; Azuma, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ohgai, Takeshi; Morimura, Takao; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ṡ 4H2O, NiCl2 ṡ 6H2O and CoCl2 ṡ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 %) in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  9. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  10. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  11. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  12. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  13. FUSE Mission Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, G.

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observes light in the 905-1187 Å region with high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 20,000). FUSE was launched on 24 June 1999 and the early observations have yielded significant results in several areas of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. The sensitivity is sufficient to examine reddened lines of sight within the Milky Way as well as active galactic nuclei and QSOs for absorption line studies of both Milky Way and extragalactic gas clouds. This spectral region contains a number of important scientific diagnostics, including O VI, H I, D I, and the strong electronic transitions of the H2 and HD molecules. The instrument has four coaligned prime-focus telescopes and Rowland spectrographs with microchannel plate detectors. Two channels use Al:LiF coatings for optimum reflectivity from ~ 1000 to 1187 Å and the other two use SiC coatings for optimized throughput between 905 and 1105 Å. The gratings were holographically ruled to largely correct for astigmatism and to minimize scattered light. The detectors have KBr photocathodes and use photon counting to achieve good quantum efficiency with low background signal. The primary mission duration is three years; an extended mission phase is planned. A majority of the observing time is allocated to guest observers. (http://fuse.pha.jhu.edu)

  14. About a New Type of Fuse Based on the Controllable Fusing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLESCA, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuses are among the best known of electrical devices and there are an extremely large number in use throughout the world. Beside of the advantageous features, the nowadays fuses have certain drawbacks. Therefore, a new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept is proposed and a study as regards the total clearing time is done. The new concept has been validated through many experimental tests at different current values. The new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept can be integrated within an overcurrent protection system especially to protect power semiconductors where the Joule integral criterion is better satisfied.

  15. Novikov Engine with Fluctuating Heat Bath Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Karsten; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2018-04-01

    The Novikov engine is a model for heat engines that takes the irreversible character of heat fluxes into account. Using this model, the maximum power output as well as the corresponding efficiency of the heat engine can be deduced, leading to the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. The classical model assumes constant heat bath temperatures, which is not a reasonable assumption in the case of fluctuating heat sources. Therefore, in this article the influence of stochastic fluctuations of the hot heat bath's temperature on the optimal performance measures is investigated. For this purpose, a Novikov engine with fluctuating heat bath temperature is considered. Doing so, a generalization of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is found. The results can help to quantify how the distribution of fluctuating quantities affects the performance measures of power plants.

  16. Use of low fusing alloy in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A

    1998-11-01

    Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.

  17. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  18. Stormwater overflow impacts on the sanitary quality of bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeux, E; Blanchet, F; Tisserand, B

    2007-01-01

    New European Directive 2006/7/EC concerning the management of bathing water quality introduces the concept of 'active management of bathing water sanitary quality' which could lead to a temporary bathing prohibition in case of short term pollution. For the last three bathing seasons, Veolia has carried out in experimental mode this 'active management' concept at more than one hundred bathing sites with various characteristics. Results confirm the high level of microbiological pollution observed in sewer overflows during rainy periods, which is the main cause of bathing water quality deterioration. An on-line treatment solution has been successfully tested. This solution may be used in dense urban areas.

  19. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  20. Transplantation of Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Khai Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed fused renal ectopia is a type of congenital fused anomaly of the kidney. This type of kidney, when encountered, can be used as a donor organ to provide useful solution to the critical shortage of available organs for transplantation.

  1. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1. [46 FR 59509, Dec. 4, 1981] ...

  2. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to be...

  3. Freezing and melting of a bath material onto a cylindrical solid additive in an agitated bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh U.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In melting and assimilation of a cylindrical shaped additive in an agitated hot melt bath during the process of preparation of cast iron and steel of different grades, an unavoidable step of transient conjugated conduction-controlled axisymmetric freezing and melting of the bath material onto the additive immediately after its dunking in bath occurs. Decreasing the time of completion of this step is of great significance for production cost reduction and increasing the productivity of such preparations. Its suitable mathematical model of lump-integral type is developed. Its nondimensional format indicates the dependence of this step upon independent nondimensional parameters- the bath temperature, θb the modified Biot number, Bim denoting the bath agitation, the property-ratio, B and the heat capacity-ratio, Cr of the melt bath-additive system, the Stefan number, St pertaining to the phase-change of the bath material. The model provides the closed-form expressions for both the growth of the frozen layer thickness, ξ onto the additive and the heat penetration depth, η in the additive. Both are functions of these parameters, but when they are transformed to the growth of the frozen layer thickness with respect to the heat capacity ratio per unit Stefan number; and the time per unit property-ratio, B, their expressions become only a function of single parameter, the conduction factor, Cof consisting of the parameters, B, Bim and θb. The closed-form expression for the growth of the maximum thickness of the frozen layer, its time of growth, the time of the freezing and melting; the heat penetration depth are also derived. When the heat penetration depth approaches the central axis of the cylindrical additive in case of the complete melting of the frozen layer developed Cof≤11/72. It is found that the decreasing Cof reduces both the time of this unavoidable step and the growth of the maximum frozen layer thickness and at Cof=0, the frozen layer

  4. Laser welding of fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  5. Thermal conduction effects in spin-lattice relaxation experiments on ytterbium chloride hexahydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Blokhuis, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The anomalous behaviour of the spin-lattice relaxation observed for single crystals of ytterbium chloride hexahydrate at fields stronger than 5 kOe is due to the poor heat transfer in the liquid-helium bath. The thermal conduction effects can be explained by means of a thermal conduction model for

  6. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  7. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  8. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Cavity-Assisted Quantum Bath Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, K. W.; Vool, U.; Zhou, D.; Weber, S. J.; Girvin, S. M.; Siddiqi, I.

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for a superconducting artificial atom coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the atom to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature.

  10. Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Mocé-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bac...

  11. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  12. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary values, the response of the projectile, flywheel and other components can be determined continuously for firing and in-flight conditions.

  13. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  14. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  15. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  16. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  17. Comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D.; Mettler, S.C.; DiGiovanni, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenon which results in the catastrophic destruction of the guiding properties of an optical fiber has been observed at laser power densities on the order of 3 x 10 6 watts/cm 2 in the core. This phenomenon is characterized by the propagation of a bright visible light from the point of initiation toward the laser source. The term 'fiber fuse' has been used because of the similarity in appearance to a burning fuse. The fiber fuse has been shown to start when the end of the fiber is contacted. It has also been initiated spontaneously from mechanical splices. This paper reports experimental data gathered on the fiber fuse and discusses their relationship to proposed physical mechanisms

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  19. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large v...

  20. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  1. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  2. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  3. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  4. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi; Prakash, Vijay; Sharma, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  5. Metal-Free Allene-Based Synthesis of Enantiopure Fused Polycyclic Sultones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Aragoncillo, Cristina; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Campillos, Gonzalo

    2016-01-04

    The controlled metal-free preparation of fused δ-sultone derivatives has been developed starting from hydroxyallenynes. The use of 2-(3,3-diethyltriaz-1-enyl)-4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride in a sulfonylation/rearrangement sequence gives access to 1,3-dien-2-yl arenesulfonates. These functionalized enynes suffered a direct cyclization/desaturation radical cascade, allowing the synthesis of a variety of enynyl [1,2]oxathiine 1,1-dioxides. Stereoselective cyclization of the readily formed core through intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has also been demonstrated, affording β-lactam- and glucofuranoside-fused δ-sultone polycycles. These selective reactions have been studied experimentally and additionally, their reaction mechanisms have been investigated computationally by means of density functional theory calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  7. A random control trial of contrast baths and ice baths for recovery during competition in U/20 rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Heazlewood, I Tim; Climstein, Mike

    2011-04-01

    Players in team sports must recover in a relatively short period of time to perform at optimal levels. To enhance recovery, cryotherapy is widely used. To date, there are limited scientific data to support the use of cryotherapy for recovery. Players (n = 26) from a premier rugby club volunteered to participate in a random control trial (RCT) using contrast baths, ice baths, and no recovery. Statistical analysis, between group and within group, with repeated measures was conducted along with determination of effect sizes in 2 field tests. Pre and postfield tests including a 300-m test and a phosphate decrement test and subjective reports were conducted during the RCT. No significant difference was identified between base tests and retests in the phosphate decrement test or the 300-m tests. Effect size calculations identified a medium to large effect (d = 0.72) for 300-m tests for contrast baths against control. Trivial effects were identified for ice baths (d = 0.17) in the 300-m test against control. Effect size calculations in the phosphate decrement test showed a trivial effect (d = 0.18) contrast baths and a negative effect (d = -0.62) for ice baths. Treatment-treatment analysis identified a large effect for contrast baths (d = 0.99) in the phosphate decrement test and a medium effect for contrast baths (d = 0.53) in the 300-m test. Effect scores across contrast baths, ice baths, and passive recovery along with subjective reports indicate a trend toward contrast baths benefiting recovery in rugby. The continued use of 5-minute ice baths for recovery should be reconsidered based on this research because trends suggest a detrimental effect.

  8. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J.; Sanchez, S.; Picard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl 2 -NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO 2- indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu 2 O 3 was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO 2- diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  9. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  10. Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Bismuth Fluoride (Bif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of bismuth fluoride (Bif3) were deposited using chemical bath deposition technique from chemical baths containing solutions of bismuth nitrate (EDTA) and potassium bromide with EDTA as complexing agent in slightly acidic medium. The films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ...

  11. [Construction hygiene in the area of bathing and recreation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, H G

    1992-08-01

    Construction hygiene in the bathing and recreation areas underwent many changes during the decades. In each case it was accomplished very intensively and defined by the actual needs of the population or by those responsible for the population. With regard to the development of bathing since the Romans, the bathing habits of the Roman times, during the Middle Ages, at the 18th century, at the beginning of the 19th century and of today are characterized broadly. The respective constructional as well as the hygienic measures are also shown and discussed in this context. Whereas the Roman thermals created prerequisites for physical activity as well as possibilities for spare time, and in the early Middle Ages, sexual excesses and the risk factors connected thereby led to the transfer of infectious diseases and consequently to the elimination of the public baths. At the beginning of the 18th century first the cleaning of the body and at the beginning of the 20th century physical activity became very important. With the help of the construction plans for baths and shower-baths and swimming pools of 1906 the aims and purposes of the baths are discussed and the respective constructional changes are shown the example of warm water baths (swimming pools) in Hamburg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Does bathing newborns remove potentially harmful pathogens from the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medves, J M; O'Brien, B

    2001-09-01

    Newborn infants are routinely bathed after birth partly to reduce the possibility of transmitting potential pathogens to others. The extent to which a mild soap reduces the quantity and type of microbes found on the skin through normal colonization has not been reported. The objective of the study was to compare colonization rates between infants bathed in soap and water and infants bathed in plain water. One hundred and forty infants were randomly assigned to one group bathed in a mild pH neutral soap and water or to another group bathed in water alone. Microbiology swabs were taken on three occasions (before the first bath, 1 hour after the bath, and 24 hours after birth) from two sites (anterior fontanelle and umbilical area). No difference occurred between groups on type or quantity of organisms found at each time period. Skin colonization is a function of time, and the quantity of organisms identified increased over time (Friedman A 2 = 111.379, df = 5, p newborns, health care professionals may wish to wear gloves until the infant has been bathed.

  13. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  14. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712... and toilet facilities. [Statutory Provisions] The Secretary may require any operator to provide... of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric Blasting § 56...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 57.6502 Section 57.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric Blasting...

  18. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  19. Radiation hardness study on fused silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, M.; Bennet, E. D.; Branford, D.; Cowie, E. N.; Dueren, M.; Foehl, K.; Glazier, D.; Kaiser, R.; Lehmann, A.; Lu, S.; Marton, J.; Ostendorf, R.; Schepers, G.; Schwarz, C.; Seitz, B.; Teufel, A.; Watts, D.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation hardness tests have been carried out on fused silica samples of the highest optical grade from three different manufacturers (Suprasil, Lithosil and Coming). The samples were irradiated with protons in order to emulate the expected accumulated radiation damage over the entire life span of

  20. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults

  1. Fused aromatic thienopyrazines: structure, properties and function

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of a fused aromatic thieno[3.4-b]pyrazine system and their application in optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Introduction of a fused aromatic unit followed by side chain engineering, dramatically enhanced the charge carrier mobility in thin film transistor devices and mobilities up to 0.2 cm2/Vs were achieved. The optoelectronic properties of these fused aromatic thienopyrazine polymers (Eg = 1.3 to 1.6 eV, HOMO = -4.9 to -5.2 V) were tuned by introduction of various fused aromatic rings within thienopyrazine. By balancing the fundamental properties of these polymers, both high charge carrier mobilities and moderate PCEs in solar cells were achieved. Further, effects of copolymerizing units are discussed. Low band gap semiconducting polymer (Eg ∼ 1 eV) with high field effect mobility (0.044 cm2/Vs) was obtained using cyclopentadithiophene as copolymerizing unit. Finally, a molecular design approach to enhance the absorption coefficients is discussed, which resulted in improved power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa; Gomez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO 4 + 0.1 M Co(ClO 4 ) 2 + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H 3 BO 3 + 0.1 M NaClO 4 bath, low temperature (10 o C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg 3 phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg 3 led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  3. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy

  4. The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented

  5. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  6. Dihydropyridine-fused and pyridine-fused coumarins: Reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez-Vergara, Luis J.; Pardo-Jiménez, V.; Barrientos, C.; Olea-Azar, C.A.; Navarrete-Encina, P.A.; Squella, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two series of dihydropyridine-fused and pyridine-fused coumarins were synthesised and electrochemically characterised in aprotic medium. In both series, the most easily reducible groups were the endocyclic carbonyl groups. The electrochemical mechanism for both types of compounds is strongly dependent on the experimental time-scale. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) reduction on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) of the endocyclic carbonyl group of dihydropyridine-fused coumarins involves an ECEC mechanism with two electron transfer steps that are coupled with chemical reactions to produce the corresponding hemiacetal derivative. In the case of pyridine-fused coumarins, CV reduction of the endocyclic carbonyl group involves an EEC mechanism. ESR studies revealed the presence of a stabilised intermediate only for the pyridine-fused derivatives. Our theoretical study showed a spin density map of radical species delocalised mainly within the coumarin ring, indicating the reduction of the endocyclic carbonyl group. In the case of the dihydropyridine-fused derivatives, the mildly acid hydrogen of the dihydropyridine ring destabilises the radical via a father–son type reaction.

  7. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  8. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  9. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or replaced by hand in an energized...

  11. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  12. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction

  13. Semantic image segmentation with fused CNN features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hui-qiang; Zhang, Hua; Xue, Yan-bing; Zhou, Mian; Xu, Guang-ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-09-01

    Semantic image segmentation is a task to predict a category label for every image pixel. The key challenge of it is to design a strong feature representation. In this paper, we fuse the hierarchical convolutional neural network (CNN) features and the region-based features as the feature representation. The hierarchical features contain more global information, while the region-based features contain more local information. The combination of these two kinds of features significantly enhances the feature representation. Then the fused features are used to train a softmax classifier to produce per-pixel label assignment probability. And a fully connected conditional random field (CRF) is used as a post-processing method to improve the labeling consistency. We conduct experiments on SIFT flow dataset. The pixel accuracy and class accuracy are 84.4% and 34.86%, respectively.

  14. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bregante

    Full Text Available We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  15. The Complexity of the BATH Words in Cardiff English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger; Osorno, Christina Høøck

    2017-01-01

    , bath) whose citation forms contain the TRAP vowel /æ/ in General American but the PALM vowel /ɑː/ in British RP. In other accents of English, including Cardiff English, the lexical distribution of the items is often less straightforward, with some items taking PALM while others take TRAP. The situation......This article investigates how a small number of female speakers from Cardiff pronounce items belonging to the lexical set BATH. The data forms a subsample extracted from a longitudinal study on Cardiff English with recordings from 1977, 1990 and 2011. The BATH set comprises items (e.g., chance...

  16. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  17. Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

    2012-09-01

    Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  19. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  20. Online process control of acidic texturisation baths with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Martin; Oltersdorf, Antje; Rentsch, Jochen

    2009-12-15

    Etching of silicon with mixtures of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid is a widely used process in silicon solar cell fabrication. One precondition for an optimized usage of the acidic etching baths is the exact knowledge of the chemical bath composition. In this paper, we investigated a fast and online-capable method for the total analysis of all bath constituents by ion chromatography. The chromatographical system consists of a low-volume injection valve, which injects the concentrated samples directly into the KOH-based eluent. After separation and detection of nitrate and fluoride, a post-column derivatization with sodium molybdate is applied to detect the hexafluorosilicic acid, which enriches in the texturisation bath during the etching process. The results of the presented approach are discussed and compared with already published chromatographical and titration methods found in literature.

  1. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  2. Phosphorus-31 NMR analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths in this department the principle compound observed is aminotrimethyl-phosphonate, or ATMP. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down; and new compounds, aminodimethylphosphonate (ADMP), aminomonomethylphosphonate, (AMMP), and inorganic phosphate (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), are formed. The NMR method has been used for almost three years to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products. In a previous report, results from January through October 1988 were reported. In this report, results from November 1988 through January 1991 are given.

  3. Bathing Trunk Inevus Associated with Neurofibromatosis and Raised Intracranial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S Arya

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy had bathing trunk nevus with multiple large neurofibromata on the nevus and raised intracranial tension presenting with bilateral papilloedema and pyramidal tract sings. This combination, of features is extremely rare.

  4. Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Verma; Rajesh Singla; Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temp...

  5. DNC/CNC Plate Cutting at Bath Iron Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    REAPS 5th Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings Paper No. 12: DNC/ CNC Plate Cutting at Bath Iron Works U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION...REAPS 5th Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings Paper No. 12: DNC/ CNC Plate Cutting at Bath Iron Works 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...order to present a complete overview of DNC/ CNC repair cutting at BIW, the paper will concentrate on the following topics: l ABSTRACT - Required

  6. Fracture and Fatigue Resistance of Cemented versus Fused CAD-on Veneers over Customized Zirconia Implant Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossair, Shereen Ahmed; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Morsi, Tarek Salah

    2015-01-05

    To evaluate the fracture mechanics of cemented versus fused CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments. Forty-five identical customized CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutments (0.5 mm thick) were prepared and seated on short titanium implant abutments (Ti base). A second scan was made to fabricate 45 CAD-on veneers (IPS Empress CAD, A2). Fifteen CAD-on veneers were cemented on the zirconia abutments (Panavia F2.0). Another 15 were fused to the zirconia abutments using low-fusing glass, while manually layered veneers served as control (n = 15). The restorations were subjected to artificial aging (3.2 million cycles between 5 and 10 kg in a water bath at 37°C) before being axially loaded to failure. Fractured specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy to detect fracture origin, location, and size of critical crack. Stress at failure was calculated using fractography principles (alpha = 0.05). Cemented CAD-on restorations demonstrated significantly higher (F = 72, p CAD-on and manually layered restorations. Fractographic analysis of fractured specimens indicated that cemented CAD-on veneers failed due to radial cracks originating from the veneer/resin interface. Branching of the critical crack was observed in the bulk of the veneer. Fused CAD-on veneers demonstrated cohesive fracture originating at the thickest part of the veneer ceramic, while manually layered veneers failed due to interfacial fracture at the zirconia/veneer interface. Within the limitations of this study, cemented CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments demonstrated higher fracture than fused and manually layered veneers. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Quartz/fused silica chip carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research and development effort was to develop monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) packaging which will operate efficiently at millimeter-wave frequencies. The packages incorporated fused silica as the substrate material which was selected due to its favorable electrical properties and potential performance improvement over more conventional materials for Ka-band operation. The first step towards meeting this objective is to develop a package that meets standard mechanical and thermal requirements using fused silica and to be compatible with semiconductor devices operating up to at least 44 GHz. The second step is to modify the package design and add multilayer and multicavity capacity to allow for application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) to control multiple phase shifters. The final step is to adapt the package design to a phased array module with integral radiating elements. The first task was a continuation of the SBIR Phase 1 work. Phase 1 identified fused silica as a viable substrate material by demonstrating various plating, machining, and adhesion properties. In Phase 2 Task 1, a package was designed and fabricated to validate these findings. Task 2 was to take the next step in packaging and fabricate a multilayer, multichip module (MCM). This package is the predecessor to the phased array module and demonstrates the ability to via fill, circuit print, laminate, and to form vertical interconnects. The final task was to build a phased array module. The radiating elements were to be incorporated into the package instead of connecting to it with wire or ribbon bonds.

  8. The role of Cl in the chemical bath on the properties of CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maticiuc, Natalia; Hiie, Jaan; Raadik, Taavi; Graf, Aleksandr; Gavrilov, Aleksei

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chlorine (Cl) concentration in the chemical bath deposition (CBD) solution on the properties of post-deposition annealed cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates was investigated. CBD CdS films with a thickness of 250 nm were deposited from a standard bath containing cadmium sulfate, ammonia and thiourea. For doping of the CdS films with Cl, ammonium chloride was also added to the bath. The CBD process is characterized by the opportunity it provides to incorporate solution components like hydroxide group and chlorine into the lattice of growing films. CBD CdS thin films with different [Cl]/[Cd] ratios were characterized. The structural as well as electrical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of CBD CdS thin films indicated the creation of electrically and optically active defects in the CdS lattice in the deposition process. Both the incorporated hydroxychloride groups and H 2 annealing play a substantial role in controlling the CdS electrical and optical properties. A good correlation between the PL and electrical properties of CBD CdS thin films was achieved and explained on the basis of a classical understanding of donor–acceptor pairs formed by the Cl S + and (V Cd Cl S ) − centers and emergence of Cd excess in CBD CdS lattice due to destruction of incorporated hydroxide groups in the annealing process. - Highlights: ► CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition were characterized. ► Different chlorine doping concentration and H 2 annealing were applied. ► Both doping and annealing were used to control the properties of CdS films. ► A correlation was found between photoluminescence and electrical properties

  9. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  10. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  11. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    Full Text Available Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events.In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP, has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5, and shown for the first time physiological (mM chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function.Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  12. Development of a 300 L Calibration Bath for Oceanographic Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S.; Yamazawa, K.; Nakano, T.; Saito, I.; Tamba, J.; Wakimoto, T.; Katoh, K.

    2017-11-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been developing a 300 L calibration bath to calibrate 24 oceanographic thermometers (OT) simultaneously and thereby reduce the calibration work load necessary to service more than 180 OT every year. This study investigated characteristics of the developed 300 L calibration bath using a SBE 3plus thermometer produced by an OT manufacturer. We also used 11 thermistor thermometers that were calibrated to be traceable to the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90) within 1 mK of standard uncertainty through collaboration of JAMSTEC and NMIJ/AIST. Results show that the time stability of temperature of the developed bath was within ± 1 mK. Furthermore, the temperature uniformity was ± 1.3 mK. The expanded uncertainty (k=2) components for the characteristics of the developed 300 L calibration bath were estimated as 2.9 mK, which is much less than the value of 10 mK: the required specification for uncertainty of calibration for the OT. These results demonstrated the utility of this 300 L calibration bath as a device for use with a new calibration system.

  13. Prediction of human thermophysiological responses during shower bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Abdul; Takada, Satoru; Matsushita, Takayuki; Kubo, Hiroko

    2010-03-01

    This study develops a model to predict the thermophysiological response of the human body during shower bathing. Despite the needs for the quantitative evaluation of human body response during bathing for thermal comfort and safety, the complicated mechanisms of heat transfer at the skin surface, especially during shower bathing, have disturbed the development of adequate models. In this study, an initial modeling approach is proposed by developing a simple heat transfer model at the skin surface during shower bathing applied to Stolwijk's human thermal model. The main feature of the model is the division of the skin surface into three parts: a dry part, a wet part without water flow, and a wet part with water flow. The area ratio of each part is decided by a simple formula developed from a geometrical approach based on the shape of the Stolwijk's human thermal model. At the same time, the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the flowing water is determined experimentally. The proposed model is validated by a comparison with the results of human subject experiments under controlled and free shower conditions. The model predicts the mean skin temperature during shower fairly well both for controlled and free shower bathing styles.

  14. Fused upper central incisors: management of two clinical cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Marini, Roberta; Bossù, Maurizio; Ierardo, Gaetano; Annibali, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the management of two clinical cases, in which the upper right central incisor was fused with a supernumerary tooth and the upper left central incisor was macrodontic. A radiographic examination revealed that the fused teeth had two separate roots. Hemisectioning of the fused teeth was performed, the supernumerary portion was extracted and the remaining part was reshaped to remove any sharp margins and to achieve a normal morphology. The macrodontic central incisors were no...

  15. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  16. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunhee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  17. A Radiographic Study of Fused and Geminated Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul Jae; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and several characteristic features of fused and geminated teeth were studied radiographically, with full mouth periapical radiogram and pantomogram, in 4201 patients of mixed dentition and 5358 patients of permanent dentition. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence was revealed to 2.86%, 0.32%, 0.33%, and 0.06% in deciduous fused tooth, permanent fused tooth, deciduous geminated tooth and permanent geminated tooth respectively, and these anomalies were occurred in female more than male. 2. Fused teeth were observed predominantly in lower anterior teeth area, especially in lateral incisor and canine region, and many cases of deciduous geminated tooth were observed in upper central incisor region. 3. Congenital missing rates of succedaneous tooth in deciduous fused teeth were 57.1%, 85.7%, 71.0%, 69.0% in upper right and left central-lateral incisor regions, lower right and left lateral incisor-canine regions, respectively. 4. Prevalence of dental caries was 42.3%, 18.8% and 5.6% in deciduous fused, deciduous geminated and permanent fused tooth, respectively. 5. In classifying of fused and geminated teeth into 9 type, by following appearance such as number of crown, root, pulp chamber and pulp canal of those teeth, it was more favorable that Type I (2 crown, 2 root, 2 pulp chamber, 2 pulp canal) in deciduous fused tooth and Type IX (1 crown, 1 root, 1 pulp chamber, 1 pulp canal) in permanent used tooth, deciduous and permanent geminated tooth.

  18. Physiological and subjective responses to standing showers, sitting showers, and sink baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, T; Tochihara, Y; Kubo, M; Yamaguchi, C

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and subjective responses during and after bathing in three different bathing methods. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 minutes, and then rested for 30 minutes. Three kinds of bathing methods - standing shower, sitting shower and sink bath - were adopted in this experiment. Water temperature and flow volume of the showers were kept at 41 degrees C and 11 liter/min, while water temperature of the bath was kept at 40 degrees C. Rectal temperature, skin temperatures and heart rate of the subjects were measured continuously during bathing and the subsequent 30-minute rest. Blood pressure and votes for thermal sensations were recorded before bathing, after 5 and 10 minutes of bathing, and 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after bathing. The following results were obtained. 1) Although rectal temperature rose, on the average, by 0.15 degrees C in all bathing methods, there were no significant differences among the three bathing methods at any time in the experiment. 2) Mean skin temperature (Tsk) during the sink bath was significantly higher than that in the standing or sitting shower. After bathing, Tsk of sink bath was slightly higher than those of the remaining conditions, but did not significantly differ among the bathing methods. 3) Heart rate increased gradually during all the bathing methods, however, only HR in the standing shower exceeded 100 beats/min which was significantly higher than those of the two remaining bathing methods. 4) Blood pressure (BP) decreased rapidly during the sink bath in contrast to an increased BP in the sitting and standing showers.

  19. [Bed baths--an initiation ritual for the nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, M do C; de Figueirêdo, N M; Kestenberg, C C; Martins, E R

    1998-01-01

    It's a experience, at the Fundamental Nursing Laboratory, for the "Bath in the Bed" practice with 22 graduating from the UERJ nursing course, the object was to record the teaching strategy procedure, identify the students representations and feelings with her own bath and characterize, after the sensibility dynamic developed in "LIVING EXPERIENCES", her feelings. The explorer-qualitative research was implemented in 1997. Among the results there are the proper categories of the knowledge construction on the "Bath in the Bed": Incentive for body dirt cleaner; Incentive to pleasure--the relax body; Incentive to comfort--free body and Incentive to sensations--dynamic body. Conclusion, the students carry from their reality common sense knowledge for "dirt" and "clean" when representing their own body. When experiment to "touch" humors and perceives the client bad odors, even of symbolic way, their reactions are different and re-extend a cultural and scientific knowledge.

  20. Harbour bathing and the urban transition of water in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Farné Fratini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    transition processes. Our study suggests that the creation of the first harbour bath was not the end result of an overall master plan. Rather, we demonstrate that the harbour baths were the outcome of a contingent interplay among embedded actors’ myopic and navigational actions over a period of twenty years......n 2002 the first public harbour swimming bath in the inner harbour of Copenhagen opened. By translating the old industrial harbour into a site of urban living and recreation, the practice of swimming in the harbour has been instrumental in aligning and catalysing a series of broader urban...... transformations pertaining to the wastewater infrastructure, industrial activities, urban development, and international marketing of the city. Through a study of the processes by which swimming in the harbour came into being as a transformative urban practice, we develop a navigational conceptualisation of urban...

  1. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ....... It is demonstrated for a specific outfall how the method can be used to estimate the bathing water quality. The ambition with the paper has been to demonstrate how stochastic variations in a simple manner can be included in the analysis of water quality.......As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented...

  2. Isotope investigation of anodic slime movements in copper electrorefining baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, T.; Kohman, L.; Strzelecki, M.; Chojecki, M.; Kaczynska, R.; Wieclaw, B.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed and introduced for monitoring the movement of silver-containing anodic slimes in copper electrorefining baths. Radioactive 111 Ag was used as tracer and copper plates labelled with the tracer were inserted into the anodes. During electrorefining the slime produced was continuously marked by the tracer. The activity of 111 Ag was measured at various points inside the bath by sampling and continuously registered with the aid of integrators. It was found that more than 99 percent of the slime slipped to the bottom of the bath close to the anode surface and did not migrate even at highest electrolyte flow rates. Small quantities of suspended slime contained an insignificant concentration of silver and should not be a source of cathode contamination. (author)

  3. Theories of quantum dissipation and nonlinear coupling bath descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2018-03-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in nonlinear coupling environments remains in general an intractable task. In this work, we address the key issues toward the solutions to the lowest nonlinear environment, a harmonic bath coupled both linearly and quadratically with an arbitrary system. To determine the bath coupling descriptors, we propose a physical mapping scheme, together with the prescription reference invariance requirement. We then adopt a recently developed dissipaton equation of motion theory [R. X. Xu et al., Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 30, 395 (2017)], with the underlying statistical quasi-particle ("dissipaton") algebra being extended to the quadratic bath coupling. We report the numerical results on a two-level system dynamics and absorption and emission line shapes.

  4. Ritual hot baths (wankan-jego) in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, O A

    1990-05-01

    Among the Hausa-Fulani women of Zaria, Nigeria, "cold" or "sanyi" is thought to be a common cause of illnesses, and especially edema (swelling) during pregnancy. The traditional treatment for these illnesses is a hot bath. The new mother or mother-to-be sleeps in an overheated room and must take baths in very hot water, called "wankan- jego," to keep out the cold. The birth attendant uses a bundle of leafy twigs from tamarind or neem trees to splash hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water over the women's body. This splashing hides the real temperature of the hot water so that she does not feel it, but it may actually be 82 degrees centigrade. Severe scalds often result from, such baths. Women confined during childbirth in the hospital and then discharged are still often subjected to the "wakan-jego" after they return home. Their thighs, buttocks and breasts are the most susceptible areas where these hot-water scald burns are the worst, sometimes even resulting in their nipples being sloughed off, thus making the mother unable to lactate. Since most deliveries in the Zaria region still take place at home and most patients with childbirth complications come to the hospital only as a last resort, it is possible that scald injuries are underreported and the total morbidity and mortality rate may be much higher, both of mothers and babies. Understanding this cultural ritual is necessary to devise effective countermeasures, like encouraging hand testing the bath water for its safety before commencing the baths. Better still, since all the scalded patients in the groups studied were illiterate housewives, formal education could disprove the need for these traditional and harmful hot baths to chase away the "cold" that has been falsely believed to be the cause of childbirth illnesses. [full text

  5. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard.

  6. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Dornfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08–0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12–0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21–0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology. (paper)

  7. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  8. Mechanical losses in thin fused silica fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenko, I A; Braginsky, V B; Lourie, S L

    2004-01-01

    Intracavity topology of the readout system for LIGO III project and table-top QND mechanical measurements under development require the use of small probe masses and suspensions with a very low level of internal losses. A good choice is to use thin fused silica fibres similar to LIGO II mirrors suspensions. Mechanical losses of silica fibres are investigated in this work through the study of quality factor dependence on diameter for pendulum and violin modes of oscillations with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 40 μm. The estimated values of effective mechanical loss angle show noticeably greater growth with lower diameters than might be expected while extrapolating known results of research done for thicker fibres

  9. Mechanical losses in thin fused silica fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilenko, I A; Braginsky, V B; Lourie, S L [Department of Oscillatory Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2004-03-07

    Intracavity topology of the readout system for LIGO III project and table-top QND mechanical measurements under development require the use of small probe masses and suspensions with a very low level of internal losses. A good choice is to use thin fused silica fibres similar to LIGO II mirrors suspensions. Mechanical losses of silica fibres are investigated in this work through the study of quality factor dependence on diameter for pendulum and violin modes of oscillations with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 40 {mu}m. The estimated values of effective mechanical loss angle show noticeably greater growth with lower diameters than might be expected while extrapolating known results of research done for thicker fibres.

  10. Fusing Recommendations for Social Bookmarking Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; van den Bosch, Antal

    2011-01-01

    Social bookmarking websites are rapidly growing in popularity. Recommender systems, a promising remedy to the information overload accompanying the explosive growth in content, are designed to identify which unseen content might be of interest to a particular user, based on his or her past...... that use tag overlap and metadata provide better results for social bookmarking data sets than the transaction patterns that are used traditionally in recommender systems research. In addition, we investigate how to fuse different recommendation approaches to further improve recommendation accuracy. We...... preferences. Most previous work in recommendation for social bookmarking suffers from a lack of comparisons between the different available approaches. In this article, we address this issue by comparing and evaluating eight recommendation approaches on four data sets from two domains. We find that approaches...

  11. Fused Entropy Algorithm in Optical Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In most applications of optical computed tomography (OpCT, limited-view problems are often encountered, which can be solved to a certain extent with typical OpCT reconstructive algorithms. The concept of entropy first emerged in information theory has been introduced into OpCT algorithms, such as maximum entropy (ME algorithms and cross entropy (CE algorithms, which have demonstrated their superiority over traditional OpCT algorithms, yet have their own limitations. A fused entropy (FE algorithm, which follows an optimized criterion combining self-adaptively ME with CE, is proposed and investigated by comparisons with ME, CE and some traditional OpCT algorithms. Reconstructed results of several physical models show this FE algorithm has a good convergence and can achieve better precision than other algorithms, which verifies the feasibility of FE as an approach of optimizing computation, not only for OpCT, but also for other image processing applications.

  12. The formation of the hot springs at Bath Spa, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Gallois, Ramues

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs that emerge at 46 °C in the centre of Bath Spa, Somerset, are unique in the UK. The four other thermal springs in Britain are also sourced in the Carboniferous Limestone, but they emerge at significantly lower temperatures (20 to 28 °C). Bath is situated in a region of low geothermal gradient (about 20 °C/km depth) in a geological setting that seems an unlikely place for hot springs. Why then are these the only hot springs in Britain, and why are they confined to such a small ...

  13. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakine, Ruben; Solon, Alexandre; Gingrich, Todd; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  14. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  15. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  16. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  17. [A novel pyridazino-fused ring system: synthesis of pyridazino[3,4-b]diazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Károlyházy, L; Horváth, G; Mátyus, P

    2001-08-01

    As an analogue of pyridazino-fused ring systems with pharmacological activities, the novel pyridazinol[3,4-b][1,5]diazepine ring system was prepared. The synthetic pathway includes three steps from 4 5-(N-benzyl-N-3-hydroxypropyl)amino derivative which is easily available through nucleophilic substitution reaction of the known 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-6-nitro-3(2H)-pyridazinone (2) with N-benzyl-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)amine. In the first step, compound 4 was treated with thionyl chloride to give the chloropropyl derivative 5. In the second step, a Bechamp reduction was carried out with Fe in acetic acid to obtain the amino compound 6, and finally the ring closure reaction of 6 was performed in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of potassium carbonate at 110 degrees C for 40 hours. In this way the bicyclic compound 7 could be isolated in 48% yield.

  18. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... The robustness of synchronization strategy is tested using a local and global injection of Gaussian white noise in the network. The control gain parameter of the bath coupling can modulate the occurrence of synchronization in the network without prior requirement of direct coupling among all the cells.

  19. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots...

  20. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Soare, A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a...

  1. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  2. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  3. Cost effectiveness of an intervention focused on reducing bathing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingmark, Magnus; Nilsson, Ingeborg; Norström, Fredrik; Sahlén, Klas Göran; Lindholm, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The onset of bathing disability among older people is critical for a decline in functioning and has implications for both the individuals' quality of life and societal costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term cost effectiveness of an intervention targeting bathing disability among older people. For hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling older people with bathing disability, transitions between states of dependency and death were modelled over 8 years including societal costs. A five-state Markov model based on states of dependency was used to evaluate Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a societal perspective. An intervention group was compared with a no intervention control group. The intervention focused on promoting safe and independent performance of bathing-related tasks. The intervention effect, based on previously published trials, was applied in the model as a 1.4 increased probability of recovery during the first year. Over the full follow-up period, the intervention resulted in QALY gains and reduced societal cost. After 8 years, the intervention resulted in 0.052 QALYs gained and reduced societal costs by €2410 per person. In comparison to the intervention cost, the intervention effect was a more important factor for the magnitude of QALY gains and long-term societal costs. The intervention cost had only minor impact on societal costs. The conclusion was that an intervention targeting bathing disability among older people presents a cost-effective use of resources and leads to both QALY gains and reduced societal costs over 8 years.

  4. Fusing website usability and search engine optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Visser

    2014-03-01

    Objectives: This research intended to establish a relationship between search engine optimisation and website usability in order to guide the industry. The authors found a discrepancy between the perceived roles of search engines and website usability. Method: The authors designed three test websites. Each had different combinations of usability, visibility and other attributes. They recorded and analysed the conversions and financial spending on these experimental websites. Finally, they designed a model that fuses search engine optimisation and website usability. Results: Initially, it seemed that website usability and search engine optimisation complemented each other. However, some contradictions between the two, based on content, keywords and their presentation, emerged. Industry experts do not acknowledge these contradictions, although they agree on the existence of the individual elements. The new model highlights the complementary and contradictory aspects. Conclusion: The authors found no evidence of any previous empirical experimental results that could confirm or refute the role of the model. In the fast-paced world of competition between commercial websites, this adds value and originality to the websites of organisations whose websites play important roles.

  5. Thermogravimetry analysis on fused borosilicate syntactic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Zulzamri; Islam, Md Mainul; Epaarachchi, Jayantha Ananda

    2017-12-01

    Fused borosilicate/vinyl ester syntactic foams mostly used for thermal stability in many applications are considered to be characterised for their properties in higher temperature condition. Therefore, higher temperature characteristics need to be explored with respect to physical parameters such as porosity and void content. The filler, also known as glass microballoons, was incorporated in vinyl ester resin matrix in 2wt%, 4wt%, 6wt.%, 8wt.% and 10wt.%. These composites are characterised and degraded to examine the onset temperature, Tonset, peak temperature, Tpeak and end temperature, Tend using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. The results for Tonset showed an increment while Tend and Tpeak showed decrement when glass microballoons were added in syntactic foams. Based on TGA data, they exhibited excellent thermal stability, showing 5% weight loss at 380-450 °C. Glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased when more glass microballoons were added, and also related to the effect on the physical properties of syntactic foams. Therefore, understanding of the relationship between thermal properties of syntactic foams and their physical properties such as porosity and void content will help in developing syntactic foams to optimise their thermal characteristics, which will be beneficial for engineering applications.

  6. Ultralightweight low-temperature fused Zerodur mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer; Crowe, David A.; Clark, Patrick; Marker, Alexander J.

    1995-09-01

    The performance and utility of optical systems can be significantly improved by using lightweight stable mirror components. Such components have been incorporated into a mirror assembly through a process that utilizes low temperature fusion to bond low CTE faceplates onto a lightweight core structure. The core structure is fabricated using an abrasive waterjet cutting technique that enables the designer to optimize core geometry to enhance the structural performance of the blank. The faceplates are bonded to the lightweight core resulting in a stiff structural mirror. A 15.125 inch Zerodur mirror was fabricated using this unique process and subjected to a test program to measure the optical stability of the mirror in support of either space-based applications. Strength testing was performed to verify the integrity of the fused joints and determine appropriate design allowable stress. A thermal test program was designed to assess performance at various temperature extremes and a mechanical load test was run to verify the capability of the blank to withstand operational loads without degrading the optical surface. The surface figure of the part was measured before, during, and after a 200 degree F temperature cycle with no change in figure quality. In addition, the mirror was subjected to a 10 g load for ten minutes with no change in the figure quality.

  7. Implementing Evidence-Based Neonatal Skin Care With Parent-Performed, Delayed Immersion Baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jeanette; Rapkin, Gloria

    2017-12-01

    There has been a recent trend toward delaying newborn baths because of mounting evidence that delayed bathing promotes breastfeeding, decreases hypothermia, and allows for more parental involvement with newborn care. A multidisciplinary team from a maternal-new-born unit at a military medical center designed and implemented an evidence-based practice change from infant sponge baths shortly after birth to delayed immersion baths. An analysis of newborn temperature data showed that newborns who received delayed immersion baths were less likely to be hypothermic than those who received a sponge bath shortly after birth. Furthermore, parents reported that they liked participating in bathing their newborns and that they felt prepared to bathe them at home. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Reconciling the Krogh and Ussing interpretations of epithelial chloride transport - presenting a novel hypothesis for the physiological significance of the passive cellular chloride uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2011-01-01

    In 1937, August Krogh discovered a powerful active Cl- uptake mechanism in frog skin. After WWII, Hans Ussing continued the studies on the isolated skin and discovered the passive nature of the chloride uptake. The review concludes that the two modes of transport are associated with a minority ce...... is in the pond. With the passive fluxes eliminated, the Cl- flux is governed by active transport and evidence is discussed that this is brought about by an exchange of cellular HCO3- with Cl- of the outside bath driven by an apical H+ V-ATPase.......In 1937, August Krogh discovered a powerful active Cl- uptake mechanism in frog skin. After WWII, Hans Ussing continued the studies on the isolated skin and discovered the passive nature of the chloride uptake. The review concludes that the two modes of transport are associated with a minority cell...

  9. Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Houzhu Ding; Robert C. Chang

    2018-01-01

    Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine ...

  10. Corrosion of immersed ceramic heat exchanger tubes in aluminium foundry baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracho-Troconis, C.B.; Frot, G.; Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Frety, N. [Ecole des Mines d`Albi-Carmaux (France); Alliat, I. [CERSTA-Gaz de France, Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The corrosion of three non-oxide ceramics by Al-9Si-3Cu baths and by fluxes (mixtures of chlorides and fluorides of sodium and potassium) at about 750 C was studied in a foundry environment. Comparison of results of the metallurgical examination of A, a silicon-nitride-bonded silicon carbide and of B, a reaction-bonded silicon nitride, surface treated to fill all the external porosity provides some insight into the role of the bonding phase and the porosity. Grade C is a graphite bonded silicon carbide with an external protection by a ceramic glazing. The SiC phase in the tubes is inert to the corrosive liquids (attributed to the silicon content in the metal). A and C ceramics react only in the presence of a flux. Sodium and chlorine were identified in the corrosion products as well as AlN (A) and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} (C), resulting from reaction of the silicon nitride or of the graphite bonding phase with aluminium. This suggests that the fluxes are responsible for the corrosive process, by causing the formation of gaseous aluminium halides which penetrate the porous bonding phase and react with it to form AlN or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}. (orig.) 13 refs.

  11. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  12. Fused upper central incisors: management of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Marini, Roberta; Bossù, Maurizio; Ierardo, Gaetano; Annibali, Susanna

    2011-03-01

    This paper reports the management of two clinical cases, in which the upper right central incisor was fused with a supernumerary tooth and the upper left central incisor was macrodontic. A radiographic examination revealed that the fused teeth had two separate roots. Hemisectioning of the fused teeth was performed, the supernumerary portion was extracted and the remaining part was reshaped to remove any sharp margins and to achieve a normal morphology. The macrodontic central incisors were not treated. At 12-months post-surgery there were no periodontal problems and no hypersensitivity. Orthodontic treatment was performed to appropriately align the maxillary teeth and to correct the malocclusion.

  13. A unified stochastic formulation of dissipative quantum dynamics. II. Beyond linear response of spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Cao, Jianshu

    2018-01-01

    We use the "generalized hierarchical equation of motion" proposed in Paper I [C.-Y. Hsieh and J. Cao, J. Chem. Phys. 148, 014103 (2018)] to study decoherence in a system coupled to a spin bath. The present methodology allows a systematic incorporation of higher-order anharmonic effects of the bath in dynamical calculations. We investigate the leading order corrections to the linear response approximations for spin bath models. Two kinds of spin-based environments are considered: (1) a bath of spins discretized from a continuous spectral density and (2) a bath of localized nuclear or electron spins. The main difference resides with how the bath frequency and the system-bath coupling parameters are distributed in an environment. When discretized from a continuous spectral density, the system-bath coupling typically scales as ˜1 /√{NB } where NB is the number of bath spins. This scaling suppresses the non-Gaussian characteristics of the spin bath and justifies the linear response approximations in the thermodynamic limit. For the nuclear/electron spin bath models, system-bath couplings are directly deduced from spin-spin interactions and do not necessarily obey the 1 /√{NB } scaling. It is not always possible to justify the linear response approximations in this case. Furthermore, if the spin-spin Hamiltonian is highly symmetrical, there exist additional constraints that generate highly non-Markovian and persistent dynamics that is beyond the linear response treatments.

  14. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  15. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  17. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  18. Quantum Zeno Effects from Measurement Controlled Qubit-Bath Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, P. M.; Monroe, J. T.; Murch, K. W.

    2017-06-01

    The Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are features of measurement-driven quantum evolution where frequent measurement inhibits or accelerates the decay of a quantum state. Either type of evolution can emerge depending on the system-environment interaction and measurement method. In this experiment, we use a superconducting qubit to map out both types of Zeno effect in the presence of structured noise baths and variable measurement rates. We observe both the suppression and acceleration of qubit decay as repeated measurements are used to modulate the qubit spectrum causing the qubit to sample different portions of the bath. We compare the Zeno effects arising from dispersive energy measurements and purely dephasing "quasimeasurements," showing energy measurements are not necessary to accelerate or suppress the decay process.

  19. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  20. Towards irreversibility with a finite bath of oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De São José, A.N. [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, P.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Matemática e Computacional, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bosco de Magalhães, A.R., E-mail: arthur.magalhaes@pq.cnpq.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Matemática e Computacional, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); and others

    2012-12-03

    We investigate the routes by which a bath composed of a finite number of oscillators at zero temperature approaches the induction of dissipation when it nears the usual limit of dense spectrum spread in an infinite interval. It is shown that, when this limit is taken, different distributions of environment frequencies can lead to the same irreversible evolution. However, when we move away from it, the dynamics departs from irreversibility in qualitatively different manners.

  1. Effect of ultrasound energy on the zeolitization of chemical extracts from fused coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Salman; Rohani, Sohrab; Kazemian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of ultrasound (UTS) energy at different temperatures on the zeolitization of aluminosilicate constituents of coal fly ash. UTS energy irradiated directly into the reaction mixture utilizing a probe immersed into the reaction mixture, unlike previously reported works that have used UTS baths. Controlled synthesis was also conducted at constant stirring and at the same temperatures using conventional heating. The precursor reaction solution was obtained by first fusing the coal fly ash with sodium hydroxide at 550°C followed by dissolution in water and filtration. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRF, XRD, SEM and TGA. The crystallinity of crystals produced with UTS assisted conversion compared to conventional conversion at 85°C was twice as high. UTS energy also reduced the induction time from 60 min to 40 min and from 80 min to 60 min for reaction temperatures of 95°C and 85°C, respectively. Prolonging the UTS irradiation at 95°C resulted in the conversion of zeolite-A crystals to hydroxysodalite, which is a more stable zeolitic phase. It was found that at 85°C coupled with ultrasound energy produced the best crystalline structure with a pure single phase of zeolite-A. It has been shown that crystallization using UTS energy can produce zeolitic crystals at lower temperatures and within 1h, dramatically cutting the synthesis time of zeolite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fusing Intelligence With Law Enforcement Information: An Analytic Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornlow, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    ... and Law Enforcement Communities to fuse and analyze foreign threat intelligence with domestic law enforcement information in a timely fashion to provide adequate indications and warning of such an...

  3. Boeing Delta II rocket for FUSE launch arrives at CCAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the first stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket is raised for its journey up the launch tower. The rocket is targeted to launch NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe, hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched June 23 at CCAS.

  4. IGBT Fuses for Protection Against Explosion in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Rasmussen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of electrical faults can be severe; not only to the equipment, but also in the worse case, to people if safety principles are not observed. Every year new applications based on DC-link Voltage Source Converters are added and the demand for protection of power electronics increases...... regarding the high-power IGBT modules. Due to the fact that the power level increases more energy is stored in the DC-link and even with an active protection, a high-power IGBT still has a risk of case rupture (explode) when a circuit failure condition occurs. A possible solution is a protection...... of the converter with standard High Speed Fuses or High Speed IGBT fuses. It is discussed that protection can be achieved by introduction of IGBT fuse located in the DC-link. Experiments show that explosion can be avoided by use of High Speed Fuse protection and the added inductance of standard High Speed...

  5. Polymer Matrix Composites using Fused Deposition Modeling Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology that allows fabrication of complex three-dimensional geometries layer-by-layer. The goal of...

  6. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Hayward, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10 −12 Pa −1 . Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA’s Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented

  7. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  8. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation

  9. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. PUVA-bath photochemotherapy in the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slesarenko N.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aims. The study aimed to evaluate the effcacy of PUVA-bath photochemotherapy in the treatment of the severe psoriasis. Materials and methods. Twenty six patients aged from 18 to 56 were examined. All patients suffer from psoriasis vulgaris and exudativa. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, duration of the disease. We used psoriasis area and severity index (PASI before and after the treatment. All the patients received PUVA bath therapy (aqueous solution of 1 mg ammifurin l. Results. Clinical remission and marked improvement of clinical condition (a 76 % and more fall in the PASI index were achieved in 80,9 % in both groups in average. No systemic adverse effects inherent in photosensitizing drug tablets were recorded in the course of PUVA-bath therapy. Conclusion. Effciency and safety of this method were demonstrated. The duration and summary dosage of UVA depends on clinical form.

  11. Bed and shower baths: comparing the perceptions of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliana L; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz A; de Barros, Alba Lbl

    2013-03-01

    To compare the perceptions of patients with acute myocardial infarction concerning bed and shower baths and evaluate how antecedent variables influence their perceptions. Professionals are often oblivious to the fact that, when performing a bed bath, they are manipulating someone else's body and invading someone's privacy and intimacy. This lack of awareness may trigger various responses in patients, such as dissatisfaction and anxiety. Several studies assessing the perceptions of patients when receiving a bed bath, and most are qualitative. Thus, there is a need to quantify these perceptions. The research was a crossover study. The sample consisted of 71 patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to coronary units. Patients were evaluated on two occasions: after their second bed bath and after their second shower bath. A Semantic Differential Scale was constructed and validated prior to data collection. The perception of patients receiving shower baths was significantly more positive than those of patients receiving bed baths (shower baths, than those who were hospitalised for the first time. The perceptions of patients receiving bed baths were less positive than those of patients receiving shower baths. The perceptions of patients receiving baths are very important to guiding nursing care and developing strategies to minimise patient dissatisfaction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Temperature crossover of decoherence rates in chaotic and regular bath dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, A S; Elran, Y; Brumer, P

    2012-03-01

    The effect of chaotic bath dynamics on the decoherence of a quantum system is examined for the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule in a realistic, constant temperature collisional bath. As an example, the specific case of I(2) in liquid xenon is examined as a function of temperature, and the results compared with an integrable xenon bath. A crossover in behavior is found: The integrable bath induces more decoherence at low bath temperatures than does the chaotic bath, whereas the opposite is the case at the higher bath temperatures. These results, verifying a conjecture due to Wilkie, shed light on the differing views of the effect of chaotic dynamics on system decoherence.

  13. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Electrowinning of Nickel from ammonical sulphate bath and effect of acetone on morphology of nickel deposit and its correlation with kinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borikar, D. K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of nickel from nickel sulphate bath was studied in ammonia medium. The electrolytic conditions for nickel deposition was optimized at room temperature. The effect of acetone on current efficiency, morphology, stability and particle size of deposited nickel powder was studied. The effect of organic additive Tribenzyl ammonium chloride (TBAC on the morphology of nickel powder was also studied. The kinetics of electrodeposition was studied and the results were utilized in developing mathematical model. During electrodeposition the current efficiency was found to increase with increase in acetone concentration up to 15% V/V in bath solution. On further increase of acetone concentration in bath solution current efficiency decreases. The stability of the electrowon deposited nickel powder was found to be in the range of 85 to 89 %. Powder morphology was found to be dentritic, porous and irregular. The morphology was also found to be underdeveloped dentritic to rounded aggregate as the concentration of organic additive TBAC increases. The average particle size of the deposited powder was found to be decreasing as the concentration of the acetone increases. The average size of the particle is in the range of 13-16 m.

  15. DUST-BATHING BEHAVIORS OF AFRICAN HERBIVORES AND THE POTENTIAL RISK OF INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandongo, Zoe R; Mfune, John K E; Turner, Wendy C

    2018-01-01

    :  Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks. We 1) cultured soils from dust-bathing sites for the presence and concentration of B. anthracis spores, 2) monitored anthrax carcass sites, the locations with the highest B. anthracis concentrations, for evidence of dust bathing, including a site where a zebra died of anthrax on a large dust bath, and 3) characterized the ecology and seasonality of dust bathing in plains zebra ( Equus quagga), blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus), and African savanna elephant ( Loxodonta africana) using a combination of motion-sensing camera traps and direct observations. Only two out of 83 dust-bath soils were positive for B. anthracis, both with low spore concentrations (≤20 colony-forming units per gram). We also detected no evidence of dust baths occurring at anthrax carcass sites, perhaps due to carcass-induced changes in soil composition that may deter dust bathing. Finally, despite observing some seasonal variation in dust bathing, preliminary evidence suggests that the seasonality of dust bathing and anthrax mortalities are not correlated. Thus, although dust bathing creates a dramatic cloud of aerosolized soil around an individual, our microbiologic, ecologic, and behavioral results in concert demonstrate that dust bathing is highly unlikely to transmit inhalational anthrax infections.

  16. Di-thiourea cadmium chloride crystals synthesis under UV radiation influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, L. E.; Chávez-Urbiola, E. A.; Legorreta, F.; Chávez-Urbiola, I. R.; Willars-Rodriguez, F. J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Ramírez-Cardona, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the effect of ultraviolet radiation (λ = 367 nm) on the synthesis of di-thiourea cadmium chloride crystals by the chemical bath technique was studied. The results were analyzed and characterized by different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the crystals causes a preferential growth in the (0 0 1) and (0 2 0) planes due to an increase in the formation of the Cdsbnd Cl and CS bonds caused by UV radiation. A morphological change was observed in the crystals assisted by UV radiation, and finally, it was found that the decomposition of the crystals starts from 497 K thus transforming the di-thiourea cadmium chloride into cadmium sulfide. Also, the growth rate is increased by incorporating ultraviolet radiation into the reaction.

  17. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a ±3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of ±15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism

  18. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  19. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-08-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the "Landau-Zener resummation" of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.

  20. Diffusion mechanism in molten salt baths during the production of carbide coatings via thermal reactive diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Aliakbar; Saghafian, Hassan; Soltanieh, Mansour; Yang, Zhi-gang

    2017-12-01

    The diffusion mechanism of carbide-forming elements from a molten salt bath to a substrate surface was studied in this research, with particular focus on the processes occurring in the molten bath at the time of coating. Metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths were investigated, and the coating process was performed on H13 steel substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis were used to study the coated samples and the quenched salt bath. The thickness of the carbide coating layer was 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.2 ± 0.5, or 5.7 ± 0.5 μm depending on whether it was deposited in a metal, oxide, or metal-oxide bath, respectively. The phase distribution of vanadium-rich regions was 63%, 57%, and 74% of the total coating deposited in metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths, respectively. The results obtained using the metal bath indicated that undissolved suspended metal particles deposited onto the substrate surface. Then, carbon subsequently diffused to the substrate surface and reacted with the metal particles to form the carbides. In the oxide bath, oxide powders dissolved in the bath with or without binding to the oxidative structure (Na2O) of borax; they were then reduced by aluminum and converted into metal particles. We concluded that, in the metal and oxide baths, the deposition of metal particles onto the sample surface is an important step in the formation of the coating.

  1. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  2. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  3. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  4. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones ... The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines ...

  6. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  7. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  8. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... will be followed by a potable water rinse of the carcass. [72 FR 67576, Nov. 29, 2007] ...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. Comparing levels of anxiety during bed and shower baths in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliana de Lima; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the levels of anxiety presented by patients with acute myocardial infarction in bed and shower baths and the influence of antecedent variables: age, gender, medications, previous hospitalization and/or bed bath, patients' preference regarding the professional's gender, risk factors and anxiety-traits. This crossover study was conducted between February and August 2007 in coronary units. The sample was composed of 71 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied before the baths (bed and shower baths), immediately after the baths and twenty minutes after the second evaluation. Results revealed that patients were more anxious in the bed bath than in the shower in the three assessments (p <0.0001) and the only variable that interfered with state-anxiety was high blood pressure.

  12. Music-assisted bathing: making shower time easier for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kendra D; Fitzsimmons, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    It is estimated that 90% of nursing home residents need assistance with bathing. The purpose of this article is to describe a music-assisted care technique that can be used by caregivers when bathing nursing home residents with dementia. Research suggests that music has many therapeutic benefits for people with dementia. Using music to soothe anxiety can be an effective intervention to assist with lessening of agitation during activities of daily living, especially bathing. This article will provide nursing and direct care staff tools to successfully conduct the music-assisted bathing protocol. Consideration for choosing appropriate music for bathing, the creation of individualized personalized playlists, and acknowledgement of desired outcomes are presented. Incorporating music-assisted bathing may address neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia by lessening agitation and improving mood, which in turn can increase job satisfaction. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  14. Life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis due to 'bath salts' injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Russell; Marks, Noah; Morris, Katy; King, Heather; Gelvin, Angelle; Rooney, Ronald

    2012-01-16

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an orthopedic emergency. The ability to quickly and accurately diagnose this rapidly spreading disease can save a patient's life and limb. However, the diagnosis is complex because necrotizing fasciitis usually manifests as a less severe cellulitis or abscess while the majority of the damages rage beneath the surface of the skin. Although the diagnosis is not new, the potential causes and vectors continually change. This article reports a new source of necrotizing fasciitis in an intramuscular injection of "bath salts," a rapidly emerging street drug that is legal in some states and evades authorities with its innocuous name. The patient presented 2 days after injection of bath salts with extensive cellulitis extending to the mid portion of her upper arm. The cellulitis initially responded to broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, but rapidly deteriorated 48 hours later, leading to a forequarter amputation with radical mastectomy and chest wall debridement to obtain healthy tissue margins and control the disease. The patient made a full recovery after further minor debridements, negative pressure dressings, directed antibiotic therapy, and skin grafting. The recent emerging popularity of this highly obtainable, injectable substance may lead to an increase in cases of necrotizing fasciitis. Orthopedic surgeons should be vigilant in diagnosing this process early and should perform an extensive debridement. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  16. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  17. Nondestructive detection system of faults in fuses using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.

    1973-01-01

    A system is developed to show the viability of non-destructive detection of the faults of explosive safety fuses which are manufactured by Fabrica da Estrela do Ministerio do Exercito. The faults are detected by an ion-chamber based on the variation of the intensity of the beta particles that penetrate the fuse which passes through a collimator. The beta particles are emitted by Strontium-90 + Yttrium-90 encapsulated in either stainless steel or aluminum. The concept of 'bucking Voltage' is applied to differentiate electronically the signal generated by the ion-chamber. (author)

  18. Fracture of three-dimensional fuse networks with quenched disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Räisänen, V. I.; Alava, M. J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    1998-01-01

    We study a fracture on a quasistatic time scale in a three-dimensional (3D) fuse network model with “strong” and “weak” disorder. These two cases differ noticeably in the development of the fracture. For strong disorder the damage scaling is very close to volumelike [number of broken bonds Nb∼L3/(lnL)0.3] unlike for weak disorder [Nb∼L2.4/(lnL)0.3]. With strong disorder global load sharing is only approximately valid. The size distribution of “avalanches” of broken fuses in the failure follow...

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of volume-activated chloride currents in mouse cholangiocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biyi; Nicol, Grant; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2004-12-01

    Recent electrophysiological and radioisotope efflux studies have demonstrated various Cl(-) channels in cholangiocytes including volume-activated Cl(-) channels (VACC). Because VACCs play prominent roles in many vital cellular functions and physiology in cholangiocytes, we have examined their electrophysiological characteristics in mouse cholangiocytes to provide an important framework for studying in the future. The present study is to characterize VACCs expressed in the mouse bile duct cell (MBDC) line, conditionally immortalized by SV40 virus. Conventional whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the electrophysiological characteristics of VACC in MBDC. When the MBDCs were exposed to hypotonic solution, they exhibited an outwardly rectified current, which was significantly inhibited by replacing chloride in the bath solution with gluconate or glutamate and by administration of classic chloride channel inhibitors 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate, glybenclamide, DIDS, and tamoxifen. These inhibitory effects were reversible with washing them out from the bath solution. Moreover, the ion selectivity of the volume-activated channel to different anions indicates that it is more permeable to SCN(-) > I(-) >/= Cl(-) > F(-) >/= acetate >/= glutamate >/= gluconate. These electrophysiological characteristics demonstrate that the volume-activated current observed is a VACC. In addition, the VACC in MBDC has electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of the VACC in human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. The present study is the first to characterize the VACC in mouse cholangiocyte and will provide an important framework for further studies to examine and understand the role of the VACC in biliary secretion and ion-transport physiology.

  20. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered

  1. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Waltz, Florian; Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie; Behrens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zin...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  3. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  4. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  5. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  6. Dedication for Safety-Related Fuses used in Class-1E Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    The safety-related fuses used in class-1E power system provide overcurrent protection for electrical system and isolate the class 1E circuit from a fault or overload condition. These days, the number of nuclear grade suppliers has been reduced. Accordingly, commercial grade, instead of safety-related, fuses are procured and used in the utilities through the dedication process. Therefore, this paper introduces the commercial grade fuse dedication process/engineering and how to assure the quality requirements with this process and engineering. The fuses used in class-1E power system are to protect overcurrent and to isolate fault. Therefore the fuse for acceptance in order to improve the quality and reliability for commercial grade fuses shall be dedicated. The fuse resistance value may be useful as an indicator of acceptance. The current carrying capacity test can change the fuse performance properties. Therefore these critical characteristics are needed for additional review and analysis with fuse manufactures

  7. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  8. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  9. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have tested a prototype dual-band NVG system consisting of two NVGs fitted with filters that split the NVG sensitive range into a short (visual) and a long wavelength (NIR) band. The Color-the-night technique (see Hogervorst & Toet, SPIE D&S ‘08) was used to fuse the images of the two sensors. We

  10. The burning fuse model of unbecoming in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, John D.

    2015-11-01

    In the burning fuse model of unbecoming in time, the future is real and the past is unreal. It is used to motivate the idea that there is something unbecoming in the present literature on the metaphysics of time: its focus is merely the assigning of a label "real."

  11. Synthesis of the Benzo-fused Indolizidine Alkaloid Mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Kazuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general synthesis of various benzo-fused indolizidine alkaloid mimics has been developed. The indolizidine derivatives 8 were prepared via heteroaryl Grignard addition to N-acylpyridinium salts followed by an intramolecular Heck cyclization. Further substitution reactions were developed to demonstrate that heterocycles 8 are good scaffolds for chemical library preparation.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.907 - Use of safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of safety fuse. 1926.907 Section 1926.907 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.907 Use...

  13. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway or rail fusee. 173.184 Section 173.184 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.184...

  14. A rare association of crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Riaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia and absent radius syndrome (TAR is a rare genetic disorder. It is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by radial aplasia and thrombocytopenia that may have additional anomalies. We report a case of TAR syndrome with crossed fused renal ectopia. This anomaly has not been previously reported in association with TAR syndrome. Case presentation A 24 years old female with Thrombocytopenia and absent radius syndrome admitted with pelvic fracture was investigated for recurrent urinary tract infections. Abdominal ultrasonography could not visualise the kidney on right side. Further extensive investigations in the form of intravenous urography (IVU, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and renal isotope scans revealed a crossed fused renal ectopia. Conclusion This report describes the new finding of a crossed fused renal ectopia associated with TAR syndrome that has not been reported before in the literature. Ectopic kidneys have increased susceptibility to develop complications like urinary infections, urolithiasis, and abdominal mass. There is a reported case of TAR syndrome with renal anomaly that developed Wilm's tumor. Finding of crossed fused renal ectopia warrants complete urologic investigation to rule out surgically correctable pathology in the urinary tract.

  15. Enantioselective organocatalytic partial transfer hydrogenation of lactone-fused quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aillerie, Alexandre; de Talancé, Vincent Lemau; Moncomble, Aurélien; Bousquet, Till; Pélinski, Lydie

    2014-06-06

    The first enantioselective synthesis of 4-aza-podophyllotoxin derivatives by partial transfer hydrogenation of lactone-fused quinolines was achieved using a chiral Brønsted acid catalyst. This reaction was extended to a large scope of substrates with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  16. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  17. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivitiy have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80 % range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells.

  18. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [University Mohamed V, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivity have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80% range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells. (authors)

  19. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  20. Impact of a Hydrophobic Sphere onto a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Edmonds, John; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Milewski, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Small hydrophobic particles impacting a water surface can rebound completely from the interface (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, 2008). In the present work, we focus on the bouncing dynamics of millimetric hydrophobic spheres impacting the surface of a quiescent water bath. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the normal coefficient of restitution and contact time on the impact velocity and the radius and density of the sphere. Our experimental observations are compared to the predictions of a fluid model derived from linearized Navier-Stokes under the assumption of a high Reynolds number regime (Galeano-Rios et al., JFM, in press). In the model, the motions of the sphere and the fluid interface are found by imposing the natural geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions. Future directions will be discussed. C.A.G.-R. and P.A.M. gratefully acknowledge support through the EPSRC project EP/N018176/1.

  1. Excited states using semistochastic heat-bath configuration interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Adam A.; Umrigar, C. J.; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-10-01

    We extend our recently developed heat-bath configuration interaction (HCI) algorithm, and our semistochastic algorithm for performing multireference perturbation theory, to calculate excited-state wavefunctions and energies. We employ time-reversal symmetry, which reduces the memory requirements by more than a factor of two. An extrapolation technique is introduced to reliably extrapolate HCI energies to the full CI limit. The resulting algorithm is used to compute fourteen low-lying potential energy surfaces of the carbon dimer using the cc-pV5Z basis set, with an estimated error in energy of 30-50 μHa compared to full CI. The excitation energies obtained using our algorithm have a mean absolute deviation of 0.02 eV compared to experimental values.

  2. Influence of Additives on Bath Analysis in Aluminum Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianfeng; Shi, Dong; Wang, Zhaowen; Gao, Bingliang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the phase compositions of a solid cryolitic electrolyte based on the Na3AlF6-AlF3-KF-LiF-CaF2-Al2O3 system have been investigated. Using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluoride ion selective electrode analysis (FISEA) techniques, the molar ratio of NaF-AlF3 of the cryolitic electrolyte has been determined. The influence of the acidity of the additive electrolytes on the phase compositions of the cryolitic electrolyte has been discussed to gain fundamental insights into understanding the role of additives in such systems. Moreover, an improved XRD-based industrial bath analysis method has been introduced to analyze the composition of the complex cryolitic electrolytes. Finally, based on these results, a new equation has been derived that can be used for FISEA to complement such composition analyses.

  3. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  4. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos Leite, Sandro, E-mail: sandro@ird.gov.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wagner Pereira, Walsan, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Xavier da Silva, Ademir, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes da Fonseca, Evaldo, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Patrao, Karla Cristina de, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    An alternative irradiation system, which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume have been proposed for efficiency determination of a Manganese Bath System (MBS). This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP5 code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. Although its solution specific activity are less than those in nuclear reactors, the simulation results have showed that the irradiation system proposed takes a manganese neutron capture increase up to 200 times when it compared to manganese neutron capture from a MBS whose diameter is about 100 cm. That becomes possible to use those samples for some of the absolute specific activity measuring methods.

  5. The Entropy Production Distribution in Non-Markovian Thermal Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inés Jiménez-Aquino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the distribution function for the total entropy production of a Brownian particle embedded in a non-Markovian thermal bath. The problem is studied in the overdamped approximation of the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for a friction memory kernel characteristic of a Gaussian colored noise. The problem is studied in two physical situations: (i when the particle in the harmonic trap is subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent driving force; and (ii when the minimum of the harmonic trap is arbitrarily dragged out of equilibrium by an external force. By assuming a natural non Markovian canonical distribution for the initial conditions, the distribution function for the total entropy production becomes a non Gaussian one. Its characterization is then given through the first three cumulants.

  6. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  7. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  8. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaidi, E-mail: junaidi.1982@fmipa.unila.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Yunus, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.yunus@mail.ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat, E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Harsojo,, E-mail: harsojougm@ugm.ac.id; Suharyadi, Edi, E-mail: esuharyadi@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  9. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  10. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  11. The Effect of Fabric Position to the Distribution of Acoustic Pressure Field in Ultrasonic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, B. O.; Özdemir, A. O.; Tonay, Ö.; Şener, M.; Perinçek, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the use of ultrasonic energy in textile wet processes at industrial-scale is limited. It is largely due to the lack of understanding about design, operational and performance characteristics of the ultrasonic bath, suitable for textile treatments. In the context of this study, the effect of fabric position, as one of the design parameter, to the distribution of acoustic pressure field in ultrasonic bath was investigated. The ultrasonic bath in the size 20×30 cm2 with one transducer at frequency 40 kHz was used in experiments. The cotton fabric with 1 mm thickness was moved along vertical and horizontal directions of the ultrasonic bath. The acoustic field and cavitation volume density in the bath is analyzed by COMSOL Multiphysic. The cavitation volume density is calculated by comparing the pressure points in the bath with cavitation threshold pressure. Consequently, it was found that the position of the textile material in the ultrasonic bath is one of the most important factors to achieve the uniform and maximum acoustic cavitation field. So, it should be taken into consideration during the design of industrial-scale ultrasonic bath used in textile wet processes.

  12. Skin tolerance of a new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, J; Huyke, C; Scheuvens, H; Ploch, M; Neumann, K; Jakob, T; Schempp, C M

    2008-01-01

    Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective study, 3 bath oils together with positive and negative controls were applied under occlusion on test areas on the volar forearms of 18 volunteers (visit 1). After 24 h, the tapes were removed, and the test areas were evaluated by a visual score and the instrumental measurement of skin erythema and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using a Mexameter and a Tewameter (visit 2). The test substances were applied a second time, and the measurements were performed after another 24 h (visit 3). The positive control, 1% vol/vol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), caused a significant increase in skin erythema and TEWL. In contrast, distilled water as a negative control did not influence these parameters. The new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract and 1 of the other 2 commercial products were not different from the water control. The third bath oil displayed a skin-irritating effect similar to SLS. The results of this study confirm the different skin-irritating potential of bath oils and demonstrate good skin tolerance of the new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  14. Method and apparatus for replenishing the helium bath in the rotor of a superconducting generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Schnapper, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to replenish a helium bath in the super-conducting rotor of an electrical machine, in which bath liquid helium boils at subatmospheric pressure, with liquid helium from a helium reservoir, the liquid helium in the reservoir being at ambient pressure and a part of the liquid helium changing to the vapor phase during flow from the reservoir to the bath, liquid helium is introduced into the bath at a distance from the rotor axis of rotation, the liquid and vapor phases of the helium flowing from the reservoir to the bath are separated from one another in a phase separator fixed to the rotor, and the separated vapor phase is extracted from the separator. (MM) [de

  15. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  16. Sources of bathing water pollution in northern Tuscany (Italy): Effects of meteorological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco; Carducci, Annalaura

    2017-01-30

    This study was carried out in a popular tourist destination located in Italy, where short-term pollution posed the problem of low quality status of bathing waters (according to European Directive) owing to the fecal contamination caused by drainage ditches. Our goal was to understand the role of meteorological conditions on freshwater and seawater bacterial indicator levels, and the impact of polluted streams on seawater contamination. To this aim, results from surface waters were analyzed during five bathing seasons, from 2011 to 2015. Our results demonstrated a relationship between bacterial densities and rainfall amount and a time-dependent dilution effect of the sea between the two halves of each bathing season. This analytical survey confirmed the strategic role of meteorological variables in bathing waters quality, and it could be a support for generation and development of predicting models of indicator levels for bathing area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  18. Use of ultrasonic baths for analytical applications: a new approach for optimisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascentes Clésia C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation conditions for obtaining maximum cavitation intensity in ultrasonic baths are proposed using a simple and fast method. Parameters such as water volume, temperature, detergent concentration, horizontal and vertical positions, number of tubes in the bath, sonication time and bath water substitution were studied. The results obtained for both baths studied (Neytech and Cole-Parmer lead to the following conditions for maximum cavitation intensity: 1 L of water at room temperature, 0.2 % (v/v of detergent, central position on the bottom of the tank. Only one tube at a time should be used inside the bath during the ultrasound application. The cavitation intensity was linear with the sonication time up to 10 minutes and the water substitution during the sonication improved reproducibility. This system using continuous water change makes possible the sonication of 6 consecutive samples, without changes in the water volume.

  19. Ritual hot bath (wankan jego in Kano: Are they still practicing? What are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyuba Rabiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum ritual hot bath is one of the harmful cultural beliefs commonly practiced in Northern Nigeria. It is linked with health hazards especially among women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 199 pregnant women over the period of 3 months. Ethical approval was obtained from The Kano State Ethical Committee. Questionnaire was administered among consenting pregnant women. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and practice of hot bath was obtained. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17 computer software (SPSS Inc., SPSS Statistics for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA. Results: One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women were recruited for the survey. The mean age ± standard deviation was 28.09 ± 5.55 years. The rate of hot bath was 56.80% and the days spent taking the hot bath ranged from 4 to 40 days. An average of 195.41 ± 96.050 Naira was spent on firewood per day for the hot bath. The method of boiling the water was mainly the use of firewood 87 (78.40%. They mainly used leaves 76 (68.50% and towel 35 (31.50% for bathing. The responsibility of the cost of the hot bath was mainly on husband 102 (91.90%. The hot bath was enforced mainly by the parents 68 (61.30%. Up to 82 (73.90% of the respondents were ready to abandon the hot bath if alternatives such as drugs are provided. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of hot bath was 56.80%. The burden of its financial implications lies mainly on husbands leading to other social and financial problems.

  20. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  2. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  3. l-Nebiviololinium chloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Hänsicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride salt of chiral l-nebivolol {systematic name: (+−(R,S,S,S-bis[2-(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-2-hydroxyethyl]ammonium chloride dihydrate}, C22H26F2NO4+·Cl−·2H2O, was obtained by chiral liquid chromatography as a dihydrate. The pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. Hydrogen bonds between the cation, anions and water molecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to the ac plane.

  4. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of fused and mixed coins... OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.12 Exchange of fused and mixed coins. (a) Definitions. (1) Fused coins are U.S. coins which are melted to the extent that they are bonded together and...

  5. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  6. Mechanical protection of DLC films on fused silica slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements were made with a new test for improved quantitative estimation of the mechanical protection of thin films on optical materials. The mechanical damage was induced by a sand blasting system using spherical glass beads. Development of the surface damage was measured by the changes in the specular transmission and reflection, and by inspection using a surface profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The changes in the transmittance versus the duration of sand blasting was measured for uncoated fused silica slides and coated ones. It was determined that the diamond like carbon films double the useful optical lifetime of the fused silica. Theoretical expressions were developed to describe the stages in surface deterioration. Conclusions were obtained for the SiO2 surface mechanism and for the film removal mechanism.

  7. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for fused silica and other glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, B. E.; Partlow, D. P.

    1984-05-01

    A method of forming a laser damage resistant wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica and other glasses has been developed. The single-layer graded-index coating is deposited from a specific polymer solution which is converted to a porous SiO2 film. The size of the pores in the film is first reduced by heat treatment to prevent eventual UV scattering. Refractive-index gradation is achieved by grading this nonscattering porosity using a mild etching agent to a depth which is sufficient to smooth the density transition from air to the substrate glass. The resultant coating provides antireflectivity over the entire transmission range of silica extending to wavelengths as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 J/sq cm at 350 nm have been demonstrated for this coating on fused silica substrates, which makes it particularly suitable for the optics of high-power lasers.

  8. Optical Properties of the DIRC Fused Silica Cherenkov Radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiening, Jochen

    2003-04-30

    The DIRC is a new type of Cherenkov detector that is successfully operating as the hadronic particle identification system for the BABAR experiment at SLAC. The fused silica bars that serve as the DIRC's Cherenkov radiators must transmit the light over long optical pathlengths with a large number of internal reflections. This imposes a number of stringent and novel requirements on the bar properties. This note summarizes a large amount of R&D that was performed both to develop specifications and production methods and to determine whether commercially produced bars could meet the requirements. One of the major outcomes of this R&D work is an understanding of methods to select radiation hard and optically uniform fused silica material. Others include measurement of the wavelength dependency of the internal reflection coefficient, and its sensitivity to surface contaminants, development of radiator support methods, and selection of good optical glue.

  9. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  10. Microbial and nutrient pollution of coastal bathing waters in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daby, D; Turner, J; Jago, C

    2002-02-01

    The coastal pollution problem in Mauritius is exacerbated by the hydrogeology of the volcanic substratum. Bacterial contamination of bathing waters and nutrients, water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at three different spatial and temporal scales along the coastline of Mauritius during 1997-1998. Standard techniques for water sample collection and analysis set by the American Public Health Association [APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Washington, DC: APHA, 1995.] were used at: (a) 16 sites around the island over a period of 7 months; (b) 12 stations along a recreational beach over an 18-month period; and (c) at an underground freshwater seepage point over 1 day. Total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), and faecal streptococci (FS) contamination reported during all surveys varied randomly (e.g., with maximum densities in the ranges of 346-2020 TC, 130-2000 FC, and 180-1040 FS at one site) and at times exceeded the established EEC and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) standards for bathing water (e.g., in >90% of samples) to qualify for beach closure. Computed FC:FS ratios were used to pinpoint human faecal matter as the main source of contamination. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations in seepage water were high (3600-9485, 38-105, and 9950-24,775 microg l(-1), respectively) and a cause for concern when compared with levels (5-845, 5-72, and 35-6570 microg l(-1), respectively) in cleaner lagoon water samples. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (for TC and NO3: r=.75, P<.02; for TC and PO4: r=.779, P<.02; for TC and SiO4: r=.731, P<.05; for FC and NO3: r=.773, P<.02; for FC and SiO4: r=.727, P<.05; for FS and SiO4: r=.801 P<.01) between microbial densities and nutrients recorded, confirming the pathogen-contaminated water to be highly eutrophic. There is an urgency for Mauritius to properly address the issue of sewage treatment and wastewater discharge to

  11. Expanding the Genotypic Spectrum of Bathing Suit Ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukian, Nareh V; Hu, Rong-Hua; Craiglow, Brittany G; Milstone, Leonard M; Zhou, Jing; Theos, Amy; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Akkaya, Deniz A; Uitto, Jouni J; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Youssefian, Leila; Bayliss, Susan J; Paller, Amy S; Boyden, Lynn M; Choate, Keith A

    2017-06-01

    Bathing suit ichthyosis (BSI) is a rare congenital disorder of keratinization characterized by restriction of scale to sites of relatively higher temperature such as the trunk, with cooler areas remaining unaffected. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Bathing suit ichthyosis is caused by recessive, temperature-sensitive mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene (TGM1). Clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been difficult to establish because several of the same TGM1 mutations have been reported in BSI and other forms of congenital ichthyosis. We identify novel and recurrent mutations in 16 participants with BSI. To expand the genotypic spectrum of BSI, identifying novel TGM1 mutations in patients with BSI, and to use BSI genotypes to draw inferences about the temperature sensitivity of TGM1 mutations. A total of 16 participants with BSI from 13 kindreds were identified from 6 academic medical centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained from each participant, including phenotypic presentation at birth and disease course. Each participant underwent targeted sequencing of TGM1. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in these patients from birth onward. Of the 16 participants, 7 were male, and 9 were female (mean age, 12.6 years; range, 1-39 years). We found 1 novel TGM1 indel mutation (Ile469_Cys471delinsMetLeu) and 8 TGM1 missense mutations that to our knowledge have not been previously reported in BSI: 5 have been previously described in non-temperature-sensitive forms of congenital ichthyosis (Arg143Cys, Gly218Ser, Gly278Arg, Arg286Gln, and Ser358Arg), and 3 (Tyr374Cys, Phe495Leu, and Ser772Arg) are novel mutations. Three probands were homozygous for Arg264Trp, Arg286Gln, or Arg315Leu, indicating that these mutations are temperature sensitive. Seven of 10 probands with a compound heterozygous TGM1 genotype had a mutation at either arginine 307 or 315, providing evidence that mutations at these sites are temperature sensitive and

  12. Chlorhexidine Bathing and Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Michael J.; Domenico, Henry J.; Byrne, Daniel W.; Talbot, Tom; Rice, Todd W.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Wheeler, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Daily bathing of critically ill patients with the broad spectrum, topical antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine is widely performed and may reduce healthcare-associated infections. Objective To determine if daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine decreases the incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Design, setting, and participants A pragmatic cluster-randomized, cross-over study of 9,340 patients admitted to five adult intensive care units of a tertiary medical center in Nashville, Tennessee Intervention Units performed once-daily bathing of all patients with disposable cloths impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine or non-antimicrobial cloths as a control. Bathing treatments were performed for a 10-week period followed by a two-week washout period during which patients were bathed with non-antimicrobial disposable cloths, before crossover to the alternate bathing treatment for 10 weeks. Each unit crossed over between bathing assignments three times during the study Main Outcome and Measures The primary prespecified outcome was a composite of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and Clostridium difficile infections. Secondary outcomes included rates of clinical cultures positive for multi-drug resistant organisms, blood culture contamination, healthcare-associated bloodstream infections, and rates of the primary outcome by ICU. Results A total of 55 and 60 infections occurred during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (4 and 4 CLABSI, 21 and 32 CAUTI, 17 and 8 VAP, 13 and 16 C. difficile infections, respectively, between chlorhexidine and control bathing periods). The primary outcome rate was 2.86 per 1000 patient-days and 2.90 per 1000 patient-days during chlorhexidine and control bathing periods, respectively (rate difference, −0.04; 95% CI, −1.09 to 1.01; P=0.95). After adjusting for baseline

  13. Variable fused deposition modelling - concept design and tool path generation

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Hadley Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Current Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) techniques use fixed diameter nozzles to deposit a filament of plastic layer by layer. The consequence is that the same small nozzle, essential for fine details, is also used to fill in relatively large volumes. In practice a Pareto-optimal nozzle diameter is chosen that attempts to maximise resolution while minimising build time. This paper introduces a concept for adapting an additive manufacturing system, which exploits a variable diameter nozzle fo...

  14. The Manufacture of Honeycomb Cores using Fused Deposition Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Dave; Ward, Carwyn; Herrmann, Guido; Etches, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panels are used in many industries, for the advantageous properties of high stiffness, good strength to weight ratio, and impact resistance. Modern manufacturing methods are dominated by manual layup; secondary structure panels often contain multiple core components, complex geometries, and tight placement tolerances. This paper compares cores manufactured using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) with conventional Nomex core. FDM is a process of creating complex components from extrude...

  15. Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    L. Novakova-Marcincinova; J. Novak-Marcincin

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Mod...

  16. Tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2012-01-01

    4-tert-Butylphenyl-substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins 1 and 2 are prepared for the first time. They show (1) intense one-photon absorption in the far-red/near-infrared region, (2) enhanced two-photon absorption compared with aromatic porphyrin monomers, and (3) amphoteric redox behavior. Their geometry and electronic structure are studied by DFT calculations. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  18. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  19. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maren, A.J. [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.; Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. [Accurate Automation Corp., Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1989-12-31

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  20. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maren, A.J. (Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.); Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. (Accurate Automation Corp., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1989-01-01

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  1. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  3. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th......, it is possible to use external electrodes and not use of the reinforcement as cathode thus avoiding side effects....... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  5. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  6. Analysis of tellurium thin films electrodeposition from acidic citric bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, Remigiusz; Kutyła, Dawid [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mech, Krzysztof [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow (Poland); Żabiński, Piotr, E-mail: rkowalik@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the description of the electrochemical process of formation thin tellurium layers from citrate acidic solution. The suggested methodology consists in the preparation of stable acidic baths with high content of tellurium, and with the addition of citrate acid. In order to analyse the mechanism of the process of tellurium deposition, the electroanalytical tests were conducted. The tests of cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic ones were performed with the use of polycrystalline gold disk electrode. The range of potentials in which deposition of tellurium in direct four-electron process is possible was determined as well as the reduction of deposited Te° to Te{sup 2−} and its re-deposition as a result of the comproportionation reaction. On the basis of the obtained results, the deposition of tellurium was conducted by the potentiostatic method. The influence of a deposition potential and a concentration of TeO{sub 2} in the solution on the rate of tellurium coatings deposition was examined. The presence of tellurium was confirmed by X-ray spectrofluorometry and electron probe microanalysis. In order to determine the phase composition and the morphology, the obtained coatings were analysed with the use of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  8. Beyond heat baths II: framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family’s structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilárd’s engine and Landauer’s Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. An early version of this paper partially motivated the later development of noncommutative thermalization. This generalization expands the theories’ potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.

  9. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  10. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  11. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sandro Passos

    2010-01-01

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO 4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252 Cf(f,n) and 238 PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO 4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO 4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252 Cf (f, n) and 238 PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO 4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  12. Properties of PAN Fibers Solution Spun into a Chilled Coagulation Bath at High Solvent Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ashley Morris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow, while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape, density, orientation, and tensile properties at varying points in the spinning process. Novel here are the abnormally high coagulation bath solvent compositions investigated, which surpass those often reported in the literature. In addition, the coagulation bath was maintained at a slightly chilled temperature, contrary to reported methods to produce round fibers. Further, by altering the composition of the bath in a step-wise fashion during a single spinning run, variations in all other process parameters were minimized. We found that with increasing solvent composition in the coagulation bath, the fibers not only became round in cross section, but also became smaller in diameter, which persisted down the spin line. With this decrease in diameter, all else equal, came an accompanying increase in apparent fiber density via a reduction in microvoid content. In addition, molecular orientation and tensile properties also increased. Therefore, it was found that inadequate understanding of the coagulation bath effects, and spinning at low coagulation bath solvent compositions, can hinder the ability of the fiber to reach optimum properties.

  13. Preoperative chlorhexidine shower or bath for prevention of surgical site infection: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr; Safdar, Nasia; O'Horo, John Charles; Maki, Dennis G

    2013-02-01

    Chlorhexidine showering is frequently recommended as an important preoperative measure to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, the efficacy of this approach is uncertain. A search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify prospective controlled trials evaluating whole-body preoperative bathing with chlorhexidine versus placebo or no bath for prevention of SSI. Summary risk ratios were calculated using a DerSimonian-Laird random effects model and a Mantel-Haenzel dichotomous effects model. Sixteen trials met inclusion criteria with a total of 17,932 patients: 7,952 patients received a chlorhexidine bath, and 9,980 patients were allocated to various comparator groups. Overall, 6.8% of patients developed SSI in the chlorhexidine group compared with 7.2% of patients in the comparator groups. Chlorhexidine bathing did not significantly reduce overall incidence of SSI when compared with soap, placebo, or no shower or bath (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.77-1.05, P = .19). Meta-analysis of available clinical trials suggests no appreciable benefit of preoperative whole-body chlorhexidine bathing for prevention of SSI. However, most studies omitted details of chlorhexidine application. Better designed trials with a specified duration and frequency of exposure to chlorhexidine are needed to determine whether preoperative whole-body chlorhexidine bathing reduces SSI. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  16. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  17. A Thermal Bath for Eggleston, Virginia: The Making of Water, Stone, and Light.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Derek Michael

    2003-01-01

    Through the study of architecture, and the thermal bath, one must ask, â How can the experience of springwater, heavy, stone walls, and light contribute to the ritual of bathing?â The making of stone walls is the nature of the bath. The wall is the primordial state of architecture, and is given autonomy through its passion. The beginning of architecture is mass, and the articulation of it is in the carving, and shaping of the mass to form a place. The passion of the wall is...

  18. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV) Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl) on the slow vacuolar (SV) channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium) the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5) Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic) compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel.

  19. Electrochemistry of ytterbium (III) in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolenski, V.; Novoselova, A. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Science, Ekaterinburg, 620219 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk Region, 433010 (Russian Federation); Caravaca, C. [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Cordoba, G. de [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: g.cordoba@ciemat.es

    2008-12-30

    This work presents the electrochemical study of Yb(III) ions in molten alkali metal chlorides in the temperature range 723-1073 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep, cyclic and square wave voltammetry, and potentiometry at zero current have been used to investigate the reduction mechanism, transport parameters and thermodynamic properties of the reaction YbCl{sub 2} + 1/2Cl{sub 2} = YbCl{sub 3} The results obtained show that the reduction reaction Yb(III) + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Yb(II) is reversible being controlled by the rate of the mass transfer. The diffusion coefficient of [YbCl{sub 6}]{sup 3-} complex ions has been determined at different temperatures in the fused eutectic LiCl-KCl, the equimolar NaCl-KCl and the CsCl media. The apparent standard potential of the soluble-soluble redox system Yb(III)/Yb(II) has been obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of the nature of the solvent on the electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of ytterbium compounds is discussed.

  20. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    trout stock which had been vaccinated against both Y.r. bt 1 and 2 with a commercial “state of the art” immersion vaccine and boosted with a commercial ERM oral vaccine 4 month later. The newly isolated Y.r. bt2 strain has been used to develop a standardized challenge model which gives us...... of the vaccine for 30 seconds as recommended by the manufacturer. As a positive control groups of trout were bath vaccinated for 5 minutes. Two months later was all groups bath challenged with Y.r. bt 2 in duplicate. The challenge data obtained in the present study have indicated that neither a “state of the art......” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  1. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  2. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  3. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  4. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  5. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  6. Large-time evolution of an electron in photon bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.; Nikitin, Vladimir V., E-mail: markiz4@yandex.ru

    2012-12-15

    The problem of infrared divergence of the effective electromagnetic field produced by elementary charges is revisited using the model of an electron freely evolving in a photon bath. It is shown that for any finite travel time, the effective field of the electron is infrared-finite, and that at each order of perturbation theory the radiative contributions grow unboundedly with time. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, factorization of divergent contributions in multi-loop diagrams is proved, and summation of the resulting infinite series is performed. It is found that despite the unbounded growth of individual contributions to the effective field, their sum is bounded, tending to zero in the limit of infinite travel time. It is concluded that the physical meaning of infrared singularity in the effective field is the existence of a peculiar irreversible spreading of electric charges, caused by their interaction with the electromagnetic field. This spreading originates from the quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, rather than the electron-photon scattering, and exists in vacuum as well as at finite temperatures. It shows itself in a damping of the off-diagonal elements of the momentum-space density matrix of electron, but does not affect its momentum probability distribution. This effect is discussed in terms of thermalization of the electron state, and the asymptotic growth of its quantum entropy is determined. Relationship of the obtained results to the Bloch-Nordsieck theorem is established and considered from the standpoint of measurability of the electromagnetic field. The effect of irreversible spreading on the electron diffraction in the classic two-slit experiment is determined, and is shown to be detectable in principle by modern devices already at room temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared finiteness of the effective electromagnetic field of a free electron is proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum radiative effects

  7. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  8. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Castellino, Micaela; Marrec, Françoise; Rodil, Sandra E.; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl 3 ) in acetone (CH 3 -CO-CH 3 ). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  9. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  11. [Understanding the gap between practice and the technical-scientific evolution of the bed-bath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Silaine Sandrini Alves; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this qualitative study were to understand the experience of the nursing dependent person for the bed-bath and develop a theoretical model of this experience. The Symbolic Interactionism perspective and Grounded Theory methodology were used to develop the study. Observation and interview were the strategies used for data collection. Based on data analysis, a phenomenon was identified: learning to assess life and nursing when the patient becomes dependent on nursing care for the bed-bath. The theoretical model shows the meaning of the patient experience in the bed-bath, integrated by the core category--proposing a nursing model for the bed-bath according to the patient assessment process, as opposed to the technical-scientific evolution of this procedure.

  12. 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and Thioglycolic Acid in an Electroless Nickel-Plating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of three different materials, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid, was investigated to improve the performance of electroless nickel-plating baths. By changing the concentrations of these materials, sample plates were coated. Optical microscope images were obtained by selecting representative coated plates. From the results of the investigations, the effects of these materials on electroless nickel plating were observed, and the most appropriate amounts of these materials for nickel plating were determined. Moreover, the nickel plating speed observed with the bath solution containing 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid is higher than that in the case of traditional electroless plating baths, but the nickel consumption amount in the former case is lower. In order to minimize the waste water generated from electroless nickel-plating baths, we determined the lowest amounts of the chemicals that can be used for the concentrations reported in the literature.

  13. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) to announce the CPSC's intention to... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of...

  14. Daily chlorhexidine bathing does not increase skin toxicity after remission induction or stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeren, Dries; Dewulf, Evelyne; Verfaillie, Lydie

    2016-12-01

    A recent multicenter study demonstrated that bathing with chlorhexidine reduces the transmission of resistant organisms and the risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in ICUs. We wanted to confirm the feasibility of this strategy in a cohort of patients in a typical intensive haematology unit. Patients treated with remission induction chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation received daily chlorhexidine bathing. To avoid deshydratation of skin, we used prophylactic application of hydrating lotion, replaced by corticosteroid cream in case of skin toxicity of chemotherapy or conditioning. We studied 15 consecutive admissions of 12 patients. Daily chlorhexidine bathing never needed to be interrupted, even though 53% of patients were treated with intravenous cytarabine. Patients were satisfied with the skin treatment and reported few unwanted effects. Daily chlorhexidine bathing was feasible in our intensive haematology unit in all patients and did not increase skin toxicity, even when treated with IV cytarabine.

  15. Toxicokinetics of mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B

    1992-09-01

    Future human exposure to inorganic mercury will probably lead to a few individuals occupationally exposed to high levels and much larger populations exposed to low or very low levels from dental fillings or from food items containing inorganic mercury; human exposure to methylmercury will be relatively low and depending on intake of marine food. Ideally, risk assessment is based on detailed knowledge of relations between external and internal dose, organ levels, and their relation to toxic symptoms. However, human data on these toxicokinetic parameters originate mainly from individuals or smaller populations accidentally exposed for shorter periods to relatively high mercury levels, but with unknown total body burden. Thus, assessment of risk associated with exposure to low levels of mercury will largely depend on data from animal experiments. Previous investigations of the toxicokinetics of mercuric compounds almost exclusively employed parenteral administration of relatively high doses of soluble mercuric salts. However, human exposure is primarily pulmonary or oral and at low doses. The present study validates an experimental model for investigating the toxicokinetics of orally administered mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice. Major findings using this model are discussed in relation to previous knowledge. The toxicokinetics of inorganic mercury in mice depend on dose size, administration route, and sex, whereas the mouse strain used is less important. The "true absorption" of a single oral dose of HgCl2 was calculated to be about 20% at two different dose levels. Earlier studies that did not take into account the possible excretion of absorbed mercury and intestinal reabsorption during the experimental period report 7-10% intestinal uptake. The higher excretion rates observed after oral than after intraperitoneal administration of HgCl2 are most likely due to differences in disposition of systemically delivered and retained mercury. After

  16. Tree Classification with Fused Mobile Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttonen, Eetu; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Litkey, Paula; Hyyppä, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Laser Scanning data were collected simultaneously with hyperspectral data using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Sensei system. The data were tested for tree species classification. The test area was an urban garden in the City of Espoo, Finland. Point clouds representing 168 individual tree specimens of 23 tree species were determined manually. The classification of the trees was done using first only the spatial data from point clouds, then with only the spectral data obtained with a spectrometer, and finally with the combined spatial and hyperspectral data from both sensors. Two classification tests were performed: the separation of coniferous and deciduous trees, and the identification of individual tree species. All determined tree specimens were used in distinguishing coniferous and deciduous trees. A subset of 133 trees and 10 tree species was used in the tree species classification. The best classification results for the fused data were 95.8% for the separation of the coniferous and deciduous classes. The best overall tree species classification succeeded with 83.5% accuracy for the best tested fused data feature combination. The respective results for paired structural features derived from the laser point cloud were 90.5% for the separation of the coniferous and deciduous classes and 65.4% for the species classification. Classification accuracies with paired hyperspectral reflectance value data were 90.5% for the separation of coniferous and deciduous classes and 62.4% for different species. The results are among the first of their kind and they show that mobile collected fused data outperformed single-sensor data in both classification tests and by a significant margin. PMID:22163894

  17. Stimulated resonant scattering at stressed fused silica surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchut, Philippe; Reymermier, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    The radiative emission in CO 2 laser heated stressed fused silica is radically modified when gold microspheres are on the surface. At high heating rates, the emission dynamics changes from thermoluminescence to stimulated resonant scattering with an emission rate that is increased tenfold and the near infrared (NIR) spectrum is red-shifted. We show that the dynamic tensile stress that rises in heated silica is coupled with a fluctuating electromagnetic field that enables electromagnetic friction between moving OH emitters from silica bulk and NIR resonant scatterers at the silica surface. (paper)

  18. Change Detection by Fusing Advantages of Threshold and Clustering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Hao, M.

    2017-09-01

    In change detection (CD) of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM) algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM) obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. CHANGE DETECTION BY FUSING ADVANTAGES OF THRESHOLD AND CLUSTERING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In change detection (CD of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Characterising power quality disturbances resulting from current limiting fuse operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ortiz S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents novel and easily implemented tools for characterising electrical disturbances originated by fuse operations. A methodology is described that (with the use of some descriptors led to identifying electrical disturbances of this kind. The algorithm’s decision thresholds were estimated using machine learning techniques. This work was aimed at providing new tools for assessing power quality, characterising and extracting information from voltage and current records obtained from monitoring distribution systems. MATLAB was used for validating this methodology, receiving voltage and current records of simulated events in ATP-EMTP and also real events as input.

  1. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2017-02-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  2. Metathesis reactions for the synthesis of ring-fused carbazoles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelly, SC

    2005-12-09

    Full Text Available .; Michael, J. P.; Rousseau, A. L. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 2000, 1705. (b) de Koning, C. B.; Michael, J. P.; Nhlapo, J. M.; Pathak, R.; van Otterlo, W. A. L. Synlett 2003, 705. (19) For reviews on metathesis, see: (a) Schmalz, H.-G. Angew. Chem., Int... for the Synthesis of Ring-Fused Carbazoles Stephen C. Pelly,? Christopher J. Parkinson,? Willem A. L. van Otterlo,? and Charles B. de Koning*,? Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 South Africa...

  3. Optimization of operational parameters and bath control for electrodeposion of Ni-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho,Fabiano A.; Santana,François S. M.; Vasconcelos,André L. S.; Santana,Renato A. C.; Prasad,Shiva

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of operational parameters of an electrodeposition process for deposition of boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of nickel-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having nickel sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium-1-dodecylsulfate and ammonia for pH adjustments to 9.5 has been studied. Detailed studies of the efects on bath temperature, mechanical agitation, cathode current density and anode format have led to optimum operation...

  4. Recurrence of skin disease in a nursery: ineffectuality of hexachlorophene bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, S H; Gutman, L T; Wilfert, C M; Brumley, G W; Katz, S L

    1975-03-01

    An outbreak of streptococcal and staphylococcal skin disease was discovered in a full-term nursery after the discontinuation of bathing infants with hexachlorophene. The epidemic was only temporarily controlled by conventional means and recurred despite reinstitution of hexachlorophene bathing. Measures that decreased infants' exposure to visitors and hospital personnel and enforced aseptic techniques in the nursery were more important than use of hexachlorophene soap in achieving and maintaining control.

  5. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Acosta-Torres; M. C. Arenas; R. E. Nuñez­-Anita; F. H. Barceló-Santana; C. A. Álvarez-Gayosso; J. Palacios-Alquisira; J. de la Fuente-Hernández; Marcos Cajero-Juárez; V. M. Castaño

    2014-01-01

    The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resin...

  6. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  7. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the ...

  8. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the physical ...

  9. Voltammetry of uranyl chloride in the LiCl - KCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondanaiche, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Spent UO 2 - PuO 2 fuels can be reprocessed in a molten salt media. Uranium dioxide can easily be dissolved as UO 2 Cl 2 in a molten salt bath using chlorine gas. A study of quantitative analysis of an uranyl chloride solution in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400 C has been performed here using voltammetry (a large area-graphite indicator electrode has been employed). The precision which is obtained is around 6 per cent for concentrations below 10 -2 M. Precision decreases slightly for more concentrated solutions. The study of polarization curves allowed to give a reduction mechanism for the UO 2 ++ ion. For dilute solutions, this reduction proceeds through the UO 2 + ion. But interpretation of current-potential curves is made difficult by the dismutation reaction of the UO 2 ion and by the fact that the surface of the indicator electrode is not renewed. (author) [fr

  10. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  12. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Which cleansing care is better, foot bath or shower? Analysis of 236 limb ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hitomi; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    Foot baths and showering are two widely used methods to cleanse limb ulcers. However, some clinicians warn that foot baths may contribute to the spread of infection at the ulcer site. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the relationship between cleansing methods and the limb prognoses of 236 patients with chronic limb ulcers. These patients were divided into two groups according to the method used to cleanse their ulcers, foot bath and showering. Limb prognosis, including loss of all toes and major amputation, was retrospectively analysed. The rates of loss of all toes and major amputation were 53·0% and 30% in the foot bath group, and 35·3% and 18·4% in the showering group, respectively. The rates of loss of all toes (adjusted odds ratios = 2·07; P = 0·0066; 95% confidence intervals, 1·22-3·50) and major amputation (adjusted odds ratio = 1·90; P = 0·037; 95% confidence intervals, 1·03-3·50) were significantly higher in the foot bath group than those in the showering group. Our results demonstrate that showering is preferable to foot baths for the cleansing of chronic limb ulcers. Clinicians should be cautious that inappropriate cleansing may cause ulcer infections to spread. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gen Xiang; Cao, Yong Bao; Yang, Yan; Chen, Zhuo Mei; Dong, Jian Hua; Chen, Sha Sha; Wu, Qing; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Jia, Bing Bing; Yan, Jing; Wang, Guo Fu

    2018-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Sub-exponential spin-boson decoherence in a finite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.; Gruebele, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence of a two-level system coupled to harmonic baths of 4-21 degrees of freedom, to baths with internal anharmonic couplings, and to baths with an additional 'solvent shell' (modes coupled to other bath modes, but not to the system). The discrete spectral densities are chosen to mimic the highly fluctuating spectral densities computed for real systems such as proteins. System decoherence is computed by exact quantum dynamics. With realistic parameter choices (finite temperature, reasonably large couplings), sub-exponential decoherence of the two-level system is observed. Empirically, the time-dependence of decoherence can be fitted by power laws with small exponents. Intrabath anharmonic couplings are more effective at smoothing the spectral density and restoring exponential dynamics, than additional bath modes or solvent shells. We conclude that at high temperature, the most important physical basis for exponential decays is anharmonicity of those few bath modes interacting most strongly with the system, not a large number of oscillators interacting with the system. We relate the current numerical simulations to models of anharmonically coupled oscillators, which also predict power law dynamics. The potential utility of power law decays in quantum computation and condensed phase coherent control are also discussed

  16. The Effect of Tub Bathing on Body Temperature in Preterm Infants: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bathing of a premature newborn is important in care giving, but due to inadequate evidences, infant caregivers are not sure about bathing being safe in terms of not causing hypothermia and are not systematically considered in the infants’ care giving programs. Aim: To determine the effect of tub bathing on body temperature of preterm infants”. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial which was conducted in 1392 in neonatal unit of Al-zahra hospital. 118 preterm infants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The infants in the control group received routine skin care only. The intervention group was bathed three times every other day inside the bathtub. In both group, the infants’ body temperature was measured at the same times by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 14 using independent T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurements tests. Results: In both groups, boys outnumbered girls. At the time of inclusion, the infants' age was 5.8 ± 8.6 days and their weight was 320.6 ± 1660.0 grams. In both groups, the mean temperature of premature infants after bath was dropped in all three times. Which was statistically significant in the first and second baths (P

  17. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features.

  18. Phosphorus-31 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths, a 50-percent aqueous solution of aminotrimethylphosphonate (ATMP) is the principal compound observed. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down and new materials (phosphate, ADMP, and AMMP) are identified. The NMR method was used to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products for a nine-month period. The 225-liter bath had plated approximately 100 square feet of gold during the nine-month period. These results can be used to predict the performance of baths as they are used in production. The accuracy of the analysis is 96 percent for ATMP and 92 percent for phosphate. The precision (relative standard deviation) is 5.2 percent for ATMP and 4.5 percent for phosphate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Electrochemical deposited nickel nanowires: influence of deposition bath temperature on the morphology and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiah, A. G. N.; Kananathan, J.; Samykano, M.; Ulakanathan, S.; Lah, N. A. C.; Harun, W. S. W.; Sudhakar, K.; Kadirgama, K.; Ngui, W. K.; Siregar, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the electrolytic bath temperature on the morphology and physical properties of nickel (Ni) nanowires electrochemically deposited into the anodic alumina oxide porous membrane (AAO). The synthesis was performed using nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4.6H2O) and boric acid (H3BO3) as an electrolytic bath for the electrochemical deposition of Ni nanowires. During the experiment, the electrolyte bath temperature varied from 40°C, 80°C, and 120°C. After the electrochemical deposition process, AAO templates cleaned with distilled water preceding to dissolution in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to obtain free-standing Ni nanowires. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the morphology and physical properties of the synthesized Ni nanowires. Finding reveals the electrodeposition bath temperature significantly influences the morphology and physical properties of the synthesized Ni nanowires. Rougher surface texture, larger crystal size, and longer Ni nanowires obtained as the deposition bath temperature increased. From the physical properties properties analysis, it can be concluded that deposition bath temperature influence the physical properties of Ni nanowires.

  20. Development Of Advanced Sandwich Core Topologies Using Fused Deposition Modeling And Electroforming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Steven M.

    New weight efficient materials are needed to enhance the performance of vehicle systems allowing increased speed, maneuverability and fuel economy. This work leveraged a multi-length-scale composite approach combined with hybrid material methodology to create new state-of-the-art additive manufactured sandwich core material. The goal of the research was to generate a new material to expands material space for strength versus density. Fused-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) was used to remove geometric manufacturing constraints, and electrodepositing was used to generate a high specific-strength, bio-inspired hybrid material. Microtension samples (3mm x 1mm with 250mum x 250mum gage) were used to investigate the electrodeposited coatings in the transverse (TD) and growth (GD) directions. Three bath chemistries were tested: copper, traditional nickel sulfamate (TNS) nickel, and nickel deposited with a platinum anode (NDPA). NDPA shows tensile strength exceeding 1600 MPa, significantly beyond the literature reported values of 60MPa. This strengthening was linked to grain size refinement into the sub-30nm range, in addition to grain texture refinement resulting in only 17% of the slip systems for nickel being active. Anisotropy was observed in nickel deposits, which was linked to texture evolution inside of the coating. Microsample testing guided the selection of 15mum layer of copper deposition followed by a 250 mum NDPA layer. Classical formulas for structural collapse were used to guide an experimental parametric study to establish a weight/volume efficient strut topology. Length, diameter and thickness were all investigated to determine the optimal column topology. The most optimal topology exists when Eulerian buckling, shell micro buckling and yielding failure modes all exist in a single geometric topology. Three macro-scale sandwich topologies (pyramidal, tetrahedral, and strut-reinforced-tetrahedral (SRT) were investigated with respect to strength-per-unit-weight. The

  1. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  2. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    ” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  3. Planning the FUSE Mission Using the SOVA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, James; Heatwole, Scott; Ward, Philip R.; Civeit, Thomas; Calvani, Humberto; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Suchkov, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Three documents discuss the Sustainable Objective Valuation and Attainability (SOVA) algorithm and software as used to plan tasks (principally, scientific observations and associated maneuvers) for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. SOVA is a means of managing risk in a complex system, based on a concept of computing the expected return value of a candidate ordered set of tasks as a product of pre-assigned task values and assessments of attainability made against qualitatively defined strategic objectives. For the FUSE mission, SOVA autonomously assembles a week-long schedule of target observations and associated maneuvers so as to maximize the expected scientific return value while keeping the satellite stable, managing the angular momentum of spacecraft attitude- control reaction wheels, and striving for other strategic objectives. A six-degree-of-freedom model of the spacecraft is used in simulating the tasks, and the attainability of a task is calculated at each step by use of strategic objectives as defined by use of fuzzy inference systems. SOVA utilizes a variant of a graph-search algorithm known as the A* search algorithm to assemble the tasks into a week-long target schedule, using the expected scientific return value to guide the search.

  4. Quinone-fused porphyrins as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Banala, Srinivas

    2017-06-27

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging non-invasive diagnostic modality with many potential clinical applications in oncology, rheumatology and the cardiovascular field. For this purpose, there is a high demand for exogenous contrast agents with high absorption coefficients in the optical window for tissue imaging, i.e. the near infrared (NIR) range between 680 and 950 nm. We herein report the photoacoustic properties of quinone-fused porphyrins inserted with different transition metals as new highly promising candidates. These dyes exhibit intense NIR absorption, a lack of fluorescence emission, and PA sensitivity in concentrations below 3 nmol mL. In this context, the highest PA signal was obtained with a Zn(ii) inserted dye. Furthermore, this dye was stable in blood serum and free thiol solution and exhibited negligible cell toxicity. Additionally, the Zn(ii) probe could be detected with an up to 3.2 fold higher PA intensity compared to the clinically most commonly used PA agent, ICG. Thus, further exploration of the \\'quinone-fusing\\' approach to other chromophores may be an efficient way to generate highly potent PA agents that do not fluoresce and shift their absorption into the NIR range.

  5. Electric fuses operation, a review: 2. Arcing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussière, W

    2012-01-01

    In the electric fuse operation the arcing period follows immediately the pre-arcing period depicted in Part 1 (Part 1. Pre-arcing period). The transition between these two operation steps is not fully understood at this time. To simplify the beginning of the arcing period can be identified with the electric arc ignition i.e. with the electrodes voltage drop. The consecutive plasma is of metallic type at the beginning of the arcing period and of metallic plus silica type with varying mixture up to the end of the arcing period. The energy brought by the fault current is withdrawn by means of the interaction between the electric arc and the arc quenching material (usually silica sand) whose morphometric properties influence the properties of the plasma column: composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of the plasma column depend on the porosity (and other morphometric properties) of the filler. The fuse element erosion also known as burn-back is responsible for the lengthening of the plasma column and the variations of the electric field. The whole of these processes is depicted by means of experimental results or modellings when possible.

  6. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large (≤61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ''fail-safe'' lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ''lock'' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth

  7. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  8. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  9. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  10. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  11. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  12. Characteristics of Sudden Bath-Related Death Investigated by Medical Examiners in Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Methods Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner’s Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Results Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). Conclusions The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced. PMID:25503827

  13. Bath thermal waters in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Marcelo; Rêgo, Neiva N; Silva, Paulo H; Archanjo, Ingrid E; Ribeiro, Mirian C; Trevisani, Virgínia F

    2016-08-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease associated with pain, reduced range of motion, and impaired function. Balneotherapy or bathing in thermal or mineral waters is used as a non-invasive treatment for various rheumatic diseases. To evaluate the effectiveness of hot sulfurous and non-sulfurous waters in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, assessor-blind, controlled trial. A spa resort. One hundred and forty patients of both genders, mean age of 64.8±8.9 years, with knee osteoarthritis and chronic knee pain. Patients were randomized into three groups: the sulfurous water (SW) group (N.=47), non-sulfurous water (NSW) group (N.=50), or control group (N.=43) who received no treatment. Patients were not blinded to treatment allocation. Treatment groups received 30 individual thermal baths (three 20-minute baths a week for 10 weeks) at 37-39 °C. The outcome measures were pain (visual analog scale, VAS), physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, WOMAC; Lequesne Algofunctional Index, LAFI; Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and use of pain medication. Patients were assessed before treatment (T1), at treatment endpoint (T2), and two months post-intervention (T3). Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed at a significance level of 0.05 (Ptreatment groups (Ptreatment groups at T2 and T3 (Ptreatment groups at T2, but patients in the SW group reported less pain and better functional status than those in the NSW group at T3, showing a lasting effect of sulfurous water baths. Both therapeutic methods were effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis; however, sulfurous baths yielded longer-lasting effects than non-sulfurous water baths. Baths in thermal waters, especially those in sulfurous waters, are effective in reducing pain and improving physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  14. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  15. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  16. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  17. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  18. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, S A; Onishchenko, E M; Simakov, A B; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Sugrobova, T A

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas- filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blowout time of the fuse is 10-50 ms; whereupon the leakage current through it is less than 1 nA at a 2-kV voltage. The resistance of the fuse case is greater than or equivalent equal' greater than 10**1**2 Omega. Its overall dimensions are 5.8 multiplied by 3.8 multiplied by 2 mm.

  19. Threats to ICF reactor materials: computational simulations of radiation damage induced topological changes in fused silica

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, A; Stolken, J; Sadigh, B; Reyes, S; Rubia, T D; Latkowski, J F

    2003-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in fused silica. In this study, we discuss the role of successive cascade overlap on the saturation and self-healing of oxygen vacancy defects in the amorphous fused silica network. Furthermore, we present findings on the topological changes in fused silica due to repeated energetic recoil atoms. These topological network modifications consistent with experimental Raman spectroscopic observation on neutron and ion irradiated fused silica are indicators of permanent densification that has also been observed experimentally.

  20. RR Tel: Getting Under the Flux Limit: An Observation with FUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenborn, George (Technical Monitor); Kenyon, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program is to acquire a FUSE spectrum of the symbiotic binary RR Tel. With these data, we plan to derive improved constraints on the hot component, the nebula, and perhaps the red giant wind. Based on results from AG Dra, we should also be able to use some line detections to improve atomic parameters for high ionization emission lines. This results would benefit the general FUSE community. As of this writing, the FUSE observation of RR Tel has not been made. Because RR Tel is a very bright UV source, the FUSE team is assessing the likelihood that RR Tel will have an adverse affect on the instrument.

  1. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  2. Synthesis of LaMnO3 in molten chlorides: effect of preparation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vradman, Leonid; Zana, Jonatan; Kirschner, Alon; Herskowitz, Moti

    2013-07-14

    LaMnO3 perovskite was successfully synthesized in molten chlorides. In order to explore the effect of the molten salt type, NaCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic mixtures were employed as a liquid medium for the perovskite formation process. The synthesis included heating the La-nitrate, Mn-nitrate and chlorides mixture to above the melting point of the corresponding chlorides. This procedure yielded a LaMnO3 phase integrated in the fused chloride matrix. Washing with water removed the salts completely, yielding pure LaMnO3 perovskite crystals. The synthesis without molten salt at 800 °C yielded several by-products in addition to the LaMnO3 phase, while with LiCl-KCl the pure perovskite phase was obtained at temperatures as low as 600 °C. Variation of temperature in the range 600-800 °C for LiCl-KCl and 700-800 °C for NaCl-KCl had no significant effect either on the morphology or on the particle size of the product. On the other hand, the effect of the molten salt type on the morphology and size of perovskite particles was remarkable. The synthesis in NaCl-KCl resulted in sub-micron LaMnO3 particles with shapes that range from truncated hexahedrons to spheres, while in LiCl-KCl mostly cubic particles of up to 2-microns were obtained. The effect of the molten salt type on LaMnO3 perovskite formation is explained based on the nucleation and crystal growth model and difference in the melting point of eutectic mixtures.

  3. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  4. Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhu Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine the printability of cell-laden liquid hydrogel precursors towards filament-based tissue constructs. First, a yield stress nanoclay material is judiciously selected as the support bath medium owing to its insensitivity to temperature and ionic variations that are considered in the context of the current gelatin-alginate bio-ink material formulation. Furthermore, phenomenological observations for the rheology-mediated print outcomes enable the compositions for the bio-ink material (10% gelatin, 3% alginate, in tandem with the support bath medium (4% nanoclay, 0.5% CaCl2, to be identified. To systematically evaluate the performance outcomes for bioprinting within a support bath, this paper advances an experimental parametric study to optimize the 3D structural shape fidelity by varying parameters such as the layer height, extrusion flowrate, printing temperature, and printhead speed, towards fabricating complex 3D structures with the stabilization of the desired shape outcome. Specifically, it is found that the layer height and printhead speed are determinant parameters for the extent of successive layer fusion. Moreover, maintenance of an optimal bath temperature is identified as a key parameter for establishing the printability for the hydrogel bio-ink. Studying this effect is enabled by the custom design of a PID temperature control system with integration with the bioprinter for real-time precision control of the support bath temperature. In order to qualify

  5. Synthesis of a Spirocyclic Oxetane-Fused Benzimidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis of 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonane is described. Spirocyclic oxetanes, including 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane were converted into o-cycloalkylaminoacetanilides for oxidative cyclizations using Oxone® in formic acid. The expanded spirocyclic oxetane successfully gave the [1,2-a] ring-fused benzimidazole. X-ray crystal structure of the resultant new tetracyclic system, 1ʹ,2ʹ-dihydro-4ʹH-spiro[oxetane-3,3ʹ-pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole] and the azetidine ring-opened adduct, N-(2-acetamido-4-bromophenyl-N-{[3-(chloromethyl oxetan-3-yl]methyl}acetamide are disclosed.

  6. Fused Adaptive Lasso for Spatial and Temporal Quantile Function Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Quantile functions are important in characterizing the entire probability distribution of a random variable, especially when the tail of a skewed distribution is of interest. This article introduces new quantile function estimators for spatial and temporal data with a fused adaptive Lasso penalty to accommodate the dependence in space and time. This method penalizes the difference among neighboring quantiles, hence it is desirable for applications with features ordered in time or space without replicated observations. The theoretical properties are investigated and the performances of the proposed methods are evaluated by simulations. The proposed method is applied to particulate matter (PM) data from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to characterize the upper quantiles, which are crucial for studying spatial association between PM concentrations and adverse human health effects. © 2016 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  7. Optical Properties of the DIRC Fused Silica Radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, Mark R

    2003-04-15

    The DIRC detector is successfully operating as the hadronic particle identification system for the BaBar experiment at SLAC. The production of its Cherenkov radiator required much effort in practice, both in manufacture and conception, which in turn required a large number of R&D measurements. One of the major outcomes of this R&D work was an understanding of methods to select radiation hard and optically uniform fused silica material. Others included measurement of the wavelength dependency of the internal reflection coefficient, and its sensitivity to the surface pollution, selection of the radiator support, selection of good optical glue, etc. This note summarizes the optical R&D test results.

  8. Visualization of conserved structures by fusing highly variable datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chhadia, Ankur; Dech, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Skill, effort, and time are required to identify and visualize anatomic structures in three-dimensions from radiological data. Fundamentally, automating these processes requires a technique that uses symbolic information not in the dynamic range of the voxel data. We were developing such a technique based on mutual information for automatic multi-modality image fusion (MIAMI Fuse, University of Michigan). This system previously demonstrated facility at fusing one voxel dataset with integrated symbolic structure information to a CT dataset (different scale and resolution) from the same person. The next step of development of our technique was aimed at accommodating the variability of anatomy from patient to patient by using warping to fuse our standard dataset to arbitrary patient CT datasets. A standard symbolic information dataset was created from the full color Visible Human Female by segmenting the liver parenchyma, portal veins, and hepatic veins and overwriting each set of voxels with a fixed color. Two arbitrarily selected patient CT scans of the abdomen were used for reference datasets. We used the warping functions in MIAMI Fuse to align the standard structure data to each patient scan. The key to successful fusion was the focused use of multiple warping control points that place themselves around the structure of interest automatically. The user assigns only a few initial control points to align the scans. Fusion 1 and 2 transformed the atlas with 27 points around the liver to CT1 and CT2 respectively. Fusion 3 transformed the atlas with 45 control points around the liver to CT1 and Fusion 4 transformed the atlas with 5 control points around the portal vein. The CT dataset is augmented with the transformed standard structure dataset, such that the warped structure masks are visualized in combination with the original patient dataset. This combined volume visualization is then rendered interactively in stereo on the ImmersaDesk in an immersive Virtual

  9. New developments in fused deposition modeling of ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Shor, L.; Guceri, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    of a novel extrusion system, based on the FDM technology. The new set-up, consisting of a mini-extruder mounted on a high-precision positioning system, is fed with bulk material in granulated form, instead that with the more common filament. Findings - Previous research showed that the applications of new...... materials with specific characteristics in a commercial FDM system are limited by the use of intermediate precursors, i.e. a filament. The new design described in this paper overcomes the problem thanks to the new feeding system. Research limitations/implications - The work presented in this paper is only......Purpose - To shift from rapid prototyping (RP) to agile fabrication by broadening the material selection, e.g. using ceramics, hence improving the properties (e.g. mechanical properties) of fused deposition modeling (FDM) products. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents the development...

  10. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  11. Controlling Force in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Fused Biconical Tapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused biconical tapering (FBT is an important method of manufacturing polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF couplers. However, the tension on the ends of the fibers can affect the performance of the coupler. In this paper, a computer-based method of controlling the drawing force was presented. The system includes a drawing mechanism, rotary position encoders, and a control circuit. A three-dimensional model of a permanent magnet and a coil is constructed, and the relationship among the coil current, rotation angle of the clamp, and electromagnetic force is determined using finite element simulations. Electromagnetic force control based on these simulations can be realized. The method is verified experimentally, and it is shown that a drawing force of 0–1.8 gf can be achieved with an error of within 3.04%. This result can be used in the FBT-based manufacture of fiber components such as fiber couplers and gratings.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Protonation Behavior of Quinoxaline-Fused Porphycenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kuzuhara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 9,10-Quinoxaline-fused porphycenes 1a-H2 and 1b-H2 were synthesized by intramolecular McMurry coupling. As a result of the annulation of the quinoxaline moiety on the porphycene skeleton, 1a-H2 and 1b-H2 display absorption and fluorescence in the near infra-red (NIR region. Additionally, the quinoxaline moieties of 1a-H2 and 1b-H2 act as electron-withdrawing groups, introducing lower reduction potentials than for pristine porphycene. The protonation occurred at the nitrogen atoms in the cavity of freebase porphycenes and at the quinoxaline moieties for their nickel complexes to give diprotonic species.

  13. Nanoimprint Lithography on curved surfaces prepared by fused deposition modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köpplmayr, Thomas; Häusler, Lukas; Bergmair, Iris; Mühlberger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modelling, prototyping and production applications. The achievable surface roughness is one of its most limiting aspects. It is however of great interest to create well-defined (nanosized) patterns on the surface for functional applications such as optical effects, electronics or bio-medical devices. We used UV-curable polymers of different viscosities and flexible stamps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to perform Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) on FDM-printed curved parts. Substrates with different roughness and curvature were prepared using a commercially available 3D printer. The nanoimprint results were characterized by optical light microscopy, profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our experiments show promising results in creating well-defined microstructures on the 3D-printed parts. (paper)

  14. Design and Analysis of a Fused Deposition Modelling Manufactured Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Claudiu; Tabacu, Stefan; Oltean, Alexandru

    2017-10-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology was investigated in order to produce a part designed to support a test load without permanent deformation. A topology optimization script was developed in order to define the final shape of the part. The solver used for the numerical analysis is LS-Dyna (implicit formulation). The algorithm follows the element removal based on the stress state and it can be very simply implemented. This solution of developing a custom code was adopted because plastic strain state was monitored and this is not yet implemented in other topology optimization applications. The results of the traction test were assembled and investigated in order to outline some of the typical parameters used for mechanical characterization. As a general overview of the results it was found that the parts manufactured using a 45°/45° stacking configuration are stronger that the ones manufactured using 0°/90° stacking configuration.

  15. New developments in fused deposition modeling of ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Shor, L.; Guceri, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To shift from rapid prototyping (RP) to agile fabrication by broadening the material selection, e.g. using ceramics, hence improving the properties (e.g. mechanical properties) of fused deposition modeling (FDM) products. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents the development...... of a novel extrusion system, based on the FDM technology. The new set-up, consisting of a mini-extruder mounted on a high-precision positioning system, is fed with bulk material in granulated form, instead that with the more common filament. Findings - Previous research showed that the applications of new...... materials with specific characteristics in a commercial FDM system are limited by the use of intermediate precursors, i.e. a filament. The new design described in this paper overcomes the problem thanks to the new feeding system. Research limitations/implications - The work presented in this paper is only...

  16. Short communication: fused deposition models from CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, J R; Shepherd, D E T; Hukins, D W L

    2004-06-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a new method for rapid prototyping, a technique that produces models of objects from computer files. The most commonly used rapid prototyping technique for medical applications is stereolithography, but FDM has several potential advantages. This paper is concerned with the accuracy of an FDM model of a sheep lumbar vertebra using data from a CT scan. The model and the original vertebra were compared by making measurements with vernier callipers and by laser scanning. Visually, the model reproduced the features of the original object; this conclusion was supported by a comparison of the laser scans. Discrepancies in measurements were comparable with those of models produced using other rapid prototyping techniques, demonstrating that FDM is a viable method for making models for clinical use.

  17. The mechanism of growth of quartz crystals into fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratello, V. J.; Hays, J. F.; Spaepen, F.; Turnbull, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed that the growth of quartz crystals into fused silica is effected by a mechanism involving the breaking of an Si-O bond and its association with an OH group, followed by cooperative motion of the nonbridging oxygen and the hydroxyl group which results in the crystallization of a row of several molecules along a crystalline-amorphous interfacial ledge. This mechanism explains, at least qualitatively, all the results of the earlier experimental study of the dependence of quartz crystal growth upon applied pressure: large negative activation volume; single activation enthalpy below Si-O bond energy; growth velocity constant in time, proportional to the hydroxyl and chlorine content, decreasing with increasing degree of reduction, and enhanced by nonhydrostatic stresses; lower pre-exponential for the synthetic than for the natural silica.

  18. Collaborative Filtering Fusing Label Features Based on SDAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huo, Huan; Liu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Deyuan

    2017-01-01

    problem, auxiliary information such as labels are utilized. Another approach of recommendation system is content-based model which can’t be directly integrated with CF-based model due to its inherent characteristics. Considering that deep learning algorithms are capable of extracting deep latent features......Collaborative filtering (CF) is successfully applied to recommendation system by digging the latent features of users and items. However, conventional CF-based models usually suffer from the sparsity of rating matrices which would degrade model’s recommendation performance. To address this sparsity......, this paper applies Stack Denoising Auto Encoder (SDAE) to content-based model and proposes LCF(Deep Learning for Collaborative Filtering) algorithm by combing CF-based model which fuses label features. Experiments on real-world data sets show that DLCF can largely overcome the sparsity problem...

  19. Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

    1996-11-01

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  20. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  1. The anomalous yield behavior of fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, W.; Heyden, S.; Conti, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a critical-state model of fused silica plasticity on the basis of data mined from molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The MD data is suggestive of an irreversible densification transition in volumetric compression resulting in permanent, or plastic, densification upon unloading. The MD data also reveals an evolution towards a critical state of constant volume under pressure-shear deformation. The trend towards constant volume is from above, when the glass is overconsolidated, or from below, when it is underconsolidated. We show that these characteristic behaviors are well-captured by a critical state model of plasticity, where the densification law for glass takes the place of the classical consolidation law of granular media and the locus of constant-volume states defines the critical-state line. A salient feature of the critical-state line of fused silica, as identified from the MD data, that renders its yield behavior anomalous is that it is strongly non-convex, owing to the existence of two well-differentiated phases at low and high pressures. We argue that this strong non-convexity of yield explains the patterning that is observed in molecular dynamics calculations of amorphous solids deforming in shear. We employ an explicit and exact rank-2 envelope construction to upscale the microscopic critical-state model to the macroscale. Remarkably, owing to the equilibrium constraint the resulting effective macroscopic behavior is still characterized by a non-convex critical-state line. Despite this lack of convexity, the effective macroscopic model is stable against microstructure formation and defines well-posed boundary-value problems.

  2. Using conceptual spaces to fuse knowledge from heterogeneous robot platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Zsolt

    2010-04-01

    As robots become more common, it becomes increasingly useful for many applications to use them in teams that sense the world in a distributed manner. In such situations, the robots or a central control center must communicate and fuse information received from multiple sources. A key challenge for this problem is perceptual heterogeneity, where the sensors, perceptual representations, and training instances used by the robots differ dramatically. In this paper, we use Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, a geometric representation with strong roots in cognitive science and psychology, in order to represent the appearance of objects and show how the problem of heterogeneity can be intuitively explored by looking at the situation where multiple robots differ in their conceptual spaces at different levels. To bridge low-level sensory differences, we abstract raw sensory data into properties (such as color or texture categories), represented as Gaussian Mixture Models, and demonstrate that this facilitates both individual learning and the fusion of concepts between robots. Concepts (e.g. objects) are represented as a fuzzy mixture of these properties. We then treat the problem where the conceptual spaces of two robots differ and they only share a subset of these properties. In this case, we use joint interaction and statistical metrics to determine which properties are shared. Finally, we show how conceptual spaces can handle the combination of such missing properties when fusing concepts received from different robots. We demonstrate the fusion of information in real-robot experiments with a Mobile Robots Amigobot and Pioneer 2DX with significantly different cameras and (on one robot) a SICK lidar.ÿÿÿÿ

  3. Case retrieval in medical databases by fusing heterogeneous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Cazuguel, Guy; Roux, Christian; Cochener, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    A novel content-based heterogeneous information retrieval framework, particularly well suited to browse medical databases and support new generation computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems, is presented in this paper. It was designed to retrieve possibly incomplete documents, consisting of several images and semantic information, from a database; more complex data types such as videos can also be included in the framework. The proposed retrieval method relies on image processing, in order to characterize each individual image in a document by their digital content, and information fusion. Once the available images in a query document are characterized, a degree of match, between the query document and each reference document stored in the database, is defined for each attribute (an image feature or a metadata). A Bayesian network is used to recover missing information if need be. Finally, two novel information fusion methods are proposed to combine these degrees of match, in order to rank the reference documents by decreasing relevance for the query. In the first method, the degrees of match are fused by the Bayesian network itself. In the second method, they are fused by the Dezert-Smarandache theory: the second approach lets us model our confidence in each source of information (i.e., each attribute) and take it into account in the fusion process for a better retrieval performance. The proposed methods were applied to two heterogeneous medical databases, a diabetic retinopathy database and a mammography screening database, for computer aided diagnosis. Precisions at five of 0.809 ± 0.158 and 0.821 ± 0.177, respectively, were obtained for these two databases, which is very promising.

  4. Study of efficacy of bath PUVA therapy in the treatment of generalized plaque type psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh S

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling disorder of the skin. Different patterns of psoriasis exist including plaque type, erythrodemic, pustular, palmoplantar and guttate. The most commonly involved sites are the elbows, knees, lumbosacral area and scalp. PUVA (Psoriasis Plus UVA therapy [administration of oral psoralen followed by exposure to UVA (320 to 440 nm] is widely used to treat severe psoriasis. Oral PUVA produces some adverse effects that may limit its applicability in a number of patients. The carcinogenic potential limits its use in patients with psoriasis who probably receive other carcinogenic treatments. Oral PUVA may induce complications such as nausea, vomiting and headache. In light of these problems Bath PUVA therapy is an important alternative to oral PUVA therapy. Bath PUVA is a kind of photochemotherapy in which UVA radiation after administration of topical psoralen in a warm water bath is used. We treated 30 patients with generalized plaque type psoriasis with 8-Mop Bath PUVA in Razi hospital. Bath PUVA cleared psoriasis more rapidly than oral PUVA and required fewer treatments (mean number of sessions: (17.6±2.1 and lower cumulative UVA dose. (49.2±15.4 J/cm². 83.3 percent of our patients showed complete response to treatment and 13.4 percent showed good response.

  5. Nursing Care at the Time of Death: A Bathing and Honoring Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Debra; Calmes, Beth; Grotts, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    To explore family members' experience of a bathing and honoring practice after a loved one's death in the acute care setting.
. A descriptive, qualitative design using a semistructured telephone interview script.
. The Inpatient Adult Oncology Unit at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in California. 
. 13 family members who participated in the bathing and honoring practice after their loved one's death on the oncology unit.
. Participants were selected by purposive sampling and interviewed by telephone three to six months after their loved one's death. Interviews using a semistructured script with open-ended questions were recorded, transcribed, verified, and analyzed using phenomenologic research techniques to identify common themes of experience.
. 24 first-level themes and 11 superordinate themes emerged from the data. All participants indicated that the bathing and honoring practice was a positive experience and supported the grieving process. The majority found the practice to be meaningful and stated that it honored their loved one. Many expressed that the bathing and honoring was spiritually significant in a nondenominational way and that they hope it will be made available to all families of patients who die in the hospital. 
. After patient death, a bathing and honoring practice with family member participation is positive and meaningful, and it supports family members' initial grieving.
. This study is a first step toward establishing specific nursing interventions as evidence-based practice that can be incorporated in routine nursing care for patients and families at the end of life.

  6. Economic Value of Dispensing Home-Based Preoperative Chlorhexidine Bathing Cloths to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel R.; Stuckey, Dianna R.; Norman, Bryan A.; Duggan, Andrew P.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Ingi; Muder, Robert R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes. RESULTS When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI. PMID:21515977

  7. The induced motion of a probe coupled to a bath with random resettings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christian; Thiery, Thimothée

    2017-10-01

    We consider a probe linearly coupled to the center of mass of a nonequilibrium bath. We study the induced motion on the probe for a model where a resetting mechanism is added to an overdamped bath dynamics with quadratic potentials. The fact that each bath particle is at random times reset to a fixed position is known for optimizing diffusive search strategies, but here stands for the nonequilibrium aspect of the bath. In the large bath scaling limit the probe is governed by an effective Langevin equation. Depending on the value of the parameters, there appear three regimes: (i) an equilibrium-like regime but with a reduced friction and an increased effective temperature; (ii) a regime where the noise felt by the probe is continuous but non-Gaussian and exhibits fat-tails; (iii) a regime with a non-Gaussian noise exhibiting power-law distributed jumps. The model thus represents an exactly solvable case for the origin of nonequilibrium probe dynamics.

  8. A study of retention characteristics and quality control of nutraceuticals containing resveratrol and polydatin using fused-core column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibigr, Jakub; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-20

    A new high-performance liquid chromatography method using fused-core column for fast separation of resveratrol and polydatin has been developed and used for quality control of nutraceuticals with resveratrol and polydatin content. Retention characteristics (log k) were studied under different conditions on C-18, RP-Amide C-18, Phenyl-hexyl, Pentafluorophenyl (F5) and Cyano stationary phases for both compounds. The effect of the volume fraction of acetonitrile on a retention factors log k of resveratrol and polydatin were evaluated. The optimal separation conditions for resveratrol, polydatin and internal standard p-nitrophenol were found on the fused-core column Ascentis Express ES-Cyano (100×3.0mm), particle size 2.7μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water solution with 0.5% acetic acid pH 3 (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and at 60°C. The detection wavelength was set at 305nm. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, good linearity with regression coefficients in the range (r=0.9992-0.9998; n=10) for both compounds was achieved. Commercial samples of nutraceuticals were extracted with methanol using ultrasound bath for 15min. A 5μL sample volume of the filtered solution was directly injected into the HPLC system. Accuracy of the method defined as a mean recovery was in the range 83.2-107.3% for both nutraceuticals. The intraday method precision was found satisfactory and relative standard deviations of sample analysis were in the range 0.8-4.7%. The developed method has shown high sample throughput during sample preparation process, modern separation approach, and short time (3min) of analysis. The results of study showed that the declared content of resveratrol and polydatin varied widely in different nutraceuticals according the producers (71.50-115.00% of declared content). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  10. The Use of Wetting Agents/Fume Suppressants for Minimizing the Atmospheric Emissions from Hard Chromium Electroplating Baths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulson, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    ...) chemical additive to hard chromium electroplating baths reduces hexavalent chromium airborne emissions to the environment and reduces employee occupational exposures in the electroplating shop...

  11. Herbs for medicinal baths among the traditional Yao communities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Long, Chunlin; Liu, Fengyan; Lee, Sangwoo; Guo, Qi; Li, Rong; Liu, Yuheng

    2006-11-03

    Medicinal baths are an important traditional way to prevent and cure common diseases among the traditional Yao communities of Jinping County, Yunnan Province, SW China. Approaches of anthropology, ethnobotany, and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used to investigate the herbs used for medicinal baths; and 110 medicinal plant species were found to be used by local people to treat a variety of diseases, such as rheumatic diseases, skin diseases, injuries from falls and gynecopathia. Of these 110 species, 6 (5%) had not been previously identified as having medicinal properties, while 87 (79%) were newly recorded for their use in medicinal baths. These new ethnobotanical and medicinal records are a rich source of further phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on folk herbs in SW China.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartale, S.D. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Sankapal, B.R. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: ennaoui@hmi.de

    2005-06-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature.

  13. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartale, S.D.; Sankapal, B.R.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature

  14. Optimization of operational parameters and bath control for electrodeposion of Ni-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Fabiano A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of operational parameters of an electrodeposition process for deposition of boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of nickel-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having nickel sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium-1-dodecylsulfate and ammonia for pH adjustments to 9.5 has been studied. Detailed studies of the efects on bath temperature, mechanical agitation, cathode current density and anode format have led to optimum operational conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. The highest cathode current efficiency for deposition of the alloy was about 69% for cylindrical and 64% for rectangular platinum anode while working at bath temperature 80ºC, cathode rotation 15 rpm and cathode current density 100 mA cm-2. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process was proposed.

  15. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111 orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  16. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  17. Topical analgesic added to paraffin enhances paraffin bath treatment of individuals with hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrer, Joseph William; Johnson, Aaron Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Measom, Gary J; Fellingham, Gilbert W

    2011-01-01

    To compare treating patients with symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with paraffin baths only (PO) (100% wax) or paraffin baths 80% wax with 20% topical analgesic (PTA). Subjects met criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for classifying symptomatic hand OA and had a Dreiser's index score >5 points. Current and average pain at rest and with movement was assessed with visual analogue scales. Hand function was assessed by the functional index for hand OA (FIHOA). Both groups had a significant reduction in their 'current' pain 15 min after the first and twelfth treatments compared to pre-treatment but there was no difference between groups (t = 0.10, p > 0.05). The PTA group had greater improvement over the 12 treatment sessions for their pain at rest (t = 2.92, p paraffin produced significantly greater pain relief at rest and during movement than paraffin baths alone after 12 treatments. Additionally, the PTA group experienced greater improved hand function.

  18. Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis- Where is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis....... For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used......, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy...

  19. Adaptation of the Bath measures on disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hansen, G O; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark. METHODS: The BASDAI, BASFI, and BASG were translated into Danish and subsequently field-tested among 17 AS patients for relevance, face, and content validity. Reliability and validity were assessed by administering the new measures and a comparator instrument to 113 AS patients on two occasions....... RESULTS: Test-retest reliability was high (>0.90) and the random measurement error was within+/-2.0 for the BASG and within approximately+/-1.5 for BASDAI and BASFI, which is acceptable for most clinical settings. The measures have good internal consistency and are able to discriminate between functional......OBJECTIVE: Adaptation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BASG), and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) for defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related diseases for use...

  20. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  1. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  2. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is into the compressor; by ducting any vinyl chloride between the two seals through a control system... accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section is to be ducted through a control system from which the... chloride discharged from the slip gauge through a control system from which the concentration of vinyl...

  3. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, SA; Voronov, YA; Onishchenko, EM; Simakov, AB; Sosnovtsev, VV; Suchkov, SI; Sugrobova, TA

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas-filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blow-out

  4. One-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-1, 2-fused pyrimidones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of alicyclic fused pyrimidones from aminoacrylates and lactams in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride is described. The results suggest that this method is widely applicable except for cyclobutyl fused systems. This method gives better yield than the method ofcondensing aminopyrrolidines with the beta keto esters.

  5. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  6. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  7. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  8. Comparison of the physico-chemical properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkat, L.; Cattin, L.; Reguig, A.; Regragui, M.; Bernede, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were obtained by two methods: chemical bath deposition (CBD) and spray pyrolysis. During the CBD deposition process, the bath was heated at 100 deg. C. The CBD as-deposited films corresponded to 3Ni(OH) 2 .2H 2 O. After an annealing time of 96 h at 350 deg. C, they became NiO. For the spray deposition, the nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl 2 .6H 2 O) was chosen as precursor, the glass substrates were heated at 350 deg. C. All the films were p-type semiconductors with a band gap of 3.5 eV. The X-ray diffraction diagrams revealed that all the films are crystallized in the cubic NiO phase with the expected value for the lattice parameters. Nevertheless, the orientation and the size of the grains depend on the deposition method. The films are oriented along the (1 1 1) plane in the case of spray, while they are oriented in the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes in the case of CBD. The electron probe microanalysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the composition of the films. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of hydroxyl groups at the surface of the films, while the electron probe microanalysis shows that the films are stoichiometric in the bulk. The scanning electron microscope microphotographs show that all the films exhibit a rough surface with a presence of microstructural features in the case of CBD films. These properties are desired for an eventual application in microcrystalline solar cells

  9. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Takeshi; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, Takaya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing ...

  10. Modelling thermal effects in the molten iron bath of the HIsmelt reduction vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Peter J.; Feng, Yuqing; Davis, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Over a thirty year period the HIsmelt process has been developed as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace for the production of pig iron. This process involves the injection of fine iron ore and non-coking coal particles into a molten iron bath though a number of wall lances. These jets induce substantial mixing and splashing of molten droplets into the top space of the vessel due to the substantial volume of gas generated within the bath. Control of heat transfer, reactions and the...

  11. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-07-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  12. Pengaruh Penggunaan Ball Mill Terhadap Ukuran Partikel Pada Pembuatan Kitosan Nano Dengan Menggunakan Ultrasonic Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Sakinah, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    Has been studies the effects of the particles on the manufacture of nano chitosan using ultrasonic bath. Has been studied, the high molecular chitosan with a size of 120 mvh made by two treatments, namely using a ball mill and without using a ball mill. After the making of chitosan nano by using a solution of 0.1% natrium tripoliposfat and then inserted into ultrasonic bath. Characterization is done with the test particle size analyser and scanning electron microscopy. Test results for chitos...

  13. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  14. The Encoding of Subjectivity in Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath's Tale" and "The Pardoner's Tale"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses Chaucer's narrative technique in two of The Canterbury Tales and argues that the narrative voice is Chaucer's, and that the subjectivity of the Wife of Bath and the Pardoner should be approached in different ways than through theories of the novel.......This chapter discusses Chaucer's narrative technique in two of The Canterbury Tales and argues that the narrative voice is Chaucer's, and that the subjectivity of the Wife of Bath and the Pardoner should be approached in different ways than through theories of the novel....

  15. Coherent oscillation in a linear quantum system coupled to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Sawyer, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the time development of the density matrix for a system coupled to a thermal bath, in models that go beyond the standard two-level systems through addition of an energy excitation degree of freedom and through the possibility of the replacement of the spin algebra by a more complex algebra. We find conditions under which increasing the coupling to the bath above a certain level decreases the rate of entropy production, and in which the limiting behavior is a dissipationless sinusoidal oscillation that could be interpreted as the synchronization of many modes of the uncoupled system

  16. An investigation of effects of bath temperature on CdO films prepared by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıyak Yıldırım, Ayça; Altıokka, Barış

    2017-11-01

    CdO thin films were prepared by electrodeposition method. Solution temperatures were varied from 58 to 98 °C. It was understood from the film thicknesses and current densities that the reaction rate increased as the temperature increased. Good crystallization and a thick film were obtained at 98 °C. It was found that the energy band gap varied between 1.99 and 2.61 eV depending on the bath temperature. SEM images also showed that surface morphologies were dependent on bath temperature.

  17. CT-QMC-simulations on the single impurity Anderson model with a superconducting bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Florian; Pruschke, Thomas [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coupling a heavy fermion impurity to a superconducting lead induces a competition between the Kondo effect and superconductivity in the low temperature regime. This situation has been modeled with a single impurity Anderson model, where the normal state bath is replaced by a BCS-type superconducting bath in mean field approximation. We study this model using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo hybridization expansion algorithm. Results include the impurity Green's functions as well as the corresponding spectral functions obtained from analytic continuation. Two side bands are observed which we discuss in the light of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states.

  18. Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Said El; Muaileq, Dina Abu; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Bratty, Mohammed Al; Deeb, Sami El

    2017-06-27

    HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5) and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %). Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

  19. Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan

    2016-05-05

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10(-3) m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination.

  20. Comparing monolithic and fused core HPLC columns for fast chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdi Said El

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HPLC stationary phases of monolithic and fused core type can be used to achieve fast chromatographic separation as an alternative to UPLC. In this study, monolithic and fused core stationary phases are compared for fast separation of four fat-soluble vitamins. Three new methods on the first and second generation monolithic silica RP-18e columns and a fused core pentafluoro-phenyl propyl column were developed. Application of three fused core columns offered comparable separations of retinyl palmitate, DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, cholecalciferol and menadione in terms of elution speed and separation efficiency. Separation was achieved in approx. 5 min with good resolution (Rs > 5 and precision (RSD ≤ 0.6 %. Monolithic columns showed, however, a higher number of theoretical plates, better precision and lower column backpressure than the fused core column. The three developed methods were successfully applied to separate and quantitate fat-soluble vitamins in commercial products.

  1. Refractive index sensors based on the fused tapered special multi-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-hu; Xiu, Yan-li; Liu, Qin; Xie, Hai-yang; Yang, Chuan-qing; Zhang, Shun-yang; Fu, Guang-wei; Bi, Wei-hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel refractive index (RI) sensor is proposed based on the fused tapered special multi-mode fiber (SMMF). Firstly, a section of SMMF is spliced between two single-mode fibers (SMFs). Then, the SMMF is processed by a fused tapering machine, and a tapered fiber structure is fabricated. Finally, a fused tapered SMMF sensor is obtained for measuring external RI. The RI sensing mechanism of tapered SMMF sensor is analyzed in detail. For different fused tapering lengths, the experimental results show that the RI sensitivity can be up to 444.517 81 nm/RIU in the RI range of 1.334 9—1.347 0. The RI sensitivity is increased with the increase of fused tapering length. Moreover, it has many advantages, including high sensitivity, compact structure, fast response and wide application range. So it can be used to measure the solution concentration in the fields of biochemistry, health care and food processing.

  2. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  3. Alkoxylated β-Naphthol as an Additive for Tin Plating from Chloride and Methane Sulfonic Acid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona P. Zajkoska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available β-naphthol was one of the first additives introduced for smooth and homogeneous tin electrodeposition. Although it can be oxidized under the plating conditions, forming either 1,2-napthoquinone or polymeric materials based on naphthioxides, it is still in use. In this work, an investigation of its more stable form, alkoxylated β-naphthol (ABN, on tin plating is undertaken. For this purpose, chloride based (pH ~5 and methane sulfonic acid (MSA, pH ~0.5 electrolytes, including ABN, were prepared. Reaction kinetics were studied by polarization, Tafel measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. Tin electrodeposits were obtained on flat brass substrates. Surface morphology and preferred crystal orientation were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. In both studied electrolytes ABN acts as an inhibitor but in the case of the chloride electrolyte it is more pronounced. In the MSA electrolyte this effect was overlaid by the presence of tin-citrate complexes. In the chloride-based electrolyte, ABN has a grain refining effect, while in the MSA electrolyte an increase of ABN concentration leads to a slight enlargement of the average grain size. X-ray analysis shows a constant decrease of the (101 intensity with increasing concentration of ABN for the sample deposited from both baths.

  4. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  7. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  8. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  9. Comparison of two co-registration methods for real-time ultrasonography fused with MRI: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Ellegaard, K; Boesen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To test the accuracy of spatial registration of real-time ultrasonography (US) fused with MRI in a phantom.......To test the accuracy of spatial registration of real-time ultrasonography (US) fused with MRI in a phantom....

  10. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Multimodal Physical Activity Recognition by Fusing Temporal and Cepstral Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Rozgić, Viktor; Thatte, Gautam; Lee, Sangwon; Emken, Adar; Annavaram, Murali; Mitra, Urbashi; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    A physical activity (PA) recognition algorithm for a wearable wireless sensor network using both ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and accelerometer signals is proposed. First, in the time domain, the cardiac activity mean and the motion artifact noise of the ECG signal are modeled by a Hermite polynomial expansion and principal component analysis, respectively. A set of time domain accelerometer features is also extracted. A support vector machine (SVM) is employed for supervised classification using these time domain features. Second, motivated by their potential for handling convolutional noise, cepstral features extracted from ECG and accelerometer signals based on a frame level analysis are modeled using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). Third, to reduce the dimension of the tri-axial accelerometer cepstral features which are concatenated and fused at the feature level, heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis is performed. Finally, to improve the overall recognition performance, fusion of the multi-modal (ECG and accelerometer) and multidomain (time domain SVM and cepstral domain GMM) subsystems at the score level is performed. The classification accuracy ranges from 79.3% to 97.3% for various testing scenarios and outperforms the state-of-the-art single accelerometer based PA recognition system by over 24% relative error reduction on our nine-category PA database. PMID:20699202

  12. Fused Regression for Multi-source Gene Regulatory Network Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Y Lam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding gene regulatory networks is critical to understanding cellular differentiation and response to external stimuli. Methods for global network inference have been developed and applied to a variety of species. Most approaches consider the problem of network inference independently in each species, despite evidence that gene regulation can be conserved even in distantly related species. Further, network inference is often confined to single data-types (single platforms and single cell types. We introduce a method for multi-source network inference that allows simultaneous estimation of gene regulatory networks in multiple species or biological processes through the introduction of priors based on known gene relationships such as orthology incorporated using fused regression. This approach improves network inference performance even when orthology mapping and conservation are incomplete. We refine this method by presenting an algorithm that extracts the true conserved subnetwork from a larger set of potentially conserved interactions and demonstrate the utility of our method in cross species network inference. Last, we demonstrate our method's utility in learning from data collected on different experimental platforms.

  13. Crack defect formation during manufacture of fused cast alumina refractories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Dominic; Cockcroft, Steve; Maijer, Daan

    2002-07-01

    A sequentially coupled mathematical thermal-stress model, based on the commercial finite-element code ABAQUS, has been developed to rationalize crack defect formation in fused cast αβ-alumina refractories used in the glass industry. The thermal model was validated against thermocouple and pyrometer measurements obtained in an industrial setting. The temperature predictions obtained from the thermal model were employed as input to the elastic strain-rate-independent plastic stress model. The constitutive behavior of αβ-alumina has been determined over a range of temperatures for input to the stress model. The distribution of β-alumina that forms in the center of the casting due to rejection of Na2O during solidifcation was introduced in the stress model through a user-defined subroutine in order to account for the effect of differences in the thermal contraction behavior and elastic modulus of the αβ- and β-alumina phases. The stress analysis indicates that temperature gradients as well as the different dilatational behavior of the αβ- and β-alumina phases are the main drivers of stress and strain evolution during solidification and subsequent cooling. The β-alumina core, in particular, plays an important role in the generation of tensile stresses and likely gives rise to the generation of the internal cracks observed in industrial castings.

  14. Picosecond laser damage of fused silica at 355 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangjie; Liu Hongjie; Wang Fang; Zhang Zhen; An Xinyou; Huang Jin; Jiang Xiaodong; Wu Weidong; Ren Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the initiated damage threshold, the damage morphology and the subsequent damage growth on fused silica's input-surface and exit-surface under picosecond laser irradiation at 355 nm. Defects induced fluorescence on surface of the optical component is observed. The results demonstrate a significant dependence of the initiated damage on pulse duration and surface defects, and that of the damage growth on self-focusing, sub-surface defects. The damage-threshold is 3.98 J/cm 2 of input surface and 2.91 J/cm 2 of exit surface. The damage morphologies are quite different between input surface and exit surface. Slow growth behavior appears for the diameter of exit-surface and linear growth one for the depth of exit-surface in the lateral side of damage site with the increase of shot number. Defects have changed obviously compared with nanosecond laser damage in the damage area. Several main reasons such as electric intensification and self-focusing for the observed initiated damage and damage growth behavior are discussed. (authors)

  15. FUSE Observations of the Hot DA White Dwarf GD 394

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayer, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Barrett, P.; FUSE Science Team

    1999-12-01

    We present far-ultraviolet observations of the hot hydrogen-rich white dwarf GD 394, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). The resulting spectrum, which covers 910--1180 Angstroms at a resolution of 0.1 Angstroms, was obtained by using the large (30x30 arcsecond) slit. The spectrum reveals the presence of numerous photospheric Si 3 and Si 4 features. The equivalent widths of these lines range from 15 to 85 m Angstroms. Based on preliminary analysis, we observed the possible presence of photospheric phosphorus; if confirmed by subsequent analysis, this represents the first detection of a heavy element other than silicon in the spectrum of GD 394. The non-detection of photospheric C 3 λ 1176, N 3 λ 991, and S 4 λ 1070 puts stringent upper limits on the abundances of these elements. These upper limits provide a good test of the diffusion theory. They also add a constraint to the models derived from the ROSAT and EUVE observations of GD 394. In addition, we report the detection of interstellar features along the line of sight of this hot star. We acknowledge financial support from UVIC, the CSA Space Science Program, and NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  16. Integrable Floquet dynamics, generalized exclusion processes and "fused" matrix ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicat, Matthieu

    2018-04-01

    We present a general method for constructing integrable stochastic processes, with two-step discrete time Floquet dynamics, from the transfer matrix formalism. The models can be interpreted as a discrete time parallel update. The method can be applied for both periodic and open boundary conditions. We also show how the stationary distribution can be built as a matrix product state. As an illustration we construct parallel discrete time dynamics associated with the R-matrix of the SSEP and of the ASEP, and provide the associated stationary distributions in a matrix product form. We use this general framework to introduce new integrable generalized exclusion processes, where a fixed number of particles is allowed on each lattice site in opposition to the (single particle) exclusion process models. They are constructed using the fusion procedure of R-matrices (and K-matrices for open boundary conditions) for the SSEP and ASEP. We develop a new method, that we named "fused" matrix ansatz, to build explicitly the stationary distribution in a matrix product form. We use this algebraic structure to compute physical observables such as the correlation functions and the mean particle current.

  17. Plasticized protein for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Leroy, Eric; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis

    2016-10-01

    The developments of Additive Manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) now target new 3D printable materials, leading to novel properties like those given by biopolymers such as proteins: degradability, biocompatibility and edibility. Plasticized materials from zein, a storage protein issued from corn, present interesting thermomechanical and rheological properties, possibly matching with AM-FDM specifications. Thus commercial zein plasticized with 20% glycerol has a glass transition temperature (Tg) at about 42°C, after storage at intermediate relative humidity (RH=59%). Its principal mechanical relaxation at Tα ≈ 50°C leads to a drop of the elastic modulus from about 1.1 GPa, at ambient temperature, to 0.6 MPa at Tα+100°C. These values are in the same range as values obtained in the case of standard polymers for AM-FDM processing, as PLA and ABS, although relaxation mechanisms are likely different in these materials. Such results lead to the setting up of zein-based compositions printable by AM-FDM and allow processing bioresorbable printed parts, with designed 3D geometry and structure.

  18. STANDARDIZING QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF FUSED REMOTELY SENSED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pohl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  19. Standardizing Quality Assessment of Fused Remotely Sensed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Moellmann, J.; Fries, K.

    2017-09-01

    The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment) in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS) to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR) and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  20. Interdiffusion of Polycarbonate in Fused Deposition Modeling Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Jonathan; Forster, Aaron; Satija, Sushil; Jones, Ronald; Migler, Kalman

    2015-03-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM), a now common and inexpensive additive manufacturing method, produces 3D objects by extruding molten polymer layer-by-layer. Compared to traditional polymer processing methods (injection, vacuum, and blow molding), FDM parts have inferior mechanical properties, surface finish, and dimensional stability. From a polymer processing point of view the polymer-polymer weld between each layer limits the mechanical strength of the final part. Unlike traditional processing methods, where the polymer is uniformly melted and entangled, FDM welds are typically weaker due to the short time available for polymer interdiffusion and entanglement. To emulate the FDM process thin film bilayers of polycarbonate/d-polycarbonate were annealed using scaled times and temperatures accessible in FDM. Shift factors from Time-Temperature Superposition, measured by small amplitude oscillatory shear, were used to calculate reasonable annealing times (min) at temperatures below the actual extrusion temperature. The extent of interdiffusion was then measured using neutron reflectivity. Analogous specimens were prepared to characterize the mechanical properties. FDM build parameters were then related to interdiffusion between welded layers and mechanical properties. Understating the relationship between build parameters, interdiffusion, and mechanical strength will allow FDM users to print stronger parts in an intelligent manner rather than using trial-and-error and build parameter lock-in.

  1. High strain rate fracture behaviour of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A; Iannitti, G; Testa, G; Bonora, N; Limido, J; Lacome, J L; Olovsson, L; Ferraro, M

    2014-01-01

    Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range. Because of its wide use in the military industry as window material, it may be subjected to high-energy ballistic impacts. Under such dynamic conditions, post-yield response of the ceramic as well as the strain rate related effects become significant and should be accounted for in the constitutive modelling. In this study, the Johnson-Holmquist (J-H) model parameters have been identified by inverse calibration technique, on selected validation test configurations, according to the procedure described hereafter. Numerical simulations were performed with LS-DYNA and IMPETUS-FEA, a general non-linear finite element software which offers NURBS finite element technology for the simulation of large deformation and fracture in materials. In order to overcome numerical drawbacks associated with element erosion, a modified version of the J-H model is proposed.

  2. Cleaning of used rotary nickel-titanium files in an ultrasonic bath by locally intensified acoustic cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryson, L.M.; Fernandez Rivas, David; Boutsioukis, C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To compare the pre-sterilization cleaning of rotary Ni-Ti files of different sizes previously used a. ex vivo and b. clinically by a washer disinfector, a regular ultrasonic bath, and the same ultrasonic bath in combination with a recently developed cavitation intensifying method. Methodology

  3. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Stutchfield

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

  4. Fabrication and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Ni/Cu nanowires using the double bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleak, N.; Potpattanapol, P.; Bao, N.N.; Ding, J.; Wongkokuo, W.; Tang, I.M.; Thongmee, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ordered Ni/Cu multilayered nanowires (NW's) were fabricated using the two bath method in which the AAO template was switched back and forth between the two baths each containing solutions of dissolved Ni and Cu sulfates repeatedly. Different combinations of periods in which templates spent in each bath were used. The SEM and TEM images of the NW's showed that the NW's were smooth and uniform. The VSM results showed that in the presence of a field applied parallel to the NW, the coercivity and squareness increased when the deposition times of the Ni and Cu increased. To account for the behavior when both the thicknesses of the Ni and Cu layers were increasing, the effects of the increase in the Cu layer partially offset the effects of the increase in the Ni layer. The highest coercivity and squareness achieved was 822 Oe and 0.949, respectively, when the deposition times were 8 min for the Ni deposition and 2.5 min for the Cu deposition. - Highlights: • The double bath method produced nanowires having alternating layers of Ni and Cu. • The coercivities and squareness were higher for magnetic fields applied parallel to the wire's axis. • Coercivities of the nanowires increased from 365 Oe to 822 Oe as the Ni deposition time increased. • Squareness increased from 0.800 to 0.949 as the Ni deposition times increased

  5. The Salutary Influence of Forest Bathing on Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genxiang Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that forest bathing would be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF as an adjunctive therapy. Two groups of participants with CHF were simultaneously sent to the forest or an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively. Subjects exposed to the forest site showed a significant reduction of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in comparison to that of the city group and their own baseline levels. The values for the cardiovascular disease related pathological factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1, and constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, including renin, angiotensinogen (AGT, angiotensin II (ANGII, and ANGII receptor type 1 or 2 (AT1 or AT2 in subjects exposed to the forest environment were lower than those in the urban control group. Obviously, a decreased level of inflammatory cytokines and improved antioxidant function was observed in the forest group rather than in the city group. The assessment of the profile of mood states (POMS indicated that the negative emotional mood state was alleviated after forest bathing. As anticipated, a better air quality in the forest site was observed according to the detection of PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 μm and negative ions. These results provided direct evidence that forest bathing has a beneficial effect on CHF patients, and thus may pave the way for potential development of forest bathing as an effective adjunctive therapy on cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Florian; Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Schneider, Andreas M; Eiden, Stefanie; Behrens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps), a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step). In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity.

  7. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Waltz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps, a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step. In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity.

  8. THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELING VIA PHOTOGRAPHS FOR DOCUMENTATION OF A VILLAGE BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Balta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is supporting the conceptual discussions of architectural restoration with three dimensional modeling of monuments based on photogrammetric survey. In this study, a 16th century village bath in Ulamış, Seferihisar, and Izmir is modeled for documentation. Ulamış is one of the historical villages within which Turkish population first settled in the region of Seferihisar – Urla. The methodology was tested on an antique monument; a bath with a cubical form. Within the limits of this study, only the exterior of the bath was modeled. The presentation scale for the bath was determined as 1 / 50, considering the necessities of designing structural interventions and architectural ones within the scope of a restoration project. The three dimensional model produced is a realistic document presenting the present situation of the ruin. Traditional plan, elevation and perspective drawings may be produced from the model, in addition to the realistic textured renderings and wireframe representations. The model developed in this study provides opportunity for presenting photorealistic details of historical morphologies in scale. Compared to conventional drawings, the renders based on the 3d models provide an opportunity for conceiving architectural details such as color, material and texture. From these documents, relatively more detailed restitution hypothesis can be developed and intervention decisions can be taken. Finally, the principles derived from the case study can be used for 3d documentation of historical structures with irregular surfaces.

  9. Influence of pH and bath composition on properties of Ni–Fe alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferential surface coverage of the absorbed iron interme- diate (Yin 1997; Sasaki and Talbot 2000). The difficulties introduced by anomalous codeposition inherent to the Fe–Ni alloy, has necessitated empirically developed coating bath, which typically contain different organic additives (Lieder and Biallozor 1985; Yin and ...

  10. Bath and shower effect in spinal cord: the effect of time interval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.E.P.; Pop, L.A.M.; Visser, A.G.; Peeters, W.J.M.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the time dependency of the sensitizing effect of a large low-dose field on a small high-dose field in the rat cervical spinal cord. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Irradiation experiments with a relatively low dose to a large volume (bath, 2 cm, 4 Gy) were combined with high doses to a

  11. Electrodeposition of zinc-nickel alloy from fluoborate baths - as a substitute for electrogalvanising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Ayyapparaju, J.; Devaraj, G.

    Use of fluoborate electroytes have been investigated for depositing a suitable composition of zinc-nickel alloy on mild steel for better corrosion protection. In the present investigation, the plating and bath conditions have been optimized so that zinc-nickel alloy coating from fluoborate solutions find applications for plating wires as well as other articles advantageously in the place of zinc coatings.

  12. EVALUATION OF ULTRAFILTRATION TO RECOVER AQUEOUS IRON PHOSPHATING/DEGREASING BATH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention efforts studied in the report summarized here targeted the hazardous waste generated from a 5000-gal iron phosphating/degreasing bath used by a metal fabricator to clean and precondition steel parts for painting. This project was carried out in four stages: (...

  13. Bath and shower effect in spinal cord: the effect of time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippens, Marielle E P; Pop, Lucas A M; Visser, Andries G; Peeters, Wenny J M; van der Kogel, Albert J

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the time dependency of the sensitizing effect of a large low-dose field on a small high-dose field in the rat cervical spinal cord. Irradiation experiments with a relatively low dose to a large volume (bath, 2 cm, 4 Gy) were combined with high doses to a small volume (shower, 4.7 mm, 26-43 Gy) at intervals of 8 minutes and 3, 12, and 24 hours. Both a functional score defined as motor impairment and a histologic score characterized as white matter necrosis were used as end points. Application of the 4-Gy bath dose resulted in a significant decrease in 50% isoeffective dose (ED(50)) from 48.7 Gy (small field) to 40.8 Gy. If the interval was extended, the ED(50) increased to 44.4 (3 hours) and 44.8 Gy (12 hours), whereas a 24-hour interval resulted in a significant increase to 51.9 Gy. If the histologic end point was considered, the ED(50) for all dose-response curves decreased slightly with 0.2 to 2.6 Gy without significantly changing the kinetics. The bath effect as applied in the bath-and-shower experiment lasted for at least 12 hours and disappeared in the 24-hour interval. This time scale clearly deviates from the repair kinetics in spinal cord derived from low-dose-rate and fractionated irradiations.

  14. New and clean strategy for the determination of Cu2+ in electroless copper plating baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rutao; Zong, Wansong; Gao, Canzhu; Chi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Lijun

    2007-09-01

    This article concerns a new and clean strategy for the determination of Cu(2+) in electroless copper plating baths with differential spectrophotometry. With this strategy, the problem of too high absorbance of Cu(2+) under plating conditions has been solved. We investigated the influence of copper sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, nickel sulfate, sodium citrate, polyglycol, temperature and pH on the absorption spectrum of Cu(2+) in electroless copper plating baths. Five grams per litre of CuSO(4).5H(2)O solution was selected as the reference solution. Experimental results prove that, this strategy has the merits of fast and high accuracy compared to the traditional techniques. Linearly dependent coefficient of the working curve is 0.9999 and the components in the formula have no obvious effect on the detection of Cu(2+) under experimental conditions. Therefore, we can directly move solutions from the EC plating baths for detection, after that the sample can still go back to the baths without any pollution from the plating process to the environment.

  15. Discontinuation of contact precautions with the introduction of universal daily chlorhexidine bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, J A; Eells, S J; Clark, E; Rand, D D; Kiet, G T; Macias-Gil, R; Mendez, J M; Huang, S S; Milefchik, E N; Miller, L G

    2017-09-01

    Contact precautions are a traditional strategy to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Chlorhexidine bathing is increasingly used to decrease MRSA burden and transmission in intensive care units (ICUs). We sought to evaluate a hospital policy change from routine contact precautions for MRSA compared with universal chlorhexidine bathing, without contact precautions. We measured new MRSA acquisition in ICU patients and surveyed for MRSA environmental contamination in common areas and non-MRSA patient rooms before and after the policy change. During the baseline and chlorhexidine bathing periods, the number of patients (453 vs. 417), ICU days (1999 vs. 1703) and MRSA days/1000 ICU days (109 vs. 102) were similar. MRSA acquisition (2/453 vs. 2/457, P = 0·93) and environmental MRSA contamination (9/474 vs. 7/500, P = 0·53) were not significantly different between time periods. There were 58% fewer contact precaution days in the ICU during the chlorhexidine period (241/1993 vs. 102/1730, P chlorhexidine bathing in ICUs is associated with increased MRSA acquisition among ICU patients or increased MRSA contamination of ICU fomites. Although underpowered, our findings suggest this strategy, which has the potential to reduce costs and improve patient safety, should be assessed in similar but larger studies.

  16. Climate change impact on infection risks during bathing downstream of sewage emissions from CSOs or WWTPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Man, Heleen; Schijven, Jack F; de Nijs, Ton; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study,

  17. Bath temperature impact on morphological evolution of Ni(OH)2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemical properties are examined as an impact of bath temperature. XRD studies reveal formation of mixed phase of α and β at .... grade) and glass microslides were washed with detergent, followed by rinsing with double-distilled water and ... The electrochemical cell comprises of a platinum counter electrode, saturated ...

  18. Influence of pH and bath composition on properties of Ni–Fe alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of pH and bath composition on properties of Ni–Fe alloy films synthesized by electrodeposition. XINGHUA SU1 and CHENGWEN QIANG2,∗. 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, China. 2China and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou ...

  19. Ritual Bath In Islam (Ghusl Janabat) | Fasasi | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritual Bath In Islam (Ghusl Janabat). MI Fasasi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  20. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  1. Chemical Bath Deposition and characterization of CdS – PbS thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exponentially between the second half of the visible and near infra-red regions. The films have peak reflectance within the visible region. The films showed good characteristics for deployment not only as UV filters but also in solar control coating applications. Keywords: Chemical bath, CdS, PbS, Thin Films, transmittance.

  2. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  3. Numerical Simulations of the Kinetic Energy Transfer in the Bath of a BOF Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Ersson, Mikael; Zhong, Liangcai; Jönsson, Pär

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental aspects of the kinetic energy transfer from a top and bottom gas injection to the bath of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) by applying a mathematical model. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when top lance height is lowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trend was found that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased for the current bottom blowing operation conditions. The kinetic energy transfer index results indicated that the energy transfer for the bottom blowing is much more efficient than that of the top blowing operations. To understand the effects of the upper buoyant phase on the energy dissipation of the bulk liquid in the bath, different mass and physical properties of slag and foam were considered in the bottom blowing simulations. The slag on top of the bath is found to dissipate by 6.6, 9.4, and 11.2 pct for slag mass values of 5, 9, and 15 t compared to the case without slag atop the surface of the bath, respectively. The results showed that the kinetic energy transfer is not largely influenced by the viscosity of the upper slag or the foaming phases.

  4. System-bath correlation function probed by conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, Wim P. de; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1996-01-01

    We show how in the framework of the multimode Brownian oscillator model the system-bath correlation function can be derived from conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo experiments and consideration of the linear optical spectra. Experiments are performed on the infrared dye DTTCI in room

  5. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... sanitary flush toilet facilities, as hereinafter prescribed, for the use of miners employed in the surface...

  6. Separating The Baby From The Bath Water: Women\\'s Rights And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lobbied to have that constitution adopted. The defeat of the constitution, the authors assert amounted to throwing away the baby with the bath water. It also negated gains that seemed so close to being realised setting the quest for gender equality back considerably. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights Vol.

  7. Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Osborne, Sonya

    2015-02-20

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after invasive (surgical) procedures. Preoperative bathing or showering with an antiseptic skin wash product is a well-accepted procedure for reducing skin bacteria (microflora). It is less clear whether reducing skin microflora leads to a lower incidence of surgical site infection. To review the evidence for preoperative bathing or showering with antiseptics for preventing hospital-acquired (nosocomial) surgical site infections. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 18 December 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2014 Issue 11); Ovid MEDLINE (2012 to December Week 4 2014), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations December 18, 2014); Ovid EMBASE (2012 to 2014 Week 51), EBSCO CINAHL (2012 to December 18 2014) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials comparing any antiseptic preparation used for preoperative full-body bathing or showering with non-antiseptic preparations in people undergoing surgery. Two review authors independently assessed studies for selection, risk of bias and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. We did not identify any new trials for inclusion in this fifth update. Seven trials involving a total of 10,157 participants were included. Four of the included trials had three comparison groups. The antiseptic used in all trials was 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiscrub/Riohex). Three trials involving 7791 participants compared chlorhexidine with a placebo. Bathing with chlorhexidine compared with placebo did not result in a statistically significant reduction in SSIs; the relative risk of SSI (RR) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.04). When only trials of high quality were included in this comparison, the RR of SSI was 0.95 (95%CI 0.82 to 1.10). Three trials of 1443 participants compared bar soap with

  8. Overcurrent protection of transformers. Part 2: Traditional and new fusing philosophies for small and large transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C. J.; Niemira, J. K.

    2003-07-01

    New and traditional fusing philosophies for protecting transformers are discussed. This second in a two-part paper covers selection criteria for a transformer-primary fuse to protect the transformer consistent with industry-accepted through-fault protection curves. Also covered are the principles of coordination as they relate to the proper selection of the primary-side fuse and power fuses and the principles underlying the protection of load-side conductors and cables. The critical nature of secondary fault protection on small three-phase transformers used on industrial, commercial, and institutional power systems, as well as small-to-medium size three-phase power transformers used in utility substations is emphasized, in view of the long lead time and expense involved in replacing these transformers. In contrast, no special protection recommendations are made for small-kVA overhead distribution transformers, since they are not considered likely to experience secondary faults, and the rare faults that do occur will not likely be detected and cleared by the primary fuse. Also of importance is the fact that these transformers are inexpensive and readily available. Overall, large fuse rating, used in combination with a tank-mounted surge arrester is recommended, because it can provide better transformer protection than the smaller fuse ratings traditionally employed. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Fiber fuse behavior in kW-level continuous-wave double-clad field laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Yi, Sun; Qi-Rong, Xiao; Dan, Li; Xue-Jiao, Wang; Hai-Tao, Zhang; Ma-Li, Gong; Ping, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, original experimental data for fiber fuse in kW-level continuous-wave (CW) high power double-clad fiber (DCF) laser are reported. The propagating velocity of the fuse is 9.68 m/s in a 3.1-kW Yb-doped DCF laser. Three other cases in Yb-doped DCF are also observed. We think that the ignition of fiber fuse is caused by thermal mechanism, and the formation of bullet-shaped tracks is attributed to the optical discharge and temperature gradient. The inducements of initial fuse and formation of bullet-shaped voids are analyzed. This investigation of fiber fuse helps better understand the fiber fuse behavior, in order to avoid the catastrophic destruction caused by fiber fuse in high power fiber laser. Project supported by the Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Energy Laser and China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014HEL02) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61307057).

  10. Abrupt change point detection of annual maximum precipitation using fused lasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-June; Sung, Jang Hyun; Chung, Eun-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Because the widely used Bayesian change point analysis (BCPA) is generally applied to the normal distribution, it cannot be freely used to the annual maximum precipitations (AMP) in South Korea. Therefore, this study proposed the fused lasso penalty function to detect the change point of AMP which can be generally fitted by using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution in South Korea. First, four numerical experiments are conducted to compare the detection performances between BCPA and fused lasso method. As a result, fused lasso shows the superiority of the data generated by GEV distribution having skewness. The fused lasso method is applied to 63 weather stations in South Korea and then 17 stations having any change points from BCPA and the GEV fused lasso are analyzed. Similar to the numerical analyses, the GEV fused lasso method can delicately detect the change point of AMPs. After the change point, the means of AMPs did not go back to the previous. Alternately, BCPA can be stated to find variation points not change points because the means returned to their original values as time progressed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GEV fused lasso method detects the change points of non-stationary AMPs of South Korea. This study can be extended to more extreme distributions for various meteorological variables.

  11. Non-destructive evaluation of UV pulse laser-induced damage performance of fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Wang, Fengrui; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Jiang, Xiaodong; Sun, Laixi; Ye, Xin; Li, Qingzhi; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo; Sun, Dunlu

    2017-11-24

    The surface laser damage performance of fused silica optics is related to the distribution of surface defects. In this study, we used chemical etching assisted by ultrasound and magnetorheological finishing to modify defect distribution in a fused silica surface, resulting in fused silica samples with different laser damage performance. Non-destructive test methods such as UV laser-induced fluorescence imaging and photo-thermal deflection were used to characterize the surface defects that contribute to the absorption of UV laser radiation. Our results indicate that the two methods can quantitatively distinguish differences in the distribution of absorptive defects in fused silica samples subjected to different post-processing steps. The percentage of fluorescence defects and the weak absorption coefficient were strongly related to the damage threshold and damage density of fused silica optics, as confirmed by the correlation curves built from statistical analysis of experimental data. The results show that non-destructive evaluation methods such as laser-induced fluorescence and photo-thermal absorption can be effectively applied to estimate the damage performance of fused silica optics at 351 nm pulse laser radiation. This indirect evaluation method is effective for laser damage performance assessment of fused silica optics prior to utilization.

  12. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  13. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  14. The SAGES Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy program (FUSE): history, development, and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchshuber, P; Schwaitzberg, S; Jones, D; Jones, S B; Feldman, L; Munro, M; Robinson, T; Purcell-Jackson, G; Mikami, D; Madani, A; Brunt, M; Dunkin, B; Gugliemi, C; Groah, L; Lim, R; Mischna, J; Voyles, C R

    2017-12-07

    Adverse events due to energy device use in surgical operating rooms are a daily occurrence. These occur at a rate of approximately 1-2 per 1000 operations. Hundreds of operating room fires occur each year in the United States, some causing severe injury and even mortality. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) therefore created the first comprehensive educational curriculum on the safe use of surgical energy devices, called Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy (FUSE). This paper describes the history, development, and purpose of this important training program for all members of the operating room team. The databases of SAGES and the FUSE committee as well as personal photographs and documents of members of the FUSE task force were used to establish a brief history of the FUSE program from its inception to its current status. The authors were able to detail all aspects of the history, development, and national as well as global implementation of the third SAGES Fundamentals Program FUSE. The written documentation of the making of FUSE is an important contribution to the history and mission of SAGES and allows the reader to understand the idea, concept, realization, and implementation of the only free online educational tool for physicians on energy devices available today. FUSE is the culmination of the SAGES efforts to recognize gaps in patient safety and develop state-of-the-art educational programs to address those gaps. It is the goal of the FUSE task force to ensure that general FUSE implementation becomes multinational, involving as many countries as possible.

  15. Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0037 Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense-Making Archan Misra SINGAPORE MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY Final Report...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 Dec 2013 to 10 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fusing Social Media and Mobile Analytics for Urban Sense-Making 5a...of 1FORM SF 298 5/9/2017https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-0002 Fusing Social Media and

  16. A system for the non-destructive detection of faults in safety fuses using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.

    1980-01-01

    Design of an equipment for on line detection of faults in the safety fuses for conventional explosives employing transmission of #betta#-radiation is reported. The faults are detected by an ion-chamber based on the variation of the intensity of the beta particles transmitted through the fuse during its passage across the collimated beam. Strontium-90 encapsulated in stainless steel or aluminum is used as the #betta#-source. An electrical signal corresponding the fault is obtained by subtraction of an external current, that is equivalent to the output of the ion-chamber in the presence of faultless fuse. (Author) [pt

  17. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  18. Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... significantly improve the ethanol production. This was also clearly ... parameter values over time in Z.M.F-4 under high sugar osmotic stress. Calcium chloride .... These genes were introduced into Z. mobilis ATCC 31821 by the transposition method as described in the literature (Foulongne et al., 1999). The.

  19. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  20. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  1. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  2. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  3. Fluid Bed Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, K.; Lee, C.; O'Keefe, K.

    Molten salt electrolysis of MgCl2 is commonly used for the production of magnesium metal. However, the electrolysis feed must be completely dry with minimum oxygen content. Therefore, complete dehydration of the MgCl2 brine or the hydrated prill is a required process, which is very challenging because of the ease of thermal degradation due to hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  4. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  6. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the ... were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic. Keywords. Conducting polymer; electrochemical ...

  7. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  8. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  9. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when using a powered air-purifying respirator having a hood, helmet, or full or half facepiece, or a... release of vinyl chloride; and (ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and..., including the following topics: (A) Alcohol intake; (B) Past history of hepatitis; (C) Work history and past...

  11. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time. It was found that the optimal transformation efficiency were obtained when the concentration of CaCl2 was 75 mmol/l, ...

  12. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  13. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  14. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  15. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  16. Thymic scintigraphy using 201Tl-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Itami, Michimasa; Sawa, Hisashi; Furukawa, Takashi; Harada, Shigeru

    1980-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy using Thallium-201 Chloride ( 201 TlCl) was performed on 3 cases of thymoma (2 malignant mediastinal thymomas and 1 benign cervical thymoma). All of the 3 cases exhibited high abnormal activities corresponding to the tumor on the scintigram. Thus it is useful to perform the scintigraphy using 201 TlCl for the detection of thymoma. (author)

  17. Influenza a virus assembly intermediates fuse in the cytoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S Lakdawala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. Replication of influenza vRNA occurs in the nucleus of infected cells, while progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane. However, the intracellular mechanics of vRNA assembly into progeny virions is not well understood. Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. We visualized four distinct vRNA segments within a single cell using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and observed that foci containing more than one vRNA segment were found at the external nuclear periphery, suggesting that vRNA segments are not exported to the cytoplasm individually. Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. To extend the observations made in fixed cells, we used a virus that encodes GFP fused to the viral polymerase acidic (PA protein (WSN PA-GFP to explore the dynamics of vRNA assembly in live cells during a productive infection. Since WSN PA-GFP colocalizes with viral nucleoprotein and influenza vRNA segments, we used it as a surrogate for visualizing vRNA transport in 3D and at high speed by inverted selective-plane illumination microscopy. We observed cytoplasmic PA-GFP foci colocalizing and traveling together en route to the plasma membrane. Our data strongly support a model in which vRNA segments are exported from the nucleus as complexes that assemble en route to the plasma membrane through dynamic colocalization events in the cytoplasm.

  18. SANTEN-fuse AS ANEARTHQUAKE DAMPER FOR PENDOPO JOGLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAER Bisatya W.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake resulted in collapse of several traditional buildings in Yogyakarta, including joglos. This fact indicates that joglos are quite vulnerable to low-frequency ground shaking. The stability and rigidity of a joglo building are provided by the core of the building, i.e. the rong-rongan structure, in which connection of sakaguru (the column-sunduk (the long span beam-kili (the short span beam has a rigid characteristic. This rigid rong-rongan structure behaves elastically during an earthquake event, and attracts large inertia force. This research aims to increase the structure performance of the rong-rongan by adding “SANTEN-fuse,” an earthquake vibration damper, and by changing the joint connection of sakaguru-sunduk-kili to be that of a pin connection, but not changing the physical appearance of rong-rongan. Santen, whose function is to transfer the load of the roof from blandar to sunduk and from pangeret to kili, is modified so that it has frictional damper characteristic. This “SANTEN-fuse” can resist shear force up to certain level before it slides and acting as a damper. With the reduced stiffness, which leads to reduced inertia force, the overall structural responses are expected to be lower. An experimental quantitative method was used by doing a simulation using SAP2000 software to verify the idea. The pendopo dalem Yudonegaran a joglo house in Yogyakarta was chosen as a case study. Non-linear time history analysis was conducted. Simulation results showed that the proposed modification of rong-rongan structure by using “SANTEN-fuse”, performed better than the original rong-rongan structure.

  19. Arsenic Sulfide Nanowire Formation on Fused Quartz Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, J.; Riley, B.J.; Johnson, B.R.; Sundaram, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic sulfide (AsxSy) nanowires were synthesized by an evaporation-condensation process in evacuated fused quartz ampoules. During the deposition process, a thin, colored film of AsxSy was deposited along the upper, cooler portion of the ampoule. The ampoule was sectioned and the deposited film analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize and semi-quantitatively evaluate the microstructural features of the deposited film. A variety of microstructures were observed that ranged from a continuous thin film (warmer portion of the ampoule), to isolated micron- and nano-scale droplets (in the intermediate portion), as well as nanowires (colder portion of the ampoule). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ampoule cleaning methods (e.g. modify surface chemistry) and quantity of source material on nanowire formation. The evolution of these microstructures in the thin film was determined to be a function of initial pressure, substrate temperature, substrate surface treatment, and initial volume of As2S3 glass. In a set of two experiments where the initial pressure, substrate thermal gradient, and surface treatment were the same, the initial quantity of As2S3 glass per internal ampoule volume was doubled from one test to the other. The results showed that AsxSy nanowires were only formed in the test with the greater initial quantity of As2S3 per internal ampoule volume. The growth data for variation in diameter (e.g. nanowire or droplet) as a function of substrate temperature was fit to an exponential trendline with the form y = Aekx, where y is the structure diameter, A = 1.25×10-3, k = 3.96×10-2, and x is the temperature with correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.979, indicating a thermally-activated process.

  20. Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.