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Sample records for fuscovarius oogenesis lutz

  1. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  2. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis.

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    Carter, Jean-Michel; Baker, Simon C; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David R F; Collins, Aiden; Tomlin, Jeremie; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2013-04-26

    Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function.

  3. Redescrição do tipo de equinoparyphium singularis (Lutz, 1924 comb. para Stephanoprora singularis (Lutz, 1924 (Trematoda, Equinostomatidae Redescription of Equinoparyphium singularis (Lutz, 1924 n. comb. to Stephanoprora singularis (Lutz, 1924 (Trematoda, Equinostomatidae

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    Anna Kohn

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores redescrevem e apresentam figuras originais do exemplar tipo de Stephanoprora singularis (Lutz, 1924 propondo uma nova combinação: Equinoparyphium singularis (Lutz, 1924 comb. n.The authors redescribe and present original figures of the type of S. singularis (Lutz, 1924 proposing a new combination: Equinoparyphium singularis (Lutz, 1924 n. comb.

  4. Dr. Lutz Reichhoff zum 65. Geburtstag

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    Böhnert, Wolfgang; Schönbrodt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Am 26. Oktober 2013 vollendete Dr. rer. nat. sc. Lutz Reichhoff sein 65. Lebensjahr. Alle die ihn näher kennen wissen, dass diese Jahreszahl noch lange nicht seinen Ruhestand einläuten wird. Wir nehmen dennoch gern diesen Tag zum Anlass, seine umfangreichen und vielfältigen Leistungen im beruflichen und ehrenamtlichen Wirken zu würdigen.

  5. Anfíbios Anuros da coleção Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939

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    Bertha Lutz

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyla claresignata Lutz & Lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known Brazilian hylas. It is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. The specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. It belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the Marítime Range. The adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. DESCRIPTION. Vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. Tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. Snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. Eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. Tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. Lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. Toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. No dermal appendage on the hell. Habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. Legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. Type (female: 61 mm. (Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS of TADPOLE (by G. Orton. "A large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly

  6. Oogenesis

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    Manuela Monti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available I started flipping through the pages of this book when the expression “Ab Ovo” came to my mind. Ab Ovo, the beginning, the origin, the egg. This reminded me that the idea of correlating the origin of each human being with an egg characterized the human beliefs of the seventeenth century until Francesco Redi, inspired by the study of Iliad, wonders why Achilles asks his mother Thetis how to conserve the lifeless body of his beloved Patroclus. How the goddess can satisfy her son’s request if the spontaneous generation of flies and butterflies from the dead body corresponds to reality? Only by covering Patroclus’ body preventing flies and butterflies from laying their eggs on a dead flesh, is the correct answer!...

  7. Adolpho Lutz and the origins of medical entomology in Brazil.

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    Benchimol, J L

    2005-12-01

    Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940) formed a bridge between the Bahian Tropicalist School and post-Mansonian medicine. Before taking over as head of the São Paulo Bacteriological Institute (1893), Lutz traveled through a variety of regions and delved into various disciplines. In the 1880s, he was already arguing that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes. Carbuncles, cholera, and typhoid fever were then the accepted models for investigating the etiology of infectious diseases. Following the discovery of how malaria was transmitted, attention turned to hematophagous diptera. Physicians, bacteriologists, zoologists, and veterinarians reshaped the network of actors involved in the 'hunt' for the agents and transmitters of diseases, as they began relying on analogies with malaria and yellow fever. Edwin Ray Lankester, director of the British Museum (Natural History), launched then a worldwide investigation into species that might be linked to human disease. The species described by Lutz and his proposed classification system were vital to Frederick Theobald's fundamental work in medical entomology, published in the early twentieth century. In 1908, Lutz brought with him to the Oswaldo Cruz Institute a remarkable quantity of research and experiments in all branches of the newly created "tropical medicine," devoted especially to entomology.

  8. Bertha Lutz e a construção da memória de Adolpho Lutz

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    Benchimol Jaime L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a documentação de Bertha e Adolpho Lutz, depositada no Arquivo do Museu Nacional, os autores reconstroem o esforço realizado pela filha para preservar a memória do pai depois de sua morte em 6 de outubro de 1940. Seus projetos incluíam a construção de um museu para abrigar as coleções de Adolpho Lutz, assim como a publicação de toda sua obra e de uma biografia. Pioneira do movimento feminista no Brasil e pesquisadora do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Bertha foi sempre fiel auxiliar do pai, tomando como diretriz de sua própria vida profissional uma das linhas de pesquisa iniciada por ele. Por mais de trinta anos, dedicou-se à missão de imortalizar o nome do pai, acionando com este fim políticos e cientistas brasileiros e estrangeiros. Os resultados ficaram bem aquém do esperado, tendo Bertha Lutz registrado em testamento o desejo de que a obra e biografia de Adolpho Lutz fossem concretizados pelos pósteros.

  9. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

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    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  10. Select aspects of oogenesis and folliculogenesis

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    Cezary Grygoruk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The processes of oogenesis and folliculogenesis begin very early in foetal life and are continued until the end of the reproductive period. Despite the numerous research conducted, the mechanism which initiates the growth of primary follicles has not been fully elucidated. The process of oocyte maturation begins after the recruitment of the primary follicle and continues until ovulation. This involves synthesis and accumulation of an appropriate number and kind of compounds and redistribution of cellular organelles inside the oocyte, which are necessary for the processes of fertilization and early embryonic development. The complexity and multi-functionality of these mechanisms and the factors which take part in the process of oogenesis indicate a necessity to conduct further research concerning this issue. A more thorough understanding of the processes of oogenesis and folliculogenesis will allow in time to develop more effective methods of treatment for a range of gynaecological, oncological, and endocrinological disorders.

  11. Ultrastructure of Oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai

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    Wen-Mei BAO; Qun HE; Quan-Xi WANG; Guo-Wei TIAN; Jian-Guo CAO

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The nucleus in the young egg is rounded with an uneven outline. As it develops, it becomes amoeboid and extends nuclear protrusions that are not only sac-like nuclear evaginations like those often seen in the oogenesis of other ferns, but also mushroom-like and finger-like, with an opening at their end allowing the nucleolus material to flow out from the openings. This has not been observed previously. The nuclear protrusions differ from Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. in the absence of sheets of nuclear membrane in the form of a closed ring. As the egg matures, the nucleus transforms into a tuber-like structure with a smooth surface, lying transversely in the egg cell. In the immature egg, vesicles almost encircle the nucleus twice and are most remarkable. In the maturing egg, the vesicles are distributed at the periphery, except for at the top of the egg, and affect the formation of the separation cavity and extra egg membrane. Simultaneously, vesicles from the venter canal cell move to the egg and take part in the formation of separation cavity and extra egg membrane. In the mature egg, a large number of small vesicles containing fragments of lamellae or osmiophilic material emerge from the cytoplasm. The origin of these vesicles is obscure. Irregular plastids containing a cylindrical starch grain dedifferentiated progressively.Mitochondria seem to have been undeveloped during the process, but return to normal at later stages of oogenesis. There is a high frequency of ribosomes in the mature egg. Microtubules, rarely seen in the eggs ofD. filix-mas (L.) Schott. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, have been observed inside the plasmalemma of the maturing egg in D. crassirhizoma.

  12. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Kelpsch, Daniel J; Groen, Christopher M; Fagan, Tiffany N; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved.

  13. The efficiency of Lutz, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes (adapted techniques association to the diagnosis of intestinal helmints

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    Henry Percy Willcox

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Bermann-Moraes (adapted techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  14. The Expression of vasa Gene during Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Oogenesis

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    XIANG Fang; ZHEN Yan; ZHENG Wen-xuan; DENG Feng-jiao; WANG Xiao-kai; ZHANG Xi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    vasa gene expression pattern during oogenesis of zebrafish was examined using in situ hybridization and fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. During zebrafish oogensis, vasa mRNA is expressed strongly and uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm in stage Ⅱ oocytes, followed by a distribution among vacuome in stage Ⅲ. Later in stage Ⅳ and Ⅴ, vasa mRNA is enriched at the cortex and finally localized at the cortex. The fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR shows that the quantity of vasa mRNA decreases from stage Ⅱ to stage Ⅲ, but remains relatively invariable from stage Ⅲ to stage Ⅴ. The observed differences in vasa mRNA expression in the different stages of zebrafish oogenesis suggest that vasa gene plays an important role during oogenesis.

  15. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

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    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  16. Taxonomic study and redescription of Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on type examination, Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 is redescribed. The species Cx. (Mel. chrysonotum Dyar & Knab, 1908, was put back as synonym of theobaldi. Besides, examination of Cx. (Mel. chrysothorax (Newstead & Thomas, 1910 type, leads to retiring as synonym of theobaldi and considered it as "species inquirenda".

  17. [Spontaneous chromosome aberrations in the oogenesis of laboratory rats].

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    Dyban, A P; Chebotar', N A

    1975-08-01

    Cytological preparations were made by Tarkovsky's method from 2335 rat oocytes obtained after an induced superodulation. The chromosomes could be counted exactly in 861 oocytes. In 797 oocytes (92.7%) euploidy (metaphase II with 21 chromosomes) and in 64 oocytes (7.5%) aneuploidy was found. 60 oocytes were hypoploid, but only 4 oocytes (0.4%) were hyperploid (with 22 chromosomes). Hypoploidy can often be due to the presence of artefacts. Probably the rate of spontaneous aneuploidy in rat oogenesis is about 0.8%, this being significantly lower than the rate of spontaneous aneuploidy in mice oogenesis.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

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    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  19. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis

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    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin ...

  20. Oogenesis in the viviparous matrotrophic lizard Mabuya brachypoda.

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    Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe Aranzábal, Mari Carmen; Guillette, Louis J

    2005-08-01

    Oogenesis in the lizard Mabuya brachypoda is seasonal, with oogenesis initiated during May-June and ovulation occurring during July-August. This species ovulates an egg that is microlecithal, having very small yolk stores. The preovulatory oocyte attains a maximum diameter of 0.9-1.3 mm. Two elongated germinal beds, formed by germinal epithelia containing oogonia, early oocytes, and somatic cells, are found on the dorsal surface of each ovary. Although microlecithal eggs are ovulated in this species, oogenesis is characterized by both previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages. During early previtellogenesis, the nucleus of the oocyte contains lampbrush chromosomes, whereas the ooplasm stains lightly with a perinuclear yolk nucleus. During late previtellogenesis the ooplasm displays basophilic staining with fine granular material composed of irregularly distributed bundles of thin fibers. A well-defined zona pellucida is also observed. The granulosa, initially composed of a single layer of squamous cells during early previtellogenesis, becomes multilayered and polymorphic. As with other squamate reptiles, the granulosa at this stage is formed by three cell types: small, intermediate, and large or pyriform cells. As vitellogenesis progresses the oocyte displays abundant vacuoles and small, but scarce, yolk platelets at the periphery of the oocyte. The zona pellucida attains its maximum thickness during late oogenesis, a period when the granulosa is again reduced to a single layer of squamous cells. The vitellogenic process observed in M. brachypoda corresponds with the earliest vitellogenic stages seen in other viviparous lizard species with larger oocytes. The various species of the genus Mabuya provided us with important models to understand a major transition in the evolution of viviparity, the development of a microlecithal egg.

  1. Lin-28 regulates oogenesis and muscle formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Vassilis Stratoulias

    Full Text Available Understanding the control of stem cell (SC differentiation is important to comprehend developmental processes as well as to develop clinical applications. Lin28 is a conserved molecule that is involved in SC maintenance and differentiation by regulating let-7 miRNA maturation. However, little is known about the in vivo function of Lin28. Here, we report critical roles for lin-28 during oogenesis. We found that let-7 maturation was increased in lin-28 null mutant fly ovaries. We showed that lin-28 null mutant female flies displayed reduced fecundity, due to defects in egg chamber formation. More specifically, we demonstrated that in mutant ovaries, the egg chambers fuse during early oogenesis resulting in abnormal late egg chambers. We also showed that this phenotype is the combined result of impaired germline SC differentiation and follicle SC differentiation. We suggest a model in which these multiple oogenesis defects result from a misregulation of the ecdysone signaling network, through the fine-tuning of Abrupt and Fasciclin2 expression. Our results give a better understanding of the evolutionarily conserved role of lin-28 on GSC maintenance and differentiation.

  2. Asymmetric Localization of CK2α During Xenopus Oogenesis.

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    Imbrie, Gregory A; Wu, Hao; Seldin, David C; Dominguez, Isabel

    2012-05-05

    The establishment of the dorso-ventral axis is a fundamental process that occurs after fertilization. Dorsal axis specification in frogs starts immediately after fertilization, and depends upon activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The protein kinase CK2α can modulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling and is necessary for dorsal axis specification in Xenopus laevis. Our previous experiments show that CK2α transcripts and protein are animally localized in embryos, overlapping the region where Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated. Here we determined whether the animal localization of CK2α in the embryo is preceded by its localization in the oocyte. We found that CK2α transcripts were detected from stage I, their levels increased during oogenesis, and were animally localized as early as stage III. CK2α transcripts were translated during oogenesis and CK2α protein was localized to the animal hemisphere of stage VI oocytes. We cloned the CK2α 3'UTR and showed that the 2.8 kb CK2α transcript containing the 3'UTR was enriched during oogenesis. By injecting ectopic mRNAs, we demonstrated that both the coding and 3'UTR regions were necessary for proper CK2α transcript localization. This is the first report showing the involvement of coding and 3'UTR regions in animal transcript localization. Our findings demonstrate the pre-localization of CK2α transcript and thus, CK2α protein, in the oocyte. This may help restrict CK2α expression in preparation for dorsal axis specification.

  3. [Studies of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (author's transl)].

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    Valdez Toledo, C L; Pisanó, A

    1980-01-01

    Based on a series of macroscopic and histological observations, during an annual cycle, the main stages of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (Hensel) have been recognized, pointing out the most significant features. The analysis has established five characteristic stages which permit the individualization of the maturation stage of the oocyte in the ovary. All the information obtained has provided the possibility of drawing up a synthetic table so that the oogenetic stages of this amphibian species, very much used in Argentine experimentation, could be easily recognized.

  4. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Spracklen, Andrew J; Kelpsch, Daniel J; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)--lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes--regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton--temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling.

  5. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

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    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  6. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  7. Oogenesis requires germ cell-specific transcriptional regulators Sohlh1 and Lhx8

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    Pangas, Stephanie A.; Choi, Youngsok; Ballow, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yangu; Westphal, Heiner; Matzuk, Martin M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian oogenesis requires oocyte-specific transcriptional regulators. The full complement of oocyte-specific transcription factors is unknown. Here, we describe the finding that Sohlh1, a spermatogenesis and oogenesis basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor in females, is preferentially expressed in oocytes and required for oogenesis. Sohlh1 disruption perturbs follicular formation in part by causing down-regulation of two genes that are known to disrupt folliculogenesis: newborn ovary homeobox gene (Nobox) and factor in the germ-line alpha (Figla). In addition, we show that Lhx8 is downstream of Sohlh1 and critical in fertility. Thus, Sohlh1 and Lhx8 are two germ cell-specific, critical regulators of oogenesis. PMID:16690745

  8. Postnatal oogenesis in humans: a review of recent findings

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    Virant-Klun I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Irma Virant-Klun Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract: In spite of generally accepted dogma that the total number of follicles and oocytes is established in human ovaries during the fetal period of life rather than forming de novo in adult ovaries, some new evidence in the field challenges this understanding. Several studies have shown that different populations of stem cells, such as germinal stem cells and small round stem cells with diameters of 2 to 4 µm, that resembled very small embryonic-like stem cells and expressed several genes related to primordial germ cells, pluripotency, and germinal lineage are present in adult human ovaries and originate in ovarian surface epithelium. These small stem cells were pushed into the germinal direction of development and formed primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Moreover, oocyte-like cells were also formed in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. This indicates that postnatal oogenesis is not excluded. It is further supported by the occurrence of mesenchymal stem cells that can restore the function of sterilized ovaries and lead to the formation of new follicles and oocytes in animal models. Both oogenesis in vitro and transplantation of stem cell-derived “oocytes” into the ovarian niche to direct their natural maturation represent a big challenge for reproductive biomedicine in the treatment of female infertility in the future and needs to be explored and interpreted with caution, but it is still very important for clinical practice in the field of reproductive medicine. Keywords: human, follicle, oocyte, stem cells

  9. The Behavior of Chromosomes During Parthenogenetic Oogenesis in Marmorkrebs Procambarus fallax f. virginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Miku; Hiruta, Chizue; Tochinai, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Parthenogenetic oogenesis varies among and even within species. Based on cytological mechanisms, it can largely be divided into apomixis (ameiotic parthenogenesis) producing genetically identical progeny, and automixis (meiotic parthenogenesis) producing genetically non-identical progeny. Polyploidy is common in parthenogenetic species, although the association between parthenogenesis and polyploidy throughout evolution is poorly understood. Marmorkrebs, or the marbled crayfish, was first identified as a parthenogenetic decapod and was tentatively named as Procambarus fallax f. virginalis. Previous studies revealed that Marmorkrebs is triploid and produces genetically identical offspring, suggesting that apomixis occurs during parthenogenetic oogenesis. However, the behavior of chromosomes during the process of oogenesis is still not well characterized. In this study, we observed parthenogenetic oogenesis around the time of ovulation in P. fallax f. virginalis by histology and immunohistochemistry. During oogenesis, the chromosomes were separated into two groups and behaved independently from each other, and one complete division corresponding to mitosis (the second meiosis-like division) was observed. This suggests that parthenogenetic oogenesis in Marmorkrebs exhibits gonomery, a phenomenon commonly found in apomictic parthenogenesis in polyploid animals.

  10. Adolpho Lutz and controversies over the transmission of leprosy by mosquitoes Adolpho Lutz e as controvérsias sobre a transmissão da lepra por mosquitos

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    Jaime L. Benchimol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During his years of study in Switzerland and Germany, Adolpho Lutz published his first articles on zoology, clinical practice, and therapeutics. In Limeira, São Paulo, he began studies on animal and human diseases caused by germs and parasites. In 1885-86, Lutz traveled to Hamburg to study the morphology of germs related to skin diseases, in conjunction with Paul Gerson Unna, one of Germany's foremost dermatologists. He proposed the inclusion of Hansen's and Koch's bacilli in a new genus. In 1889, Unna nominated his student as physician-in-chief of the Leper Settlement on Molokai Island, Hawaii. From then on, Lutz sustained the theory that the disease was transmitted by mosquitoes. He conducted research to prove this theory when he was head of the Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo (1893-1908 and, later, after he moved to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1908-1940. Although this research was not successful, on commissions and at congresses in which he participated until his death in October 1940, he still held to his conviction that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes.Quando estudava na Suíça e Alemanha, Adolpho Lutz publicou os primeiros trabalhos sobre zoologia, clínica e terapêutica. Em Limeira, São Paulo, iniciou estudos sobre doenças humanas e animais causadas por germes e parasitas. Em 1885-86, viajou para Hamburgo para estudar microrganismos relacionados a doenças de pele sob a orientação de Paul Gerson Unna, um dos mais renomados dermatologistas alemães. Propôs a inclusão dos bacilos de Hansen e Koch num novo gênero. Em 1889, Unna indicou seu discípulo como chefe dos serviços médicos do Leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí. Lutz passou a defender a transmissão da doença por mosquitos. Realizou pesquisas para provar esta teoria depois que assumiu a chefia do Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo (1893-1908 e, sobretudo, após a transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1908-1940. Apesar de não terem sido bem

  11. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberg, D; Irrer, J; Kessler, M; Lam, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  12. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  13. Drosophila phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase is required for tissue morphogenesis during oogenesis

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    Kampinga Harm H

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coenzyme A (CoA is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in detail. Results We demonstrate that dPPCS is required for various processes that occur during oogenesis including chorion patterning. Our analysis demonstrates that a mutation in dPPCS disrupts the organization of the somatic and germ line cells, affects F-actin organization and results in abnormal PtdIns(4,5P2 localization. Improper cell organization coincides with aberrant localization of the membrane molecules Gurken (Grk and Notch, whose activities are required for specification of the follicle cells that pattern the eggshell. Mutations in dPPCS also induce alterations in scutellar patterning and cause wing vein abnormalities. Interestingly, mutations in dPANK and dPPAT-DPCK result in similar patterning defects. Conclusion Together, our results demonstrate that de novo CoA biosynthesis is required for proper tissue morphogenesis.

  14. Ultrastructural studies on the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum: Oogenesis and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve-Zacheo, T; Melillo, M T; Zacheo, G

    1993-06-01

    Oogenesis and fertilization in longidorid nematodes has been examined for the first time at electron microscope level in Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Oogonia in the germinative zone of the ovary are irregularly shaped and lie adjacent to each other or separated by processes of the epithelial cells of the ovary. Developing oocytes pass in single file up to the growth zone and fibrogranular formation occurs around their nucleus. The perinuclear deposits remain until the oocyte is fully grown. Oocytes increase rapidly in volume because of the production of secretory granules. Three types of granules are recognizable. Type 1 granules are spherical, amorphous in structure and delimited by a lighter area, probably consisting of lipoprotein. Type 2 granules, electron lucent, arranged in groups, are lipid inclusions. Type 3 are dense spheres and may represent yolk bodies. The two last are then utilized by the developing embryo. Mature oocytes assume a smooth, cylindrical configuration as they traverse the oviduct. A cone of fertilization seems to be formed at the distal pole of the oocyte, where the sperm penetrates. The sperm totally penetrates the oocyte, through an invagination formed at the oocyte surface. The oocyte continues to undergo two unequal cytoplasmic divisions, resulting in the formation of a female pronucleus and two polar bodies. Under the stimulus of fertilization, a new egg cell membrane is produced, the first one becoming the vitelline envelope.

  15. Cytoskeletal organization of bee ovarian follicles during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Karina; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia Maria

    2011-01-01

    The germ cells in the germarium of the bee meroistic polytrophic ovarian cysts remain interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges as a result of incomplete cell division. These intercellular bridges form a distribution pathway for the substances that initially determine which of the cystocytes will become oocyte and later conduct the products synthesized by the nurse cells to the oocyte. In the present work, the presence and distribution of cytoskeleton components, actin and tubulin were studied in ovaries of queens of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica, two eusocial species, using antibody against α- and β-tubulin and FITC-phalloidin, aiming to shed light on the role of these cytoskeleton elements in oogenesis. The immunofluorescent preparations were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. F-actin was detected in the intercellular bridges of both species. The tubulin distribution in cell cytoplasm of A. mellifera and S. postica also displayed similar pattern. The role of these elements in the oogenetic events responsible for both cell support and motility is discussed.

  16. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

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    Palsamy Kanagaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15. We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research.

  17. Adolpho Lutz: um esboço biográfico

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    Benchimol Jaime Larry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as origens familares e a trajetória de Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940 até sua transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, em 1908. Utiliza o cientista como fio condutor para a análise da instituição das medicinas pasteuriana e tropical no Brasil. Examina seus estudos superiores e de aperfeiçoamento na Europa germânica, suas atividades como clínico e como investigador de temas relacionados à helmintologia, parasitologia, veterinária e bacteriologia no interior de São Paulo, sua estada no leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí, e controvérsias médicas de que participou durante o período em que chefiou o Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo, especialmente aquelas concernentes ao cólera, às disenterias, à febre tifóide, à malária e à febre amarela.

  18. Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia: Report of two cases in a family

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    Bhawna Bhutoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV, is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen′s disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

  19. Development of a new laser alignment device with Winston-Lutz phantom in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Min, Soonk; Jeong, Eun Hee; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Haksoo; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, DongHo; Lee, Se Byeong [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ui-Jung [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jung Won [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The lasers must be aligned precisely to the radiation isocenter. According to the report provided by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 142, the localizing lasers should be aligned to within ±2 mm of radiation isocenter for non intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), ±1 mm for IMRT, and less than ±1 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on a monthly basis. In this study, we developed and tested a new laser alignment device adopting an accurate, reproducible and straightforward alignment method in radiotherapy. The device consists of two laser alignments parts: the first part is an optical alignment part, and the second is a radiation alignment part. In the radiation alignment, a Winston-Lutz (W-L) phantom which was installed in the device was used. In this study, we developed a new laser alignment device with a W-L phantom for radiotherapy. Its performance was also tested in a conventional medical linac and a simulator. It was revealed that the device could align the patient-setup lasers in the treatment room accurately, precisely, and fast. We expect the device can be used as a quality assurance tool daily and monthly.

  20. emc has a role in dorsal appendage fate formation in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, Sofia; Tzolovsky, George; Zhao, Debiao; Leaper, Kevin; Clyde, Dorothy; Taylor, Paul; Asscher, Eva; Kirk, Graeme; Bownes, Mary

    2005-09-01

    extramacrochaetae (emc) functions during many developmental processes in Drosophila, such as sensory organ formation, sex determination, wing vein differentiation, regulation of eye photoreceptor differentiation, cell proliferation and development of the Malpighian tubules, trachea and muscles in the embryo. It encodes a Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor that negatively regulates bHLH proteins. We show here that emc mRNA and protein are present throughout oogenesis in a dynamic expression pattern and that emc is involved in the regulation of chorionic appendage formation during late oogenesis. Expression of sense and antisense emc constructs as well as emc follicle cell clones leads to eggs with shorter, thicker dorsal appendages that are closer together at base than in the wild type. We demonstrate that emc lies downstream of fs(1)K10, gurken and EGFR in the Grk/EGFR signalling pathway and that it participates in controlling Broad-Complex expression at late stages of oogenesis.

  1. Coordinate regulation of DNA methyltransferase expression during oogenesis

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    Bestor Timothy H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal mammalian development requires the action of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs for the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation within repeat elements and imprinted genes. Here we report the expression dynamics of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, as well as a regulator of DNA methylation, Dnmt3L, in isolated female germ cells. Results Our results indicate that these enzymes are coordinately regulated and that their expression peaks during the stage of postnatal oocyte development when maternal methylation imprints are established. We find that Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt3L and Dnmt1o transcript accumulation is related to oocyte diameter. Furthermore, DNMT3L deficient 15 dpp oocytes have aberrantly methylated Snrpn, Peg3 and Igf2r DMRs, but normal IAP and LINE-1 methylation levels, thereby highlighting a male germ cell specific role for DNMT3L in the establishment of DNA methylation at repeat elements. Finally, real-time RT-PCR analysis indicates that the depletion of either DNMT3L or DNMT1o in growing oocytes results in the increased expression of the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b, suggesting a potential compensation mechanism by this enzyme for the loss of one of the other DNA methyltransferases. Conclusion Together these results provide a better understanding of the developmental regulation of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Dnmt3L at the time of de novo methylation during oogenesis and demonstrate that the involvement of DNMT3L in retrotransposon silencing is restricted to the male germ line. This in turn suggests the existence of other factors in the oocyte that direct DNA methylation to transposons.

  2. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

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    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  3. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

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    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  4. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  5. Bromeliaceae do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Encholirium Lutzii L. B. Smith n. sp

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    Lyman B. Smith

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Encholirium Lutzii is distinguished from the majority of species by its branched inflorescence. Only E. horridum L. B. Smith and rarely E. spectabile Martius exhibit this character, but have much larger flowers than E. Lutzii and stout floral axes. Also the wing of the seed in E. horridum is very long-caudate. We feel that it is particularly appropriate to dedicate this new species to Dr. Adolpho Lutz because of his great discoveries in the biological relationships of the Bromeliaceae.

  6. Luta pela sobrevivência: a vida de um hanseniano através da correspondência com Adolpho Lutz Fight for survival: the life of a Hansen's disease sufferer through his correspondence with Adolpho Lutz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a série completa da correspondência da família de um portador do mal de Hansen residente no Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil, com o médico e bacteriologista Adolpho Lutz. Fabrício Caldas de Oliveira e Numa Pires de Oliveira, pai e filho, mantiveram durante mais de vinte anos intensa troca de cartas com o cientista na busca da cura da doença que vitimava Numa desde criança. As 24 cartas aqui reunidas retratam, de maneira única, o drama médico-social enfrentado por esta família, os resultados do uso do chalmugra e outros medicamentos, a busca de tratamentos alternativos.This project presents the complete set of letters between the family of a Hansen's disease (leprosy sufferer in the state of Maranhão, in the northeast of Brazil, and the doctor and bacteriologist Adolpho Lutz. For more than twenty years Fabrício Caldas de Oliveira and Numa Pires de Oliveira, father and son, exchanged a steady flow of letters with the scientist in pursuit of a cure for the disease that had assailed Numa since childhood. The 24 letters compiled here paint a unique portrait of the medical and social drama confronted by this family, and the results of the use of chaulmoogra oil and other medications in their search for alternative treatments.

  7. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz (Diptera: Culicidade em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05, quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni. O ácido anacárdio (A. occidentale mostrou-se larvicida na concentração de 10 ppm e o extrato bruto de A. sativum foi eficaz contra as larvas na concentração de 1 ppm.The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26,6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (x = 0,05 at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina serobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni. Anacardic acid (A. occidentale was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract at 1 ppm.

  8. Spatio-temporal requirements for transposable element piRNA-mediated silencing during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufourt, Jérémy; Dennis, Cynthia; Boivin, Antoine; Gueguen, Nathalie; Théron, Emmanuelle; Goriaux, Coline; Pouchin, Pierre; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, transposable element (TE) repression involves the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway which ensures genome integrity for the next generation. We developed a transgenic model to study repression of the Idefix retrotransposon in the germline. Using a candidate gene KD-approach, we identified differences in the spatio-temporal requirements of the piRNA pathway components for piRNA-mediated silencing. Some of them (Aub, Vasa, Spn-E) are necessary in very early stages of oogenesis within the germarium and appear to be less important for efficient TE silencing thereafter. Others (Piwi, Ago3, Mael) are required at all stages of oogenesis. Moreover, during early oogenesis, in the dividing cysts within the germarium, Idefix anti-sense transgenes escape host control, and this is associated with very low piwi expression. Silencing of P-element-based transgenes is also strongly weakened in these cysts. This region, termed the 'Piwiless pocket' or Pilp, may ensure that new TE insertions occur and are transmitted to the next generation, thereby contributing to genome dynamics. In contrast, piRNA-mediated silencing is strong in germline stem cells in which TE mobilization is tightly repressed ensuring the continued production of viable germline cysts.

  9. The annual cycle of oogenesis in the shanny, Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae

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    Filipa Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipophrys pholis has been shown to be responsive to a variety of environmental contaminants, some of them able to impair reproduction. Description of the normal cycle of oogenesis of this newly proposed sentinel species is important since this data may function as a baseline for comparison in ecotoxicological studies, among other applications. Based on histological observations, L. pholis ovarian development in adult is asynchronous, and 7 ovarian germ cells can be described (oogonia, early and late perinuclear oocytes, cortical-alveolar oocytes, early vitellogenic oocytes, vitellogenic oocytes and spawning oocytes. Using a stereological approach together with the morphologic characteristics of ovarian cells, the ovarian cycle of L. pholis was divided into 3 maturation stages: early oogenesis (May; mid-oogenesis (September, and spawning (November to January. Ovarian cell proportions and gonadosomatic index confirmed that the reproductive period of L. pholis near the southern limit of distribution of the species occurs during cold-water periods, between November and May. The collected data will help to fill some of the gaps in information that still exist on L. pholis oogenesis, thus allowing a better integration of this species as a sentinel for the detection of contaminants in European coastal waters.

  10. Notch pathway regulates female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in fetal mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Pan, Bo; Qin, Xun-Si; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Lei; Li, Lan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A critical process of early oogenesis is the entry of mitotic oogonia into meiosis, a cell cycle switch regulated by a complex gene regulatory network. Although Notch pathway is involved in numerous important aspects of oogenesis in invertebrate species, whether it plays roles in early oogenesis events in mammals is unknown. Therefore, the rationale of the present study was to investigate the roles of Notch signaling in crucial processes of early oogenesis, such as meiosis entry and early oocyte growth. Notch receptors and ligands were localized in mouse embryonic female gonads and 2 Notch inhibitors, namely DAPT and L-685,458, were used to attenuate its signaling in an in vitro culture system of ovarian tissues from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) fetus. The results demonstrated that the expression of Stra8, a master gene for germ cell meiosis, and its stimulation by retinoic acid (RA) were reduced after suppression of Notch signaling, and the other meiotic genes, Dazl, Dmc1, and Rec8, were abolished or markedly decreased. Furthermore, RNAi of Notch1 also markedly inhibited the expression of Stra8 and SCP3 in cultured female germ cells. The increased methylation status of CpG islands within the Stra8 promoter of the oocytes was observed in the presence of DAPT, indicating that Notch signaling is probably necessary for maintaining the epigenetic state of this gene in a way suitable for RA stimulation. Furthermore, in the presence of Notch inhibitors, progression of oocytes through meiosis I was markedly delayed. At later culture periods, the rate of oocyte growth was decreased, which impaired subsequent primordial follicle assembly in cultured ovarian tissues. Taken together, these results suggested new roles of the Notch signaling pathway in female germ cell meiosis progression and early oogenesis events in mammals.

  11. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis

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    Barth Julia MI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC, but not in the germline cells (GCs. However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Results Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Conclusion Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline and signal receiving cell (FC, thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  12. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Hee Jin Shim

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  13. Hermann Lutz v Elke Bäuerle o de la ley aplicable a las acciones revocatorias concursales.

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    LAURA CARBALLO PIÑEIRO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transactional avoidance is typically an insolvency-related matter and the international jurisdiction and conflict of laws issues arising from it are solved accordingly. However and taking into account third parties’ expectations and the certainty of transactions, the application of the lex fori concursus to transactional avoidance may be avoided by opposing that the challenged transaction is not in accordance with lexcausae. The issue arising from this approach is that the success of a cross-border avoidance proceeding and in general insolvency proceedings’ objectives, are seriously hampered by this exception as evidence by the CJUE Hermann Lutz judgment. Las acciones revocatorias concursales se clasifican como materia concursal de modo que las cuestiones de competencia judicial internacional y ley aplicable se resuelven de acuerdo con esta caracterización. Ahora bien y teniendo en cuenta las expectativas de terceros y la seguridad de las transacciones, se permite oponer a la aplicación de la lex fori concursus a este tipo de acciones, que el acto impugnado no es impugnable en modo alguno de acuerdo con la lex causae. La problemática que esta excepción plantea es que compromete seriamente el éxito de las acciones revocatorias concursales transfronterizas y, en general, el de los objetivos del concurso, tal y como se puede apreciar de las consecuencia de la sentencia del TJUE Hermann Lutz.

  14. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

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    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  15. Revisão do gênero Neotropical Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae com descrição de uma espécie nova Revision of the Neotropical genus Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae with description of a new species

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    José Albertino Rafael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Myiotabanus Lutz, 1928 é revisado. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 e M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 são redescritas de lectótipos (presente designação e M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 é redescrita do holótipo. M. amazonicus sp. nov. é descrita da bacia amazônica e do pantanal, Brasil, a partir da exuvia pupal e de quatro fêmeas adultas.Three previously described and one new species are treated. M. amazonicus sp. nov. from the Brazilian Amazon Basin and the Pantanal is described from pupal exuvia and four adult females. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 and M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 are redescribed from lectotypes, here designated, and M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 is redescribed from holotype. An illustrated key for female adults and for known pupae species are provided.

  16. Direct interaction between two actin nucleators is required in Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Quinlan, Margot E.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled actin assembly is crucial to a wide variety of cellular processes, including polarity establishment during early development. The recently discovered actin mesh, a structure that traverses the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis, is essential for proper establishment of the major body axes. Genetic experiments indicate that at least two proteins, Spire (Spir) and Cappuccino (Capu), are required to build this mesh. The spire and cappuccino genetic loci were first identified as ma...

  17. Rasputin functions as a positive regulator of orb in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alexandre; Pazman, Cecilia; Sinsimer, Kristina S; Wong, Li Chin; McLeod, Ian; Yates, John; Haynes, Susan; Schedl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The determination of cell fate and the establishment of polarity axes during Drosophila oogenesis depend upon pathways that localize mRNAs within the egg chamber and control their on-site translation. One factor that plays a central role in regulating on-site translation of mRNAs is Orb. Orb is a founding member of the conserved CPEB family of RNA-binding proteins. These proteins bind to target sequences in 3' UTRs and regulate mRNA translation by modulating poly(A) tail length. In addition to controlling the translation of axis-determining mRNAs like grk, fs(1)K10, and osk, Orb protein autoregulates its own synthesis by binding to orb mRNA and activating its translation. We have previously shown that Rasputin (Rin), the Drosophila homologue of Ras-GAP SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP), associates with Orb in a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex. Rin is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein believed to function as a link between Ras signaling and RNA metabolism. Here we show that Orb and Rin form a complex in the female germline. Characterization of a new rin allele shows that rin is essential for oogenesis. Co-localization studies suggest that Orb and Rin form a complex in the oocyte at different stages of oogenesis. This is supported by genetic and biochemical analyses showing that rin functions as a positive regulator in the orb autoregulatory pathway by increasing Orb protein expression. Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis shows that several canonical stress granule proteins are associated with the Orb-Rin complex suggesting that a conserved mRNP complex regulates localized translation during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  18. Rasputin functions as a positive regulator of orb in Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Alexandre Costa

    Full Text Available The determination of cell fate and the establishment of polarity axes during Drosophila oogenesis depend upon pathways that localize mRNAs within the egg chamber and control their on-site translation. One factor that plays a central role in regulating on-site translation of mRNAs is Orb. Orb is a founding member of the conserved CPEB family of RNA-binding proteins. These proteins bind to target sequences in 3' UTRs and regulate mRNA translation by modulating poly(A tail length. In addition to controlling the translation of axis-determining mRNAs like grk, fs(1K10, and osk, Orb protein autoregulates its own synthesis by binding to orb mRNA and activating its translation. We have previously shown that Rasputin (Rin, the Drosophila homologue of Ras-GAP SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP, associates with Orb in a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP complex. Rin is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein believed to function as a link between Ras signaling and RNA metabolism. Here we show that Orb and Rin form a complex in the female germline. Characterization of a new rin allele shows that rin is essential for oogenesis. Co-localization studies suggest that Orb and Rin form a complex in the oocyte at different stages of oogenesis. This is supported by genetic and biochemical analyses showing that rin functions as a positive regulator in the orb autoregulatory pathway by increasing Orb protein expression. Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis shows that several canonical stress granule proteins are associated with the Orb-Rin complex suggesting that a conserved mRNP complex regulates localized translation during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  19. Separase phosphosite mutation leads to genome instability and primordial germ cell depletion during oogenesis.

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    Juan Xu

    Full Text Available To ensure equal chromosome segregation and the stability of the genome during cell division, Separase is strictly regulated primarily by Securin binding and inhibitory phosphorylation. By generating a mouse model that contained a mutation to the inhibitory phosphosite of Separase, we demonstrated that mice of both sexes are infertile. We showed that Separase deregulation leads to chromosome mis-segregation, genome instability, and eventually apoptosis of primordial germ cells (PGCs during embryonic oogenesis. Although the PGCs of mutant male mice were completely depleted, a population of PGCs from mutant females survived Separase deregulation. The surviving PGCs completed oogenesis but produced deficient initial follicles. These results indicate a sexual dimorphism effect on PGCs from Separase deregulation, which may be correlated with a gender-specific discrepancy of Securin. Our results reveal that Separase phospho-regulation is critical for genome stability in oogenesis. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence of a pre-zygotic mitotic chromosome segregation error resulting from Separase deregulation, whose sex-specific differences may be a reason for the sexual dimorphism of aneuploidy in gametogenesis.

  20. Cytological features of oogenesis and their evolutionary significance in the fern Osmunda japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-Guo; Dai, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Quan-Xi

    2012-03-01

    The development of the egg and canal cells in the fern Osmunda japonica Thunb. was studied during oogenesis by transmission electron microscopy. The mature egg possesses no fertilization pore and no typical egg envelope. In addition, an extra wall formed around the canal cells during oogenesis and apparently blocked protoplasmic connections between the egg and the canal cells. The periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction revealed that the extra wall was most likely composed of polysaccharides. Maturation of the egg was accompanied by the formation of a separation cavity above the egg and by some changes in the morphology of the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. The chromatin of the nucleus becomes condensed and the upper surface of the nucleus becomes closely associated with the plasmalemma. Amyloplasts in the egg cytoplasm were numerous and conspicuous, with most in close proximity to the nucleus. Finally, the cytoplasm on one side of the egg became vesiculated and the overlying plasmalemma was easily disrupted. These cytological features of the egg and the canal cells during oogenesis in O. japonica are markedly different from those of the leptosporangiate ferns and suggest a significant evolutionary divergence in reproductive cellular features between Osmundaceae and leptosporangiate ferns.

  1. Sexual and asexual oogenesis require the expression of unique and shared sets of genes in the insect Acyrthosiphon pisum

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    Gallot Aurore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sexual reproduction is dominant within eukaryotes, asexual reproduction is widespread and has evolved independently as a derived trait in almost all major taxa. How asexuality evolved in sexual organisms is unclear. Aphids, such as Acyrthosiphon pisum, alternate between asexual and sexual reproductive means, as the production of parthenogenetic viviparous females or sexual oviparous females and males varies in response to seasonal photoperiodism. Consequently, sexual and asexual development in aphids can be analyzed simultaneously in genetically identical individuals. Results We compared the transcriptomes of aphid embryos in the stages of development during which the trajectory of oogenesis is determined for producing sexual or asexual gametes. This study design aimed at identifying genes involved in the onset of the divergent mechanisms that result in the sexual or asexual phenotype. We detected 33 genes that were differentially transcribed in sexual and asexual embryos. Functional annotation by gene ontology (GO showed a biological signature of oogenesis, cell cycle regulation, epigenetic regulation and RNA maturation. In situ hybridizations demonstrated that 16 of the differentially-transcribed genes were specifically expressed in germ cells and/or oocytes of asexual and/or sexual ovaries, and therefore may contribute to aphid oogenesis. We categorized these 16 genes by their transcription patterns in the two types of ovaries; they were: i expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis; ii expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis but with different localizations; or iii expressed only during sexual or asexual oogenesis. Conclusions Our results show that asexual and sexual oogenesis in aphids share common genetic programs but diverge by adapting specificities in their respective gene expression profiles in germ cells and oocytes.

  2. Novas sinonímias e correções em Simulium com a revalidação de S. pruinosum Lutz, 1904 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae Simulium new synonymies and corrections, with resurrection of Simulium pruinosum Lutz, 1904 (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Simuliidae

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    Victor Py-Daniel

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Consideram-se Simulium antunesi (Lane & Porto, 1940, S. mauense Nunes de Mello, 1974 e S. nilesi Rambajam, 1979 sinonímias de Simulium perflavum Roubaud, 1906; S. sucamense Nunes de Mello, 1974 e S. santaelenae Ramirez-Pérez & Peterson, 1981 sinonímias de S. (Psilopelmia iracouboense Floch & Abonnenc, 1946; S. major Lane & Porto, 1940 sinonímia S. (Helmicnetha rubrithorax Lutz, 1909. Ressalta-se a utilização errônea do nome Grenierella para o subgênero Grenieriella Vargas & Nájera, 1951. Simulium (G. pruinosum Lutz, 1910 é revalidada, e sugere-se que S. nigrimanum Macquart, 1838 volte a ocupar a posição de species inquirendae.The following synonyms are proposed: Simulium antunesi (Lane & Porto, 1940, Simulium mauense Nunes de Mello, 1974 and Simulium nilesi Rambajam, 1979 are synonyms of Simulium perflavum Roubaud, 1906; Simulium sucamense Nunes de Mello, 1974 and Simulium santaelenae Ramirez-Perez & Peterson, 1981 are synonyms of Simulium (Psilopelmia iracouboense Floch & Abonnenc, 1946; Simulium major Lane & Porto, 1940 are synonym of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz, 1909. The recent use of the miswriting name Grenierella to the subgenus Grenieriella Vargas & Nájera, 1951 is mentioned. Simulium (Grenieriella pruinosum Lutz, 1910 is revalidated and Simulium nigrimanum Macquart, 1838 should be considered species inquirendae.

  3. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  4. BIOAKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP OOGENESIS KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis

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    Jalius Jalius

    2016-12-01

    The Jakarta, Banten, and Lada Bays have been polluted by the heavy metals. The study was conducted to identify the  heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg bio accucumulation in gonads and its  effects on oogenesis of green mussels (Perna viridis. The data collected were the number of oogenium, primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, diameter, square, and volume of follicle lumens on stage-III oogenesis. The content of heavy metal was analyzed by Atoms Absorbent Spectrophotometer (AAS. The results indicated that the gonad of green mussels originated from Jakarta bay have been bioaccumulated by heavy metal. The gonad of green mussel contained Pb (600.33±544.83 ppb, Cd (32.273±28.091 ppb, Cr (527.36±461 ppb, dan Hg (0.0222±0.0264 pbb. Cd and Pb have been found in gonads originated from Banten and Lada Bay while no Cr and Hg were detected. The concentration of Cd and Pb were 6.937 ppb, 0.021 mg/L (Banten Bay dan 6.069 ppb, and 0.018 mg/L (Lada Bay respectively. The green mussels female Jakarta Bay originated showed a strong correlation of Cr with developing of oogenia cells (r= 0.69, and secondary oocytes (r= 0.57. All heavy metals influenced the development of secondary oocytes (Pb, r= 0.75; Cd, r= 0.57; Cr, r= 0.57; Hg, r= 0.74, square (Pb, r= 0.76; Cd, r= 0.71; Cr, r= 0.57; Hg, r= 0.70, and volume of follicle lumen (Pb, r= 0.78; Cd, r= 0.74; Cr, r= 0.66; Hg, r= 0.58. Cadmium (Cd had effect to the number of female sex cells (r= 0.63. Therefore, the heavy metals influenced oogenesis process of green mussel at Jakarta Bay.

  5. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

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    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas.

  6. A developmental stage-specific switch from DAZL to BOLL occurs during fetal oogenesis in humans, but not mice.

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    Jing He

    Full Text Available The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX, but not male (XY human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll(-/- mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis.

  7. Chemosterilant (apholate)-induced ultrastructural changes during oogenesis in Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chemosterilant, apholate, on oogenesis has been studied in Aedes aegypti. Treatment of larvae to 20 ppM of the chemical induced ultrastructural changes in the presumptive and primary follicles of the adult ovary. These changes comprised condensation of chromatin, disruption of nuclear envelope and extensive degeneration as evidenced by numerous myelin figures and residual bodies. In some primary follicles, where cellular degeneration was restricted to epithelial cells, no arrest in development was observed. However, in comparison with controls, these follicles also were retarded. Larval treatment with 30 ppM apholate completely suppressed ovariolar development. High incidence of autophagy was observed in tissues at both dose levels.

  8. Study on the bacterial midgut microbiota associated to different Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Cheryl; Asensi, Marise D; Zahner, Viviane; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Oliveira, Sandra M P de

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community associated with the midgut of three Brazilian Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) populations, two from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (Jacobina, Bahia State and São Luís, Maranhão State) and one from a non-endemic area (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais State), was identified. Five groups, 35 females each, from each population were separated; a total of 175 females per collecting area were analyzed. The species identification was based on molecular and traditional bacteriological methods. All bacteria were either affiliated to non-Enterobacteriaceae, such as Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Flavimonas, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, or and to Enterobacteriaceae, such as Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pantoea, Morganella and Weeksella. Stenotrophomonas was found to be associated with all three populations studied. In addition, Serratia spp., which are well documented as laboratory contaminant of insects, were detected only in the Jacobina population. We also discuss the impact of the colonization of insect gut by bacteria on the development and transmission of pathogens.

  9. The arrest gene is required for germline cyst formation during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M J; Deng, W; Wang, Z; Lin, H

    2001-04-01

    In Drosophila, oogenesis is initiated when a germline stem cell produces a differentiating daughter cell called the cystoblast. The cystoblast undergoes four rounds of synchronous divisions with incomplete cytokinesis to generate a syncytial cyst of 16 interconnected cystocytes, in which one cystocyte differentiates into an oocyte. Strong mutations of the arrest (aret) gene disrupt cyst formation and cause the production of clusters of ill-differentiated germline cells that retain cellular and molecular characteristics of cystoblasts. These mutant germ cells express high levels of BAM-C and SXL proteins in the cytoplasm but do not accumulate markers for advanced cystocytes or differentiating oocytes, such as the nuclear localization of SXL or the accumulation of osk mRNA, orb mRNA, and cytoplasmic dynein. However, the mutant germ cells do not contain spectrosomes, the cytoplasmic structure that objectifies the divisional asymmetry of the cystoblast. The aret mutant germ cells undergo active mitosis with complete cytokinesis. Their mitosis is accompanied by massive necrosis, so that the number of germ cells in a stem cell-derived cluster ranges from one to greater than 70. These defects of aret mutants reveal a novel function of aret as the first gene with a defined function in the cystoblast to cyst transition during early oogenesis.

  10. Ultrastructural changes of the midgut epithelium in Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada) during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Wójtowicz, Maria; Kaczmarek, Lukasz

    2011-04-01

    The midgut epithelium of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer (Eutardigrada) is composed of columnar digestive cells. At its anterior end, a group of cells with cytoplasm which differs from the cytoplasm of digestive cells is present. Probably, those cells respond to crescent-like cells (midgut regenerative cells) described for some tardigrade species. Their mitotic divisions have not been observed. We analyzed the ultrastructure of midgut digestive cells in relation to five different stages of oogenesis (previtellogenesis, beginning of the vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis--early choriogenesis, vitellogenesis--middle choriogenesis, late choriogenesis). In the midgut epithelium cells, the gradual accumulation of glycogen granules, lipid droplets and structures of varying electron density occurs. During vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, in the cytoplasm of midgut cells we observed the increasing number of organelles which are responsible for the intensive synthesis of lipids, proteins and saccharides such as cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. At the end of oogenesis, autophagy also intensifies in midgut epithelial cells, which is probably caused by the great amount of reserve material. Midgut epithelium of analyzed species takes part in the yolk precursor synthesis.

  11. The impact of Zearalenone on the meiotic progression and primordial follicle assembly during early oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Han; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Yan-Zhong; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Li, Bo; Li, Ya-Peng; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2017-08-15

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium graminearum. It can cause abnormal reproductive function by acting as an environmental estrogen. Research has traditionally focused on acute and chronic injury on mammalian reproductive capacity after ZEA treatment. Little research has been done studying the effects of ZEA exposure on early oogenesis. In this study, we investigate the effects of ZEA exposure on meiotic entry, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and primordial follicle assembly during murine early oogenesis. The results show that ZEA exposure significantly decreased the percentage of diplotene stage germ cells, and made more germ cells remain at zygotene or pachytene stages. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of meiosis-related genes was significantly reduced after ZEA treatment. ZEA exposure significantly increased DNA-DSBs at the diplotene stage. Meanwhile, DNA damage repair genes such as RAD51 and BRCA1 were activated. Furthermore, maternal exposure to ZEA significantly decreased the number of primordial follicles in newborn mouse ovaries. In conclusion, ZEA exposure impairs mouse female germ cell meiotic progression, DNA-DSBs, and primordial follicle assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct interaction between two actin nucleators is required in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2013-11-01

    Controlled actin assembly is crucial to a wide variety of cellular processes, including polarity establishment during early development. The recently discovered actin mesh, a structure that traverses the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis, is essential for proper establishment of the major body axes. Genetic experiments indicate that at least two proteins, Spire (Spir) and Cappuccino (Capu), are required to build this mesh. The spire and cappuccino genetic loci were first identified as maternal effect genes in Drosophila. Mutation in either locus results in the same phenotypes, including absence of the mesh, linking them functionally. Both proteins nucleate actin filaments. Spir and Capu also interact directly with each other in vitro, suggesting a novel synergistic mode of regulating actin. In order to understand how and why proteins with similar biochemical activity would be required in the same biological pathway, genetic experiments were designed to test whether a direct interaction between Spir and Capu is required during oogenesis. Indeed, data in this study indicate that Spir and Capu must interact directly with one another and then separate to function properly. Furthermore, these actin regulators are controlled by a combination of mechanisms, including interaction with one another, functional inhibition and regulation of their protein levels. Finally, this work demonstrates for the first time in a multicellular organism that the ability of a formin to assemble actin filaments is required for a specific structure.

  13. Maternal factors and the evolution of developmental mode: evolution of oogenesis in Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M; Villinski, J T; Cisternas, P; Siegel, R K; Popodi, E; Raff, R A

    1999-05-01

    Evolutionary change in developmental mode in sea urchins is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We examined the oogenic modifications involved in production of a large egg by comparison of oogenesis in congeneric sea urchins with markedly different sized oocytes and divergent modes of development. Heliocidaris tuberculata has small eggs (95 microm diameter) and the ancestral mode of development through feeding larvae, whereas H. erythrogramma has large eggs (430 microm diameter) and highly modified non-feeding lecithotrophic larvae. Production of a large egg in H. erythrogramma involved both conserved and divergent mechanisms. The pattern and level of vitellogenin gene expression is similar in the two species. Vitellogenin processing is also similar with the gonads of both species incorporating yolk protein from coelomic and hemal stores into nutritive cells with subsequent transfer of this protein into yolk granules in the developing vitellogenic oocyte. Immunocytology of the eggs of both Heliocidaris species indicates they incorporate similar levels of yolk protein. However, H. erythrogramma has evolved a highly divergent second phase of oogenesis characterised by massive deposition of non-vitellogenic material including additional maternal protein and lipid. Maternal provisioning in H. erythrogramma exhibits recapitulation of the ancestral vitellogenic program followed by a novel oogenic phase with hypertrophy of the lipogenic program being a major contributor to the increase in egg size.

  14. Bisphenol A exposure in utero disrupts early oogenesis in the mouse.

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    Martha Susiarjo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen plays an essential role in the growth and maturation of the mammalian oocyte, and recent studies suggest that it also influences follicle formation in the neonatal ovary. In the course of studies designed to assess the effect of the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A (BPA on mammalian oogenesis, we uncovered an estrogenic effect at an even earlier stage of oocyte development--at the onset of meiosis in the fetal ovary. Pregnant mice were treated with low, environmentally relevant doses of BPA during mid-gestation to assess the effect of BPA on the developing ovary. Oocytes from exposed female fetuses displayed gross aberrations in meiotic prophase, including synaptic defects and increased levels of recombination. In the mature female, these aberrations were translated into an increase in aneuploid eggs and embryos. Surprisingly, we observed the same constellation of meiotic defects in fetal ovaries of mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of ERbeta, one of the two known estrogen receptors. This, coupled with the finding that BPA exposure elicited no additional effects in ERbeta null females, suggests that BPA exerts its effect on the early oocyte by interfering with the actions of ERbeta. Together, our results show that BPA can influence early meiotic events and, importantly, indicate that the oocyte itself may be directly responsive to estrogen during early oogenesis. This raises concern that brief exposures during fetal development to substances that mimic or antagonize the effects of estrogen may adversely influence oocyte development in the exposed female fetus.

  15. Conserved requirement for DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis

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    Cauchi Ruben J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 is an essential protein since its deficiency is lethal in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to playing a role in transcriptional regulation and RNA silencing, as a core member of the SMN (survival of motor neurons complex, Gemin3 is required for the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and axonal mRNA metabolism. Studies in the mouse and C. elegans revealed that loss of Gemin3 function has a negative impact on ovarian physiology and development. Findings This work reports on the generation and characterisation of gemin3 mutant germline clones in Drosophila adult females. Gemin3 was found to be required for the completion of oogenesis and its loss led to egg polarity defects, oocyte mislocalisation, and abnormal chromosome morphology. Canonical Cajal bodies were absent in the majority of gemin3 mutant egg chambers and histone locus bodies displayed an atypical morphology. snRNP distribution was perturbed so that on gemin3 loss, snRNP cytoplasmic aggregates (U bodies were only visible in wild type. Conclusions These findings establish a conserved requirement for Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis. Furthermore, in view of the similarity to the phenotypes described previously in smn mutant germ cells, the present results confirm the close functional relationship between SMN and Gemin3 on a cellular level.

  16. Differential expression of the two Drosophila fos/kayak transcripts during oogenesis and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souid, Sami; Yanicostas, Constantin

    2003-05-01

    The Dfos/kayak gene encodes a bZIP protein, DFos, required in a large variety of differentiation and morphogenetic processes throughout Drosophila development. The recent availability of an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence led us to identify a novel kay mRNA encoding a deduced DFos isoform showing a specific NH(2)-terminal region. To gain further insight into the function and the regulation of this gene, we have investigated the expression pattern of the two kay mRNA isoforms, kay-RA and kay-RB, during oogenesis and embryogenesis by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results show that, although the two kay RNA isoforms display fully distinct patterns of transcription during oogenesis, they show partially overlapping expression profiles in embryos. These data reveal a previously unsuspected level of complexity in the regulation of the expression of the kay gene. In addition, they suggest a possible requirement for this gene in the invagination processes during early gastrula stages.

  17. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  18. Early development of Drosophila embryos requires Smc5/6 function during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martin; Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Kegel, Andreas

    2016-07-15

    Mutations in structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) proteins are frequently associated with chromosomal abnormalities commonly observed in developmental disorders. However, the role of Smc proteins in development still remains elusive. To investigate Smc5/6 function during early embryogenesis we examined smc5 and smc6 mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster using a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy approaches. Smc5/6 exhibited a maternally contributed function in maintaining chromosome stability during early embryo development, which manifested as female subfertility in its absence. Loss of Smc5/6 caused an arrest and a considerable delay in embryo development accompanied by fragmented nuclei and increased anaphase-bridge formation, respectively. Surprisingly, early embryonic arrest was attributable to the absence of Smc5/6 during oogenesis, which resulted in insufficient repair of pre-meiotic and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, our findings contribute to the understanding of Smc proteins in higher eukaryotic development by highlighting a maternal function in chromosome maintenance and a link between oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

  19. Expression of hunchback during oogenesis and embryogenesis in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, ZhengBo; Cao, YueQing; Chen, Bin; Li, TingJing

    2011-02-01

    hb (hunchback) is a contributing factor in anteroposterior axial patterning of insects. Although the hb function in Locusta migratoria manilensis has been investigated, its expression pattern remains unknown. Here, the mouse polyclonal antibody was produced against Hb fusion protein, and then its expression pattern during oogenesis and embryogenesis of L. migratoria manilensis was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Hb protein was detected in the oocyte nucleus which was positioned centrally within the developing oocyte. The oocyte nucleus gradually moved to the posterior end of the egg along with the oocyte maturing. In freshly laid eggs, Hb formed gradient at the posterior end of the egg, and then hb was expressed as a band in the middle of the blastodisc. As the blastodisc differentiated into the head and trunk, the expression region became wide, which would develop into spatial gnathal and thoracic segments. With abdominal segmentation, the expression domain in the gnathal and thoracic region became faint and eventually faded out, while the Hb expression domain appeared at the posterior growth zone in a discontinuous expression manner. The hb expression pattern of L. migratoria manilensis is greatly similar to that of other locusts, such as Schistocerca americana and another L. migratoria. Compared with other insects, hb expression is conserved in the gnathal and thoracic domains, while divergent in oogenesis and abdomen.

  20. Coordination of cellular differentiation, polarity, mitosis and meiosis - New findings from early vertebrate oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-10-15

    A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule. Many of the major events in early oogenesis are universally conserved, and some are co-opted for species-specific needs. The chromosomal events of meiosis are of tremendous consequence to gamete formation and have been extensively studied. New light is now being shed on other aspects of early oocyte differentiation, which were traditionally considered outside the scope of meiosis, and their coordination with meiotic events. The emerging theme is of meiosis as a common groundwork for coordinating multifaceted processes of oocyte differentiation. In an accompanying manuscript we describe methods that allowed for investigations in the zebrafish ovary to contribute to these breakthroughs. Here, we review these advances mostly from the zebrafish and mouse. We discuss oogenesis concepts across established model organisms, and construct an inclusive paradigm for early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early development of Drosophila embryos requires Smc5/6 function during oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc proteins are frequently associated with chromosomal abnormalities commonly observed in developmental disorders. However, the role of Smc proteins in development still remains elusive. To investigate Smc5/6 function during early embryogenesis we examined smc5 and smc6 mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster using a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy approaches. Smc5/6 exhibited a maternally contributed function in maintaining chromosome stability during early embryo development, which manifested as female subfertility in its absence. Loss of Smc5/6 caused an arrest and a considerable delay in embryo development accompanied by fragmented nuclei and increased anaphase-bridge formation, respectively. Surprisingly, early embryonic arrest was attributable to the absence of Smc5/6 during oogenesis, which resulted in insufficient repair of pre-meiotic and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, our findings contribute to the understanding of Smc proteins in higher eukaryotic development by highlighting a maternal function in chromosome maintenance and a link between oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

  2. Monitoramento da autenticidade de amostras de bebidas alcoólicas enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Araujo Farah NAGATO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc. enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante caramelo e que por falta de controle dessas matérias-primas, podem oferecer risco potencial à saúde humana pela presença de metanol. A técnica empregada na análise dos componentes secundários e metanol das amostras foi realizada através da cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. Observou-se que em 608 amostras de bebidas alcoólicas analisadas, 391 eram falsificadas e dentre estas 2 apresentaram teores de metanol acima do limite tolerado (200mg/100mL de álcool anidro pela legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma grande persistência em se produzir bebidas alcoólicas falsificadas. Desta forma, é muito importante estar sempre monitorando estes produtos e identificando os diferentes tipos de falsificações existentes no país.This work aimed at verifying the authenticity of alcoholic beverages (whisky, vodka, ginger spirit, etc. sent for analysis by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo from 1993 to August 1999. The chemical composition of these drinks was studied because of the presence of illicit alcoholic beverages on the national market, especially those with a high commercial value. These products are usually elaborated with alcohol, water, flavor and caramel coloring. Since there is no control over these raw materials, these drinks could offer a potential risk to human health because of the presence of methanol. The method employed in the analysis of congeners and methanol in alcoholic

  3. Effects of nutrient loading in Lutz spruce seedlings (Picea x lutzii Littl.) during nursery rotation and on subsequent growth in field

    OpenAIRE

    Rakel J. Jónsdóttir 1971

    2011-01-01

    Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loaded using four fertilization regimes, receiving in total 0, 7.8, 22.2 and 31.4 g N/m2 over a period of eight weeks (6th august – 27th September) to investigate the effects on biomass allocation, frost hardiness, root growth capacity and nutrient status after the nursery rotation. The total biomass of loaded seedlings was similar to unloaded seedlings after the nursery culture, but the increase in N fr...

  4. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  5. An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the polychaete Nephtys hombergi Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. G.

    1989-06-01

    The polychaete Nephtys hombergi has an annual cycle of reproduction. Ovaries were fixed for electron microscopy during the gametogenic phase from September to March, and during the breeding and post-breeding periol. Oogenesis takes place entirely within the ovary, the integrity of which is maintained by a network of simple follicle cells. Previtellogenic oocytes have close contacts with the peri-vasal cells which surround the genital blood capillaries. These contacts are lost as the oocytes enter vitellogenesis. The vitellogenic oocytes have a cytology typical of oocytes which are thought to undergo autosynthetic production of protein yolk. Biochemical studies would be required to establish whether heterosynthesis of yolk also occurs. As the oocytes proceed through vitellogenesis, cortical material is laid down near the periphery of the oocyte and a microvillous surface is developed. When the microvillous surface is complete the oocytes, by then hormone independent, are ovulated from the ovary and are ready to be spawned.

  6. New Understandings on Folliculogenesis/Oogenesis Regulation in Mouse as Revealed by Conditional Knockout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Wen Hu; Zhen-Bo Wang; Heide Schatten; Qing-Yuan Sun

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to conventional knockout technology and in vitro research methods,conditional gene knockout has remarkable advantages.In the past decade,especially during the past five years,conditional knockout approaches have been used to study the regulation of folliculogenesis,follicle growth,oocyte maturation and other major reproductive events.In this review,we summarize the recent findings about folliculogenesis/oogenesis regulation,including the functions of four signaling cascades or glycoprotein domains that have been extensively studied by conditional gene deletion.Several other still fragmented areas of related work are introduced which are awaiting clarification.We have also discussed the future potential of this technology in clarifying gene functions in reproductive biology.

  7. No evidence for neo-oogenesis may link to ovarian senescence in adult monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jihong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mengyuan; Mao, Jian; Yin, Yu; Ye, Xiaoying; Liu, Na; Han, Jihong; Gao, Yingdai; Cheng, Tao; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Female germline or oogonial stem cells transiently residing in fetal ovaries are analogous to the spermatogonial stem cells or germline stem cells (GSCs) in adult testes where GSCs and meiosis continuously renew. Oocytes can be generated in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but the existence of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in adult mammalian ovaries is less clear. Preliminary findings of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in mice and humans have not been consistently reproducible. Monkeys provide the most relevant model of human ovarian biology. We searched for GSCs and neo-meiosis in ovaries of adult monkeys at various ages, and compared them with GSCs from adult monkey testis, which are characterized by cytoplasmic staining for the germ cell marker DAZL and nuclear expression of the proliferative markers PCNA and KI67, and pluripotency-associated genes LIN28 and SOX2, and lack of nuclear LAMIN A, a marker for cell differentiation. Early meiocytes undergo homologous pairing at prophase I distinguished by synaptonemal complex lateral filaments with telomere perinuclear distribution. By exhaustive searching using comprehensive experimental approaches, we show that proliferative GSCs and neo-meiocytes by these specific criteria were undetectable in adult mouse and monkey ovaries. However, we found proliferative nongermline somatic stem cells that do not express LAMIN A and germ cell markers in the adult ovaries, notably in the cortex and granulosa cells of growing follicles. These data support the paradigm that adult ovaries do not undergo germ cell renewal, which may contribute significantly to ovarian senescence that occurs with age.

  8. Zinc deficiency reduces fertility in C. elegans hermaphrodites and disrupts oogenesis and meiotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, James; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Diaz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for successful gametogenesis in mammals; however the role of zinc in the gonad function of non-mammalian species has not been investigated. The genetic tractability, short generation time, and hermaphroditic reproduction of the nematode C. elegans offer distinct advantages for the study of impaired gametogenesis as a result of zinc deficiency. However the phenotypic reproductive effects arising from zinc restriction have not been established in this model. We therefore examined the effect of zinc deficiency on C. elegans reproduction by exposing worms to the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN). Treatment began at the early larval stage and continued until reproductive senescence. TPEN treatment reduced the total number of progeny produced by C. elegans hermaphrodites compared with control subjects, with the largest difference in output observed 48h after larval stage 4. At this time-point, zinc deficient worms displayed fewer embryos in the uterus and disorganized oocyte development when observed under DIC microscopy. DAPI staining revealed impaired oogenesis and chromosome dynamics with an expanded region of pachytene stage oocytes extending into the proximal arm of the gonad. This phenotype was not seen in control or zinc-rescue subjects. This study demonstrates that reproduction in C. elegans is sensitive to environmental perturbations in zinc, indicating that this is a good model for future studies in zinc-mediated subfertility. Aberrant oocyte development and disruption of the pachytene-diplotene transition indicate that oogenesis in particular is affected by zinc deficiency in this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New species of Myxosporea from frogs and resurrection of the genus Cystodiscus Lutz, 1889 for species with myxospores in gallbladders of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Two new myxosporean species in the gallbladders of frogs have recently spread across eastern Australia and cause disease. Cystodiscus axonis sp. n. and Cystodiscus australis sp. n. are species of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) identified from a range of Australian frogs and tadpoles including the introduced Cane toad (Rhinella marina). The new species are defined by their distinct genetic lineage, myxospore morphology and ultrastructure of the pre-sporogonic development. Spores of both species are produced in the gallbladder. Spores of C. axonis sp. n. possess distinct filiform polar appendages (FPA). The pre-sporogonic development of C. axonis sp. n. is within myelinated axons in the central nervous system of hosts, as well as bile ducts of tadpoles. Pre-sporogonic and sporogonic development of C. australis sp. n. is confined to tadpole bile ducts and myxospores of C. australis sp. n. are devoid of FPA. The genus Cystodiscus Lutz, 1889 introduced for Cystodiscus immersus Lutz, 1889 is emended to accompany myxosporean parasites affecting amphibians previously classified in the genus Myxidium sensu lato. A synopsis of described species within Cystodiscus is provided.

  10. Differences in the relative timing of developmental events during oogenesis in lower dipterans (Nematocera) reveal the autonomy of follicular cells' differentiation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta; Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Although the ovaries of Nematocera are of the same meroistic-polytrophic type, they show significant differences in the activity of germ cells (oocytes, nurse cells) and their relative contribution to ribosome synthesis and storage during oogenesis. These different activities result in the different growth rate of the germ cells and may determine the life span of the nurse cells. Comparative analysis revealed that with reference to germ cell activity, two basic types of oogenesis in Nematocera can be distinguished. In the Tinearia type, the nurse cells grow considerably and are active until advanced stages of oogenesis, whereas the oocyte is transcriptionally inert. Conversely, in the Tipula type of oogenesis, the oocyte nucleus contains transcriptionally active multiple nucleoli, while nurse cells probably do not contribute to ribosome synthesis, remain relatively small and degenerate early in oogenesis. We studied and compared the process of somatic follicular cell differentiation in nematoceran species representing both types of oogenesis. Our observations indicate that morphogenesis of the follicular cells is at least partly independent of the nurse cell activity, while the execution of their differentiation does not require direct contacts between the follicular cells and the oocyte.

  11. A study of Winston-Lutz test on two different electronic portal imaging devices and with low energy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery requires sub-millimetre accuracy in patient positioning and target localization. Therefore, verification of the linear accelerator (linac) isocentre and the laser alignment to the isocentre is performed in some clinics prior to the treatment using the Winston-Lutz (W-L) test with films and more recently with images obtained using the electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). The W-L test is performed by acquiring EPID images of a radio-opaque ball of 6 mm diameter (the W-L phantom) placed at the isocentre of the linac at various gantry and table angles, with a predefined small square or circular radiation beam. In this study, the W-L test was performed on two linacs having EPIDs of different size and resolution, viz, a TrueBeam™ linac with aS1000 EPID of size 40 × 30 cm(2) with 1024 × 768 pixel resolution and an EDGE™ linac having an EPID of size 43 × 43 cm(2) with pixel resolution of 1280 × 1280. In order to determine the displacement of the radio-opaque ball centre from the radiation beam centre of the W-L test, an in-house MATLAB™ image processing code was developed using morphological operations. The displacement in radiation beam centre at each gantry and couch position was obtained by determining the distance between the radiation field centre and the radio-opaque ball centre for every image. Since the MATLAB code was based on image processing that was dependent on the image contrast and resolution, the W-L test was also compared for images obtained with different beam energies. The W-L tests were performed for 6 and 8 MV beams on the TrueBeam™ linac and for 2.5 and 6 MV beams on the EDGE™ linac with a higher resolution EPID. It was observed that the images obtained with the EPID of higher resolution resulted in same accuracy in the determination of the displacement between the centres of the radio-opaque ball and the radiation beam, and significant difference was not observed with images acquired with

  12. RNA-binding proteins in human oogenesis: Balancing differentiation and self-renewal in the female fetal germline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseanne Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation. In this review we examine the role of exemplars of such proteins, namely LIN28, DAZL, BOLL and FMRP, and highlight how their roles during germ cell development are critical to oogenesis and the establishment of the primordial follicle pool.

  13. Morphological irregularities and features of resistance to apoptosis in the dcp-1/pita double mutated egg chambers during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stergiopoulos, Costas; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate the most novel characteristic morphological features of Drosophila egg chambers lacking both dcp-1 and pita functions in the germline cells. Dcp-1 is an effector caspase and it has been previously shown to play an important role during Drosophila oogenesis [McCall and Steller, 1998 : Science 279 : 230-234; Laundrie et al., 2003 : Genetics 165 : 1881-1888; Peterson et al., 2003 : Dev Biol 260 : 113-123]. The completion of sequencing and annotation of the Drosophila genome has revealed that the dcp-1 gene is nested within an intron of another distinct gene, called pita, a member of the C2H2 zinc finger protein family that regulates transcriptional initiation. The dcp-1(-/-)/pita(-/-) nurse cells exhibit euchromatic nuclei (delay of apoptosis) during the late stages of oogenesis, as revealed by conventional light and electron microscopy. The phalloidin-FITC staining discloses significant defects in actin cytoskeleton arrangement. The actin bundles fail to organize properly and the distribution of actin filaments in the ring canals is changed compared to the wild type. The oocyte and the chorion structures have been also modified. The oocyte nucleus is out of position and the chorion appears to contain irregular foldings, while the respiratory filaments obtain an altered morphology. The dcp-1(-/-)/pita(-/-) egg chambers do not exhibit the rare events of spontaneously induced apoptosis, observed for the wild type flies, during mid-oogenesis. Interestingly, the mutated egg chambers are protected by staurosporine-induced apoptosis in a percentage of 40%, strongly suggesting the essential role of dcp-1 and/or pita during mid-oogenesis.

  14. The interaction between a sexually transferred steroid hormone and a female protein regulates oogenesis in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baldini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male-female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria.

  15. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  16. The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

  17. Oogenesis in summer females of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in southern Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sheng-wei; JIANG Ming-xing; SHANG Han-wu; LV Hui-ping; CHENG Jia-an

    2007-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, has two generations in southern Zhejiang, China. To determine oogenesis in first-generation females (summer females) and its relations to temperature, females were collected from a rice field in early and mid-July and reared on young rice plants at 28, 31 and 34 ℃ in the laboratory. Percentage of females having oocytes, number of oocytes of different stages (stage-Ⅰ, from early previtellogenesis to middle vitellogenesis; stage-Ⅱ, late vitellogenesis; and mature-oocyte stage), and length of ovarioles were determined every 10 d of feeding. At each temperature,oogenesis took place in over 40% of females after 20~40 d of feeding, but only 0.0~3.3 stage-Ⅰ, 0.0~0.8 stage-Ⅱ and 0.0~1.1 mature oocytes were observed at each observation date. Temperature had significant effect on number of stage-Ⅰ oocytes but not on number of stage-Ⅱ and mature oocytes in early July females; temperature had no significant effect on number of oocytes of either stage in mid-July females. Conclusively, in southern Zhejiang, summer L. oryzophilus females have great potential to become reproductive on rice, but their oogenesis activity is very low, with the overall procedures little affected by temperature.

  18. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Fagan, Tiffany N; Lovander, Kaylee E; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-09-15

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools--Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin--for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development. Specifically, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to express these tools at different levels and in different cells, and analyzed these tools for effects on fertility, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, and ability to label filamentous actin (F-actin) structures by both fixed and live imaging. While both Utrophin and Lifeact robustly label F-actin structures within the Drosophila germline, when strongly expressed they cause sterility and severe actin defects including cortical actin breakdown resulting in multi-nucleate nurse cells, early F-actin filament and aggregate formation during stage 9 (S9), and disorganized parallel actin filament bundles during stage 10B (S10B). However, by using a weaker germline GAL4 driver in combination with a higher temperature, Utrophin can label F-actin with minimal defects. Additionally, strong Utrophin expression within the germline causes F-actin formation in the nurse cell nuclei and germinal vesicle during mid-oogenesis. Similarly, Lifeact expression results in nuclear F-actin only within the germinal vesicle. F-tractin expresses at a lower level than the other two labeling tools, but labels cytoplasmic F-actin structures well without causing sterility or striking actin defects. Together these studies reveal how critical it is to evaluate the utility of each actin labeling tool

  19. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, Ayper; Emre, Mustafa; Sertdemir, Yasar; Uncu, İbrahim; Binokay, Secil; Demirhan, Osman

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the oogenesis, and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis, and so the development of the embryos obtained from Normal Females+Normal Males (i.e. "N(F)+N(M)"); Normal Females+RF-exposed Males (i.e. "N(F)+RF(M)"); RF-exposed Female+Normal Male (i.e. "RF(F)+N(M)"); and RF-exposed Female+RF-exposed Male (i.e. "RF(F)+RF(M)". Various, assessments were performed to determine potential teratogenic effects and mortality, body growth and behavior on first generation embryos. After exposing adults frogs of both sexes to 900MHz RF-EMR (at 1.0W/kg) for 8h a day over a 5-week period, the embryos' specific energy absorption rate (SAR) was calculated. In our present study (control group; 2.2% abnormal, 0.0% dead); with the N(F)+RF(M) combination, the long-term exposure of adult males to GSM-like radiation at 900MHz (RF: 2W) for 5 week/8h/day resulted in normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 88.3%, 3.3% and 8.3%, respectively (p<0.001). In the RF(F)+N(M) combination, long-term exposure (5 week/8h/day) of adult females led to normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 76.7%, 11.7%, and 11.7%, respectively (p<0.001). And in the RF(F)+RF(M) combination, long-term exposure (5 week/8h/day) of both adult males and females led to normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 73.3%, 11.7%, and 15%, respectively (p<0.001). With the exception RF(F)+RF(M) group (p<0.001), no significant changes were observed on body growth (lengths) in comparison to the control group. It was also observed that the offspring of female adult Xenopus exposed to RF-EMR during oogenesis exhibited a more aggressive behavior compared to the control group. Cell phones radiation can thus lead to detrimental effects in humans' male and female reproductive cells.

  20. Exposure effects of levonorgestrel on oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler; Yonkos, Lance; Frankel, Jack

    2017-07-06

    The synthetic progestin levonorgestrel is commonly utilized in human oral contraceptives. It enters the environment as a component of wastewater treatment plant effluent, and has been measured at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters. It has been shown to activate fish androgen receptors, causing the physical masculinization of females, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreases in fecundity. In the present study, the effects of levonorgestrel exposure on early-stage oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was examined. Adult females were exposed to 0, 10, or 100 ng/L levonorgestrel for 14 d using a flow-through exposure system. The ovaries from each female were then removed via dissection and weighed for gonadosomatic index (GSI) calculations, and oocytes from one lobe preserved in Serra's fixative. Total numbers of late-stage vitellogenic oocytes exhibiting a germinal vesicle were then quantified. In a second exposure, blood plasma samples were collected from adult females and analyzed for vitellogenin concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Females exposed to both concentrations of levonorgestrel developed male secondary sexual characteristics in a dose-dependent manner, and ovaries contained significantly fewer late stage oocytes. Exposure to 100 ng/L of levonorgestrel resulted in decreased GSI and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations. The results suggest that female exposure to levonorgestrel alone may have profound effects on reproduction in progestin-contaminated environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-6. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Capping protein beta is required for actin cytoskeleton organisation and cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Anna A; Karagodin, Dmitry A; Lashina, Valentina V; Baiborodin, Sergey I; Omelina, Eugeniya S; Baricheva, Elina M

    2013-02-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a well-characterised actin-binding protein important for regulation of actin filament (AF) assembly. CP caps the barbed end of AFs, inhibiting the addition and loss of actin monomers. In Drosophila melanogaster, the gene encoding CP β-subunit is named capping protein beta (cpb; see Hopmann et al. [1996] J Cell Biol 133: 1293-305). The cpb level is reduced in the Drosophila bristle actin cytoskeleton and becomes disorganised with abnormal morphology. A reduced level of the CP protein in ovary results in disruption of oocyte determination, and disturbance of nurse cell (NC) cortical integrity and dumping. We describe novel defects appearing in cpb mutants during oogenesis, in which cpb plays an important role in border and centripetal follicle cell migration, ring canal development and cytoplasmic AF formation. The number of long cytoplasmic AFs was dramatically reduced in cpb hypomorphs and abnormal actin aggregates was seen on the inner side of NC membranes. A hypothesis to explain the formation of abnormal short-cut cytoplasmic AFs and actin aggregates in the cpb mutant NCs was proffered, along with a discussion of the reasons for 'dumpless' phenotype formation in the mutants.

  2. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

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    Habibollah Johari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor solution was prepared in olive oil at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg doses, and 0.2 cc injections were done intraperitoneally every day for 2 weeks. The control group received no injection. The sham group received olive oil (as solvent of camphor and treatment groups of 1, 2, and 3 received doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. The treatment groups were sacrificed one day after the last injection, and their hearts were dissected and blood samples were obtained. The concentrations of the hormones were measured by the ELISA test, and the results were evaluated via the t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan.   Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of testosterone and progesterone (p value < 0.05 and a significant increase in the concentrations of LH and FSH (p value <0.05.   Conclusion: Camphor augmented oogenesis via effecting a rise in the concentrations of LH and FSH in our rats.

  3. Bone marrow derived cells and alternative pathways of oogenesis in adult rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto; Svetlikova, Marta; Selleck-White, Rachel

    2007-09-15

    Oocyte generation in adult mouse ovaries by putative germ cells (PGCs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood has recently been proposed. It, however, remains unclear whether in laboratory rodents the PGCs reside in BM or the BM cells stimulate oogenesis from ovarian stem cells. We utilized immunoperoxidase staining to localize PGCs, oocytes, and BM derived cells in ovaries of adult (age 45-60 days) control and neonatally estrogenized rat females. In controls, BM derived cells accompanied emergence of PGCs from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells. The PGCs divided symmetrically, separated, and formed primordial follicles. A proportion (50%) of adult neonatally estrogenized rats lacked OSE. They exhibited occurrence of numerous BM derived cells and appearance of PGC precursors in the medulla. In juxtaposed deep ovarian cortex the emerging PGCs exhibited distinct pseudopodia and apparently migrated toward the mid cortex, where numerous primordial follicles were found. These observations indicate that BM derived cells accompany origination of PGCs from the OSE stem cells in normal adult rat females and from the medullary precursors in the adult neonatally estrogenized rats lacking OSE. An alternative origin of PGCs from the medullary region may explain why ovaries with destructed OSE are still capable of forming new primordial follicles.

  4. Germ cell cluster organization and oogenesis in the tardigrade Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus Bertolani, 1982 (Eutardigrada, Murrayidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-07-01

    Germ cell cluster organization and the process of oogenesis in Dactylobiotus parthenogeneticus have been described using transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The reproductive system of D. parthenogeneticus is composed of a single, sac-like, meroistic ovary and a single oviduct that opens into the cloaca. Two zones can be distinguished in the ovary: a small germarium that is filled with oogonia and a vitellarium that is filled with germ cell clusters. The germ cell cluster, which has the form of a modified rosette, consists of eight cells that are interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges. The cell that has the highest number of stable cytoplasmic bridges (four bridges) finally develops into the oocyte, while the remaining cells become trophocytes. Vitellogenesis of a mixed type occurs in D. parthenogeneticus. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), while the second part is synthesized in the trophocytes and transported to the oocyte through the cytoplasmic bridges. The eggs are covered with two envelopes: a thin vitelline envelope and a three-layered chorion. The surface of the chorion forms small conical processes, the shape of which is characteristic for the species that was examined. In our paper, we present the first report on the rosette type of germ cell clusters in Parachela.

  5. The fine structure of mitochondria and the mitochondrial cloud during oogenesis on the sea anemone Actinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkman, A U

    1984-01-01

    The appearance and arrangement of the mitochondria during all stages of oocyte growth in the sea anemone Actinia fragacea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) have been examined by electron microscopy. In small oocytes, the mitochondria are generally squat, with a dense matrix and numerous cristae, although a proportion may show an unusual arrangement of prismatic cristae. During early oogenesis, the mitochondria tend to be arranged in aggregates rather than randomly scattered, and may be associated with nuage material. With the onset of vitellogenesis, a large mitochondrial aggregate forms next to the nucleus. During early vitellogenesis this aggregate enlarges and comes to resemble the mitochondrial clouds found in some amphibian oocytes. Within the cloud, many mitochondria appear to be highly elongate and irregular in shape. The cloud begins to fragment and disperse midway through vitellogenesis at about the time when cortical granules appear. In fully grown oocytes, some mitochondria may have a much less dense matrix and fewer cristae than the remainder, which may be related to their state of activity.

  6. Oogenesis and spawn formation in the invasive lionfish, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Morris, Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois miles and P. volitans, have recently invaded the U.S. east coast and the Caribbean and pose a significant threat to native reef fish communities. Few studies have documented reproduction in pteroines from the Indo-Pacific. This study provides a description of oogenesis and spawn formation in P. miles and P. volitans collected from offshore waters of North Carolina, U.S.A and the Bahamas. Using histological and laboratory observations, we found no differences in reproductive biology between P. miles and P. volitans. These lionfish spawn buoyant eggs that are encased in a hollow mass of mucus produced by specialized secretory cells of the ovarian wall complex. Oocytes develop on highly vascularized peduncles with all oocyte stages present in the ovary of spawning females and the most mature oocytes placed terminally, near the ovarian lumen. Given these ovarian characteristics, these lionfish are asynchronous, indeterminate batch spawners and are thus capable of sustained reproduction throughout the year when conditions are suitable. This mode of reproduction could have contributed to the recent and rapid establishment of these lionfish in the northwestern Atlantic and Caribbean.

  7. Argonaute 1 is indispensable for juvenile hormone mediated oogenesis in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiasheng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary hormone controlling vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, an evolutionarily primitive insect species with panoistic ovaries. However, molecular mechanisms of locust oogenesis remain unclear and the role of microRNA (miRNA) in JH mediated locust vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation has not been explored. Using miRNA sequencing and quantification with small RNA libraries derived from fat bodies of JH-deprived versus JH analog-exposed female adult locusts, we have identified 83 JH up-regulated and 60 JH down-regulated miRNAs. QRT-PCR validation has confirmed that transcription of selected miRNAs responded to JH administration and correlated with changes in endogenous hemolymph JH titers. Depletion of Argonaute 1 (Ago1), a key regulator of miRNA biogenesis and function by RNAi in female adult locusts dramatically decreased the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and severely impaired follicular epithelium development, terminal oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate that Ago1 and Ago1-dependent miRNAs play a crucial role in locust vitellogenesis and egg production.

  8. Ultrastructure of oogenesis of two oviparous demosponges: Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Maldonado, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the cytology of the oogenic cycle in two oviparous demosponges, Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata, during 2 consecutive years both by light and electron microscopy. Oocytes of both species were similar in their basic morphological features but differences were noticed in time required to complete oocyte maturation and mechanisms of acquisition of nutritional reserves. The oogenic cycle of A. damicornis extended for 7-8 months in autumn-spring, while that of R. aculeata did it for 3-5 months in summer-autumn. Yolk of A. damicornis was predominantly formed by autosynthesis. Oocytes endocytosed bacteria individually and stored them in groups in large vesicles. Bacteria were digested and lipidic material was added to the vesicles to produce a peculiar granular yolk hitherto unknown in sponges. Scarce cells carrying heterogeneous inclusions were observed in the perioocytic space, and were interpreted as putative nurse cells. Such cells were presumably releasing lipid granules to the perioocytic space. In contrast, large numbers of nurse cells were found surrounding the oocytes of R. aculeata. They transported both lipid granules and heterogeneous yolk bodies to the oocytes. R. aculeata also produced some of their yolk by autosynthesis. The involvement of nurse cells in the vitellogenesis of R. aculeata shortened the oocyte maturation, whereas a largely autosynthetic vitellogenesis in A. damicornis prolonged the duration of oogenesis.

  9. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia and Corinto (N. neivai in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26ºC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  10. Drosophila tensin plays an essential role in cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis by mediating integrin-dependent extracellular signals to actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, In Jun; Lee, Jang Ho; Cho, Kyoung Sang; Lee, Sung Bae

    2017-03-11

    Oogenesis in Drosophila involves very dynamic cellular changes such as cell migration and polarity formation inside an ovary during short period. Previous studies identified a number of membrane-bound receptors directly receiving certain types of extracellular inputs as well as intracellular signalings to be involved in the regulation of these dynamic cellular changes. However, yet our understanding on exactly how these receptor-mediated extracellular inputs lead to dynamic cellular changes remains largely unclear. Here, we identified Drosophila tensin encoded by blistery (by) as a novel regulator of cell migration and planar polarity formation and characterized the genetic interaction between tensin and integrin during oogenesis. Eggs from by mutant showed decreased hatching rate and morphological abnormality, a round-shape, compared to the wild-type eggs. Further analyses revealed that obvious cellular defects such as defective border cell migration and planar polarity formation might be primarily associated with the decreased hatching rate and the round-shape phenotype of by mutant eggs, respectively. Moreover, by mutation also induced marked defects in F-actin organization closely associated with both cell migration and planar polarity formation during oogenesis of Drosophila. Notably, all these defective phenotypes observed in by mutant eggs became much severer by reduced level of integrin, indicative of a close functional association between integrin and tensin during oogenesis. Collectively, our findings suggest that tensin acts as a crucial regulator of dynamic cellular changes during oogenesis by bridging integrin-dependent extracellular signals to intracellular cytoskeletal organization.

  11. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  12. The current status of evidence for and against postnatal oogenesis in mammals: a case of ovarian optimism versus pessimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L; Niikura, Yuichi; Rueda, Bo R

    2009-01-01

    Whether or not oogenesis continues in the ovaries of mammalian females during postnatal life was heavily debated from the late 1800s through the mid-1900s. However, in 1951 Lord Solomon Zuckerman published what many consider to be a landmark paper summarizing his personal views of data existing at the time for and against the possibility of postnatal oogenesis. In Zuckerman's opinion, none of the evidence he considered was inconsistent with Waldeyer's initial proposal in 1870 that female mammals cease production of oocytes at or shortly after birth. This conclusion rapidly became dogma, and remained essentially unchallenged until just recently, despite the fact that Zuckerman did not offer a single experiment proving that adult female mammals are incapable of oogenesis. Instead, 20 years later he reemphasized that his conclusion was based solely on an absence of data he felt would be inconsistent with the idea of a nonrenewable oocyte pool provided at birth. However, in the immortal words of Carl Sagan, an "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." Indeed, building on the efforts of a few scientists who continued to question this dogma after Zuckerman's treatise in 1951, we reported several data sets in 2004 that were very much inconsistent with the widely held belief that germ cell production in female mammals ceases at birth. Perhaps not surprisingly, given the magnitude of the paradigm shift being proposed, this work reignited a vigorous debate that first began more than a century ago. Our purpose here is to review the experimental evidence offered in recent studies arguing support for and against the possibility that adult mammalian females replenish their oocyte reserve. "Never discourage anyone who continually makes progress, no matter how slow."-Plato (427-347 BC).

  13. The insulator protein Suppressor of Hairy wing is required for proper ring canal development during oogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Jui; Plata, Maria P; Ernest, Ben; Asgarifar, Saghi; Labrador, Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin insulators orchestrate gene transcription during embryo development and cell differentiation by stabilizing interactions between distant genomic sites. Mutations in genes encoding insulator proteins are generally lethal, making in vivo functional analyses of insulator proteins difficult. In Drosophila, however, mutations in the gene encoding the Suppressor of Hairy wing insulator protein [Su(Hw)] are viable and female sterile, providing an opportunity to study insulator function during oocyte development. Whereas previous reports suggest that the function of Su(Hw) in oogenesis is independent of its insulator activity, many aspects of the role of Su(Hw) in Drosophila oogenesis remain unexplored. Here we show that mutations in su(Hw) result in smaller ring canal lumens and smaller outer ring diameters, which likely obstruct molecular and vesicle passage from nurse cells to the oocyte. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that lack of Su(Hw) leads to excess accumulation of Kelch (Kel) and Filament-actin (F-actin) proteins in the ring canal structures of developing egg chambers. Furthermore, we found that misexpression of the Src oncogene at 64B (Src64B) may cause ring canal development defects as microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR revealed there is a three fold decrease in Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant ovaries. Restoration of Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant female germ cells rescued the ring phenotype but did not restore fertility. We conclude that loss of su(Hw) affects expression of many oogenesis related genes and down-regulates Src64B, resulting in ring canal defects potentially contributing to obstruction of molecular flow and an eventual failure of egg chamber organization.

  14. Btk29A-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of armadillo/β-catenin promotes ring canal growth in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada-Kawaguchi, Noriko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila Btk29A is the ortholog of mammalian Btk, a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase whose deficit causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans. The Btk29AficP mutation induces multiple abnormalities in oogenesis, including the growth arrest of ring canals, large intercellular bridges that allow the flow of cytoplasm carrying maternal products essential for embryonic development from the nurse cells to the oocyte during oogenesis. In this study, inactivation of Parcas, a negative regulator of Btk29A, was found to promote Btk29A accumulation on ring canals with a concomitant increase in the ring canal diameter, counteracting the Btk29AficP mutation. This mutation markedly reduced the accumulation of phosphotyrosine on ring canals and in the regions of cell-cell contact, where adhesion-supporting proteins such as DE-cadherin and β-catenin ortholog Armadillo (Arm) are located. Our previous in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that Btk29A directly phosphorylates Arm, leading to its release from DE-cadherin. In the present experiments, immunohistological analysis revealed that phosphorylation at tyrosine 150 (Y150) and Y667 of Arm was diminished in Btk29AficP mutant ring canals. Overexpression of an Arm mutant with unphosphorylatable Y150 inhibited ring canal growth. Thus Btk29A-induced Y150 phosphorylation is necessary for the normal growth of ring canals. We suggest that the dissociation of tyrosine-phosphorylated Arm from DE-cadherin allows dynamic actin to reorganize, leading to ring canal expansion and cell shape changes during the course of oogenesis.

  15. Btk29A-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of armadillo/β-catenin promotes ring canal growth in Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Noriko Hamada-Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available Drosophila Btk29A is the ortholog of mammalian Btk, a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase whose deficit causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans. The Btk29AficP mutation induces multiple abnormalities in oogenesis, including the growth arrest of ring canals, large intercellular bridges that allow the flow of cytoplasm carrying maternal products essential for embryonic development from the nurse cells to the oocyte during oogenesis. In this study, inactivation of Parcas, a negative regulator of Btk29A, was found to promote Btk29A accumulation on ring canals with a concomitant increase in the ring canal diameter, counteracting the Btk29AficP mutation. This mutation markedly reduced the accumulation of phosphotyrosine on ring canals and in the regions of cell-cell contact, where adhesion-supporting proteins such as DE-cadherin and β-catenin ortholog Armadillo (Arm are located. Our previous in vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that Btk29A directly phosphorylates Arm, leading to its release from DE-cadherin. In the present experiments, immunohistological analysis revealed that phosphorylation at tyrosine 150 (Y150 and Y667 of Arm was diminished in Btk29AficP mutant ring canals. Overexpression of an Arm mutant with unphosphorylatable Y150 inhibited ring canal growth. Thus Btk29A-induced Y150 phosphorylation is necessary for the normal growth of ring canals. We suggest that the dissociation of tyrosine-phosphorylated Arm from DE-cadherin allows dynamic actin to reorganize, leading to ring canal expansion and cell shape changes during the course of oogenesis.

  16. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Martina; Chayengia, Mrinal; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sharma, Aditi; Prasad, Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Group cell migration is a highly coordinated process that is involved in a number of physiological events such as morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Unlike single cells, collectively moving cells are physically attached to each other and retain some degree of apical-basal polarity during the migratory phase. Although much is known about direction sensing, how polarity is regulated in multicellular movement remains unclear. Here we report the role of the protein kinase Pak3 in maintaining apical-basal polarity in migrating border cell clusters during Drosophila oogenesis. Pak3 is enriched in border cells and downregulation of its function impedes border cell movement. Time-lapse imaging suggests that Pak3 affects protrusive behavior of the border cell cluster, specifically regulating the stability and directionality of protrusions. Pak3 functions downstream of guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in migrating border cells. We also provide evidence that Pak3 genetically interacts with the lateral polarity marker Scribble and that it regulates JNK signaling in the moving border cells. Since Pak3 depletion results in mislocalization of several apical-basal polarity markers and overexpression of Jra rescues the polarity of the Pak3-depleted cluster, we propose that Pak3 functions through JNK signaling to modulate apical-basal polarity of the migrating border cell cluster. We also observe loss of apical-basal polarity in Rac1-depleted border cell clusters, suggesting that guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and Pak3 to regulate the overall polarity of the cluster and mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary.

  17. Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 4 Is Expressed Within Embryonic Ovaries and Dispensable During Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Ho; Brower, Jeffrey V.; Resnick, James L.; Oh, S. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) facilitates the exchange of adenosine triphosphate across the mitochondrial inner membrane and plays a critical role for bioenergetics in eukaryotes. Mice have 3 Ant paralogs, Ant1 (Slc25a4), Ant2 (Slc25a5), and Ant4 (Slc25a31), which are expressed in a tissue-dependent manner. We previously identified that Ant4 was expressed exclusively in testicular germ cells in adult mice and essential for spermatogenesis and subsequently male fertility. Further investigation into the process of spermatogenesis revealed that Ant4 was particularly highly expressed during meiotic prophase I and indispensable for normal progression of leptotene spermatocytes to the stages thereafter. In contrast, the expression and roles of Ant4 in female germ cells have not previously been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that the Ant4 gene is expressed during embryonic ovarian development during which meiotic prophase I occurs. We confirmed embryonic ovary-specific Ant4 expression using a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene. In contrast to male, however, Ant4 null female mice were fertile although the litter size was slightly decreased. They showed apparently normal ovarian development which was morphologically indistinguishable from the control animals. These data indicate that Ant4 is a meiosis-specific gene expressed during both male and female gametogenesis however indispensable only during spermatogenesis and not oogenesis. The differential effects of Ant4 depletion within the processes of male and female gametogenesis may be explained by meiosis-specific inactivation of the X-linked Ant2 gene in male, a somatic paralog of the Ant4 gene. PMID:25031318

  18. Two distinct Staufen isoforms in Xenopus are vegetally localized during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Rachel; Czaplinski, Kevin; Git, Anna; Adegbenro, Elizabeth; Stennard, Fiona; Houliston, Evelyn; Standart, Nancy

    2004-11-01

    Localization of mRNA is an important way of generating early asymmetries in the developing embryo. In Drosophila, Staufen is intimately involved in the localization of maternally inherited mRNAs critical for cell fate determination in the embryo. We show that double-stranded RNA-binding Staufen proteins are present in the oocytes of a vertebrate, Xenopus, and are localized to the vegetal cytoplasm, a region where important mRNAs including VegT and Vg1 mRNA become localized. We identified two Staufen isoforms named XStau1 and XStau2, where XStau1 was found to be the principal Staufen protein in oocytes, eggs, and embryos, the levels of both proteins peaking during mid-oogenesis. In adults, Xenopus Staufens are principally expressed in ovary and testis. XStau1 was detectable throughout the oocyte cytoplasm by immunofluorescence and was concentrated in the vegetal cortical region from stage II onward. It showed partial codistribution with subcortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising the possibility that Staufen may anchor mRNAs to specific ER-rich domains. We further showed that XStau proteins are transiently phosphorylated by the MAPK pathway during meiotic maturation, a period during which RNAs such as Vg1 RNA are released from their tight localization at the vegetal cortex. These findings provide evidence that Staufen proteins are involved in targeting and/or anchoring of maternal determinants to the vegetal cortex of the oocyte in Xenopus. The Xenopus oocyte should thus provide a valuable system to dissect the role of Staufen proteins in RNA localization and vertebrate development.

  19. Reinterpretation of evidence advanced for neo-oogenesis in mammals, in terms of a finite oocyte reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Elena

    2011-01-06

    The central tenet of ovarian biology, that the oocyte reserve in adult female mammals is finite, has been challenged over recent years by proponents of neo-oogenesis, who claim that germline stem cells exist in the ovarian surface epithelium or the bone marrow. Currently opinion is divided over these claims, and further scrutiny of the evidence advanced in support of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is warranted - especially in view of the enormous implications for female fertility and health. This article contributes arguments against the hypothesis, providing alternative explanations for key observations, based on published data. Specifically, DNA synthesis in germ cells in the postnatal mouse ovary is attributed to mitochondrial genome replication, and to DNA repair in oocytes lagging in meiotic progression. Lines purported to consist of germline stem cells are identified as ovarian epithelium or as oogonia, from which cultures have been derived previously. Effects of ovotoxic treatments are found to negate claims for the existence of germline stem cells. And arguments are presented for the misidentification of ovarian somatic cells as de novo oocytes. These clarifications, if correct, undermine the concept that germline stem cells supplement the oocyte quota in the postnatal ovary; and instead comply with the theory of a fixed, unregenerated reserve. It is proposed that acceptance of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is erroneous, and may effectively impede research in areas of ovarian biology. To illustrate, a novel explanation that is consistent with orthodox theory is provided for the observed restoration of fertility in chemotherapy-treated female mice following bone marrow transplantation, otherwise interpreted by proponents of neo-oogenesis as involving stimulation of endogenous germline stem cells. Instead, it is proposed that the chemotherapeutic regimens induce autoimmunity to ovarian antigens, and that the haematopoietic chimaerism produced by bone marrow

  20. Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of "nuage" during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei

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    F. C. Abdalla

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence and ultrastructurally characterized electrondense nuclear material (nuage released from the nucleus during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus, a fish from Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil having a seasonal reproductive cycle. The female germ cells presented two instances of nuclear material extrusion: in the oogonia and in the oocyte in the perinucleolar phase. In males, material with similar morphology and behavior occurred in the spematogonia. In all cases, this material was associated to mitochondria. The possible function of this material is discussed.

  1. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

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    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  2. Ovary organization and oogenesis in the tardigrade Macrobiotus polonicus Pilato, Kaczmarek, Michalczyk & Lisi, 2003 (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae): ultrastructural and histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprawa, Izabela; Schlechte-Wełnicz, Weronika; Hyra, Marta

    2015-05-01

    The female reproductive system, the process of oogenesis, and the morphology of the egg capsule of Macrobiotus polonicus were analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The female reproductive system of Macrobiotus polonicus consists of a single ovary and a single oviduct that opens into the cloaca. The seminal receptacle filled with sperm cells is present. The ovary is divided into two parts: a germarium that is filled with oogonia and a vitellarium that is filled with branched clusters of the germ cells. Meroistic oogenesis occurs in the species that was examined. The yolk material is synthesized by the oocyte (autosynthesis) and by the trophocytes and is transported to the oocyte through cytoplasmic bridges. The process of the formation of the egg envelopes starts in the late vitellogenesis. The egg capsule is composed of two envelopes-the vitelline envelope and the three-layered chorion. The vitelline envelope is of the primary type while the chorion is of a secondary type. The surface of the chorion is covered with conical processes that terminate with a strongly indented terminal disc.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Molecular Characteristics Associated with Oogenesis and Oocyte Maturation during Ovarian Development of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Meng-Yi; Liu, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively. Furthermore, 153, 196 and 59 potential target proteins were highly expressed in early, vitellogenic and mature ovaries and most tested DEPs had the similar trends consistent with the respective transcriptional profiles. These proteins were abundantly expressed in pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages, including tropomyosin, vitellogenin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, heat shock protein, importin protein, vitelline membrane protein, and chorion protein. Several hormone and signal pathway related proteins were also identified during ovarian development including piRNA, notch, insulin, juvenile, and ecdysone hormone signal pathways. This is the first report of a global ovary proteome of a tephritid fruit fly, and may contribute to understanding the complicate processes of ovarian development and exploring the potentially novel pest control targets. PMID:28665301

  4. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Klébea; Ribeiro, Lupis; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Logullo, Carlos; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Campos, Eldo

    2015-01-01

    Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA), and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis. PMID:25811926

  5. Effector caspase Dcp-1 and IAP protein Bruce regulate starvation-induced autophagy during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Barbosa, Sharon González; McCall, Kimberly; Gorski, Sharon M

    2008-09-22

    A complex relationship exists between autophagy and apoptosis, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. We conducted a systematic study of Drosophila melanogaster cell death-related genes to determine their requirement in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy. We discovered that six cell death genes--death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), hid, Bruce, Buffy, debcl, and p53-as well as Ras-Raf-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway components had a role in autophagy regulation in D. melanogaster cultured cells. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, we found that autophagy is induced at two nutrient status checkpoints: germarium and mid-oogenesis. At these two stages, the effector caspase Dcp-1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Bruce function to regulate both autophagy and starvation-induced cell death. Mutations in Atg1 and Atg7 resulted in reduced DNA fragmentation in degenerating midstage egg chambers but did not appear to affect nuclear condensation, which indicates that autophagy contributes in part to cell death in the ovary. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that coordinately regulate autophagic and apoptotic events in vivo.

  6. Oogenesis: From Oogonia to Ovulation in the Flagfish, Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean, 1879 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; García-Alarcón, Adriana; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-10-01

    We provide histological details of the development of oocytes in the cyprinodontid flagfish, Jordanella floridae. There are six stages of oogenesis: Oogonial proliferation, chromatin nucleolus, primary growth (previtellogenesis [PG]), secondary growth (vitellogenesis), oocyte maturation and ovulation. The ovarian lamellae are lined by a germinal epithelium composed of epithelial cells and scattered oogonia. During primary growth, the development of cortical alveoli and oil droplets, are initiated simultaneously. During secondary growth, yolk globules coalesce into a fluid mass. The full-grown oocyte contains a large globule of fluid yolk. The germinal vesicle is at the animal pole, and the cortical alveoli and oil droplets are located at the periphery. The disposition of oil droplets at the vegetal pole of the germinal vesicle during late secondary growth stage is a unique characteristic. The follicular cell layer is composed initially of a single layer of squamous cells during early PG which become columnar during early vitellogenesis. During primary and secondary growth stages, filaments develop among the follicular cells and also around the micropyle. The filaments are seen extending from the zona pellucida after ovulation. During ovulation, a space is evident between the oocyte and the zona pellucida. Asynchronous spawning activity is confirmed by the observation that, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain follicles in both primary and secondary growth stages; in contrast, when the seasonal activity of oogenesis and spawning ends, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain only follicles in the primary growth stage. J. Morphol. 277:1339-1354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The nucleoporin Seh1 forms a complex with Mio and serves an essential tissue-specific function in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Stefania; Csokmay, John; Akbar, Tanveer; Tanveer, Akbar; Jones, Takako Iida; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Lilly, Mary A

    2011-05-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Recent evidence indicates that structural nucleoporins, the building blocks of the NPC, have a variety of unanticipated cellular functions. Here, we report an unexpected tissue-specific requirement for the structural nucleoporin Seh1 during Drosophila oogenesis. Seh1 is a component of the Nup107-160 complex, the major structural subcomplex of the NPC. We demonstrate that Seh1 associates with the product of the missing oocyte (mio) gene. In Drosophila, mio regulates nuclear architecture and meiotic progression in early ovarian cysts. Like mio, seh1 has a crucial germline function during oogenesis. In both mio and seh1 mutant ovaries, a fraction of oocytes fail to maintain the meiotic cycle and develop as pseudo-nurse cells. Moreover, the accumulation of Mio protein is greatly diminished in the seh1 mutant background. Surprisingly, our characterization of a seh1 null allele indicates that, although required in the female germline, seh1 is dispensable for the development of somatic tissues. Our work represents the first examination of seh1 function within the context of a multicellular organism. In summary, our studies demonstrate that Mio is a novel interacting partner of the conserved nucleoporin Seh1 and add to the growing body of evidence that structural nucleoporins can have novel tissue-specific roles.

  8. Differential expression and characterization analysis of a new gene with WD domains in fish oogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Jianjun(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Nagahama. N., Molecular biology of oocyte maturation in fish. in Perspectives in Comparative Endocrinology (eds. Davey.K. G.. Peter, R. E.. Tobe, S. S.), Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, 1994. 193-198.[2]Selman. K.. Wallace, R. A., Sarka, A., Stages of oocyte development in the zebrafish, Brachydanio. rerio, J. Morphol..1993. 218: 203-224.[3]Tyler. C. R., Sumpter, J. P., Oocyte growth and development in teleosts. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries, 1996,6:287-318.[4]Nagahama, Y.. Yoshikuni, M., Tokumoto. T. et al., Regulation of oocyte growth and maturation in fish, Curr. Top. Dev.Biol., 1995.30: 104-145.[5]Amanai. K., Suzuki, Y., Ohtaki, T., Involvement of a maternally transcribed lectin gene in the early development of Bombyx mori, Rouxs-Arch. Dev. Biol., 1994, 203: 397-401.[6]Hales, K. H., Meredith. J. E., Storti, R. V., Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of maternal and zygotic cytoskeletal tropomyosin messenger RNA during Drosophila development correlates with specific morphogenic events. Dev.Biol., 1994, 165: 639-653.[7]Buccione, R., Schroeder. A. C., Epigg, J. J., Interactions between somatic cells and germ cells throughout mammalian oogenesis. Biol. Reprod., 1990, 43: 543-547.[8]Eppigg. J. J., Growth and development of mammalian oocytes in vitro, Arch Pathol. Lab. Med., 1992, 116: 379-382.[9]Hainaut. P., Kowalski, A., Giorgetti, S. et al.. Insulin and insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem. J., 1991, 273: 673-678.[10]Hainaut, P., Kowalski, A. L., Marchand-Brustel, Y., Effects of insulin and insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and progesterone on glucose and amino acid uptake in Xenopus laevis oocytes, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 1991, 75:133-139.[11]Hardie. L. J., Ling, K. J., Daniels, G. D. et al., Isolation of the first piscine transforming growth factor- β: analysis reveals tissue specific expression and a potential regulatory sequence in rainbow

  9. The Effect of Epinephrine On The Development of oogenesis Of Mice (Mus Musculus Strain of Japanese

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    Sri Utami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When stress persists continuously and repeatedly, it will automatically increase the epinephrine in the body in which excessive consequently can provide interference on various body systems. In the event of physical stressors can affect the frequency and amplitude of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. It is important for the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Additionally stressors can also activate the sympathetic nervous system. If the increase is excessive pulsation can reduce and stop the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Decrease in Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH will inhibit the growth of ovarian follicles and decrease the synthesis of estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries. Decreased synthesis of estrogen and progesterone can cause a decrease in the number of ovarian follicles (Speroff, 1994.The study population was female mice derived from laboratory Biomedic Andalas University in Padang. Mice used were 2-3 months old, weighing an average of 25-35 grams. The Effect of Epinephrine on the Development of Oogenesis of Mice (mus musculus Strain of Japanese, is the growth of primary follicles in which a decline in the number of primary follicles ranging from provision of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration lowered formation of secondary follicles at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml and above but no decrease in concentration of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration lowered formation of tertiary follicles at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml, 0.006 mg / ml, 0.008 mg / ml and 0.01 mg / ml and no decrease in concentration of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration did not reduce the formation of follicle de Graaf and administration of epinephrine significantly reduce the formation of the corpus luteum at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml, 0.006 mg / ml, 0.008 mg / ml and 0.01 mg / ml and no decrease in

  10. Influence of several plant extracts on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory Influência de diversos extratos vegetais sobre o comportamento de oviposição de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Whole, ethanolic, hexanic, lyophilized extracts of several plants and anacardic acid tested in respect of their influence on the oviposition behavior of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations. Extracts of Allium stivum, Jatropha curcas, Mikania schenkii, Poinciana regia and Spatodea campanulata had a repulsive effect (α=0.05 on females at 100 ppm, those of Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum and Caesalpinia peltophoroides were also repelent at 10 ppm. Extracts of Coriandrum sativum (100, 10 and 1 ppm, Chara Zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm and Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm were attractive to the females; 13 (52.0% of the extracts tested, did not influence the oviposition behavior.Extratos brutos, etanólicos, hexânicos, liofilizados de diversos vegetais e ácido anacárdico foram testados quanto a sua influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. Os estratos de Allium sativum, jatropha curcas. MiKania schenkii, Poinciana regia s Spatodea campanulata mostraram-se repelentes (α = 0,05 para as fêmeas na concentração de 100 ppm e os de Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum e Caesalpinia peltophoroides também na de 10 ppm. Os extratos Coriandrum stivum (100, 10 e 1 ppm, chara zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm e Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm atrairam a oviposição das fêmeas; 13 (52,0% dos extratos testados foram indiferentes as fêmeas nas concentrações utilizadas.

  11. A Gap Junction Protein, Inx2, Modulates Calcium Flux to Specify Border Cell Fate during Drosophila oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ritabrata; Deshpande, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Intercellular communication mediated by gap junction (GJ) proteins is indispensable during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing. Here we report functional analysis of a gap junction protein, Innexin 2 (Inx2), in cell type specification during Drosophila oogenesis. Our data reveal a novel involvement of Inx2 in the specification of Border Cells (BCs), a migratory cell type, whose identity is determined by the cell autonomous STAT activity. We show that Inx2 influences BC fate specification by modulating STAT activity via Domeless receptor endocytosis. Furthermore, detailed experimental analysis has uncovered that Inx2 also regulates a calcium flux that transmits across the follicle cells. We propose that Inx2 mediated calcium flux in the follicle cells stimulates endocytosis by altering Dynamin (Shibire) distribution which is in turn critical for careful calibration of STAT activation and, thus for BC specification. Together our data provide unprecedented molecular insights into how gap junction proteins can regulate cell-type specification. PMID:28114410

  12. Role of Scrib and Dlg in anterior-posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis

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    Yu Lingzhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2giant larvae (lgl, a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the posterior follicle cell (PFC fate induction at mid-oogenesis. Here we explore the role of another two tumor suppressor genes, scribble (scrib and discs large (dlg, in the epithelial patterning. Results We found that removal of scrib or dlg function from the follicle cells at posterior terminal of the egg chamber causes a complete loss of the PFC fate. Aberrant specification and differentiation of the PFCs in the mosaic clones can be ascribed to defects in coordinated activation of the EGFR, JAK and Notch signaling pathways in the multilayered cells. Meanwhile, the clonal analysis revealed that loss-of-function mutations in scrib/dlg at the anterior domains result in a partially penetrant phenotype of defective induction of the stretched and centripetal cell fate, whereas specification of the border cell fate can still occur in the most anterior region of the mutant clones. Further, we showed that scrib genetically interacts with dlg in regulating posterior patterning of the epithelium. Conclusion In this study we provide evidence that scrib and dlg function differentially in anterior and posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicates that scrib and dlg act in a common pathway to regulate PFC fate induction. This study may open another window for elucidating role of scrib/dlg in controlling epithelial polarity and cell proliferation during development.

  13. Characteristics, management and attainment of lipid target levels in diabetic and cardiac patients enrolled in Disease Management Program versus those in routine care: LUTZ registry

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    Karmann Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002 the sick funds in Germany have widely implemented disease management programs (DMPs for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and coronary heart disease (CHD. Little is known about the characteristics, treatment and target attainment lipid levels of these patients enrolled in DMPs compared to patients in routine care (non-DMP. Methods In an open, non-interventional registry (LUTZ in Germany, 6551 physicians documented 15,211 patients with DM (10,110 in DMP, 5101 in routine care and 14,222 (6259 in DMP, 7963 in routine care over a follow-up period of 4 months. They received the NCEP ATP III guidelines as a reminder on lipid level targets. Results While demographic characteristics of DMP patients were similar to routine care patients, the former had higher rates of almost all cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients in DMPs received pharmacological treatment (in almost all drug classes more often than non-DMP patients (e.g. antiplatelets: in DM 27.0% vs 23.8%; in CHD 63.0% vs. 53.6%. The same applied for educational measures (on life style changes and diet etc.. The rate of target level attainment for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C 1c values were slightly lowered during follow-up, without substantial differences between DMP and non-DMP patients. Conclusion Patients with DM, and (to a greater extent with CHD in DMPs compared to non-DMP patients in routine care have a higher burden of comorbidities, but also receive more intensive pharmacological treatment and educational measures. The present data support that the substantial additional efforts in DMPs aimed at improving outcomes resulted in quality gains for achieving target LDL-C levels, but not for BP or HbA1c. Longer-term follow-up is needed to substantiate these results.

  14. Descripción y comparación del condrocráneo en larvas de Hyla raniceps (Cope, 1862, Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871 y Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae

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    Alcalde, Leandro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el condrocráneo en larvas de 3 especies de hílidos neotropicales, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus y S. squalirostris, las cuales presentan larvas de charca, tipo IV, con desarrollo exotrófico, nectónicas (Scinax spp. o bentónicas (H. raniceps. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con la información conocida acerca de Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus y S. ruber. Las especies de Scinax se diferencian de las de Hyla, en forma independiente del tipo ecológico que presentan sus larvas, por la presencia de un proceso lateral al cóndilo articular del ceratohial (ausente en Hyla spp.. No ha sido posible dilucidar si este proceso es una sinapomorfía de Scinax o de las especies que componen el clado rubra. Diecisiete caracteres varían entre especies independientemente del ambiente y la dieta de las larvas: cinco de ellos son del neurocráneo, cinco del arco mandibular y siete del hiobranquium. El grado de desarrollo del proceso anterohial lateral del ceratohial muestra asociación con el mecanismo de alimentación de las larvas. Tres caracteres soportan grupos de especies en el género Hyla. Hyla lanciformis e H. raniceps (grupo albopuntacta presentan la comisura cuadrado craneal con la mitad del ancho que presenta el proceso muscular en su base y la pars reuniens con forma de "V". Hyla geographica (grupo geographica presenta la pars reuniens de forma cuadrada. Hyla nana (grupo microcephala carece de seno hipobranquial posterior y proceso cuadrado etmoidal. El grupo rostrata del género Scinax está soportado por la presencia de una conexión sindesmótica entre cuerpo y ala del cartílago suprarrostral. La existencia de diferencias en las estructuras del condrocráneo relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas larvas que presentan el mismo mecanismo de alimentación micrófago, indican que este tipo

  15. Promotion of oogenesis and embryogenesis in the C. elegans gonad by EFL-1/DPL-1 (E2F) does not require LIN-35 (pRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Woo; Reinke, Valerie

    2006-08-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, EFL-1 (E2F), DPL-1 (DP) and LIN-35 (pRb) act coordinately in somatic tissues to inhibit ectopic cell division, probably by repressing the expression of target genes. EFL-1, DPL-1 and LIN-35 are also present in the germline, but do not always act together. Strong loss-of-function mutations in either efl-1 or dpl-1 cause defects in oogenesis that result in sterility, while lin-35 mutants are fertile with reduced broods. Microarray-based expression profiling of dissected gonads from efl-1, dpl-1 and lin-35 mutants reveals that EFL-1 and DPL-1 promote expression of an extensively overlapping set of target genes, consistent with the expectation that these two proteins function as a heterodimer. Regulatory regions upstream of many of these target genes have a canonical E2F-binding site, suggesting that their regulation by EFL-1/DPL-1 is direct. Many EFL-1/DPL-1 responsive genes encode proteins required for oogenesis and early embryogenesis, rather than cell cycle components. By contrast, LIN-35 appears to function primarily as a repressor of gene expression in the germline, and the genes that it acts on are for the most part distinct from those regulated by EFL-1 and/or DPL-1. Thus, in vivo, C. elegans E2F directly promotes oogenesis and embryogenesis through the activation of a tissue-specific transcriptional program that does not require LIN-35.

  16. As espécies neotropicais da família Simuliidae Schiner, 1864 (Diptera-Nematocera: I. Simulim (Eusimulium orbitale Lutz, 1910, Simulium (Eusimulium pintoi n. sp. e Simulium nigrimanum MACQUART, 1837, sp. inquirendae

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    M. A. Vulcano d'Andretta

    1945-08-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. iniciam com o presente trabalho uma série de publicações com o fim de rever as espécies neotropicais da família Simuliidae. Fazem a revisão bibliográfica, a redescrição do macho, fêmea, pupa, larva, e elegem os neótipos de S. (E orbitale LUTZ, 1910. Descrevem S. (E. pintoi n. sp. de macho, fêmea, pupa e larva; consideram S. nigrimanum MACQ., 1837 como sp. inquirendae.The present paper initiates a serial, in which the authors propose revising the neotropical species of Simuliidae. In this first contribution, a bibliographical survey, and redescriptions of the male, female, pupa and larva of S. (E. orbitale LUTZ, 1910, are presented; a full description of S. (E. pintoi n. sp. based on male, female, pupa and larva is given; S. nigrimanum MACQ. 1837 is considered a sp. inquirendae.

  17. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

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    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  18. Study of oestrus cycle periodicity and oogenesis of adult albino rats:Response to hyperprolactinaemia induced by haloperidol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savita Kuldip Kumar; Pal Abhishek; Sahu Pratap Kumar; Tiwari Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible effect of hyperprolactinaemia induced by HPL on oogenesis in female albino rats. Methods: The oestrus cycle of each rat was observed daily for 16 days at a regular interval of 24 hours including Sunday. Animals from each group were scarified 24 hr after last treatment (on 17th day) following the ethical procedure for histopathological examination ovaries were separated. Results: In our study we found that prolactin treatment at the dioestrous phase increased the number of apoptotic cells and significant changes in volume of corpus luteum and the number of steriodogenic cell per corpus luteum decreased and therefore resultant synthesis of oestrogen decreased. So, haloperidol possesses antioestrogenic activity which may be attributed to high serum prolactin levels induced by haloperidol in experimental animals. Conclusion: In this study intraperitoneall administration of haloperidol at doses of 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg/day for 16 days significantly produced hyperprolactinaemia in female albino rats as compared to control. Hyperprolactinaemia produced by haloperidol causes significant increase in periodicity of dioestrous phase and decreased the other phase significantly in a dose dependent manner.

  19. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Francisco Estay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI, oocyte growth (OG, gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2 and vitellogenin (V of twice-spawning (T-SP and once-spawning (O-SP females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.. T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence; however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  1. Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  2. Changes in large-scale chromatin structure and function during oogenesis: a journey in company with follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Alberto M; Franciosi, Federica; Dieci, Cecilia; Lodde, Valentina

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian oocyte nucleus or germinal vesicle (GV) exhibits characteristic chromatin configurations, which are subject to dynamic modifications through oogenesis. Aim of this review is to highlight how changes in chromatin configurations are related to both functional and structural modifications occurring in the oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. During the long phase of meiotic arrest at the diplotene stage, the chromatin enclosed within the GV is subjected to several levels of regulation. Morphologically, the chromosomes lose their individuality and form a loose chromatin mass. The decondensed configuration of chromatin then undergoes profound rearrangements during the final stages of oocyte growth that are tightly associated with the acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence. Functionally, the discrete stages of chromatin condensation are characterized by different level of transcriptional activity, DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications. Interestingly, the program of chromatin rearrangement is not completely intrinsic to the oocyte, but follicular cells exert their regulatory actions through gap junction mediated communications and intracellular messenger dependent mechanism(s). With this in mind and since oocyte growth mostly relies on the bidirectional interaction with the follicular cells, a connection between cumulus cells gene expression profile and oocyte developmental competence, according to chromatin configuration is proposed. This analysis can help in identifying candidate genes involved in the process of oocyte developmental competence acquisition and in providing non-invasive biomarkers of oocyte health status that can have important implications in treating human infertility as well as managing breeding schemes in domestic mammals.

  3. Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shravage, Bhupendra V.; Sagona, Antonia P.; Lamark, Trond; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje; Rusten, Tor Erik; Brech, Andreas; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for degradation of cytoplasmic material via the lysosome. Although autophagy has been reported to contribute to cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that autophagy controls DNA fragmentation during late oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Inhibition of autophagy by genetically removing the function of the autophagy genes atg1, atg13, and vps34 resulted in late stage egg chambers that contained persisting nurse cell nuclei without fragmented DNA and attenuation of caspase-3 cleavage. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) dBruce was found to colocalize with the autophagic marker GFP-Atg8a and accumulated in autophagy mutants. Nurse cells lacking Atg1 or Vps34 in addition to dBruce contained persisting nurse cell nuclei with fragmented DNA. This indicates that autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells. Our results reveal autophagic degradation of an IAP as a novel mechanism of triggering cell death and thereby provide a mechanistic link between autophagy and cell death. PMID:20713604

  4. A network of PUF proteins and Ras signaling promote mRNA repression and oogenesis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Cameron, Cristiana; Shtofman, Rebecca; Gutman, Shiri; Evans, Thomas C

    2012-06-15

    Cell differentiation requires integration of gene expression controls with dynamic changes in cell morphology, function, and control. Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation and signaling systems are important to this process but their mechanisms and connections are unclear. During C. elegans oogenesis, we find that two groups of PUF RNA binding proteins (RNABPs), PUF-3/11 and PUF-5/6/7, control different specific aspects of oocyte formation. PUF-3/11 limits oocyte growth, while PUF-5/6/7 promotes oocyte organization and formation. These two PUF groups repress mRNA translation through overlapping but distinct sets of 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Several PUF-dependent mRNAs encode other mRNA regulators suggesting both PUF groups control developmental patterning of mRNA regulation circuits. Furthermore, we find that the Ras-MapKinase/ERK pathway functions with PUF-5/6/7 to repress specific mRNAs and control oocyte organization and growth. These results suggest that diversification of PUF proteins and their integration with Ras-MAPK signaling modulates oocyte differentiation. Together with other studies, these findings suggest positive and negative interactions between the Ras-MAPK system and PUF RNA-binding proteins likely occur at multiple levels. Changes in these interactions over time can influence spatiotemporal patterning of tissue development.

  5. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos

  6. Mammalian sperm-egg fusion: the development of rat oolemma fusibility during oogenesis involves the appearance of binding sites for sperm protein "DE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D J; Munuce, M J; Cuasnicú, P S

    1996-07-01

    Rat epididymal protein DE mediates gamete fusion through complementary sites localized on the egg surface. To investigate whether these egg components are involved in the development of rat oolemma fusibility, both the presence of DE-binding components and the ability of the oolemma to fuse with sperm during oogenesis were examined. Localization of DE-complementary sites by indirect immunofluorescence revealed the absence of fluorescent labeling on growing oocytes with a diameter 50 microns. This localization of oolemma components changed progressively to a patchy distribution during maturation. Whereas sperm incorporation was observed only in maturing oocytes, the development of the Hoechst transfer technique to evaluate membrane fusion revealed that germinal vesicle oocytes with a diameter > 50 microns were already competent to fuse with sperm. The involvement of the DE-complementary sites in the oolemma fusibility of these oocytes was confirmed by the fact that the presence of DE during gamete coincubation significantly (p rat oolemma occurs during the growth period and involves the appearance of DE-binding components on the oocyte surface. This study provides novel information on the molecular mechanism by which the mammalian egg plasma membrane becomes competent to fuse with sperm during oogenesis.

  7. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

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    Dayalan G Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  8. Mitotic arrest of female germ cells during prenatal oogenesis. A colcemid-like, non-apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, H; Ihmer, A; Schwarz, S; Miething, A; Viebahn, C

    2001-11-01

    The sequence of events and a possible reason for germ cell death during oogenesis in the prenatal ovary were studied in rat and mouse embryos. ED 14-22 rat and ED 14-16 mouse embryos were studied using semithin sections for light microscopy and serial ultrathin sections for electron microscopy. In addition, the rat material was 3H-thymidine labelled for historadioautography and cytospin preparations of freshly obtained gonads were immunohistochemically analysed. During the transition from the proliferating oogonial stage to the meiotic prophase about 16% of the postmitotic oocytes do not pass the initial meiotic checkpoint on ED 18/19 in the rat (ED 15/16 in the mouse). These germ cells first show structural signs of mitosis; the diploid number of 'super-condensed' chromosomes are globally formed and are concentrated in the center of the cell. Although the germ cells show all morphological signs of living cells they never have mitotic spindles; the micro-tubulus-organisation-centres (MTOCs) are found peripherally and become concentrated, forming a single centrosomal body (acentriolar MTOC) as detected by immunohistochemistry for the centrosomal protein MPM2 and gamma-tubulin. EM studies show 25 nm tubule-like profiles within the MTOC bodies. The centrioles frequently lie separate from the MTOC material or are not present at all; the germ cells are apparently arrested in a prophase- or metaphase-like stage when they have reached the postmitotic G2/preleptotenal transition and are unable to enter meiosis. Forty-eight to 72 h after the first mitotically arrested germ cells are found, degeneration is seen in these germ cells. This second event, the germ cell death proper, shows neither criteria of apoptosis (cell shrinkage, marginal condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation) nor signs of necrosis (cell swelling, pycnosis, inflammation). Both arrested pro- and metaphase-like stages are found with signs of cell death and phagocytosis. The morphological signs of

  9. Follicle cell trypsin-like protease HrOvochymase: Its cDNA cloning, localization, and involvement in the late stage of oogenesis in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Masako; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that the sperm trypsin-like protease HrAcrosin and its precursor HrProacrosin participate in fertilization of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. The HrProacrosin gene is annotated in the H. roretzi genome database as Harore.CG.MTP2014.S89.g15383; our previously reported sequence of HrProacrosin gene appeared to include four nucleotides inserted near the 3'-end of HrProacrosin, resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature termination codon. The gene architecture of HrProacrosin and Harore.CG.MTP2014.S89.g15383 resembles that of Xenopus laevis ovochymase-1/OVCH1 and ovochymase-2/OVCH2, which encode egg extracellular polyproteases. Considering these new observations, we evaluated the cDNA cloning, expression, localization, and function of Harore.CG.MTP2014.S89.g15383, herein designated as HrOvochymase/HrOVCH. We found that HrOVCH cDNA consists of a single open reading frame of 1,575 amino acids, containing a signal peptide, three trypsin-like protease domains, and six CUB domains. HrOVCH was transcribed by the testis and ovary, but the majority of protein exists in ovarian follicle cells surrounding eggs. An anti-HrOVCH antibody inhibited elevation of the vitelline coat at a late stage of oogenesis, during the period when self-sterility is acquired. As trypsin inhibitors are reported to block the acquisition of self-sterility during oogenesis, whereas trypsin induces the acquisition of self-sterility and elevation of the vitelline coat in defolliculated ovarian eggs, we propose that HrOVCH may play a role in the acquisition of self-sterility by late-stage H. roretzi oocytes.

  10. RNA- and single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins expressed during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis: a homolog of bacterial and eukaryotic mitochondrial SSBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroumbakis, N D; Li, Z; Tolias, P P

    1994-06-10

    Little is known about the identity and involvement of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding (SSB) and RNA-binding proteins in developmental processes that occur during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm). Here, we describe a molecular approach designed to identify such proteins by virtue of their ssDNA-binding activity. We have constructed a directional ovarian cDNA library and conducted expression cloning screens which identified five unique cDNAs that encode proteins capable of binding ssDNA. All five represent previously unreported sequences. The remainder of this paper focuses on one of these cDNAs which encodes a Dm protein displaying significant sequence homology to Escherichia coli ssDNA-binding protein (SSB, involved in DNA replication, repair and recombination), as well as eukaryotic SSBs isolated from the mitochondria (mt) of rats, frogs, humans and yeast. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of this 15.6-kDa protein, which we will refer to as Dm mtSSB, displays average identities of 38.3% with eukaryotic mtSSBs and 23.4% with bacterial SSBs. Gel retardation analysis with an affinity-purified GST fusion protein confirms that Dm mtSSB specifically binds ss, but not double stranded DNA. Dm mtSSB is encoded by a nuclear gene whose expression appears to be developmentally regulated. It is expressed as a single 600-nucleotide (nt) transcript during oogenesis and embryogenesis. A larger transcript of 1500 nt is prevalent in some later stages of Dm development.

  11. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

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    Francois Le Pont

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  12. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

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    Bukovsky Antonin

    2012-11-01

    advancing age, due to degenerative changes of the immune system. This causes cessation of oocyte and follicular renewal at 38 +/-2 years of age due to the lack of formation of new granulosa cells. Oocytes in primordial follicles persisting after the end of the prime reproductive period accumulate genetic alterations resulting in an exponentially growing incidence of fetal trisomies and other genetic abnormalities with advanced maternal age. The secondary germ cells also develop in the OSC cultures derived from POF and aging ovaries. In vitro conditions are free of immune mechanisms, which prevent neo-oogenesis in vivo. Such germ cells are capable of differentiating in vitro into functional oocytes. This may provide fresh oocytes and genetically related children to women lacking the ability to produce their own follicular oocytes. Further study of "immune physiology" may help us to better understand ovarian physiology and pathology, including ovarian infertility caused by POF or by a lack of ovarian follicles with functional oocytes in aging ovaries. The observations indicating involvement of immunoregulation in physiological neo-oogenesis and follicular renewal from OSC during the fetal and prime reproductive periods are reviewed as well as immune system and age-independent neo-oogenesis and oocyte maturation in OSC cultures, perimenopausal alteration of homeostasis causing disorders of many tissues, and the first OSC culture clinical trial.

  13. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R

    2012-11-23

    degenerative changes of the immune system. This causes cessation of oocyte and follicular renewal at 38 +/-2 years of age due to the lack of formation of new granulosa cells. Oocytes in primordial follicles persisting after the end of the prime reproductive period accumulate genetic alterations resulting in an exponentially growing incidence of fetal trisomies and other genetic abnormalities with advanced maternal age. The secondary germ cells also develop in the OSC cultures derived from POF and aging ovaries. In vitro conditions are free of immune mechanisms, which prevent neo-oogenesis in vivo. Such germ cells are capable of differentiating in vitro into functional oocytes. This may provide fresh oocytes and genetically related children to women lacking the ability to produce their own follicular oocytes. Further study of "immune physiology" may help us to better understand ovarian physiology and pathology, including ovarian infertility caused by POF or by a lack of ovarian follicles with functional oocytes in aging ovaries. The observations indicating involvement of immunoregulation in physiological neo-oogenesis and follicular renewal from OSC during the fetal and prime reproductive periods are reviewed as well as immune system and age-independent neo-oogenesis and oocyte maturation in OSC cultures, perimenopausal alteration of homeostasis causing disorders of many tissues, and the first OSC culture clinical trial.

  14. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  15. Arrest of oogenesis in the bug Rhodnius prolixus challenged with the fungus Aspergillus niger is mediated by immune response-derived PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo Neves de; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Soares, Bruno César C; Medeiros, Luciano Neves de; Canetti, Cláudio; Freire-de-Lima, Celio G; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Almeida, Igor C; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Machado, Ednildo A

    2009-02-01

    In this work we characterized the immune response of the insect Rhodnius prolixus to a direct injection into the hemocoel of the non-entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger, and evaluated its consequences on host oogenesis. These animals were able to respond by mounting effective cellular and humoral responses to this fungus; these responses were shown, however, to have reproductive fitness costs, as the number of eggs laid per female was significantly reduced. The disturbance of egg formation during infectious process correlated with an elevation in the titer of hemolymph prostaglandin E2 48 h post-challenge. Administration of Zymosan A as an immunogenic non-infectious challenge produced similar effects on phenoloxidase and prophenoloxidase activities, oocyte development and prostaglandin E2 titer, precluding the hypothesis of an effect mediated by fungal metabolites in animals challenged with fungus. Ovaries at 48 h post-challenge showed absence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles, and the in vivo administration of prostaglandin E2 or its receptor agonist misoprostol, partially reproduced this phenotype. Together these data led us to hypothesize that immune-derived prostaglandin E2 raised from the insect response to the fungal challenge is involved in disturbing follicle development, contributing to a reduction in host reproductive output and acting as a host-derived adaptive effector to infection.

  16. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  17. The Drosophila IKK-related kinase (Ik2 and Spindle-F proteins are part of a complex that regulates cytoskeleton organization during oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaanan Boaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IkappaB kinases (IKKs regulate the activity of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors by targeting their inhibitory partner proteins, IkappaBs, for degradation. The Drosophila genome encodes two members of the IKK family. Whereas the first is a kinase essential for activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, the latter does not act as IkappaB kinase. Instead, recent findings indicate that Ik2 regulates F-actin assembly by mediating the function of nonapoptotic caspases via degradation of DIAP1. Also, it has been suggested that ik2 regulates interactions between the minus ends of the microtubules and the actin-rich cortex in the oocyte. Since spn-F mutants display oocyte defects similar to those of ik2 mutant, we decided to investigate whether Spn-F could be a direct regulatory target of Ik2. Results We found that Ik2 binds physically to Spn-F, biomolecular interaction analysis of Spn-F and Ik2 demonstrating that both proteins bind directly and form a complex. We showed that Ik2 phosphorylates Spn-F and demonstrated that this phosphorylation does not lead to Spn-F degradation. Ik2 is localized to the anterior ring of the oocyte and to punctate structures in the nurse cells together with Spn-F protein, and both proteins are mutually required for their localization. Conclusion We conclude that Ik2 and Spn-F form a complex, which regulates cytoskeleton organization during Drosophila oogenesis and in which Spn-F is the direct regulatory target for Ik2. Interestingly, Ik2 in this complex does not function as a typical IKK in that it does not direct SpnF for degradation following phosphorylation.

  18. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Leporinus striatus Kner (Teleostei, Characiformes, Anostomidae from the Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A.S. Chini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a sequense of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells. These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature females were collected monthly, during one year, from the Rio Sapucaí, tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir system in the state of Minas Gerais. The observed material showed that oogonias were small spherical cells, had a big spherical nucleus, with a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (FG stained, which indicate their protein content. The primary oocytes showed a big basophilic nucleus, with a large peripheral nucleolus, and several smaller nucleoli. They show a reduced cytoplasmic content. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. The zona radiata had two layers, the outer and the inner, which showed its protein content when stained with CM and FG techniques. TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 staining showed that oocytes undergoing vitellogenesis presented weakly stained cytoplasm and peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles. The follicle cells that were squamous became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the yolk granules that filled the cytoplasm became green and blue when stained with FG and CM techniques, indicating their protein content. The perivitclline region showed rosy stained vesicles (TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 spread among the weakly stained peripheral vesicles, which seemed to be the cortical alveoli. The zona radiata cells, CM and FG stained, still showed two layers like the oocytes from the previous stage, but thicker.

  19. Stage and cell-specific expression and intracellular localization of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Katerina; Kotsiliti, Elena; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2017-01-01

    The cell-specific expression and intracellular distribution of the small heat protein Hsp27 was investigated in the ovaries and testes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), under both normal and heat shock conditions. For this study, a gfp-hsp27 strain was used to detect the chimeric protein by confocal microscopy. In unstressed ovaries, the protein was expressed throughout egg development in a stage and cell-specific pattern. In germarium, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells in both unstressed and heat-shocked ovaries. In the early stages of oogenesis of unstressed ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the perinuclear region of the germ cells and in the cytoplasm of the follicle cells, while in later stages (9-10) it was distributed in the cytoplasm of the germ cells. In late stages (12-14), the protein changed localization pattern and was exclusively associated with the nuclei of the somatic cells. In heat shocked ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the nuclei of the somatic cells throughout egg chamber's development. In unstressed testes, the chimeric protein was detected in the nuclei of primary spermatocytes and in the filamentous structures of spermatid bundles, called actin cones. Interestingly, after a heat shock, the protein presented the same cell-specific localization pattern as in unstressed testes. Furthermore, the protein was also detected in the nuclei of the epithelial cells of the deferent duct, the accessory glands and the ejaculatory bulb. Our data suggest that medfly Hsp27 may have cell-specific functions, especially in the nucleus. Moreover, the association of this protein to actin cones during spermatid individualization, suggests a possible role of the protein in the formation and stabilization of actin cones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oogenesis,Activation and Development in Mammals%哺乳动物卵子发生、激活与发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范必勤

    2001-01-01

    The experimental approaches applicable to the study of mammalian eggs and embryos have advanced in recent years to provide unprecedented opportunities for understanding mammalian embryology.Among these significant advances has been the ability to alter the genetic constitution of eggs by pronuclear and nuclear transfer as well as by the introduction of specific cloned genes into eggs and embryos.These techniques can be used in conjunction with the experimental reconstruction of preimplantation embryos to investigate more precisely a number of aspects of mammalian embryology.Recently,some intriguing aspects of development have been uncovered, such as the cloned sheep with somatic cell, role of paternal and maternal genomes in embryogenesis and the developmental totipotency of the first and the second polar body and so on.An understanding of this process will provide the basis for developing genetic and reproductive strategies that can be applied to domestic animals and to humans.The main research achievements on oogenesis and embryogenesis in mammals are described in this review,including the resumption of meiotic division;activation of MⅡ oocyte;development of parthenogenetic,gynogenetic,androgenetic and reconstituted embryos;and the genetic and reproductive potentials of chromosomes within the first and the second polar body.%近年来,应用于研究哺乳动物卵子和胚胎新的实验方法已有重大发展,为深入研究哺乳动物胚胎学提供了前所未有的重要手段。这些技术已用于原核和核的移植以至导入克隆基因,改变卵和胚胎的遗传结构,用于实验重组着床前胚胎研究发育问题。近期的重大进展有如:用体细胞克隆的绵羊,父源和母源基因组在个体发育中的作用和第一与第二极体发育的全能性等。对这些过程的深入了解将为应用于家畜和人类提供发展遗传和生殖潜力的基础。本研究将论述哺乳动物卵子发生和胚胎发

  1. Rainbow trout cytochrome P-450c17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase). cDNA cloning, enzymatic properties and temporal pattern of ovarian P-450c17 mRNA expression during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, N; Tanaka, M; Adachi, S; Miller, W L; Nagahama, Y

    1992-04-13

    A cDNA clone encoding cytochrome P-450c17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) was isolated from a rainbow trout ovarian follicle cDNA library. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1,542 nucleotides encoding a protein of 514 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of trout P-450c17 shows a much greater homology with chicken P-450c17 than with that of human, bovine and rat. The trout P-450c17 expressed in non-steroidogenic mammalian COS-1 cells showed both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. The cDNA only hybridized to a single species of mRNA (2.4 kb) isolated from rainbow trout ovaries; the 2.4 kb transcripts were abundant in trout ovaries during the later stages of oogenesis.

  2. 短额负蝗卵子发生过程中糖复合物的动态分布%Dynamic Distribution of Glycoconjugates During Oogenesis of Atractomorpha sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑敏; 奚耕思; 赵卓; 唐超智

    2006-01-01

    以生物素标记的凝集素(UEA-I、 SBA、 PNA)为探针, 利用凝集素组织化学方法对短额负蝗(Atractomorpha sinensis)卵子发生过程中滤泡细胞和卵母细胞内糖复合物的分布进行了定位研究. 结果表明, 在卵子发生的各期滤泡细胞和卵母细胞中没有UEA-I受体的表达, SBA和PNA受体以不同的分布模式呈阶段性表达. 两者首次出现于卵母细胞生长期, 随后PNA受体消失, SBA受体大量表达;在卵黄形成期前期SBA受体和重新出现的PNA受体表达于卵黄颗粒形成部位, 卵黄形成期后期两者均为阴性表达;成熟卵子中两种受体又以不同程度重新出现于卵黄膜. 两种受体在滤泡细胞内均大量表达. 提示, N-乙酰半乳糖胺和半乳糖-β-(1,3)半乳糖胺复合物的修饰和变化与卵母细胞的发育、卵黄物质的形成及滤泡细胞的增殖分化密切相关, 卵黄膜上的糖复合物可能与精卵识别有关.%The dynamic distribution of three different glycoconjugates in oocytes and follicle cells during the oogenesis of Atractomorpha sinensis were detected using biotin-labeled Peanut Agglutinin (PNA), Soy Bean Agglutinin (SBA) and Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectins. The results showed that during oogenesis there was no distribution of the UEA-I receptor. The receptors of PNA and SBA were found to be dependent on developmental stage and present different distribution patterns accordingly. The binding sites of the two lectins indicated the presence of different sugars (PNA for Galβ1,3GalNAc and SBA for GalNAc) and showed considerable variation during oogenesis. PNA and SBA receptors first appeared at the oocyte growth phase, the PNA receptors then disappeared gradually and the SBA receptors exhibited the greatest expression. At the early phase of yolk formation, PNA and SBA receptors were located just at the brim of ooplasm, which was the region of vitellin formation. However at the later phase of yolk formation

  3. 地钱颈卵器发育和卵发生的显微观察及细胞化学研究%Microstructural Observations and Cytochemical Studies on the Archegonial Development and Oogenesis of Marchantia polymorpha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建国; 王戈; 王全喜

    2011-01-01

    对地钱(Marchantia polymorpha)颈卵器发育和卵发生过程进行了显微观察和细胞化学的研究,颈卵器起始于原始细胞,该细胞呈乳突状,经横分裂产生基细胞和顶细胞,顶细胞经3次纵斜向分裂和1次横分裂产生初生细胞,初生细胞是颈卵器内的第一个细胞,经横分裂产生中央细胞和颈沟母细胞,前者产生1个腹沟细胞和1个卵细胞,后者最终产生4个颈沟细胞.颈卵器的成熟表现为颈部显著伸长和腹部膨大,卵细胞成熟时具有不规则的核,细胞质内含有丰富的囊泡和颗粒物,卵细胞周围充满粘性物质,细胞化学研究表明,该粘性物质为多糖,卵细胞质中深染色的颗粒可能为脂类物质,腹沟细胞自产生后就逐渐退化,颈沟细胞的退化迟于腹沟细胞,其数量通常为4个,偶尔可见5个颈沟细胞或具有双核的现象.%The development of archegonium and oogenesis of the hepatica Marchantia poly-morpha were studied using microscopical and cytochemical techniques. The archegonium developed from an initial cell,which formed an apical cell and a basal cell by a transverse division. The apical cell produced an inner primary cell by three oblique vertical divisions and a transverse division. The primary cell formed a central cell and a neck canal mother cell by a transverse division. The central cell formed an egg and a ventral canal cell and the neck canal mother cell finally produced four neck canal cells. Maturation of the archegonium was accompanied by obvious elongation of the neck and swelling of the venter. As the egg matured,the nucleus became more irregular. Numerous vesicles and deep stained granules occurred in the cytoplasm and abundant mucilaginous materials were present around the egg. Cytochemical investigations indicated that the mucilaginous materials may be polysaccharide and the deep stained granules may be lipid in chemical nature. The ventral canal cell degenerated gradually after it formed

  4. Gene expression during oogenesis in the Mozambique tilapia (O. Mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Nuno Manuel Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Biologia Marinha, Faculdade de Ciências do Mar e do Ambiente, Universidade do Algarve, 2007 Tilapias show a variety of physiological adaptations that allow them to live in different environmental conditions, disturbing local ecosystems where they are introduced by human hand, where they reproduce at faster rates as their cycles are short and constant. They have complex behaviours, with species in the Oreochromis and Sarotherodon genus exhibiting parental c...

  5. Drosophila phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase is required for tissue morphogenesis during oogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, Floris; Rana, Anil; Lemstra - Wierenga, Willemina; Kampinga, Harm; Sibon, Ody

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in detai

  6. Oogenesis in adult mammals, including humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Wimalasena, Jay; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    The origin of oocytes and primary follicles in ovaries of adult mammalian females has been a matter of dispute for over 100 yr. The prevailing belief that all oocytes in adult mammalian females must persist from the fetal period of life seems to be a uniquely retrogressive reproductive mechanism requiring humans to preserve their gametes from the fetal period for several decades. The utilization of modern techniques during last 10 yr clearly demonstrates that mammalian primordial germ cells originate from somatic cell precursors. This indicates that if somatic cells are precursors of germ cells, then somatic mutations can be passed on to progeny. Mitotically active germline stem cells have been described earlier in ovaries of adult prosimian primates and recently have been reported to also be present in the ovaries of adult mice. We have earlier shown that in adult human females, mesenchymal cells in the ovarian tunica albuginea undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition into ovarian surface epithelium cells, which differentiate sequentially into primitive granulosa and germ cells. Recently, we have reported that these structures assemble in the deeper ovarian cortex and form new follicles to replace earlier primary follicles undergoing atresia (follicular renewal). Our current observations also indicate that follicular renewal exists in rat ovaries, and human oocytes can differentiate from ovarian surface epithelium in fetal ovaries in vivo and from adult ovaries in vitro. These reports challenge the established dogma regarding the fetal origin of eggs and primary follicles in adult mammalian ovaries. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. Yet, the follicular renewal may cease at a certain age, and this may predetermine the onset of the natural menopause or premature ovarian failure. A lack of follicular renewal in aging ovaries may cause an accumulation of spontaneously arising or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes, and that may be why aging females have a much higher chance of having oocytes with more mutations in persisting primary follicles.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies and QSOs FIR size and surface brightness (Lutz+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We use 70, 100, and 160um images from scan maps obtained with PACS on board Herschel, collecting archival data from various projects. In order to cover a wide range of galaxy properties, we first obtain an IR-selected local sample ranging from normal galaxies up to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. For that purpose, we searched the Herschel archive for all cz>=2000km/s objects from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS, Sanders et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/1607). (1 data file).

  8. Breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus Lutz in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Carrasquilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus are described for the first time in western Boyacá Province, Colombia, where this species is a public health problem. In addition to being a nuisance due to its enormous density and its high biting rates, C. pachymerus cause dermatological problems in the human population. Analysis of microhabitats by the sugar flotation technique and the use of emergence traps allowed us to recover 155 larvae of Culicoides spp and 65 adults of C. pachymerus from peridomiciliary muddy substrates formed by springs of water and constant rainwater accumulation. These important findings could aid in the design of integrated control meas-ures against this pest.

  9. Die Politik der EZB an den Grenzen ihres Mandats? / Lutz Lammers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lammers, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Riigi võlakirjade ostmisega seotud rahanduspoliitikast. Saksamaa põhiseaduskohtu seisukohast Euroopa Keskpanga väljakuulutatud OMT-programmi kohta, mis võimaldab keskpangal piiramatult võlakirju osta. Riigi võlakirjade ostmisest järelturgudel

  10. Reading National Geographic, Catherine A. Lutz and Jane L. Collins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Willoughby

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available As I write this, I have just received an advertisement from the National Geographic Society, saying that as a member, I have the opportunity to be one of the fIrst to purchase a volume on the greatest photographs ever published in the National Geographic. Like many others, especially anthropologists (I suspect, I grew up reading National Geographic, had access to,National Geographic publications, and probably got my fIrst images of different cultures and peoples from the magazine. How accurate a picture do we get? What does it attempt to portray and why? The burgeoning field of visual anthropology examines images and films and attempts to under­ stand them within their social context. How do photographs communicate or evoke ideas? What is the social framework in which they are produced-"the historical and cultural context that gives the photograph and its elements their meaning and significance"? What is the role of such images in our society, and do they play a major role in enculturation?

  11. Reading National Geographic, Catherine A. Lutz and Jane L. Collins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    As I write this, I have just received an advertisement from the National Geographic Society, saying that as a member, I have the opportunity to be one of the fIrst to purchase a volume on the greatest photographs ever published in the National Geographic. Like many others, especially anthropologists (I suspect), I grew up reading National Geographic, had access to,National Geographic publications, and probably got my f...

  12. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  13. Implementation of an automated assessment system of the Winston-Lutz test based on the transformed generalized Hough; Implementacion de un sistema de evaluacion automatizada del test de Winston-Lutz basado en la transformada generalizada de Hough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Fernandez Canadillas, M. J.; Caballero Lucena, E.; Cantero Carrillo, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has implemented a software tool based on the generalized Hough transform to automate the evaluation of test WL This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the test. It also eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluator which is an uncertainty of 0.3 mm. (Author)

  14. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals included opossums (39.3%, followed by rats (37.9%, bats (14.3%, raccoons (3.6%, foxes (2.1%, snakes (1.4%, and frogs (1.4%. The peridomiciliary presence of domestic and synanthropic animals as well as sandflies that had fed on human, opossum, and canid blood supports the hypothesis that kala azar transmission has been taking place in the anthropic environment in the municipality of Raposa.

  15. Leishmaniasis in Bolivia. I. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) as the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Los Yungas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pont, F; Desjeux, P

    1985-01-01

    A relatively high leishmanial infection rate was found in the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis collected from three villages of the Los Yungas region (Department of La Paz, Bolivia). 2,578 female sandflies were dissected. In three houses surveyed in Santa Barbara promastigote infection rates of Lu. longipalpis were 4.2, 2.2 and 3.2% respectively. Anatomical localization of the infection in the insect, and biochemical characterization of the strains indicate that the parasite belongs to the Leishmania donovani complex. The geographical area and the biotopes of Lu. longipalpis are discussed in relation to the vector-parasite relationship.

  16. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.For the first time it has been detected Lutzomyia longipalpis at Praia Vermelha, a beach of an offshore island of the Rio de Janeiro State (Ilha Grande, Brazil and attention must be paid to its possible epidemiological importance.

  17. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.

  18. Hermann Lutz v Elke Bäuerle o de la ley aplicable a las acciones revocatorias concursales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LAURA CARBALLO PIÑEIRO

    2015-01-01

    .... Las acciones revocatorias concursales se clasifican como materia concursal de modo que las cuestiones de competencia judicial internacional y ley aplicable se resuelven de acuerdo con esta caracterización...

  19. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  20. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  1. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae) em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae) in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth F. Rangel; Nataly A Souza; Wermelinger,Eduardo D.; Barbosa,André F

    1987-01-01

    Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorr...

  2. The flamenco locus controls the gypsy and ZAM retroviruses and is required for Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mével-Ninio, Maryvonne; Pelisson, Alain; Kinder, Jennifer; Campos, Ana Regina; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-04-01

    In Drosophila, the as yet uncloned heterochromatic locus flamenco (flam) controls mobilization of the endogenous retrovirus gypsy through the repeat-associated small interfering (rasi) RNA silencing pathway. Restrictive alleles (flamR) downregulate accumulation of gypsy transcripts in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. In contrast, permissive alleles (flamP) are unable to repress gypsy. DIP1, the closest transcription unit to a flam-insertional mutation, was considered as a good candidate to be a gypsy regulator, since it encodes a dsRNA-binding protein. To further characterize the locus we analyzed P-induced flam mutants and generated new mutations by transposon mobilization. We show that flam is required somatically for morphogenesis of the follicular epithelium, the tissue where gypsy is repressed. This developmental activity is necessary to control gypsy and another retroelement, ZAM. We also show that flam is not DIP1, as none of the new permissive mutants affect the DIP1 coding sequence. In addition, two deletions removing DIP1 coding sequences do not affect any of the flamenco functions. Our results suggest that flamenco extends proximally to DIP1, spanning >130 kb of transposon-rich heterochromatin. We propose a model explaining the multiple functions of this large heterochromatic locus.

  3. Gonadotropin treatment augments postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult mouse ovaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Sriraman, Kalpana; Gunjal, Pranesh; Modak, Harshada

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) exerts action on both germline and somatic compartment in both ovary and testis although FSH receptors (FSHR) are localized only on the somatic cells namely granulosa cells of growing follicles and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. High levels of FSH in females are associated with poor ovarian reserve, ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome etc. and at the same time FSH acts as a survival factor during in vitro organotypic culture of ovarian ...

  4. Microtubule binding by the formin Cappuccino and its implications for Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth Anne

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks is required for a number of fundamental cellular processes. Formin family actin nucleators are emerging coordinators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, as they can both nucleate actin filaments and bind microtubules in vitro. To gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding of formin-microtubule interactions and formin-mediated actin-microtubule crosstalk, we studied microtubule binding by Cappuccino (Capu), a formin involv...

  5. Drosophila Cappuccino alleles provide insight into formin mechanism and role in oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Haneul; Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila development, the formin actin nucleator Cappuccino (Capu) helps build a cytoplasmic actin mesh throughout the oocyte. Loss of Capu leads to female sterility, presumably because polarity determinants fail to localize properly in the absence of the mesh. To gain deeper insight into how Capu builds this actin mesh, we systematically characterized seven capu alleles, which have missense mutations in Capu's formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. We report that all seven alleles have del...

  6. Drosophila Cappuccino alleles provide insight into formin mechanism and role in oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E

    2015-05-15

    During Drosophila development, the formin actin nucleator Cappuccino (Capu) helps build a cytoplasmic actin mesh throughout the oocyte. Loss of Capu leads to female sterility, presumably because polarity determinants fail to localize properly in the absence of the mesh. To gain deeper insight into how Capu builds this actin mesh, we systematically characterized seven capu alleles, which have missense mutations in Capu's formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. We report that all seven alleles have deleterious effects on fly fertility and the actin mesh in vivo but have strikingly different effects on Capu's biochemical activity in vitro. Using a combination of bulk and single- filament actin-assembly assays, we find that the alleles differentially affect Capu's ability to nucleate and processively elongate actin filaments. We also identify a unique "loop" in the lasso region of Capu's FH2 domain. Removing this loop enhances Capu's nucleation, elongation, and F-actin-bundling activities in vitro. Together our results on the loop and the seven missense mutations provides mechanistic insight into formin function in general and Capu's role in the Drosophila oocyte in particular.

  7. Oogenesis, fecundity and condition of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.): A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. Hagstrøm; Tomkiewicz, J.; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2013-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extreme...

  8. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Lovander, Kaylee E.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools – Utrophin, Lifeact, an...

  9. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tânia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-10-15

    Nurse cell dumping is an actin-myosin based process, where 15 nurse cells of a given egg chamber contract and transfer their cytoplasmic content through the ring canals into the growing oocyte. We isolated two mutant alleles of protein kinase N (pkn) and showed that Pkn negatively-regulates activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton during the onset of dumping. Using live-cell imaging analysis we observed that nurse cell dumping rates sharply increase during the onset of fast dumping. Such rate increase was severely impaired in pkn mutant nurse cells due to excessive nurse cell actin-myosin activity and/or loss of tissue integrity. Our work demonstrates that the transition between slow and fast dumping is a discrete event, with at least a five to six-fold dumping rate increase. We show that Pkn negatively regulates nurse cell actin-myosin activity. This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase.

  10. [Morphological impairment of oogenesis in experimental iodine-dependent thyroid transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzaevskaia, E B

    2002-01-01

    Histophysiology of white rats' ovaries was studied in iodine-deficient and iodine-enriched diets; in such diets kept in pregnancy or postnatal period. The iodine-deficient diet leads to low histofunctional thyroid activity, formation of cysts in the ovaries, slow folliculogenesis, hypotrophy of yellow body tissue, overgrowth of the connective tissue, thickening of the theca of the cavernous follicles, hardening of the vessels of the cortical and core substances. The fertility fell by 18%. In long-term intake of iodine-rich diet and in pregnancy essential intensification of histofunctional activity of the thyroid gland was noticed and in the ovaries there was a distinct hypertrophy of the yellow bodies, hyperplasia of lutein cells, endomitosis. Postnatal structural changes of the gonads were registered as well as micro- and macrocystic degeneration of yellow body tissue, atretic and cavernous follicles, dystrophic transformation of interstitial tissue.

  11. Mouse staufen genes are expressed in germ cells during oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P T; Pathirana, S; Maguire, S M; Doyle, M; Wood, T; Bownes, M

    2000-11-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster staufen gene encodes an RNA binding protein (Dm Stau) required for the localization and translational repression of mRNAs within the Drosophila oocyte. In mammals translational repression is important for normal spermatogenesis in males and storage of mRNAs in the oocytes of females. In the present study we identified two mouse cDNA expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding proteins with significant homology to Dm Stau and used these firstly to screen a mouse kidney cDNA library and secondly to determine whether staufen mRNAs are expressed in the ovaries and testes of mice and rats. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs revealed that they originated from two different genes. Using Northern blots of RNAs from kidneys, ovaries and testes, both cDNAs hybridized to mRNA species of approximately 3 kb in all three tissues. On sections of mouse ovaries, staufen mRNA was localized specifically to oocytes. On sections of mouse testes, staufen mRNA was expressed in spermatocytes found in seminiferous tubules at stages VI-XII of the spermatogenic cycle. In conclusion, we have shown that the mammalian homologues of Dm stau are expressed in germ cells in both male and female mice, consistent with a role for these RNA binding proteins in mammalian gametogenesis.

  12. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehreh Yaghmaei; Kazem Parivar; Fatemeh Jalalvand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)that potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)in the serum of female Wistar rats.Mater...

  13. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehreh Yaghmaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATPthat potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSHin the serum of female Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Two groups of rats (180 ± 15 grams were gavaged with doses of 50and 100 mg/kg body weight imatinib dissolved in distilled water for 14 days. The control groupreceived sterile water. On day 7, after termination of the treatment, blood serum concentrationwas measured with the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Also, sections (5 μm thick of ovariesstained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were investigated histologically.Results: Progesterone concentration in the experimental groups was increased (p<0.001,estrogen and FSH concentrations were decreased (p<0.01, and the LH concentration decreasedbut was not statistically different in comparison with the control group. The weight of ovaries andnumber of atretic follicles in the experimental groups was increased compared with the controlgroup (p<0.05. The diameter of corpus lutea were increased but the number of corpus luteadecreased in both experimental groups (p<0.01.Conclusion: These findings suggest that administration of imatinib may have profound effects onfemale fertility.

  14. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Amir Ashkan Mahjoor; Siyamak Fallahi; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Maryam Abedini; Mohammad Ali Poor Danesh; Zahra Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor ...

  15. Differences in spindle association of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 in mammalian spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M; Eriksson, J E; Gorbsky, G J

    2000-09-01

    We have investigated expression and subcellular localization of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 during rat and mouse spermatogenesis and in superovulated mouse oocytes. Our immunofluorescence studies demonstrate substantial differences in the localization patterns of kinetochore-associated Mad2 in these meiotic systems compared with previous studies of mitosis. In addition, the association of Mad2 with second-division-metaphase kinetochores differed significantly in male versus female meiosis. In spermatogenesis, Mad2 remained at most kinetochores throughout the entire first meiotic division and was lost only at metaphase of the second meiotic division. This result indicates that loss of kinetochore-associated Mad2 is not essential for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during the first meiotic division. Disruption of the male meiotic spindles with the microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole resulted in the appearance of Mad2 at nearly all kinetochores. In contrast, the microtubule stabilizer taxol induced the loss of Mad2 from the majority of the first-division-metaphase kinetochores in which it was normally present in untreated cells. In contrast to the situation in spermatogenesis, Mad2 persisted at the kinetochores of normal, second-division oocytes at metaphase. These findings suggest that the role of the kinetochore in signaling in the spindle checkpoint may differ markedly between mammalian mitosis and meiosis, between the two meiotic divisions, and between male and female meiosis.

  16. Ultrastructural aspects of oogenesis and oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2001-06-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of the organelles present in Serrasalmus spilopleura oogonia and oocytes undergoing primary growth were described in detail, considering its role in the nuclear and cytoplasmic metabolic processes that occur in these cell types. Even though these cells do not significantly differ from those similar to them that are found in other teleost groups, the analysis of their ultrastructure makes available new data on the reproductive biology of Characiformes.

  17. Early oogenesis in the bat Carollia perspicillata: Transient germ cell cysts and noncanonical intercellular bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechowska, Agnieszka; Bilinski, Szczepan M.; Rasweiler, John J.; Cretekos, Chris J.; Behringer, Richard; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The ovaries of early embryos (40 days after fertilization) of the bat Carollia perspicillata contain numerous germ-line cysts, which are composed of 10 to 12 sister germ cells (cystocytes). The variability in the number of cystocytes within the cyst and between the cysts (that defies the Giardina rule) indicates that the mitotic divisions of the cystoblast are asynchronous in this bat species. The serial section analysis showed that the cystocytes are interconnected via intercellular bridges that are atypical, strongly elongated, short-lived, and rich in microtubule bundles and microfilaments. During the later stages of embryonic development (44–46 days after fertilization), the somatic cells penetrate the cyst, and their cytoplasmic projections separate individual oocytes. Separated oocytes surrounded by the single layer of somatic cells constitute the primordial ovarian follicles. The oocytes of C. perspicillata are similar to mouse oocytes and are asymmetric. In both species, this asymmetry is clearly recognizable in the localization of the Golgi complexes. The presence of germ-line cysts and intercellular bridges (although non-canonical) in the fetal ovaries of C. perspicillata indicate that the formation of germ-line cysts is an evolutionarily conserved phase in the development of the female gametes throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:21681920

  18. The Maf factor Traffic jam both enables and inhibits collective cell migration in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Felix; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Godt, Dorothea

    2013-07-01

    Border cell cluster (BCC) migration in the Drosophila ovary is an excellent system to study the gene regulatory network that enables collective cell migration. Here, we identify the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj) as an important regulator of BCC migration. Tj has a multifaceted impact on the known core cascade that enables BCC motility, consisting of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway, the C/EBP factor Slow border cells (Slbo), and the downstream effector DE-cadherin (DEcad). The initiation of BCC migration coincides with a Slbo-dependent decrease in Tj expression. This reduction of Tj is required for normal BCC motility, as high Tj expression strongly impedes migration. At high concentration, Tj has a tripartite negative effect on the core pathway: a decrease in Slbo, an increase in the Jak/Stat inhibitor Socs36E, and a Slbo-independent reduction of DEcad. However, maintenance of a low expression level of Tj in the BCC during migration is equally important, as loss of tj function also results in a significant delay in migration concomitant with a reduction of Slbo and consequently of DEcad. Taken together, we conclude that the regulatory feedback loop between Tj and Slbo is necessary for achieving the correct activity levels of migration-regulating factors to ensure proper BCC motility.

  19. Evaluation of Oogenesis Aspects in Neonatal and Adult Mice after Toloaldoxime Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fazeltabar Malekshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oximes are important materials in organic chemistry. Synparamethyl benzaldehyde oxime (toloaldoxime is structurally similar to other oximes, hence we have studied its effects on the neonatal and adult female Balb/c mice reproductive systems in order to provide a platform for future studies on the production of female contraceptive drugs. Materials and Methods: In experimental study, we studied the effects of toloaldoxime on ovary growth and gonadal hormones of neonatal and adult Balb/c mice. A regression model for prediction was presented. Results: The effects of toloaldoxime on neonatal mice were more than adult mice. The greatest effect was on the number of Graafian follicles (59.6% in adult mice and 31.83% in neonatal mice. The least effect was on ovary weight, and blood serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Conclusion: According to the data obtained, toloaldoxime can be considered an antipregnancy substance.

  20. Two distinct Staufen isoforms in Xenopus are vegetally localized during oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Rachel; Czaplinski, Kevin; Git, Anna; ADEGBENRO, ELIZABETH; STENNARD, FIONA; Houliston, Evelyn; Standart, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Localization of mRNA is an important way of generating early asymmetries in the developing embryo. In Drosophila, Staufen is intimately involved in the localization of maternally inherited mRNAs critical for cell fate determination in the embryo. We show that double-stranded RNA-binding Staufen proteins are present in the oocytes of a vertebrate, Xenopus, and are localized to the vegetal cytoplasm, a region where important mRNAs including VegT and Vg1 mRNA become localized. We identified two ...

  1. The roles of haemolymphatic lipoproteins in the oogenesis of Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Calp Gondim

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The fates of purified 32P-vitellin and 32P-lipophorin were followed in vitellogenic females of Rhodnius prolixus. While the radioactivity from 32P-vitellin 6 hours after injection was found almost exclusively in the ovary, the radioactivity from injected 32P-lipophorin was found distributed among several organs. In the ovary, the radioactivity from 32P-vitellin was associated with the contents of the yolk granules. 32P-lipophorin delivered a great amount of radioactive phospholipids to the ovary with no accumulation of its protein moiety, as observed after its iodination with 131I. The delivery of phospholipids was inhibited at 0ºC and by the metabolic inhibitors, sodium azide and sodium fluoride. Comparison of the radioactivity incorporation from 32P-lipophorin with that of 14C-inulin suggests that the 32P-phospholipids from lipophorin are not taken up by fluid phase endocytosis. The data presented here are compatible with the concept of lipophorin as a carrier of lipids in insects and provide evidence that lipophorin transports phospholipids as shown previously for other classes of lipids. The utilization by the oocytes of the phospholipids transported by lipophorin is discussed.

  2. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  3. Nota sobre a presença da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Nelson A. Araújo Filho

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi relatado o encontro pela primeira vez, de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, município de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, e chamada atenção do fato em relação à possível conotação em Leishmania Visceral no futuro, tal qual, ocorreu em Bangu e Jacarepaguá no Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  5. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of vacant lots and constructions in the urban area were evaluated. After an epidemiological study, educational measures such as the distribution of pamphlets, cleaning group work, visits to residences and cooperation from High School teachers and students were also suggested. Chemical control was indicated in high-risk sites, especially those of nearschool buildings. Furthermore, the use of natural predators was also mentioned within the present sanitation regulations for urban areas. The authors assert that these procedures must be integrated and continued aninterrruptedly for several years. They also suggest a collaborative work with those responsible for the dengue erradication program, as well as the institution of the "scorpion study week", which would greatly contribute to the education of the population, to preventive programs and to scorpion control.

  6. [New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

    2008-01-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

  7. Vocal repertoire of Scinax v-signatus (Lutz 1968 (Anura, Hylidae and comments on bioacoustical synapomorphies for Scinax perpusillus species group

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    Marco Antônio Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the vocal repertoire of Scinax v-signatus, compare it to the other species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group and discuss the bioacoustical synapomorphies proposed for the group. We recorded an advertisement call and an aggressive call of S. v-signatus. The advertisement call is similar to the one described for others species of the Scinax perpusillus group. Similarly to Scinax cosenzai, the first note in the advertisement call of S. v-signatus is the longest. The aggressive call was preceded by a series of advertisement calls. We suggest that bioacoustical parameters proposed as synapomorphies for the Scinax perpusillus group are not valid, as they are also observed in species belonging to other groups within the genus.

  8. [Expansion of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the department of Caldas: Increased risk of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Luz Adriana; Mondragón-Shem, Karina; Vergara, Daniela; Vélez-Mira, Andrés; Cadena, Horacio; Carrillo-Bonilla, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Diverse taxonomical and molecular studies suggest that Lutzomyia longipalpis , main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of species widely distributed throughout the continent and adapted to different habitats. To carry out entomological surveillance in the area of influence of the Miel I Hydroelectric Plant. Adhesive traps were used in a transect covering an area of approximately 400 km for the capture of insects, which were then identified using the Young and Duncan taxonomical key. This study reports the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the municipalities of Norcasia at an altitude of 392 masl, and in Marquetalia at 1,387 masl. We suggest that the increase in the geographical and altitudinal distribution could be related to the existence of the Lu. longipalpis species complex, or to environmental factors, such as the rise in temperature due to global climate changes, which create the establishment of Lu. longipalpis , generating a new epidemiological risk for new visceral leishmaniasis foci in the country.

  9. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

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    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  10. Comparison between precipitin and ELISA tests in the bloodmeal detection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz mosquitoes experimentally fed on feline, canine and human hosts

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    Luciana AM Gomes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arthropod bloodmeals is important in many epidemiological studies, as, the understanding of the life cycle of vectors and the patogens they transmit, as well as helping to define arthropods' control strategies. The precipitin test has been used for decades, but ELISA is slowly becoming more popular. To compare the two tests for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to detect small insect bloodmeals, Aedes aegypti or Ae. fluviatilis mosquitoes were fed either on feline, canine or human hosts. Mosquitoes were frozen at 6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h after feeding. Precipitin test showed better specificity and accuracy and ELISA test showed higher sensitivity. Better results with both tests were achieved when mosquitoes were frozen within 48 h from feeding.

  11. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

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    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented.

  12. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil.

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    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Dias, Edmilson de Castro; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Melo de; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Macedo, Iara Térsia Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p temperature, relative humidity and rainfall did not show a significant influence on population density. However, there were seasonal differences: approximately 70% of sand flies were captured during the rainy season (p < 0.05). The predominant species, L. longipalpis, is present in substantial number, representing a public health risk. Therefore, because of higher prevalence during the rainy season, we recommend intensified VL control measures before and during this season to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

  13. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's Rule on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae

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    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed.

  14. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, C B; Lozovei, A L; Falqueto, A; Brazil, R P; Galati, E; Aguiar, G; Souza, N

    1999-01-01

    The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed.

  15. Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's Rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola; Lozovei Ana Leuch; Falqueto Aloisio; Brazil Reginaldo P; Galati EAB; Aguiar GM; NA Souza

    1999-01-01

    The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espírito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from hi...

  16. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (ptemperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  17. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  18. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  19. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Margarete Martins Dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  20. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso; Rosemere Duarte; José Carlos Miranda; Lindenbergh Caranha; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positiv...

  1. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. I: Dose-dependent effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    Five hundred and eight mature female Wistar rats divided into 35 different groups were stimulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG) (0, 5, 10, 20 & 40 IU) at the late diestrus stage to induce multiple follicular development. No chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) was used for ovulation induction. The quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of fetuses on Day 14 of gestation and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 and 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. However, concurrent with the larger number, higher proportions of abnormal oocytes and embryos were found. High doses of PMSG caused lower in vitro fertilisability of oocytes and greater degrees of embryonic degeneration. Although, the number of oocytes and Day 2-embryos were higher in the 20PMGS dose group, the pregnancy rate was significantly reduced to 27%. In the 40PMSG group no viable pregnancy was noted. Most embryo demise occurred by day 3-5 of pregnancy, probably within the oviducts and before the implantation stage. In rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 and 40 IU of PMSG, the number of morphologically normal looking embryos was greatly reduced by Day 3-5 of pregnancy. In the 40PMSG group, there were no embryos retrieved by Day 4 and 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. II: Dose-dependent effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    A total of 950 female Wistar rats in 81 groups were involved in this study. Different groups of rats were stimulated with PMSG (0, 10 & 20 IU) at diestrus followed, 48-52 hr later, by different doses of HCG (0, 10, 20, 30 & 40) for ovulation induction. The dose-dependent effects of HCG, either with or without the use of PMSG for stimulation of multiple follicular development, on the quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 or 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. The addition of HCG did not increase the number of ovulated oocytes or Day-2 embryos. In other words, the number of oocytes or embryos produced is dependent on the dose of PMSG administered during diestrus rather than on the dose of HCG given for ovulation induction. Hence, no increase in the amount of HCG is required to effectively ovulate bigger cohort of preovulatory follicles in supraphysiologically stimulated rats. As was shown earlier, in vitro and in vivo fertilisation rates were reduced when higher doses of PMSG were used. Similarly, these rates were reduced when increasing doses of HCG were used in rats not previously stimulated with PMSG. When higher doses of HCG were used in rats stimulated earlier with PMSG (10 and 20 IU), the in vitro but not the in vivo fertilisation rates were further reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  4. Padronização da técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina para a identificação de sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay biotin/avidin method standardization, for identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis bloodmeals (Lutz & Neiva, 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassá

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de sangue ingerido pelos insetos é um importante parâmetro para elucidar aspectos ligados à transmissão de zoonoses, dentre elas, as leishmanioses. Dos métodos empregados para esclarecer a atração de vetores por animais que possam atuar como reservatórios dessas parasitoses, destacam-se os imunológicos. O estudo teve como objetivo, padronizar a técnica imunoenzimática de captura e titular amostras de sangue ingerido em fêmeas de flebotomíneos ingurgitadas de Lutzomyia longipalpis criadas em laboratório e alimentadas experimentalmente em rato. Em vista da alta sensibilidade, favorecida pelo sistema avidina-biotina, foi possível a realização de pelo menos noventa testes, de cada uma das amostras em duplicata, e constatar a presença de sangue para todas as amostras com períodos de 12 e 24 horas pós-ingestão, observando-se diferença significativa entre os respectivos títulos.Bloodmeals taken by insects constitute an important parameter for clarifying aspects of the transmission of zoonoses, including leishmaniases. Immunological assays can be used to investigate the attraction of vectors to animals, which may be hosts of these parasitoses. The objective of this study was to standardize a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titer samples with different time periods of digestion, in laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on rats. In the light of the high sensitivity that the biotin-avidin method permits, the technique provided at least ninety repeat tests for each sample and identified recent bloodmeals taken by these insects. Bloodmeals were detectable up to 12 and 24h after blood ingestion, and a significant difference between these titers was observed.

  5. Novos registros de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera: Psychodidae na região Centro-Leste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil New records of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Central East Region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Antonio Cutolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência das leishmanioses tegumentar (LTA e visceral (LVA americanas, especialmente essa última, em hospedeiros caninos e humanos, encontra-se em expansão no Estado de São Paulo. Na vigilância epidemiológica dessas endemias, torna-se fundamental o conhecimento da distribuição e ecologia das diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos. Assim, a divulgação de novos registros de seus vetores é fundamental para apontar novas áreas de risco para a transmissão dessas doenças. Neste estudo, realizaram-se capturas de flebotomíneos em ambiente de mata, em diferentes localidades dos municípios de Ipeúna, Itirapina e Analândia, entre agosto e setembro de 2007. Foram capturados 248 flebotomíneos de nove espécies diferentes, em Ipeúna, seis e sete espécimes de duas espécies distintas coletados respectivamente em Itirapina e Analândia. A espécie mais abundante em Ipeúna foi Pintomyia pessoai (37,5%, seguida de P. fischeri (33,06% e Migonemyia migonei (16,53%. Essas três espécies são consideradas importantes vetores de LTA no território paulista. O registro de Lutzomyia longipalpis pela primeira vez em Ipeúna e Analândia e a confirmação de sua presença em Itirapina indicam risco de essabelecimento da LVA na área e a necessidade de mais estudos locais sobre sua ecologia, sobretudo em relação à ocupação de ambientes antrópicos.Cutaneous (LTA and Visceral (LVA American Leishmaniasis incidences are increasing in human and canine hosts, especially LVA, which is expanding its range through São Paulo State. Distribution and ecology knowledge of different sand fly species is essential for leishmaniasis epidemiology vigilance. The communication of new findings of its vectors is mandatory for risk determination for transmission of these illnesses. On this study sand flies were trapped in bushed areas, in different localities at rural areas of Ipeúna, Itirapina and Analândia counties, between August and September 2007. A total of 248 specimens of nine different species were sampled in Ipeúna, six and seven specimens of two different species were trapped in Itirapina and Analândia, respectively. The most abundant species in Ipeúna was Pintomyia pessoai (37.5%, followed by Pintomyia fischeri (33.06% and Migonemyia migonei (16.53%, all three species are considered vectors of LTA in São Paulo State. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Ipeúna and Analândia for the first time and its presence confirmed in Itirapina, indicating a risk of LVA essablishment in the area and the need for further local studies on its ecology, especially regarding its occupation of the anthropic environment.

  6. Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection

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    Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained parasites (55 % with intensity rate of 9.3 parasites. Corvinas showed prevalence from 71 to 100 % with the highest intensity rates (103.3 and 106.9 from February to March, 2001. Comparatively, the tucunaré showed the highest prevalence from November 2000 (90% to February 2001 (80%. The tucunaré highest intensity rates occurred on September, 2000 (12.7, December, 2000 (12.2 and February, 2001 (16.1. Metacercariae showed a hollow womb body and a posterior region of a sinuous conic protuberance, an oral sucker smaller than the acetabulae, a simple acetabulae located in the pre-equatorial region of helminto. A short pre-pharynx followed by a muscular pharynx, genital pore next to acetubulae. Corvina metacercariae presents 1.434,0 µm (880 to 1.840 long by 611.2 ± 93.4 µm (400 to 792 wide. Tucunaré metacercariae, 1.462.4 µm (960 to 2.480 by 710.8 µm (560 to 960. Authors confirmed corvina great susceptibility to Diplomastum and the relationship between the parasitism and the aquatic and climatic parameters.

  7. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 no estado de Mato Grosso Spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 in the State of Mato Grosso

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    Nanci Akemi Missawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi ocorreram em 23 e 22 municípios, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstraram a grande ocorrência de Lutzomyia longipalpis nas áreas com bioma de floresta, de transição e de cerrado. Lutzomyia cruzi ocorreu principalmente em municípios com área de pantanal e cerrado. A verificação da distribuição da população de vetores no estado e os biomas preferenciais proporcionam indicar áreas vulneráveis e/ou receptivas para a transmissão da doença.Visceral leishmaniasis is currently considered an emergent and reemergent disease, in agricultural and urban zones, both in domestic and peridomestic areas. The objective of this work was to verify the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi in Mato Grosso State. Data from 1996 to 2004 was collected by the Entomology Laboratory, whose captures were carried with a CDC light trap. Sixty-eight of the 139 cities in the state have been studied. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi occurred in 23 and 22 cities, respectively. The results demonstrate the extensive occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in areas with different vegetation types: savanna, transition and Amazon forest. Lutzomyia cruzi occurred mainly in cities with areas of marshland and savanna. Verification of the distribution of the vector populations in the state and their preferential vegetation type, provides an indication of vulnerable and/or receptive areas for disease transmission.

  8. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil Monitoramento de Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral no Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p No Brasil, o crescimento urbano da leishmaniose visceral (LV está associado com a adaptação do seu vetor, Lutzomyia longipalpis, aos ambientes modificados pelo homem. Este estudo relata a vigilância entomológica de L. longipalpis e os efeitos das variáveis ambientais sobre a sua densidade populacional. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados no município de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, no Nordeste do Brasil, a partir de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. Duas armadilhas tipo CDC foram colocadas mensalmente durante quatro noites consecutivas no peridomicílio das casas escolhidas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e regressão linear. Um total de 2.087 flebotomíneos foram capturados, dos quais 99,86% foram L. longipalpis. Mais fêmeas do que machos foram capturados (p < 0,05. Na análise mensal das variáveis ambientais a temperatura, umidade relativa e a chuva não tiveram impacto significativo sobre a densidade populacional de L. longipalpis. No entanto, houve diferenças sazonais: aproximadamente 70% dos flebotomíneos foram capturados durante a estação chuvosa (p < 0,05. Assim, L. longipalpis, a espécie predominante, representa um risco à saúde pública. Portanto, devido à maior prevalência no período chuvoso, recomendamos intensificar as medidas de controle da LV antes e durante este período para reduzir o risco de transmissão da doença.

  9. Gclust Server: 141897 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 141897 HSA_60302676 Cluster Sequences - 328 NP_001012415.1 spermatogenesis and oogenesis... - Sequence length 328 Representative annotation NP_001012415.1 spermatogenesis and oogenesis

  10. Caracterização do mecanismo de controle do pH no tubo digestivo de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz e Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) e sua importância no desenvolvimento de Leishmania Ross, 1903

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Cristina dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    O controle do pH intestinal em Lutzomyia longipalpis é primordial para o inseto lidar com os diferentes itens de sua dieta. Os flebotomíneos necessitam mudar repentinamente de um pH 6,0, adequado a digestão de açúcares, para um pH próximo de pH 8,0, que aumenta a eficiência da digestão do repasto sanguíneo. Antes da ingestão de sangue, o pH no intestino médio de L. longipalpis é rigorosamente mantido em pH 6,0 por um eficiente mecanismo regulador. Aparentemente, a alcalinização observada seri...

  11. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Lutz, 1908 isolado por meio de hemocultura em um paciente portadora de símdrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated by hemoculture from a patient with AIDS

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    David J. Hadad

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso de isolamento de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis em sangue de paciente HIV positivo, 28 anos, sexo masculino, natural de Nova Londrina que, ao exame físico e ultrassonográfico, apresentava esplenomegalia febril a esclarecer. Para estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico, hemoculturas em triplicata foram realizadas para pesquisa de bactérias aeróbias, micobactérias e fungos. As hemoculturas para bactérias aeróbias e micobactérias foram negativas e P. brasiliensis foi isolado de duas hemoculturas, na fase leveduriforme em ágar BHI, 20 dias após a semeadura, a partir do meio de Negroni. O paciente classificado, segundo o "Centers for Disease Control (CDC", no grupo IV devido a uma pneumocistose pulmonar, interrompeu o tratamento por problemas particulares na segunda dose de anfotericina B, sendo tratado alternativamente com 800 mg/dia de cetoconazol. O óbito ocorreu um ano após o isolamento do P.brasiliensis em hemocultura.A case of an AIDS-patient with positive blood culture for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported. The patient was a 29 years old male born in Nova Londrina (Paraná State, Brazil who presented splenomegaly and fever of unknown origin. Three blood cultures were performed, each one of them for aerobic bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. Cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycobacteria were negative. However, the yeast phase P. brasiliensis was isolated from two cultures in BHI agar, 20 days after inoculation in Negroni medium. The patient was classified in group V according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC criteria for AIDS, due to a Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Treatment was discontinued due to an individual decision of the patient on the second dose of amphotericin B. This antibiotic was replaced by ketoconazole in the daily dose of 800 mg. The patient died one year after the isolation of P. brasiliensis on blood culture.

  12. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926 and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930 in Northeastern Brazil

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    Mario Eduardo Santos Cabral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM and L. vastus (OLV using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.

  13. Analysis of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirian Francisca Martins Queiroz; Jane Ramos Varjão; Sinara Cristina de Moraes; Gladys Elena Salcedo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is an infectious and parasitic zoonotic, non-contagious, vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1934) is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, was designated as a priority area by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for american visceral leishmaniasis, and it is important to identify the vector species present in this municipal...

  14. Analysis of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912

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    Mirian Francisca Martins Queiroz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is an infectious and parasitic zoonotic, non-contagious, vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1934 is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, was designated as a priority area by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for american visceral leishmaniasis, and it is important to identify the vector species present in this municipality. Our objective was to raise sandflies and study the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis. METHODS: We performed entomological monitoring in 3 districts using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC light traps and recorded human cases of american visceral leishmaniasis in the city. We calculated the relative frequency and richness of sandflies and applied a transfer function model to the vector density correlate with relative humidity. RESULTS: The sandfly population was composed of 2 genera and 27 species, totaling 8,097 individuals. Monitoring identified Lutzomyia longipalpis (44%, followed by Lutzomyia lenti (18.9%, Lutzomyia whitmani (13.9%, Lutzomyia carmelinoi (9.1%, Lutzomyia evandroi (5.1%, Lutzomyia termitophila (3.3%, Lutzomyia sordellii (1.9%, and 20 other species (<4%. The male:female ratio was 3.5:1. We observed high species diversity (Dα = 6.65. Lutzomyia longipalpis showed occurrence peaks during the rainy season; there was a temporal correlation with humidity, but not with frequency or temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the urban area of Barra do Garças underscores the changing disease profile, which was previously restricted to the wild environment.

  15. Wyeomyia (Prosopolepis) Confusa (Lutz): Subgeneric Validation, Species Description, and Recognition of Wyeomyia Flui (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne) as the Senior Synonym of Wyeomyia Kerri Del Ponte and Cerqueira

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Neves, D. I? and J. L. Pedersoli. 1976. OS Culicidae do Museu de Historia Natural de Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte. I. A mata...Peryassn, A. 1923. OS culicideos do Brasil. Catalog0 das subfamilias, generos , especies e synonimias de mos- quitos pernilongos encontrados no

  16. Identificação do sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 pela técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina Blood meals identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 by enzime-linked immunossorbent assay biotin-avidin

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    Ana Maria Marassá

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi, espécies integrantes da fauna flebotomínea da Serra da Bodoquena, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, têm sido objeto de estudo devido às suas elevadas abundâncias no Assentamento Guaicurus, foco de leishmaniose tegumentar humana e visceral canina. Em pesquisas que vem sendo realizadas neste acampamento para a identificação de vetores destas parasitoses, foram capturados no período de 2002 a 2004, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas em ambiente peridoméstico (galinheiro, 83 exemplares ingurgitados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a investigação do hábito alimentar para ave das fêmeas de ambas as espécies de flebotomíneos, mediante o emprego da técnica imunoenzimática de captura,comparando-se a reatividade durante os anos de 2002 a 2004. Dentre 57 amostras de Lutzomyia longipalpis e 26 de Lutzomyia almerioi, foram encontradas 72% reagentes para ave em Lutzomyia longipalpis e 96% em Lutzomyia almerioi, o que justifica o estudo do hábito alimentar na região, como medida de prevenção e instituição de vigilância epidemiológica.Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi, phlebotomine species from the fauna of Serra da Bodoquena, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, have been studied, particularly due to the fact of their abundance and occurrence, the Guaicurus settlement, focus of human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis. In researches that are being carried out in this settlement for identifying the vectors of these parasitosis, 83 engorged females belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi were captured with automatic light traps from 2002 up to 2004 in the peridomiciliary environment of the Guaicurus settlement (hennery.The aim of this study was the investigation on bird feeding habit of females of both the phlebotomine species by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, comparing the reactivity during the period from 2002 up to 2004. Of the 57 samples of Lutzomyia longipalpis and 26 of Lutzomyia almerioi that have been tested, 72% from Lutzomyia longipalpis and 96% from Lutzomyia almerioi were reactive, which justifies the feeding habit study in the region as a prevention measure and the institution of an epidemiological survey.

  17. Histological Studies of the Oogenesis of Gambusia affinis%食蚊鱼卵子发生的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚; 罗虹; 张耀光

    2008-01-01

    食蚊鱼卵子发育过程分为6个时相.第1时相,卵原细胞细胞质较少,核质比较大.第2时相,卵母细胞体积增加迅速,核质比显著减小,细胞质强嗜碱性,滤泡细胞出现.到晚期,有卵黄核及类生长环的出现,这两种结构均和卵黄物质的形成有关.第3时相,卵母细胞嗜碱性减弱,卵黄泡从膜内缘开始出现,逐渐充满细胞质.颗粒层滤泡细胞互相堆积成舌状镶嵌入卵膜,并使放射带凹凸不平,称为镶嵌型滤泡.第4时相,卵母细胞体积增加较快,卵黄泡消失,卵黄物质逐渐充满细胞质,细胞核移至边缘.第5时相,滤泡细胞脱落,成为成熟卵,卵黄物质均匀散布,卵膜极薄.第6时相,未受精卵和滤泡细胞逐渐退化,被吸收.

  18. Internalization of LDL-receptor superfamily yolk-protein receptors during mosquito oogenesis involves transcriptional regulation of PTB-domain adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjay K; Jha, Anupma; Steinhauser, Amie L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Washabaugh, Charles H; Raikhel, Alexander S; Foster, Woodbridge A; Traub, Linton M

    2008-04-15

    In the anautogenous disease vector mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, egg development is nutritionally controlled. A blood meal permits further maturation of developmentally repressed previtellogenic egg chambers. This entails massive storage of extraovarian yolk precursors by the oocyte, which occurs through a burst of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Yolk precursors are concentrated at clathrin-coated structures on the oolemma by two endocytic receptors, the vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors. Both these mosquito receptors are members of the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor superfamily that contain FxNPxY-type internalization signals. In mammals, this tyrosine-based signal is not decoded by the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex directly. Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. Here, we report that a mosquito ARH-like protein, which we designate trephin, possess similar functional properties to the orthologous vertebrate proteins despite engaging AP-2 in an atypical manner, and that mRNA expression in the egg chamber is strongly upregulated shortly following a blood meal. Temporally regulated trephin transcription and translation suggests a mechanism for controlling yolk uptake when vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors are expressed and clathrin coats operate in previtellogenic ovaries.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Cyclin B1, B2 and Cdc2 Kinase during Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meiotic maturation of oocytes and spermatocytes is controlled by the maturation promotion factor (MPF), a complex of the Cdc2 and cyclin B proteins. To better understand the mechanism of oocyte and spermatocyte maturation in fish, the expression of cyclin B1 (CB1), cyclin B2 (CB2) and Cdc2 kinas...

  20. Oogenesis and reproductive investment of Atlantic herring are functions of not only present but long-ago environmental influences as well

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Schmidt, Thassya C.; Slotte, Aril; Kennedy, James; Sundby, Svein; Johannessen, Arne; Óskarsson, Gudmundur J.; Kurita, Yutaka; Stenseth, Nils C.; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    Following general life history theory, immediate reproductive investment (egg mass × fecundity/body mass) in oviparous teleosts is a consequence of both present and past environmental influences. This clarification questions the frequent use of season-independent (general) fecundity formulas in marine fish recruitment studies based on body metrics only. Here we test the underlying assumption of no lag effect on gametogenesis in the planktivorous, determinate-fecundity Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) displaying large plasticity in egg mass and fecundity, examining Norwegian summer–autumn spawning herring (NASH), North Sea autumn-spawning herring (NSAH), and Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH). No prior reproductive information existed for NASH. Compared with the 1960s, recent reproductive investment had dropped markedly, especially for NSAH, likely reflecting long-term changes in zooplankton biography and productivity. As egg mass was characteristically small for autumn spawners, although large for spring spawners (cf. different larval feeding conditions), fecundity was the most dynamic factor within reproductive investment. For the data-rich NSSH, we showed evidence that transient, major declines in zooplankton abundance resulted in low fecundity over several subsequent seasons, even if Fulton’s condition factor (K) turned high. Temporal trends in Kslope (K on total length) were, however, informative. These results clarify that fecundity is defined by (i) dynamics of primary (standing stock) oocytes and (ii) down-regulation of secondary oocytes, both processes intimately linked to environmental conditions but operating at different timescales. Thus, general fecundity formulas typically understate interannual variability in actual fecundity. We therefore argue for the use of segmented fecundity formulas linked to dedicated monitoring programs. PMID:28223491

  1. [Nature of cytogenetic and morphologic disorders in rat oogenesis and embryogenesis induced by chloridin and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid during the preovulatory phase of meiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar', N A

    1980-01-01

    The effect of pyrimethamine (chloridine) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on embryo survival, cleavage rate and frequency of chromosome aberrations when injected into female rats just before ovulation was studied. Pyrimethamine induced 70% of embryonic death at a dose of 5 mg/kg and 27%--at a dose of 2 mg/kg. 200 mg/kg of 2,4,5-T had no embryotoxic effect, while 400 mg/kg increased the embryo loss up to 48%. Pyrimethamine (5 mg/kg) and 2,4,5-T (400 mg/kg), injected intragastrically just before ovulation, significantly affected the cleavage rate in the four day rat embryos. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in ovulated oocytes at metaphase, II subjected to pyrimethamine and 2,4,5-T, reached 6--8% and exceeded the control value in 5--10 times.

  2. The HEM proteins: a novel family of tissue-specific transmembrane proteins expressed from invertebrates through mammals with an essential function in oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Martin, D; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R; Sutton, J; Desai, A; Huang, I; Kato, K; Hromas, R

    1995-08-04

    We report the identification of a new family of proteins, termed the HEM family, which show distinct expression patterns in blood cells and the central nervous system. Through the isolation and characterization of the corresponding brain-specific Drosophila (dhem-2) and rat orthologues (Hem-2), and through the detection of the Caenorhabditis elegans Hem-2 orthologue in the database, we show that this family is conserved throughout evolution. HEM proteins show a conserved length ranging from 1118 to 1126 amino acid residues. Moreover, they are at least 35% identical with each other and harbour several conserved membrane-spanning domains, indicative for their location on the cell surface. One of the members, the Drosophila orthologue dhem-2, was analysed in detail for its spatial expression pattern during development and for its mutant phenotype. dhem-2 is expressed maternally in the oocyte and shows uniform expression during the first half of embryogenesis, but becomes restricted to the brain and the nervous system during late embryogenesis, consistent with the expression of its vertebrate orthologue in the brain. One P-element insertion, located 39 base-pairs downstream from the dhem-2 transcription start site, causes female sterility, due to the fact that developmental processes in the oocyte are disturbed. Of the vertebrate HEM family members, the mammalian Hem-1 gene is expressed only in cells of hematopoietic origin, while Hem-2 is preferentially expressed in brain, heart, liver and testis.

  3. 霍氏啮小蜂的卵巢发育和卵子发生%Ovarian development and oogenesis in Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林海; 廖永林; 张扬; 吴伟坚

    2016-01-01

    霍氏啮小蜂是一些鳞翅目和双翅目昆虫蛹的寄生蜂.本文描述该寄生蜂从亚洲玉米螟羽化后0,6 12,18,24,30,36,42,48,54,60,66和72 h的卵巢发育和卵子发生过程.霍氏啮小蜂雌性生殖系统为典型的膜翅目姬小蜂类型,包括2个卵巢,每个卵巢通常有8-9根卵巢管,另有1对输卵管附腺,1个受精囊和1个受精囊腺等.卵黄和卵子形成于羽化后12 h,刚羽化的雌蜂不含成熟卵(成熟卵指数OI =0),成熟卵出现在羽化后24 h,成熟卵数量随后不断增加至数量较为稳定.卵巢管内卵数与雌蜂的体长和头宽呈正相关,相关系数分别为0.859和0.907.研究结果表明霍氏啮小蜂属卵育型(synovigeny)寄生蜂,本文还讨论了卵育型霍氏啮小蜂的卵成熟策略.

  4. Regulation of Pattern Formation and Gene Amplification During Drosophila Oogenesis by the miR-318 microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Wanzhong; Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting

    2015-01-01

    and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of miR-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. miR-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells, due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone...

  5. Civil Reconnaissance; Separating the Insurgent From the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Montagne , "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war," National Public Radio’s Morning Edition, 14 August 2002...Military Review March-April 2005. Montagne , Renee "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war

  6. New advances on the cytological studies of oogenesis and fertilization of the homosporous ferns%同型孢子蕨类植物卵发生和受精作用的细胞学研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建国

    2012-01-01

    The present paper described some new advances on the sexual reproduction of the ferns, mainly including detail processes on the production of the archegonia, the egg development and fertilization. The archegonia of the homosporous ferns are derived from the initial cells under the growing point. The initial cells have dense cytoplasm and a large centrally placed nucleus. The initial cell gives rise to a tier of three cells by two divisions, middle of which is the primary cell. The primary cell undergoes two unequal divisions, and forms a neck canal cell, a ventral cell and an egg cell. During maturation, the egg cell becomes progressively I-solated from the adjacent cells by forming a separation cavity and an egg envelope. It is proved that the advanced ferns form a fertilization pore in the upper egg envelope. It is first discovered that the ventral canal cell takes part in formation of the fertilization pore. The fertilization experiment indicated that the spermatozoid penetrate the egg through the fertilization pore. Immediately shrinkage of the egg at the moment of the sperm penetration and formation of a large sac blocking the fertilization pore are proposed to be used to prevent polyspermy. Subsequently, the fertilized egg undergoes the nuclear fusion, digestion of the male organ-elles,rearrangement of the zygotic organelles and change of the cellular polarity of the zygote,rebuilding of the plasmalemma and the cell wall. Finally a functional zygote is formed.%阐述了同型孢子蕨类植物有性生殖研究中卵发生和受精作用研究的一些新进展,包括颈卵器的形成、卵发育和受精作用3个方面.研究表明颈卵器来自于配子体生长点下方的原始细胞,其细胞质浓,核较大,位于细胞中央,原始细胞经2次分裂产生3层细胞,中间的为初生细胞,初生细胞经2次不等分裂形成1个卵细胞、1个腹沟细胞和1个双核颈沟细胞.卵成熟时,先后在卵细胞外产生分离腔和卵膜,进化的种类卵膜上形成了受精孔,首次证明腹沟细胞参与了受精孔的发生.受精作用研究表明精子是经受精孔钻入卵细胞的,受精时卵细胞剧烈地收缩和产生大的囊泡封阻受精孔可能是阻止多精受精的主要原因,接下来,受精卵经历核融合、雄细胞器的消化,合子细胞器的重排,质膜和细胞壁重建等过程,最终形成功能性合子.

  7. Histology of female reproductive system and oogenesis process of guppy (Poecilia reticulata)%孔雀鱼雌性生殖器官组织结构及卵子发生的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 王莎莎; 赵玉超; 刘永; 孙帆; 郭恩棉

    2014-01-01

    应用光镜技术研究了孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)雌性生殖器官组织结构和卵子发生的特点,以期为孔雀鱼的良种繁育工作提供基础资料.结果表明,孔雀鱼雌性生殖器官由卵巢、卵子输送管和泄殖孔构成.卵子发生过程经历了6个时相:第Ⅰ时相主要为卵原细胞;第Ⅱ时相是处于小生长期的初级卵母细胞,形成生长环、卵黄核和单层扁平滤泡细胞膜;第Ⅲ时相是进入大生长期的初级卵母细胞,卵黄开始积累,形成2层滤泡细胞膜和2层卵包膜;第Ⅳ时相为发育晚期的初级卵母细胞,细胞发生了极化,卵包膜发育完善;第Ⅴ时相发育成熟,卵黄颗粒凝结呈块状,卵黄泡主要分布于细胞膜内缘,滤泡细胞膜萎缩;第Ⅵ时相是闭锁卵泡,被滤泡细胞消化和吸收转变为卵巢内结缔组织.

  8. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  9. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  10. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  11. Design and intensification of industrial DADPM process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Anne Maria; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Waele, B.; de Zeeuw, A.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification is an essential method for the improvement of energy and material efficiency, waste reduction and simplification of industrial processes. In this research a Process Intensification methodology developed by Lutze, Gani and Woodley at the Computer Aided Process Engineering

  12. "Keset filmi" Kiasmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome kunstniku Tellervo Kalleineni filmiprojektist "In the middle of a movie'". Eestist esinesid projektis Taavi Eelmaa, Tarrvi Laamann, Silva Lutz, Anders Melts, Anneli Remme, Siiri Salem, Martin Palm, Kaja Prikk, Peeter Ristsoo, filmisid Peeter Maimik ja Marianne Kõrver

  13. Sabethes (Peytonulus luxodens, a New Species of Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Clinton R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult male, larva and pupa of Sabethes (Peytonulus luxodens, a new species from Ecuador, are described. The species is distinguished from Sabethes aurescens (Lutz, which it closely resembles in all life stages

  14. Climate protection by means of state aids. An analysis of the state aid framework of energy political and environmental political measures; Klimaschutz durch Beihilfen. Eine Analyse des beihilferechtlichen Rahmens fuer energie- und umweltpolitische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behlau, Volker; Lutz, Jana; Schuett, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration report on an analysis of the state aid framework of energy political and environmental political measures. This book consists of the following chapters: (1) Subsidies as an instrument of the law on climate protection and environmental protection (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, M. Schuett); (2) The material prohibition of State aid of Art. 107 AEUV (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) (V. Behlau); (3) State aids for the environmental protection in the legislative practice and decision practice of the European Commission (J. Lutz, V. Behlau, M. Schuett, F. Bartl); (4) State aids for the environmental protection in the European procedural law (M. Schuett); (5) Altmark Trans, Ferring and Co. - Is the leading back of the state aid regime also economically interesting for climate protection relevant measures? (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, S. Sobotta, M. Schuett); (6) Concluding remarks (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, M. Schuett).

  15. [Aquaporins in gametogenesis of vertebrate animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoblina, M N

    2008-01-01

    A review of the data on the presence, localization, and supposed role of aquaporin water channels in oocytes of Xenopus laevis, oogenesis and maturation of teleosts Sparus auratus and Oncorhynchus mykiss, oogenesis and oocyte maturation of rats and mice, and spermatogenesis of several mammalians.

  16. AcEST: DK950560 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A0|UVRC_SYNWW UvrABC system protein C OS=Syntrophomonas w... 36 0.28 sp|Q9NX45|SOLH2_HUMAN Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis...HUMAN Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific basic helix-loop-helix-containing protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN

  17. AcEST: DK958200 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase regul... 33 1.6 sp|Q6IUP1|SOLH1_MOUSE Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific ba... 31 4.5 sp|Q9RFD5|BCH...ry: 68 FLFCLVKMFAFL 33 LF L AFL Sbjct: 591 -LFELHVHQAFL 601 >sp|Q6IUP1|SOLH1_MOUSE Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis

  18. Germline cell death is inhibited by P-element insertions disrupting the dcp-1/pita nested gene pair in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundrie, Bonni; Peterson, Jeanne S; Baum, Jason S; Chang, Jeffrey C; Fileppo, Dana; Thompson, Sharona R; McCall, Kimberly

    2003-12-01

    Germline cell death in Drosophila oogenesis is controlled by distinct signals. The death of nurse cells in late oogenesis is developmentally regulated, whereas the death of egg chambers during mid-oogenesis is induced by environmental stress or developmental abnormalities. P-element insertions in the caspase gene dcp-1 disrupt both dcp-1 and the outlying gene, pita, leading to lethality and defective nurse cell death in late oogenesis. By isolating single mutations in the two genes, we have found that the loss of both genes contributes to this ovary phenotype. Mutants of pita, which encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein, are homozygous lethal and show dumpless egg chambers and premature nurse cell death in germline clones. Early nurse cell death is not observed in the dcp-1/pita double mutants, suggesting that dcp-1+ activity is required for the mid-oogenesis cell death seen in pita mutants. dcp-1 mutants are viable and nurse cell death in late oogenesis occurs normally. However, starvation-induced germline cell death during mid-oogenesis is blocked, leading to a reduction and inappropriate nuclear localization of the active caspase Drice. These findings suggest that the combinatorial loss of pita and dcp-1 leads to the increased survival of abnormal egg chambers in mutants bearing the P-element alleles and that dcp-1 is essential for cell death during mid-oogenesis.

  19. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN AN ANURAN COMMUNITY IN MUNICIPALITY OF RIO CLARO, SP, BRAZIL = DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL E TEMPORAL DE UMA COMUNIDADE DE ANFÍBIOS ANUROS DO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio Fernando Baptista Haddad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of structure and functioning of communities arefundamental for the execution of conservation efforts in forested areas. In the present study we evaluated a community of anurans in a State Forest in Southeast Brazil, emphasizing the reproductive biology of the species. It has been found 21 species, of four families: Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, and Microhylidae. The species of the family Bufonidae reproduced during the dry and cold season, while other species reproduced only during the wet and warm season of the year. Besides temporal segregation, some species divided the physical environment during reproductive season. Strong temporal and spatial overlap was observed among phylogenetically close species (of the same genus, such as Hyla nana and H. sanborni, Scinax fuscovarius and Scinax sp. (aff. similis, and Leptodactylus fuscus, L. mystacinus, and Leptodactylus sp. (gr. fuscus. In these cases, acoustic differences may be the main factor responsible for thereproductive segregation. Lack of reproductive segregation was observed among species of the genus Bufo, which were found in interespecific amplexus, even with acoustic differences in their advertisement calls. = A compreensão da composição e inter-relações das comunidades faunísticas são fundamentais para a execução de medidas conservacionistas em ambientes florestais. No presente estudo nos avaliamos a comunidade de anfíbios de uma floresta estadual nomunicípio de Rio Claro, SP, com enfoque na biologia reprodutiva. Foram registradas 21 espécies, de quarto famílias: Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae e Microhylidae. As espécies da família Bufonidae reproduziram durante a estação fria e seca do ano e asdemais somente durante a estação quente e chuvosa. Além de segregação temporal, algumas espécies dividiram o ambiente físico durante o período reprodutivo. Acentuada sobreposição temporal e espacial foi observada entre esp

  20. 可口革囊星虫(Phascolosoma esculenta)卵黄合成期卵母细胞发育及卵黄发生与卵膜形成的超微结构%ULTRASTRUCTURAL OBSERVATION ON OOGENESIS, VITELLOGENESIS AND VITELLINE MEMBRANE FORMATION DURING YOLK-SYNTHESIZING STAGE IN PHASCOLOSOMA ESCULENTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺俊全; 王伟; 丁理法

    2012-01-01

    采用电镜技术观察研究了可口革囊星虫卵黄合成期卵母细胞发育及卵黄发生与卵膜形成的超微结构特征。结果表明,可口革囊星虫卵黄合成期卵母细胞发育经历了卵黄合成初期、卵黄旺盛合成期及生长成熟期三个阶段。卵母细胞卵黄发生途径主要由线粒体、内质网、高尔基体等细胞器演变成卵黄粒,以及吞饮作用形成卵黄粒。卵母细胞质膜外被有卵黄膜,由卵母细胞自体形成,且随生长而加厚;卵黄膜具通透性,外源营养物质能透过卵黄膜进入卵内。生长成熟的卵母细胞卵黄膜厚7—9um,从内向外由纤维层、致密层、粒状突层及外膜构成,保护卵母细胞维持特定的形状。%Electron microscopy technology was employed to investigate the ultrastructural changes during oogenensis, vitellogenesis and vitelline membrane formation in the sipunculan Phascolosoma esculenta. The results show that oogene- sis in this species could be divided into three stages: the primary yolk synthesis stage, rapid yolk synthesis stage and maturation stage. Organelles including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus can evolve into yolk granules via pinocytosis. The plasma membrane of oocyte is covered by vitelline membrane which is formed by the oocyte itself and thickens as the oocyte grows. The vitelline membrane is permeable, so external nutrients can penetrate through it and be utilized during oocyte development and vitellogenesis. The vitelline membrane of the growth mature oocyte is 7--9ktm thick, consisting of the fiber layer, the dense layer, granular protuberance layer and jelly coat. This tough and flexible structure could help the oocyte to maintain the specific shape.

  1. evaluation of the efficacy of separate oral supplements compared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    the blood, urine and semen of exposed men; these are known to affect sperm ... is normally maintained at about 20C and 80C lower than the body temperature ..... Oogenesis' and 'molecular regulation of genital duct' Langman's Medical ...

  2. Paternal heterochromatin formation in human embryos is H3K9/HP1 directed and primed by sperm-derived histone modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van de Werken (Christine); G.W. van der Heijden (Godfried); C. Eleveld (C.); M. Teeuwssen (Miriam); M. Albert (Mareike); W.M. Baarends (Willy); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); A.H.F.M. Peters (Antoine H. F. M.); E.B. Baart (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe different configurations of maternal and paternal chromatin, acquired during oogenesis and spermatogenesis, have to be rearranged after fertilization to form a functional embryonic genome. In the paternal genome, nucleosomal chromatin domains are re-established after the

  3. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  4. Regulation of the formin Cappuccino is critical for polarity of Drosophila oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Batbileg; Bois, Justin S.; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) creates an actin mesh-like structure that traverses the oocyte during mid-oogenesis. This mesh is thought to prevent premature onset of fast cytoplasmic streaming which normally happens during late-oogenesis. Proper cytoskeletal organization and cytoplasmic streaming are crucial for localization of polarity determinants such as osk, grk, bcd and nanos mRNAs. Capu mutants disrupt these events, leading to female sterility. Capu is regulated by another nuc...

  5. Rôle de la voie de signalisation Insuline dans le couplage des informations nutritionnelles et développementales au cours de l'ovogenèse chez la drosophile

    OpenAIRE

    Jouandin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    How oogenesis is controlled upon nutrient challenge is a key biological question to understand the balance between reproduction and adult fitness. During Drosophila oogenesis, vitellogenic stages are highly energy consuming so their formation has to be balanced with other physiological needs. We reveal the role of the Insulin pathway and FoxO in regulating the transition from Mitotic-to-Endocycle, a critical step controlling the entry of egg chambers into vitellogenesis. We show that the M/E ...

  6. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  7. Langevin equation approach to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jennie M; Kalmykov, Yuri P; Coffey, William T; Kerskens, Christian M

    2009-12-01

    The normal phase diffusion problem in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is treated by means of the Langevin equation for the phase variable using only the properties of the characteristic function of Gaussian random variables. The calculation may be simply extended to anomalous diffusion using a fractional generalization of the Langevin equation proposed by Lutz [E. Lutz, Phys. Rev. E 64, 051106 (2001)] pertaining to the fractional Brownian motion of a free particle coupled to a fractal heat bath. The results compare favorably with diffusion-weighted experiments acquired in human neuronal tissue using a 3 T MRI scanner.

  8. Cuidado parental em Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae Parental care behaviour in Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednilza Maranhão dos Santos

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho registra mais uma espécie pertencente à família Leptodactylidae apresentando cuidado parental, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930. Fêmeas foram observadas em assistência a ovos e cardumes de girinos em duas poças temporárias na mata Atlântica do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.The present paper reports one more species of the family Leptodactylidae presenting parental care behaviour, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930, in which females were observed attending eggs and schools of tadpoles in two temporary ponds in the Atlantic forest of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  9. Influence of Hydrodynamics on the Larval Supply to Hydrothermal Vents on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    dispersal in deep-sea hydrothernal vent animals. Cahier de Biologic Marine, 39:363:366. [37] Witman, J. (1987). Subtidal coexistence: storms, grazing...Sunderland, 2001. [54] R. C. Vrijenhoek, T. M. Shank, and R. Lutz. Gene flow and dispersal in deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals. Cahier de Biologie Marine, 39

  10. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck bro

  11. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  12. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their co

  13. The Knowledge Engineer as Student: Metacognitive Bases for Asking Good Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Center Washington, DC 20350 San Diego, CA 92152-6800 Dr. Pat Carpenter Carnegio-mellon University Dr. Michael Atwood Dr. Jeff Bonar Department of...330 Packard Road Dr. Paula Kirk Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Oakridge Associated Universities Margaret Jeromie University Programs Division Prof. Lutz F. Hornka

  14. Using and Evaluating Differential Modeling in Intelligent Tutoring and Apprentice Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Navy Personnel R&D Center Washington, DC 20350 San Diego, CA 92152-6800 Dr. Pat Carpenter Carnegie-Mellon UniversityDr. Michael Atwood Dr. Jeff Bonar...Oakridge Associated Universities Margaret Jerome University Programs Division Frof. Lutz F. Hornke c/o Dr. Peter Chandler P.O. Box 117 Insti ’ut fur

  15. U.S. Army Research, Development, And Engineering Command (RDECOM), Independent Test And Evaluation Of The Stand Alone Patient Simulator (SAPS), Under The DoD Challenge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    community (van Meurs, et al, 1997, DeVita , et al, 2004, Bradley, 2006). While several studies have been conducted for training efficacy as a measure...Anatomy Of Full-Scale patient Simulators”, Journal of Clinical Monitoring 1997; 00: 1-8. M.A. Devita , J Schaefer, J. Lutz, H. Wang, and T. Dongilli

  16. Screening for Cerebroprotective Agents Using an In Vivo Model of Cerebral Reversible Depolarization in Awake Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    her The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has been assistance with the manuscript; Miguel Perez- Pinzon postulated to be involved in the regulation...G, ed. London: Plenum, 1988: 9-21. 73. Sarkadi A, Szabo S, Laszy J, Ambrus A, Szporny L. Ef- 53. Sick TJ, Perez- Pinzon MA, Lutz P, Rosenthal M

  17. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their

  18. Parginäitused Kadriorus / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    "Looduse ja kunsti austajatele. Wörlitzi park" 9. V-14. IX Väliskunsti Muuseumis. Tänapäevased pargivaated fotograaf Lutz Winklerilt. Wörlitzi, Luisiumi ja Georgiumi mõisa eluhooned kavandas arhitekt Wilhelm von Erdmansdorff. "Inglise park Eestis" 9. V-21. IX Mikkeli Muuseumis. Näituse koostajad Mari Kurismaa, Mari Kaljuste ja Ruth Huimerind

  19. A Spatially Explicit Model of Red Imported Fire Ant Behavior for Managing Species at Risk on Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Factors Multiply By To Obtain acres 4,046.873 square meters degrees Fahrenheit (F-32)/1.8 degrees Celsius miles (U.S. statute) 1,609.347 meters yards...Entomology 32(3): 447- 451 . Wojcik, D. P., C. R. Allen, R. J. Brenner, E. A. Forys, D. P. Jouvenaz, and R. S. Lutz. 2001. Red imported RIFA: Impact on

  20. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck bro

  1. "Who Killed William Robinson?" Exploring a Nineteenth-Century Murder Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the author and fellow-historian John Lutz set about creating a teaching tool for history that would acquaint students with primary documents and take full advantage of the brand-new technology of the World Wide Web. He launched the website, entitled "Who Killed William Robinson? Race, Justice and Settling the Land,"…

  2. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  3. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  4. Installation Restoration Program Phase II - Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-18

    DESCRIPTION SC BLACK( TO BOMM CL.AYEY SAND. DM9. STRONG ODOR x - 12- CL MOTTLED LIGHT BROWN AND OFF-WHITE SANDY CLAY, DAMP . LIGHTLY CEMENTED. SOME...and Site Location: Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona Project Manager: Lutz Kunze On-Site Safety Officer: Plan Preparer: Michael W. Ander

  5. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-08-09

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells.

  6. Stool examination and rectal biopsy in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni Exame de fezes e biópsia retal no diagnóstico e controle de cura da esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available From each of a group of 217 adult males selected through enzyme-immunoassay or skin-test (Group A, six stool samples were examined by both the Lutz/Hoffman, Pons & Janer (Lutz/HPJ and Kato/Katz methods. In addition, one oogram of the rectal mucosa was performed. By these methods, schistosomiasis was detected in 44.7%, 47.5% and 40.1% of the individuals respectively. To evaluate the methods in the assessment of cure, the last 40 patients from group A, treated with a single oral dose of oxamniquine at 15 mg/kg were followed up for six months (Group B. The criteria for parasitological cure included three stool examinations by Kato/Katz and Lutz/HPJ methods, one, three and six months post-treatment and a rectal biopsy between the fourth and sixth months post-treatment. The examinations were negative in 87.5%, 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively. The efficacy of oxamniquine was 82.5% when the three methods were considered together and there was no statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of the individual methods.Em um grupo de 217 adultos do sexo masculino selecionados através de ELISA ou intradermoreação, realizaram-se seis exames de fezes pelos métodos de Lutz/Hoffman, Pons e Janer (Lutz/HPJ e Kato/Katz e um oograma da mucosa retal, observando-se positividade em 44,7%, 47,5% e 40,1%, respectivamente. A análise comparativa dos resultados mostrou: 1 aumento da sensibilidade de ambos os métodos de exames de fezes até a terceira amostra examinada; 2 maior sensibilidade da biópsia retal quando comparada ao exame de uma única amostra fecal pelos métodos de Lutz/HPJ ou Kato/Katz; 3 igual sensibilidade pelo exame de duas a cinco amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz ou duas a seis amostras pelo método de Lutz/HPJ e a biópsia retal; 4 sensibilidade superior de seis amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz, quando comparado à biópsia retal; 5 igual sensibilidade entre o mesmo número de amostras examinadas pelos

  7. Mago Nashi and Tsunagi/Y14, Respectively, Regulate Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Differentiation and Oocyte Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Parma, David H.; Bennett, Paul E.; Boswell, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    A protein complex consisting of Mago Nashi and Tsunagi/Y14 is required to establish the major body axes and for the localization of primordial germ cell determinants during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. The Mago Nashi:Tsunagi/Y14 heterodimer also serves as the core of the exon junction complex (EJC), a multiprotein complex assembled on spliced mRNAs. In previous studies, reduced function alleles of mago nashi and tsunagi/Y14 were used to characterize the roles of the genes in oogenesis. ...

  8. Taxonomic status of Leptodactylus ochraceus, a forgotten species (Anura: Leptodactylidae A posição taxonômica de Leptodactylus ochraceus, uma espécie esquecida (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of Leptodactylus ochraceus Lutz, 1930, a forgotten leptodactylid frog species, known only from the holotype, is reviewed. The holotype and the original color plate are described and the type locality is discussed and revised. The species is considered valid and distinct from all leptodactylids, leiuperids, cycloramphids, and ceratophrids occurring in Northeastern Brazil.A posição taxonômica de Leptodactylus ochraceus Lutz, 1930, uma espécie de anfíbio leptodactilídeo esquecida, conhecida apenas do holótipo, é revisada. O holótipo e a prancha colorida original são descritos e a localidade tipo é discutida e atualizada. A espécie é considerada válida e distinta de todos os leptodactilídeos, leiuperídeos, cicloranfídeos e ceratofrídeos que ocorrem no Nordeste do Brasil.

  9. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  10. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Spark Gap Switch Assembly ........ .225 vii List of Figures (cont.) FIGURE PAGE IV-10. Turbulent Flow Switch .... ............ . 227 IV-II. Spark Gap...provide such a low inductance that the current risetime is limited by the load rather than the switch itself. Many spark gaps with liquid or solid...Sympoisum, June, 1978. [4] M. A. Lutz and G. A. Hofmann, "The Gamitron - A High Power Crossed-Field Switch Tube for HVDC Interruption," IEEE Trans. on Plasma

  11. Erster Deutscher IPv6 Gipfel

    OpenAIRE

    Meinel, Christoph; Sack, Harald; Bross, Justus

    2009-01-01

    Inhalt: KOMMUNIQUÉ GRUßWORT PROGRAMM HINTERGRÜNDE UND FAKTEN REFERENTEN: BIOGRAFIE & VOTRAGSZUSAMMENFASSUNG 1.) DER ERSTE DEUTSCHE IPV6 GIPFEL AM HASSO PLATTNER INSTITUT IN POTSDAM - PROF. DR. CHRISTOPH MEINEL - VIVIANE REDING 2.) IPV6, ITS TIME HAS COME - VINTON CERF 3.) DIE BEDEUTUNG VON IPV6 FÜR DIE ÖFFENTLICHE VERWALTUNG IN DEUTSCHLAND - MARTIN SCHALLBRUCH 4.) TOWARDS THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET - PROF. DR. LUTZ HEUSER 5.) IPV6 STRATEGY & DEPLOYMENT STATUS IN JAPAN - HIROSHI MIYATA 6.) IPV...

  12. Cord formation and colony morphology for the presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex Presença de corda e morfologia da colônia para a identificação presuntiva do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Tasso Monteiro; Maria Conceição Martins; Suely Yoko Mizuka Ueki; Carmen Maria Saraiva Giampaglia; Maria Alice da Silva Telles

    2003-01-01

    The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MT), using non-molecular methods, is time-consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate a screening test for the presumptive identification of MT, which could potentially decrease laboratory turn-around time for reporting preliminary results. From January 1998 to December 1999, 3056 cultures were analysed at the Mycobacterial Laboratory, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brasil. The screening test consisted of observation of c...

  13. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-29

    February 1993 - 8 December 1993 Reauestor/Recipient Item shiDned Date Dr. Jorge Boshell 1 dengue 3 virus 11/30/93 Grupo de Virologia 1 CER cells Instituto...1 Rocio virus,SP H 34675, 12/14/92 Diretora do Servico de Virologia pass 5 Instituto Adolfo Lutz 1 Rocio MAF,V585-701-562 Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355 CEP

  14. International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (10th) Held in Washington, DC on August 25-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-17

    CONTINUED) Lutz Geelhaar 10:30am-10;45am Emmanuel Le Boulbar 10:45 am-11:00 am Richard Webster 11:00 am-11:15am Zhaoxia Bi 11:15am-11:30am Ian...Rudinsky API .28 Yoshihiro Ichinohe API.29 Todd L. Williamson API .30 Kohei Ueno API .31 Przemyslaw Witczak API.32 Stephen K. O’Leary API .33 Shaoxin

  15. Diplostomiasis in cultured and wild tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guerrero State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; García-Varela, Martín; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a comparative study of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneo) from two fish farms and two nearby coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico. The higher infections levels in cultured tilapia than wild tilapia is attributed to higher fish densities in the culture systems and higher abundance of the snail Biomphalaria cf. havanensis (Pteiffer), first intermediate host of this parasite in freshwater and brackish water systems.

  16. Water Operations Technical Support Program: Proceedings of the Seminar on Water Quality (9th) Held in San Antonio, Texas on 16-20 March 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    207 The Corps of Engineers Ocean Disposal Database by Charles H. Lutz, Barbara B. Hamilton, and Thomas D. Wright...ics in relation to basin morphometry suggests that wave scour, and sediment resuspension, is potentially greatest in shallow regions of lakes ( Carper ...Eau Galle Reservoir: A synopsis. Lake and Reservoir Management 6:1-8. Carper , G. L., and Bachmann, R. W. 1984. Wind resuspension of sediments in a

  17. Bioaccumulation and Effects on Reproduction in Aquatic Organisms: An Assessment of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Macdonald, W. R. Lillie, and A. Lutz. 1983. Joint toxicity of mercury and selenium in salmonid eggs. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12:415-419. Lagler, K...Neanthes arenaceodentata (Poly- chaeta). Mar. Environ. Res. 5:41-49. Ozoh, P. T. E. and C.-O. Jacobson. 1979. Embryotoxicity and hatchability in...Jr. 1983. Chronic effects of selenite- selenium on Daphnia pulex. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12:399-404. Richter, J. E., S. F. Peterson, and C. F

  18. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Current Era of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Press. Lister, R. (2010). Understanding Theories and Concepts in Social Policy. Chicago, IL: Policy Press. Lutz, C. (2009). Anthropology in an...is it something that should not be included in the mission set of America’s warfighting organization? Despite the involvement of prominent social ...further criticism of US foreign policy and military intervention. Of particular interest to the social sciences community has been the appearance

  19. 经济危机将不会减缓制造大型集装箱船的步伐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J.C

    1998-01-01

    The race towards the creation of ever-larger containerships will not be slowed by the world' s current economic turbulence, according to Lutz Wittenberg, director of projects and marketing at Classification Society Germanischer Lloyd(GL) . Wittenberg told delegates at the port design and operation technology conference in Singapore this week that GL has taken an active part in the development of an 8000 TEU containership by a German consortium ledby German builder HDW.

  20. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lutz

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  1. The Adjutant General’s Corps as a Profession of Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    in sexual harassment, hazing, and detainee abuse in theater. While OPTEMPO and Army Force Generation Cycles play valid roles contributing to skills...Sample, ―Army Overhauling Personnel Management,‖ October 13, 2011, htpp ://www.army.mil/article/67203/ (accessed December 22, 2011). 44 Ibid. 45 The...Adjutant Generals Corps Home Page, htpp ://www.ags.army.mil/missionpriorities (accessed January 15, 2012). 46 CW5 Raymond Lutz, ― From Washington to

  2. 40th Annual Armament Systems: Guns-Ammunition-Rockets-Missiles Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-28

    PM] Abraham Overview, Mr. Robert Daunfeldt, Bofors Defence Summary Overview of an Advanced 2.75 Hypervelocity Weapon, Mr. Larry Bradford, CAT Flight...Engineer Tank Ammunition Directorate - IMI Ammunition Group A105/120/125 mm PELE Firing Results, Dr. Lutz Börngen, Rheinmetall Wafe Munition Line Of Sight...Missiles & Rockets Critical Asset Defense - ABRAHAM Rocket Assisted Projectile Mr. Robert Daunfeldt, Bofors Defence Hypervelocity Propulsion System

  3. A Method for Simulating Sedimentation of Fish Eggs to Generate Biological Effects Data for Assessing Dredging Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    used to attach a 150 µm screen (Nylon screen, Pentair Aquatic Eco- Systems ; Sanford, NC) onto the end of the elbow located inside the chamber to...in close proximity to species of concern, and are of known contamination . For the experiments, sediments were analyzed for chemical contamination ...experiment. Sedimentation experiments were performed in the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) located at the ERDC (Lutz et al. 2012). The

  4. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  5. COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    COTS Multicore Processors in Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions Dionisio de Niz Bjorn Andersson and Lutz Wrage dionisio@sei.cmu.edu... Avionics Systems: Challenges and Solutions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wrage /Dionisio de Niz Bjorn...NVIDIA Tegra K1 platform • Avionics and defense: – Rugged Intel i7 single board computers – Freescale P4080 8-core CPU 4 Shared Hardware: Multicore Memory

  6. Software Engineering Institute: Year in Review 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    07tn002.pdf Len Bass , Paul Clements, Rick Kazman, & Mark Klein. Models for Evaluating and Improving Architecture Competence. www.sei.cmu.edu/pub...documents /08.reports/08tr006.pdf Len Bass , Dionisio de Niz, Jörgen Hansson, John Hudak, Peter H. Feiler, Don Firesmith, Mark Klein, Kostas...pdf Lutz Wrage, Soumya Simanta, Grace A. Lewis, & Saul Jaspan. T-Check in Technologies for Interoperability: Web Services and Security—Single

  7. Sohlh2 affects differentiation of KIT positive oocytes and spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Tatsushi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Yoshimura, Takuji; Yamamoto, Mayu; Tashiro, Fumi; Yamato, Eiji; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation programs of spermatogenesis and oogenesis are largely independent. In the early stages, however, the mechanisms partly overlap. Here we demonstrated that a germ-cell-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene, Sohlh2, is required for early spermatogenesis and oogenesis. SOHLH2 was expressed in mouse spermatogonia from the undifferentiated stage through differentiation and in primordial-to-primary oocytes. Sohlh2-null mice, produced by gene targeting, showed both male and female sterility, owing to the disrupted differentiation of mature (KIT(+)) spermatogonia and oocytes. The Sohlh2-null mice also showed the downregulation of genes involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, including the Sohlh1 gene, which is essential for these processes. Furthermore, we showed that SOHLH2 and SOHLH1 could form heterodimers. These observations suggested that SOHLH2 might coordinate with SOHLH1 to control spermatogonial and oocyte genes, including Sohlh1, to promote the differentiation of KIT(+) germ cells in vivo. This study lays the foundation for further dissection of the bHLH network that regulates early spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

  8. Sequence Classification: 772197 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type, has 2 SH2 domains; participates in signal transduction during oogenesis and vulval develo...pment, STerile Progeny STP-1 (76.7 kD) (ptp-2) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/17535377 ...

  9. Birth Weight Corrected for Gestational Age is Related to the Incidence of Down’s Syndrome Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfrans, van J.M.; Bakker, P.S.M.; Rekers-Mombarg, L.T.M.; Weissenbruch, M.M.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three recent studies reported that early depletion of the primordial follicle pool is likely to be an independent risk factor for Down’s syndrome pregnancies. The size of the primordial follicle pool at birth is determined by oogenesis and by the rate of follicle atresia during the intra uterine per

  10. Transgenerational toxicity of Zearalenone in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoevers, Eric J.; Santos, Regiane R.; Colenbrander, Ben; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that can be a contaminant of food and feed commodities. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered an endocrine disruptor. Since estrogens influence oogenesis during fetal growth, the effect of ZEN on oocytes was investigated in the F1-generation. Pregnant and

  11. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ningling [Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong1168@126.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Li, Rong [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Huang, Hefeng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  12. Visualization of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Fixed and Live Drosophila Egg Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Christopher M; Tootle, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for understanding the spatial and temporal regulation of actin remodeling. Drosophila oogenesis provides an excellent model system for visualizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present methods for imaging the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila egg chambers in both fixed samples by phalloidin staining and in live egg chambers using transgenic actin labeling tools.

  13. Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, M.D.; Pagano, J.F.B.; Ensink, W.A.; van Olst, M.; van Leeuwen, S.; Nehrdich, U.; Zhu, K.; Spaink, H.P.; Girard, G.; Rauwerda, H.; Jonker, M.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Breit, T.M.

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue,

  14. Fish on avian lampbrush chromosomes produces higher resolution gene mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galkina, S.A.; Deryusheva, S.; Fillon, V.; Vignal, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodionov, A.V.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Giant lampbrush chromosomes, which are characteristic of the diplotene stage of prophase I during avian oogenesis, represent a very promising system for precise physical gene mapping. We applied 35 chicken BAC and 4 PAC clones to both mitotic metaphase chromosomes and meiotic lampbrush chromosomes

  15. A role for Bicaudal-D2 in radial cerebellar granule cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Dick; van den Berg, Robert; Wulf, Phebe S; van Erp, Susan; Keijzer, Nanda; Schlager, Max A; de Graaff, Esther; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Akhmanova, Anna; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-01-01

    Bicaudal-D (BICD) belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of dynein adaptor proteins. It was first described in Drosophila as an essential factor in fly oogenesis and embryogenesis. Missense mutations in a human BICD homologue, BICD2, have been linked to a dominant mild early onset form of spina

  16. A role for Bicaudal-D2 in radial cerebellar granule cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jaarsma (Dick); R. van den Berg (Robert); P. Wulf (Phebe); S. van Erp (Susan); N. Keijzer (Nanda); M.A. Schlager (Max); E. de Graaff (Esther); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); R. Jeroen Pasterkamp (R.); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBicaudal-D (BICD) belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of dynein adaptor proteins. It was first described in Drosophila as an essential factor in fly oogenesis and embryogenesis. Missense mutations in a human BICD homologue, BICD2, have been linked to a dominant mild early onset f

  17. Ecdysone signalling and ovarian development in insects: from stem cells to ovarian follicle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2015-02-01

    Although a great deal of information is available concerning the role of ecdysone in insect oogenesis, research has tended to focus on vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. As such, the study of oogenesis in a strict sense has received much less attention. This situation changed recently when a number of observations carried out in the meroistic polytrophic ovarioles of Drosophila melanogaster started to unravel the key roles played by ecdysone in different steps of oogenesis. Thus, in larval stages, a non-autonomous role of ecdysone, first in repression and later in activation, of stem cell niche and primordial germ cell differentiation has been reported. In the adult, ecdysone stimulates the proliferation of germline stem cells, plays a role in stem cell niche maintenance and is needed non-cell-autonomously for correct differentiation of germline stem cells. Moreover, in somatic cells ecdysone is required for 16-cell cyst formation and for ovarian follicle development. In the transition from stages 8 to 9 of oogenesis, ecdysone signalling is fundamental when deciding whether or not to go ahead with vitellogenesis depending on the nutritional status, as well as to start border cell migration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  18. Post-transcriptional regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, T; Paris, J; Omilli, F; Dorel, C; Osborne, H B

    1990-11-01

    The level at which ornithine decarboxylase expression is regulated in growing oocytes has been investigated. Immunoprecipitation of the in vivo labelled proteins showed that ornithine decarboxylase accumulated less rapidly in stage IV oocytes than in previtellogenic stage I + II oocytes. Quantitative Northern analysis showed that ornithine decarboxylase mRNA is abundant in oocytes (about 8 x 10(8) transcripts/cell) and this number does not significantly change during oogenesis. Polysome analysis showed that this mRNA is present in polysomes in stage I + II oocytes but has passed into puromycin-insensitive mRNP particles by stage IV of oogenesis. Therefore, during the growth phase of oogenesis, ornithine decarboxylase expression is regulated at a translational level. These results are discussed relative to the temporal expression of ornithine decarboxylase and of other proteins whose expression also decreases during oogenesis. In order to perform these experiments, the cDNA (XLODC1) corresponding to Xenopus laevis ornithine decarboxylase mRNA was cloned and sequenced.

  19. Transcription and chromatin determinants of de novo DNA methylation timing in oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahurova, Lenka; Tomizawa, Shin-Ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gametogenesis in mammals entails profound re-patterning of the epigenome. In the female germline, DNA methylation is acquired late in oogenesis from an essentially unmethylated baseline and is established largely as a consequence of transcription events. Molecular and functional studi...

  20. Oogênese em Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 e Fannia heydenni (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Fanniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis in Fannia pusio and Fannia heydenii was divided into a series of eight stages (stage I - germarium; stage VIII - mature egg, which are characterized and illustrated. Comments on similar researches and a comparison with related data in literature are also included.

  1. Influência da dieta no desenvolvimento oogênico de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Fanniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Females of Fannia pusio were submitted to three different diets (sugar, fish and sugar + liver, which influence in the oogenetic development was observed. The oogenesis was completed in the 15th. day, both under sugar or sugar + liver diets. This species proved to be autogenous for the first ovarian cycle.

  2. Influência da dieta no desenvolvimento oogênico de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, Fanniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Souto Couri

    1990-01-01

    Females of Fannia pusio were submitted to three different diets (sugar, fish and sugar + liver), which influence in the oogenetic development was observed. The oogenesis was completed in the 15th. day, both under sugar or sugar + liver diets. This species proved to be autogenous for the first ovarian cycle.

  3. Oogênese em Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) e Fannia heydenni (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, Fanniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Souto Couri

    1990-01-01

    Oogenesis in Fannia pusio and Fannia heydenii was divided into a series of eight stages (stage I - germarium; stage VIII - mature egg), which are characterized and illustrated. Comments on similar researches and a comparison with related data in literature are also included.

  4. Cytoskeleton and gravity at work in the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity in the egg of Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Ubbels, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of polarities during early embryogenesis is essential for normal development. Amphibian eggs are appropriate models for studies on embryonic pattern formation. The animal-vegetal axis of the axially symmetrical amphibian egg originates during oogenesis and foreshadows the main body

  5. Fish on avian lampbrush chromosomes produces higher resolution gene mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galkina, S.A.; Deryusheva, S.; Fillon, V.; Vignal, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodionov, A.V.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Giant lampbrush chromosomes, which are characteristic of the diplotene stage of prophase I during avian oogenesis, represent a very promising system for precise physical gene mapping. We applied 35 chicken BAC and 4 PAC clones to both mitotic metaphase chromosomes and meiotic lampbrush chromosomes o

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel oocyte-specific gene encoding an F-Box protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oocyte-specific genes play critical roles in oogenesis, folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Through analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a rainbow trout oocyte cDNA library, we identified a novel transcript which is represented by ESTs only from the oocyte library. The novel...

  7. PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways, ovarian dysfunction, and infertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-12-01

    Abnormalities in ovarian function, including defective oogenesis and folliculogenesis, represent a key female reproductive deficiency. Accumulating evidence in the literature has shown that the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways are critical regulators of ovarian function including quiescence, activation, and survival of primordial follicles, granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and meiotic maturation of oocytes. Dysregulation of these signaling pathways may contribute to infertility caused by impaired follicular development, intrafollicular oocyte development, and ovulation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the functional role of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR pathways during mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis and their association with female infertility.

  8. Dopamine drives Drosophila sechellia adaptation to its toxic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Svatoš, Aleš; Kai, Marco; Riemensperger, Thomas; Birman, Serge; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-12-09

    Many insect species are host-obligate specialists. The evolutionary mechanism driving the adaptation of a species to a toxic host is, however, intriguing. We analyzed the tight association of Drosophila sechellia to its sole host, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to other members of the melanogaster species group. Molecular polymorphisms in the dopamine regulatory protein Catsup cause infertility in D. sechellia due to maternal arrest of oogenesis. In its natural host, the fruit compensates for the impaired maternal dopamine metabolism with the precursor l-DOPA, resuming oogenesis and stimulating egg production. l-DOPA present in morinda additionally increases the size of D. sechellia eggs, what in turn enhances early fitness. We argue that the need of l-DOPA for successful reproduction has driven D. sechellia to become an M. citrifolia obligate specialist. This study illustrates how an insect's dopaminergic system can sustain ecological adaptations by modulating ontogenesis and development.

  9. Early programming of the oocyte epigenome temporally controls late prophase I transcription and chromatin remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Costa, Paulo; McCarthy, Alicia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Greer, Christina; Guilgur, Leonardo G; Becker, Jörg D; Secombe, Julie; Rangan, Prashanth; Martinho, Rui G

    2016-08-10

    Oocytes are arrested for long periods of time in the prophase of the first meiotic division (prophase I). As chromosome condensation poses significant constraints to gene expression, the mechanisms regulating transcriptional activity in the prophase I-arrested oocyte are still not entirely understood. We hypothesized that gene expression during the prophase I arrest is primarily epigenetically regulated. Here we comprehensively define the Drosophila female germ line epigenome throughout oogenesis and show that the oocyte has a unique, dynamic and remarkably diversified epigenome characterized by the presence of both euchromatic and heterochromatic marks. We observed that the perturbation of the oocyte's epigenome in early oogenesis, through depletion of the dKDM5 histone demethylase, results in the temporal deregulation of meiotic transcription and affects female fertility. Taken together, our results indicate that the early programming of the oocyte epigenome primes meiotic chromatin for subsequent functions in late prophase I.

  10. Transcription of the 5S rRNA heterochromatic genes is epigenetically controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana and Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, J; Tourmente, S

    2007-07-01

    5S ribosomal DNA is a highly conserved tandemly repeated multigenic family. As suggested for a long time, we have shown that only a fraction of the 5S rRNA genes are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Xenopus laevis, there is a developmental control of the expression of the 5S rRNA genes with only one of the two 5S rDNA families expressed during oogenesis. For both Arabidopsis and Xenopus, the strongest transcription of 5S rRNA, respectively in the seed and during oogenesis is correlated with heterogeneity in the transcribed 5S rRNAs. Epigenetic mechanisms such as modification of the chromatin structure are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the 5S rRNA genes in both organisms. In Arabidopsis, two silencing pathways, methylation-dependent (RNAi) and methylation-independent (MOM pathway), are involved in the silencing of a 5S rDNA fraction.

  11. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis.

  12. Reproduction of the cold-water coral Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Ashley M.; Waller, Rhian G.; Försterra, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the reproduction of a cold-water coral, Primnoella chilensis (Philippi, 1894) from the Comau and Reñihué fjords in Chilean Patagonia. Samples were collected in September and November of 2012 and April, June, and September of 2013 from three sites within the two fjords. The sexuality, reproductive mode, spermatocyst stage, oocyte size, and fecundity were determined using histological techniques. This species is gonochoristic with one aberrant hermaphrodite identified in this study. Reproduction was found to be seasonal, with the initiation of oogenesis in September and suggested a broadcast spawning event between June and September. The maximum oocyte size was 752.96 μm, suggesting a lecithotrophic larvae. The maximum fecundity was 36 oocytes per polyp. Male individuals were only found in April and June. In June, all four spermatocyst stages were present. This suggests that spermatogenesis requires less time than oogenesis in P. chilensis.

  13. Effective gene silencing in Drosophila ovarian germline by artificial microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailong Wang; YanJun Mu; Dahua Chen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Drosophila oogenesis is of great interest because it represents an excellent model system to study a number of fascinating biological processes, such as stem cell regulation, germ cell meiosis and oocyte determination, as well as signal interactions between germline and soma.A typical Drosophila ovary is composed of 16-20 ovarioles, each consisting of an anterior functional unit called a germarium and a linear string of differentiated egg chambers posterior to the germarium [1] (Figure 1A and 1B).Drosophila oogenesis initiates at the tip of the germarium, when a germline stem cell (GSC) divides asymmetrically to generate a daughter GSC and a cystoblast that eventually develops into a mature egg [2] (Figure 1C and 1E).

  14. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  15. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for assessing development under conditions of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. K.; Hilgenfeld, R. B.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    More is known about the regulation of early developmental events in Drosophila than any other animal. In addition, its size and short life cycle make it a facile experimental system. Since developmental perturbations have been demonstrated when both oogenesis and embryogenesis occur in the space environment, there is a strong rationale for using this organism for the elucidation of specific gravity-sensitive developmental events.

  16. Understanding Autoinhibition of Drosophila Formin Cappuccino in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Batbileg

    2014-01-01

    Cappuccino (Capu) is an actin assembly factor that is necessary to establish Drosophila oocyte polarity. Disrupting normal polarity leads to female sterility. It is thought that Capu helps establish oocyte polarity by creating a mesh-like actin structure that spans the oocyte during early stages of development. Disappearance of this actin mesh in later stages of oogenesis coincides with rapid coordinated flows of the cytoplasm, referred to as cytoplasmic streaming. When cytoplasmic streaming ...

  17. Follicular cell differentiation in polytrophic ovaries of a moth midge, Tinearia alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Dipteran ovaries consist of structural-functional units termed egg chambers. Each egg chamber is composed of a cluster of germ cells enveloped by a simple somatic follicular epithelium. With the progress of oogenesis, initially an almost uniform population of follicular cells (FCs) becomes diversified into a few subgroups, which significantly differ in their function and behaviour. From the extensive genetic and molecular studies on Drosophila it became evident that the mode of diversification of FCs and the interactions between distinct FC subpopulations and the germ-line cells are essential for a proper course of oogenesis and the generation of oocyte/embryo polarity. Recent comparative studies showed that major dipteran lineages may significantly differ in the mode of FC differentiation. The most essential difference occurs in the ability of the FCs to undertake migrations within the egg chamber. In contrast to long distance, invasive migrations characteristic of distinct FC subgroups in the egg chambers of the most derived flies (Brachycera), including Drosophila, the FCs in the ovaries of more ancestral Nematocera lack migratory activity and change their location only within the epithelial layer. Comparative analyses indicate that the FCs in the representatives of particular evolutionary lineages within Nematocera may differ in their behaviour during oogenesis. In this report we describe the FC differentiation pathway in the egg chambers of a moth midge, T. alternata (Psychodomorpha). Comparison with representatives of craneflies (Nematocera: Polyneura) showed that differences in the behaviour of FCs and in the number of FC subpopulations between Polyneura and Psychodomorpha, may depend on different oogenesis dynamics. In spite of the observed differences, some functional homologies between distinct subsets of the FCs in dipteran ovaries are postulated.

  18. Drosophila Fascin is a novel downstream target of prostaglandin signaling during actin remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Christopher M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Although prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics, their mechanisms of action are unknown. We previously established Drosophila oogenesis, in particular nurse cell dumping, as a new model to determine how PGs regulate actin remodeling. PGs, and thus the Drosophila COX-like enzyme Pxt, are required for both the parallel actin filament bundle formation and the cortical actin strengthening required for dumping. He...

  19. Sex determination in mammalian germ cells

    OpenAIRE

    Spiller, Cassy M; Josephine Bowles

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the precursors of the sperm and oocytes and hence are critical for survival of the species. In mammals, they are specified during fetal life, migrate to the developing gonads and then undergo a critical period during which they are instructed, by the soma, to adopt the appropriate sexual fate. In a fetal ovary, germ cells enter meiosis and commit to oogenesis, whereas in a fetal testis, they avoid entry into meiosis and instead undergo mitotic arrest and mature toward spermatog...

  20. A Genetic Approach to Identifying Signal Transduction Mechanisms Initiated by Receptors for TGF-B-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    first discovery of mammalian TGF-ßl 16 years ago as a factor capable of inducing anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney fibroblasts...and -4 and 60A is 70% identical to BMP-5 through -8 (Kingsley, 1994a). When implanted subcutaneously in rats , Dpp and 60A proteins are able to...The TGF-ß signaling pathway is essential for Drosophila oogenesis . Development 122, 1555-1565. Vaahtokari, A., Abert, T., Jernvall, J., Keranen

  1. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses ...

  2. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF LINDENBERGIA INDICA (70% EtOH) EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Surendra K.

    2003-01-01

    Oral feeding of 70% EtOH extract of Lindenbergia indica to female rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg / kg body weight caused significant reduction of serum cholesterol, HDL – cholesterol, triglycerides & phospholipids (P≤ 0.05 to P≤ 0.001). Where as the protein levels were not reduced significantly. Fertility test showed 100% negative results. The negative fertility reflects the arrest of Oogenesis & depletion of estrogen level. Further Lindenbergia indica reflects antiestr...

  3. windbeutel, a gene required for dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila, encodes a protein that has homologies to vertebrate proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum

    OpenAIRE

    Konsolaki, Mary; Schüpbach, Trudi

    1998-01-01

    The formation of the dorsoventral axis of the Drosophila embryo depends on cell–cell interactions that take place in the female ovary and involve the activation of transmembrane receptors by secreted ligands. The gene windbeutel functions in the somatic follicle cells of the ovary and is required for the generation of a signal that will determine the ventral side of the embryo. This signal originates in the follicle cells during oogenesis, but its actions are only manifested after fertilizati...

  4. Reprint Accession List 1978. Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Phospholipids during oogenesis and embryogeneses of Dermacentor andersoni (!xodidae) and Argas (Persicarqas) arhoreuIS (Argasidaie. J. Med. Ent. 14(2...71:113-118. 1978.- 1171 DARWISH. M.A., HOOGSTRAAL, H. and AMER, T.: A Serological f Survey for Bhanja Virus in Humans, Domestic Mammnals, and Rats ...technique 1150 RVF in domestic animals 1167 VIROLOGY Bhanja Virus In humans, domestic mammals, and. rats in Egypt 1171 IBiological and antigenic properties

  5. Control of Growth Within Drosophila Peripheral Nerves by Ras and Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    downstream of the EGF receptor to determine dorsoventral polarity during Drosophila oogenesis . Genes Dev 8:629 – 639. Brunet A, Bonni A, Zigmond MJ...are increased following induction of seizures in rats , and in the hippocampi of epileptic patients [56]. This activity- induced increase in phospho...nucleus tractus solitarius is depressed by Group II and III but not Group I presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors in rats . J Physiol 538: 773

  6. The Expression of Sprouty1, an Inhibitor of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signal Transduction, Is Decreased in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-15

    contribute to prostate cancer pro- gression. Yan et al. (4) have shown in the Dunning rat model system that as these transplantable tumors progress...mediated by the FGFR and the epidermal growth factor receptor during eye development and oogenesis in Drosophila (17–19). During Drosophila eye development...treated with bovine antigoat IgG (1:5000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) or rat antimouse IgG secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (1

  7. Sprouty-1, an Inhibitor of Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    could potentially limit the biological activity of during eye development and oogenesis in Drosophila (17-19). During FGFs in prostate cancer...Dunning rat model system Grb2 (26, 27) and c-Cbl (28), but the precise molecular mechanism by that as these transplantable tumors progress from a mixed...Santa Cruz Biotechnology) or rat antimouse lgG G1TrG-3’. Primers were carefully designed to cross exon/intron regions and to secondary antibody

  8. The Role(s) of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan(s) in the wnt-1 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    paternally rescuable(see Perrimon et al., 1996; and Materials and methods for details) indicating that this gene is expressed in both oogenesis and early...between Sf1 and rat HS N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase and mouse heparin N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase are 51% and 53% respectively. HS N-deacetylase/N...Orellana, G. Gil, and C.B. Hirschberg. 1992. Molecular cloning and expression of rat liver N-heparan sulfate sulfotransferase. J. Biol, Chem. 1992: 15744

  9. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, ...

  10. XY and ZW: Is Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation the Rule in Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Schoenmakers; Evelyne Wassenaar; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S E; J Anton Grootegoed; Baarends, Willy M.

    2009-01-01

    During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription ...

  11. Scrambling Eggs: Meiotic Drive and the Evolution of Female Recombination Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Theories to explain the prevalence of sex and recombination have long been a central theme of evolutionary biology. Yet despite decades of attention dedicated to the evolution of sex and recombination, the widespread pattern of sex-differences in the recombination rate is not well understood and has received relatively little theoretical attention. Here, we argue that female meiotic drivers - alleles that increase in frequency by exploiting the asymmetric cell division of oogenesis - present ...

  12. The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone treatment on early meiotic oocytes of Podarcis sicula (Lacertilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Borrelli, L; Filosa, S

    1995-07-01

    The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on early meiotic oocytes were studied by cytological, autoradiographic, and photometric techniques. In addition to regulating oogonial proliferation, oogenesis, and folliculogenesis, the hormone influenced germ cell number and the time course of early meiosis. FSH did not affect the timing of DNA replication and amplification and did not change the amount of rDNA accumulated in the nucleus by amplification. A genetic control mechanism for these processes is suggested.

  13. On the Role of PDZ Domain-Encoding Genes in Drosophila Border Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Aranjuez, George; Kudlaty, Elizabeth; Longworth, Michelle S; McDonald, Jocelyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Cells often move as collective groups during normal embryonic development and wound healing, although the mechanisms governing this type of migration are poorly understood. The Drosophila melanogaster border cells migrate as a cluster during late oogenesis and serve as a powerful in vivo genetic model for collective cell migration. To discover new genes that participate in border cell migration, 64 out of 66 genes that encode PDZ domain-containing proteins were systematically targeted by in v...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CaII-Mv Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) (Wallerstein+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, G.; Machado-Pelaez, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    1999-07-01

    Hipparcos parallaxes were used to derive absolute visual magnitudes of G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measured by O.C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derived originally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker was found from Mv=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than Mv=-2 a substantial number of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expected from the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants and supergiants of type G. (3 data files).

  15. Courtship song genes and speciation in sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira SG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae is a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas and it might represent a complex of sibling species. Reproductive isolation between closely related species often involves differences in courtship behaviour. cacophony (cac and period (per are two Drosophila genes that control features of the "lovesong" males produce during courtship that has been implicated in the sexual isolation between closely related species. We are using gene fragments from L. longipalpis' homologues of these two genes to study the speciation process in this putative species complex.

  16. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  17. Hybrid inverse design method for nonlifting bodies in incompressible flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available is needed. The possible applications of a general inverse design method also extend beyond fuselage design: work done by Lutz and Wagner [18] on shape optimization of airship bodies demonstrated the usefulness of a custom inverse design method...�uence of a second component in the �ow�eld is shown. In this last example, a constant- chord symmetrical keel at zero angle of attack is added to the body to simulate the bulb and keel of a competition sailing yacht. Design of an Airship Body The goal...

  18. Teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante das sementes da Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    p. 170-176 Introdução: A Carpotroche brasiliensis é uma árvore nativa brasileira, utilizada na medicina popular. Objetivo: avaliar a qualidade nutricional, fatores antinutricionais, teor de compostos fenólicos e determinar atividade antioxidante das sementes da planta. Metodologia: As sementes foram divididas em amostra natural (CB) e liofilizada (CBL). A composição centesimal e teor de ácido oxálico foram realizados em triplicata, segundo normas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ácido ...

  19. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  20. Mechanisms of Neuronal Apoptosis In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    DAMD17-de Tapia , M., Lutz-Bucher, B., Gaiddon, C., and Loeffler, J. P. (2000) Alteration of the Bcl-x/Bax References ratio in a transgenic mouse model of... Ramirez P. 1999. Repair kinetics of gamma- hippocampal neurons in B27-supplemented NeurobasalTM, a new ray induced DNA damage determined by single...Biochemistry 15:4629-4637. 22. Ferrante, R. J., Browne, S. E., Shinobu, L. A., Bowling, A. C., 30. Mendiola-Cruz, M. T. and Morales- Ramirez , P. 1999

  1. Avaliação do crescimento em cordas na identificação presuntiva do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Andrea Gobetti Vieira; Zamarioli, Liliana Aparecida; Reis,Clemira Martins Pereira Vidal; Duca,Bruno Francisco de Lima

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sob certas condições apropriadas, cresce em cordões de serpentinas, denominados de fator corda, ou crescimento em cordas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a detecção do fator corda como método de identificação presuntiva do complexo M. tuberculosis, comparando-o aos testes de tipificação (TIP) convencionais. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 743 cepas, de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2005, na Área de Micobactérias do Instituto Adolfo Lutz - Santos, obtidas de ...

  2. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  3. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  4. Phlébotomes du Nicaragua: I. Description de la femelle de Lutzomyia zeledoni Young et Murillo, 1984 (Diptera, Psychodidae, et implication épidémiologique de la présence de Lutzomyia longipalpis sur la façade Pacifique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Le Pont

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs décrivent la femelle de Lutzomyia zeledoni Young et Murillo, 1984 du Groupe Vespertilionis Theodor, 1965. Cette espèce a été capturée en milieu péridomestique en compagnie de Lutzomyia longpalpis Lutz et Neiva, 1912 répertorié pour la première fois du Nicaragua. Il est mis l'accent sur l'importance épidémiologique de cette dernière espèce récoltée en abondance dans plusieurs stations de la façade pacifique.

  5. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) with the piggyBac transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Flávia Guimarães; Oliveira, Sabrina Barbosa; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  6. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae with the piggyBac transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Guimarães Rodrigues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  7. The Social Construction of School Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merylann J. Schuttloffel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A case study highlights barriers encountered by an urban school principal in implementing reforms within the context of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act. By comparing the competing expectations of Miller's (1995 five capitals and Ianneconne and Lutz's (1970 dissatisfaction theory, the case study dramatizes that Site-Based Decision-Making councils exemplify a policy decision that ignores the practical realities of distressed schools. The lack of congruence between policies and the school reality makes implementation of school reform predictably unsuccessful.

  8. Genetic variability among populations of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, J P; Rowton, E; Herrero, M V; Ponce, C; Belli, A; Valle, S; Lanzaro, G C

    1998-03-01

    Eleven Central American populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were analyzed for genetic variation at 16 enzyme loci. The aim was to study the genetic structure among populations within this region and to identify demes that may represent different sibling species. Genotypic frequencies within populations agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, indicating that there were no sympatric sibling species among these 11 populations. Levels of genetic distance between pairs of populations were very low (migration rates among populations (Nm) were low (3.7), indicating that gene flow was restricted. These data explained observed genetic substructuring when all genotypes were pooled.

  9. Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Google and YouTube use Python because it's highly adaptable, easy to maintain, and allows for rapid development. If you want to write high-quality, efficient code that's easily integrated with other languages and tools, this hands-on book will help you be productive with Python quickly -- whether you're new to programming or just new to Python. It's an easy-to-follow self-paced tutorial, based on author and Python expert Mark Lutz's popular training course. Each chapter contains a stand-alone lesson on a key component of the language, and includes a unique Test Your Knowledge section with p

  10. Prevalência da infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em dois municípios do Estado de Alagoas Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two municipalities of the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo César Correia Palmeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos preliminares indicam uma provável expansão da esquistossomose em Alagoas. Este trabalho analisa a ocorrência do Schistosoma mansoni em escolares de dois municípios, localizados nas bacias hidrográficas dos rios Mundaú e Paraíba. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi constituído por 690 escolares da zona urbana, com idade entre sete e 15 anos. Foram aplicados interrogatórios socioeconômicos e foram usados exames parasitológicos para diagnostico da esquistossomose (métodos de Kato e de Lutz. Foram tratados os casos positivos e foram ministradas palestras para alunos e familiares sobre educação sanitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de Schistosoma mansoni foi de 24,9%. A associação entre esquistossomose e outras parasitoses foi significativa em relação à tricuríase (pINTRODUCTION: Preliminary studies indicate a probable schistosomiasis expansion in Alagoas. This work analyzes the occurrence of Schistosoma mansoni in students from two municipalities, located in the Mundaú and Paraíba rivers basins. METHODS: The study group consisted of 690 students in the urban area, aged between seven and 15 years. A standardized socio-economic questionnaire was filled out and parasitological tests were used to diagnosis schistosomiasis (Lutz and Kato methods. Positive cases were treated and students and their families were lectured about health education. RESULTS: The Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 24.9%. The association between schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was significant in relation to trichuriasis (p <0.05. Only 50% of infected children lived in brick homes with sanitation and public water supply. Among them, 48.1% used to go usually to the water collections and 55.8% of them knew rivers snails. The concordance analysis between the Lutz and Kato methods showed disagreement in 54.2%, with greater sensitivity for the Lutz technique (76.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The indices obtained characterize the municipalities

  11. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis): OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis) EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres; Alonso Salustiano Pereira; Magdala Alencar Teixeiras; Paulo César Stringheta

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976). A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente des...

  12. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  13. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.

  14. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and Identification of Leishmania Parasites in Sand Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    l ofAEbufferwas added, followed by incubation at room temperature for 5 min and centrifugion at 8,000 rpm for 1 min in a microcentrifuge. An...additional 50 l of AE buffer was added to the QIAamp Spin Column, followed by in- cubation at room temperature for 5 min and centri- fugion at 8,000 rpm for...FLIES 653 addition, DNA from three species of phlebotomine sand ßies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), P. papatasi, and Phlebotomus argentipes

  15. Simulium (Chirostilbia brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Maia-Herzog

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres. This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C. subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  16. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea.

  17. The fog-3 gene and regulation of cell fate in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R.; Kimble, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the same interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The effects of microgravity on gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.

    Gametogenesis fertilization and early embryogenesis are crucial periods for normal development afterwards In past three decades many experiments have been conducted in space and in simulated weightlessness induced by clinostats to elucidate the issue Different animal species including Drosophila wasp shrimp fish amphibian mouse rats etc have been used for the study Oogenesis and spermatogenesis are affected by microgravity in different ways Some researches found that microgravity condition perturbed the process of oogenesis in many species A significant increased frequency of chromosomal non-disjunction was found in Drosophila females resulting the loss of chromosomes during meiosis and inhibition of cell division Studies on wasp showed a decreased hatchability and accumulation of unhatched eggs when the insects were exposed to spaceflight at different stages of oogenesis For experiments conducted on vertebrate animal models the results are somehow different however Microgravity has no significant effect for fish Medaka etc amphibian South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis or mammals mouse Spermatogenesis on the other hand is more significantly affected by microgravity condition Some researches indicated sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force and this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs Sperm swim with higher velocity in microgravity which is coupled with altered protein phosphorylation level in sperm under microgravity condition Microgravity also induced activation of the

  19. Early meiotic-specific protein expression in post-natal rat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Lv, L X; Xing, W J

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies in mice challenged the basic doctrine that most mammalian females lose neo-oogenesis in post-natal ovaries. In order to provide more information in other species, we examined post-natal rat ovaries by histological sections and detected the germline cell marker protein RVLG (rat vasa-like gene), BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation in RVLG-expressing cells, for identification of germline cells undergoing mitosis and meiosis in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). We also detected the expression of early meiotic-specific proteins disruption of meiotic control 1 (DMC1), stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and the transcript of SCP1, SCP3 and Sporulation-specific protein 11 (SPO11) by RT-PCR in the post-natal ovarian cortex. However we failed in detecting large ovoid cells in the OSE, which may represent the putative germline stem cells (GSCs) that are supposed to sustain neo-oogenesis, and the transcription of the meiotic-specific genes SCP1, SCP3 and SPO11 by RT-PCR as well as the translation of DMC1, STRA8 and SCP3 by Western blotting. Our data support the postulation that there is no neo-oogenesis occurring in the OSE of rat post-natal ovary through meiosis of GSCs.

  20. Temporal dynamics of oocyte growth and vitellogenin gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Michelle H; Dutkosky, Rachel M; Heah, Tze P; Sayler, Gary S; Henry, Theodore B

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about how hepatic vitellogenin gene (vtg) expression relates to oogenesis in fish, especially among fractional spawners. The objective of this study was to relate hepatic vtg 1A/B expression to stage-specific oocyte development in zebrafish (Danio rerio), an asynchronous spawning fish. Liver samples were collected at seven time points postspawning (1-32 days) and fish were preserved for subsequent histological analyses. Relative vtg 1A/B expression among liver samples was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and oogenesis was evaluated following standard hematoxylin and eosin staining of serial ovarian sections. Histological analyses indicate that a subset of previtellogenic oocytes (stages 1-2) transitioned into postvitellogenic oocytes (stages 3-4) within 4 days (96 h) postspawning. By 8 days postspawning (192 h), the majority of the ovary was occupied by mature (stage 4) oocytes, a trend that continued through 32 days postspawning. Hepatic vtg 1A/B gene expression was upregulated 3.89-fold 1-h postspawning relative to the average gene expression across all time points, but was not correlated to stage-specific oogenesis. Follicular atresia among fish sampled 32 days postspawning highlights the importance of regular spawning in zebrafish and suggests that the event of spawning itself may be integral to the regulation of oocyte development.

  1. The Notch pathway regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells in the panoistic ovary of Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.

  2. ELF alternating magnetic field decreases reproduction by DNA damage induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Karabarbounis, Andreas; Lioliousis, Constantinos

    2013-11-01

    In the present experiments, the effect of 50-Hz alternating magnetic field on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction was studied. Newly eclosed insects were separated into identical groups of ten males and ten females and exposed to three different intensities of the ELF magnetic field (1, 11, and 21 G) continuously during the first 5 days of their adult lives. The reproductive capacity was assessed by the number of F1 pupae according to a well-defined protocol of ours. The magnetic field was found to decrease reproduction by up to 4.3%. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The decline in reproductive capacity was found to be due to severe DNA damage (DNA fragmentation) and consequent cell death induction in the reproductive cells as determined by the TUNEL assay applied during early and mid-oogenesis (from germarium to stage 10) where physiological apoptosis does not occur. The increase in DNA damage was more significant than the corresponding decrease in reproductive capacity (up to ~7.5%). The TUNEL-positive signal denoting DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages of oogenesis: the early and mid-oogenesis checkpoints (i.e. region 2a/2b of the germarium and stages 7-8 just before the onset of vitellogenesis)-in contrast to exposure to microwave radiation of earlier work of ours in which the DNA fragmentation was induced at all developmental stages of early and mid-oogenesis. Moreover, the TUNEL-positive signal was observed in all three types of egg chamber cells, mainly in the nurse and follicle cells and also in the oocyte, in agreement with the microwave exposure of our earlier works. According to previous reports, cell death induction in the oocyte was observed only in the case of microwave exposure and not after exposure to other stress factors as toxic chemicals or food deprivation. Now it is also observed for the first time after ELF magnetic field exposure. Finally, in contrast to microwave

  3. Emerging magnetic stability in atomically assembled spin arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Baumann, Susanne; Lutz, Christopher P.; Eigler, D. M.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic stability is usually created by the interaction of a large ensemble of atomically small magnetic moments that are themselves unstable. We make use of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope's ability to move individual atoms and construct arrays of interacting spins. Owed to their smallness, the magnetic states of these spin arrays are quantized and we probe their energies by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy [1]. To gain access to the equally important dynamical properties we employ an all-electronic pump-probe measurement scheme with which we follow the evolution between the spin states at nanosecond speed [2]. The combination of energetic and dynamical information allows identification of the relevant spin interaction and spin relaxation mechanisms at the atomic level. We design arrangements of atoms that suppress quantum tunneling of magnetization and drastically stabilize different spin configurations. Tracing the emergence of magnetic stability in the progression from individual atoms to arrays of spins points to new avenues for spintronic applications at atomic dimensions. [4pt] [1] A. J. Heinrich, J. A. Gupta, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, Science 306 466 (2004).[0pt] [2] S. Loth, M. Etzkorn, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, A. J. Heinrich, Science 329 1628 (2010).

  4. Stability of vitamin A in irradiated beef liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Quimica

    1997-12-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carorene were analized in 3KGy Co-60 {gamma}-irradiation and unirradiated samples of bovine liver. Six different lots of samples were obtained at meat market, two samples per lot weighing about 100g each, keot at -15{sup 0} C as long as possible. Pre-treatment and analysis methopds were those described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in duplicates. The total viramin A content of the samples varied a lot. The means and standard deviations of vitamin A retention percentage after irradiation were 106{+-}8.2 (12 replications). Similarly, {beta}-carotene retention percentage was 98{+-}2.4 (24 replications). The results show that there were no losses of neither vitamin A nor protovitamin A as consequence of irradiation with a dose suitable for the reduction of spoilage and pathogenic organisms. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and HIV negative individuals in the city of Itajaí, Brazil

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    Jucelene Marchi Blatt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and intestinal parasites are common in Brazil. Previous studies have shown that infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently associated with HIV infection. Strongyloidiasis is difficult to diagnosis and stool examination with conventional techniques fails to detect the helminth larvae. We made a prospective study, to test the efficacy of the agar plate technique to detect S. stercoralis in 211 HIV-positive patients and 213 HIV-negative patients in the city of Itajaí, Brazil, between September 2001 and June 2002. The feces samples of these patients were processed and analyzed according to the following methods: Lutz, formalin ethyl acetate, Baermann, Harada-Mori and agar plate culture. HIV-positive patients were more frequently infected by S. stercoralis (odds ratio= 5,.687. Among the methods used on fecal specimens, the larvae of S. stercoralis were most efficiently detected by the agar plate (69.7% method, followed by the Baermann and the formalin ethyl acetate methods (48.5% (P=0.01, Lutz (42.4% (P=0.01, and Harada-Mori culture (24% (P=0.001. Therefore agar plate culture is the most efficient method for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae and this technique should be the test of choice, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

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    Maria José Conceição

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.Data on prevalence and morbidity of Schistosomiasis mansoni, local intermediate host and its rate of infection, in the county of Santa Luzia do Carneiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are presented. A cross-seccionai study demonstrated a figure of 42.1 per cent of positivity for S.mansoni eggs in one faeces parasitoiogic examination by Lutz method (Hoffman, Pons, Janer metod. Liver and spleen eniagement were observed in 6.8 per cent of the patients. The intermediate host B.glabrata showed an infection rate of 3.2per cent.

  8. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder The Political Weight of Images

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    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.Lutz Hieber and Paula-Irene Villa examine the history and topicality of Queer Theory from the perspective of sociology, cultural studies, and politics. They depict essential theoretical debates and thinkers such as postmodernism, feminism in postmodernism, or the critique of identity and normalization. At the same time they place lucrative accents in the form of analyses of differing political practices, such as of the politicization of art. Overall the study successfully presents firstly, the terminology of Queer Theory ordered into their respective contexts and explained and secondly, specific forms and possibilities of political practice.

  9. Anagramme und andere Sprachspiele – zum Werk von Unica Zürn Anagrams and Other Language Games—On the Work of Unica Zürn

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    Agnieszka Vojta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Unica Zürn (geb. 1916, 1970 Selbstmord in Paris wurde in der Forschung kaum als eigenständige Künstlerin rezipiert. Sie wird als die Lebensgefährtin von Hans Bellmer angesehen. In diesem Kontext fungiert sie als seine Muse, als die lebendige Verkörperung seiner Puppenmodelle. Helga Lutz plädiert in ihrer Dissertation für eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Arbeiten von Unica Zürn, „losgelöst aus dem Koordinatensystem des Biographischen und der Prämisse des Wahnsinns“. (S. 169Unica Zürn (born in 1916; suicide in Paris in 1970 has rarely been received in scholarship as an independent artist. She is seen as Hans Bellmer’s companion. She functions as a muse in this context, as a living embodiment of his dolls. In her dissertation, Helga Lutz pleads for an examination of Utica Zorn’s work, “removed from the coordinate plane of the biography and the premises of insanity” (169.

  10. Gain-of-function mutations of fem-3, a sex-determination gene in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M.K.; Schedl, T.B.; Kimble, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated nine gain-of-function (gf) alleles of the sex-determination gene fem-3 as suppressors of feminizing mutations in fem-1 and fem-2. The wild type fem-3 gene is needed for spermatogenesis in XX self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and for male development in both soma and germ line of XO animals. Loss-of-function alleles of fem-3 transform XX and XO animals into females (spermless hermaphrodites). In contrast, fem-3 (gf) alleles masculinize only one tissue, the hermaphrodite germ line. Thus, XX fem-3 (gf) mutant animals have a normal hermaphrodite soma, but the germ line produces a vast excess of sperm and no oocytes. All nine fem-3 (gf) alleles are temperature sensitive. The temperature-sensitive period is from late L4 to early adult, a period just preceding the first signs of oogenesis. The finding of gain-of-function alleles which confer a phenotype opposite to that of loss-of-function alleles supports the idea that fem-3 plays a critical role in germ-line sex determination. Furthermore, the germ-line specificity of the fem-3 (gf) mutant phenotype and the late temperature-sensitive period suggest that, in the wild-type XX hermaphrodite, fem-3 is negatively regulated so that the hermaphrodite stops making sperm and starts making oocytes. Temperature shift experiments also show that, in the germ line, sexual commitment appears to be a continuing process. Spermatogenesis can resume even after oogenesis has begun, and oogenesis can be initiated much later than normal.

  11. Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

    2013-09-15

    The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general.

  12. The placental analogue and the pattern of sexual reproduction in the cheilostome bryozoan Bicellariella ciliata (Gymnolaemata

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    Moosbrugger Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrotrophy or extraembryonic nutrition – transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo during gestation – is well known and thoroughly studied among vertebrates, but still poorly understood in invertebrates. The current paper focuses on the anatomy and ultrastructure of the oogenesis and placentotrophy as well as formation of the brood chamber (ovicell in the cheilostome bryozoan Bicellariella ciliata (Linnaeus, 1758. Our research aimed to combine these aspects of the sexual reproduction into an integral picture, highlighting the role of the primitive placenta-like system in the evolution of bryozoan reproductive patterns. Results Follicular and nutrimentary provisioning of the oocyte occur during oogenesis. Small macrolecithal oocytes are produced, and embryos are nourished in the ovicell via a simple placental analogue (embryophore. Every brooding episode is accompanied by the hypertrophy of the embryophore, which collapses after larval release. Nutrients are released and uptaken by exocytosis (embryophore and endocytosis (embryo. Embryos lack specialized area for nutrient uptake, which occurs through the whole epidermal surface. The volume increase between the ripe oocyte and the larva is ca. 10-fold. Conclusions The ovicell is a complex organ (not a special polymorph as often thought consisting of an ooecium (protective capsule and an ooecial vesicle (plugging the entrance to the brooding cavity that develop from the distal and the fertile zooid correspondingly. Combination of macrolecithal oogenesis and extraembryonic nutrition allows attributing B. ciliata to species with reproductive pattern IV. However, since its oocytes are small, this species represents a previously undescribed variant of this pattern, which appears to represent a transitional state from the insipient matrotrophy (with large macrolecithal eggs to substantial one (with small microlecithal ones. Altogether, our results substantially added and

  13. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-11-19

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l(-1) (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l(-1)) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l(-1)). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l(-1) and 10 ng P l(-1) caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians.

  14. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  15. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter.

  16. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P [Varian Medical Systems, Baden - Daettwil (Switzerland); Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  17. SU-E-J-213: Imaging and Treatment Isocenter Verification of a Gantry Mounted Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S; Goddu, S; Rankine, L; Klein, E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion proton therapy machine is the first to feature a gantry mounted sychro-cyclotron. In addition, the system utilizes a 6D motion couch and kV imaging for precise proton therapy. To quantify coincidence between these systems, isocentricity tests were performed based on kV imaging alignment using radiochromic film. Methods: The 100 ton gantry and 6D robotic couch can rotate 190° around isocenter to provide necessary beam angles for treatment. The kV sources and detector panels are deployed as needed to acquire orthogonal portals. Gantry and couch mechanical isocenter were tested using star-shots and radiochromic-film (RCF). Using kV imaging, the star-shot phantom was aligned to an embedded fiducial and the isocenter was marked on RCF with a pinprick. The couch and gantry stars were performed by irradiating films at every 45° and 30°, respectively. A proton beam with a range and modulation-width of 18 cm was used. A Winston-Lutz test was also performed at the same gantry and couch rotations using a custom jig holding RCF and a tungsten ball placed at isocenter. A 2 cm diameter circular aperture was used for the irradiation. Results: The couch star-shot indicated a minimum tangent circle of 0.6 mm, with a 0.9 mm offset from the manually marked isocenter. The gantry star-shot showed a 0.6 mm minimum tangent circle with a 0.5 mm offset from the pinprick. The Winston Lutz test performed for gantry rotation showed a maximum deviation from center of 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Based on star-shots and Winston-Lutz tests, the proton gantry and 6D couch isocentricity are within 1 mm. In this study, we have shown that the methods commonly utilized for Linac characterization can be applied to proton therapy. This revolutionary proton therapy system possesses excellent agreement between the mechanical and radiation isocenter, providing highly precise treatment.

  18. Garantia de qualidade em citopatologia: aspectos da correlação cito-histopatológica Quality assurance in cytopathology: aspects of the cytohistological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. di Loreto

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a concordância diagnóstica cito-histológica de lesões de colo uterino e discutiram as eventuais discrepâncias. OBJETIVO. Averiguar o nível de concordância cito-histológica nos casos da Divisão de Patologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL e aprimorar a estratégia de garantia de qualidade na instituição. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Estudaram 157 casos consecutivos dos arquivos do IAL em que foram enviadas citologia cérvico-vaginal e biópsia. RESULTADO. Houve concordância absoluta em 119 (75,8% casos; nos demais, a citologia superestimou 11 lesões (7,0% e subestimou 27 (17,2%. Observou-se que em 5 casos, inicialmente diagnosticados como inflamatório pela citologia, dois foram, à revisão, considerados como NIC 1; os demais foram ratificados como inflamatórios, apesar de suas respectivas biópsias terem diagnóstico de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical. CONCLUSÃO. Tais resultados demonstram a importância da correlação cito-histológica para o sistema de garantia de qualidade em diagnóstico citológico e apontam para a colheita como um dos fatores determinantes nas discrepâncias diagnósticas.The cytohistologic diagnosis concordance of the cervix-uterine lesions was evaluated and the discordances are discussed. PURPOSE. To evalute the level of cytohistological diagnosis agreement in the Pathology Division of the Adolfo Lutz Institute and enhance parameters of quality assurance system developed in this institution. METHODS. The authors retrospectively evaluated 157 pairs of cytologyhistology consecutive cases from the files the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Division of Pathology. RESULTS. Agreement was found in 119 cases (75.8%; in the remaining cases cytologic diagnosis were higher than histology in 11 lesions (7.0% and lower in 27 (17.2%. We also observed that in 5 cases previously diagnosed as inflammatory, 2 of them were reclassified as CIN 1; after revision, the others remained as inflammatory even though they had a

  19. Relationship between respiration rate and weight of loach oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernyuk, N D; Zotin, A I

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the constant k in the equation QO2 equals apk and the constant b in the equation qo2 equals aP-b change during the oogenesis of the loach. Hence, the growth of oocytes differs considerably from the growth of animals, where the constants k and b do not change with increase in weight. It is suggested that the relationship between the respiration rate and weight of the oocytes is due to the change in the amount of mitochondria in the oocytes.

  20. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...

  1. 哺乳动物卵巢中生殖干细胞的研究历史与进展%Germ Stem Cells in the Mammalian Ovary—History and Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗阳; 林戈

    2012-01-01

    对于出生后的哺乳动物卵巢中是否存在生殖干细胞以维持卵泡的更新一直争议不断,现就该领域的研究历史及最新进展进行综述.%Whether the germ stem cells exist in mammalian postnatal ovary to surpport oogenesis throughout reproductive life is a vigorous debate. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research history, recent progress and unclear questions in this field.

  2. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035μg TPT-SnL−1, whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088μg TPT-SnL−1. In FEN exposed females proliferation......, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity....

  3. Study of the oocyte degenerescence at mouse: role of the caspases and toxicity of natural uranium; Etude de la degenerescence ovocytaire chez la souris: role des caspases et toxicite de l'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, E

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the uranium toxicity on the ovarian function and on the oocyte and more fundamentally to characterize the molecular ways regulating the oocyte degenerescence. At first, will be described the different exposure modes at uranium and the known toxic effects of this heavy metal on man and animal. The mechanisms regulating the follicle genesis and the oogenesis are then developed. At last, will be given the data available in literature and concerning the apoptosis ways intervening in the follicular atresia and in the oocyte degenerescence while referring to the known ways of the somatic cells. (O.M.)

  4. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  5. Characterization of sur-2, a Novel Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction Component in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    transcriptional regulation. Amino Acids Animal Host 1-462 rat 456-927 rat 947-1387 rat 950-963 rabbit 950-963 rat 1377-1390 rabbit 1377-1390... rat Methods /Results Numerous attempts have been made to raise anti-SUR-2 antibodies. The antigens used in these immunizations are summarized as...Wang, S. and Hazelrigg, T. (1994). Implications for bed mRNA localization from spatial distribution of exu protein in Drosophila oogenesis . Nature 369: 400-403.

  6. Retinoic acid, meiosis and germ cell fate in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Although mammalian sex is determined genetically, the sex-specific development of germ cells as sperm or oocytes is initiated by cues provided by the gonadal environment. During embryogenesis, germ cells in an ovary enter meiosis, thereby committing to oogenesis. By contrast, germ cells in a testicular environment do not enter meiosis until puberty. Recent findings indicate that the key to this sex-specific timing of meiosis entry is the presence or absence of the signaling molecule retinoic acid. Although this knowledge clarifies a long-standing mystery in reproductive biology, it also poses many new questions, which we discuss in this review.

  7. Smurfs have "fused" into the asymmetric division of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven Y. Cheng; Ying E. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The asymmetric cell division is the way in which a stem cell divides into one daughter stem cell and one differentiated daughter cell.This process is one of the key principles of developmental biology that ensures the perpetual supply of stem cells while allowing a particular cell lineage to be populated.During Drosophila oogenesis, the fate of the daughter stem cell produced from the asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by Decapentaplegic (Dpp), but the other daughter cell has almost equal access to the Dpp signal.

  8. Are queen ants inhibited by their own pheromone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, L.; Leroy, C.; Jørgensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    . Communication in social insects is predominantly chemical, and the mechanisms regulating processes such as reproductive division of labor are becoming increasingly well understood. Recently, a queen cuticular hydrocarbon (3-MeC31) that inhibits worker reproduction and aggression was isolated in the ant Lasius...... niger. Here, we find that this pheromone also has a weak negative effect on queen productivity and oogenesis. Because 3-MeC31 is present on both queens and their brood, we suggest that it is used by ants of both castes to adjust their fecundity to the amount of developing brood and the presence of other...

  9. Effects of Low Levels of Zinc on the Ovarian Development of Tilapia nilotica Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Cariño

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight to ten days posthatch fry of Tilapia nilotica Linn. were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, 2 mg/l and 5 mg/l. After 30 days, ovarian differentiation occurred in the unexposed fry while gonadal anlage of zinc-exposed fry contained still undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGC. Normal oogenesis was exhibited by the unexposed ovaries after 57 days. Zinc caused alterations in the egg membrane layers. Histopathological changes as degeneration and hyperemia in treated ovaries were observed under the light and electron microscope.

  10. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species.

  11. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  12. Detection of Cryptosporidium - specific coproantigen in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vieira Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients (group 1 and 38 clinically healthy individuals (group 2 by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. All fecal samples collected were submitted to the Baermann, Lutz, and Ritchie methods, the Safranin/Methylene Blue, and Weber's chromotrope modified Trichrome staining techniques, and EIA. In group 1, parasitological staining techniques and EIA were both positive for Cryptosporidium sp. infection in 3/52 (5.8% samples and both negative in 45/52 (86.5% samples, while 4/52 (7.7% samples were positive in EIA and negative in parasitological staining techniques. Concerning group 2, all samples were negative by EIA and microscopy for Cryptosporidium infection. In conclusion, EIA may be an alternative method for detecting Cryptosporidium-specific coproantigen in HIV/AIDS patients.

  13. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck, Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter, and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García.

  14. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  15. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003 and Lainson and Rangel (2005 have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  16. Accurate distances to nearby massive stars with the new reduction of the Hipparcos raw data

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Sota, A

    2008-01-01

    We use the new reduction of the Hipparcos data (van Leeuwen 2007) and a self-consistent distance determination technique for Lutz-Kelker limited samples to obtain distances to the massive stars in the solar vicinity. The distance uncertainties for the nearest massive stars have been substantially reduced with respect to those derived from the old Hipparcos reduction. In two cases (gamma2 Vel and theta2 Ori A) we have been able to verify that the new values are in good agreement with recent determinations with alternative methods. We also derive new values for the vertical displacement of the Sun with respect to the Galactic Plane and for the scale height of the thin disk from the spatial distribution of massive stars around us.

  17. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  18. Novos anfíbios anuros das Serras costeiras do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, one of the authors has turned her attention, increasingly, to the anuran fauna of the high forested ranges near the sea-board of S.E. Brazil. This has led to the finding of a number of very interesting frogs which do not occur in the lower, mesic, or, occasionally, xeric, open country. One of these forms is presented here. As it did not fit perfectly into any of the known genera, she decided to consult her fellow herpetologist at the National Museum, Mr. Antenor Leitão de Carvalho, who is interested in anatomy. He cleared an adult and a juvenille specimen; the osteological characters found are given below. Joint publication was decided upon, one author contributing her field-notes and the morphological characters and drafting the text, whereas the other contributed the osteology, drawings and measurements. The specific name was also chosen by Leitão de Carvalho, in homage to the late Professor Adolpho Lutz, a pioneer in the study of Brazilian frogs. In regard to the specific designation, the co-author and daughter of Adolpho Lutz wishes to publish the following.Ao correr dos últimos anos, a co-autora dêste trabalho vem se dedicando ao estudo da fauna anura das zonas mais elevadas das serras vizinhas da costa brasileira. Êste fato conduziu à descoberta, ou ao conhecimento mais exato, de certo número de formas muito interessantes que não ocorrem em altitudes menores ou na planície. Uma destas formas constitui o assunto do presente trabalho. Tratando-se de batrácio que não se enquadra perfeitamente em nenhum dos gêneros descritos, resolveu ela consultar o seu colega Sr. Antenor Leitão de Carvalho, conhecedor exímio de anatomia, que diafanisou um exemplar adulto e outro juvenil. Os caractéres osteológicos encontrados levaram á criação de mais um gênero cujos caractéres diferenciais são enumerados abaixo. Ficou resolvido que seria descrito por ambos os herpetologistas do Museu Nacional, de conjunto

  19. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  20. Development of a breakfast cereal using waste from cassava processing industry - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.12012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Ellen Dischsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast cereals are extruded products with high content of protein and carbohydrates, and can be enriched to increase their nutritional value. The study aimed to develop a high-fiber breakfast cereal from cassava residue, and to analyze the texture, fiber content and overall acceptability. The extrusion was performed in an extruder. Formulations were developed containing 0 and 20% of cassava meal. The fiber analysis was performed based on the Adolfo Lutz Institute methodology, the texture was analyzed in a texturometer, and the sensory analysis by affective testing was used to determine its acceptability. The formulation with cassava residue had an increase of over 10% in the fiber content. The formulations have showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in texture, and in the sensory analysis, in which cereals with cassava residue had an average of 7.54 of acceptability – the most accepted formulation.

  1. Nova concepção para o método de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho na pesquisa de larvas de nematódeos New conception for Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho's techinique for the searching of nematode larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Willcox

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available As adaptações por nós introduzidas no método de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho proporcionaram maior operacionalidade, economia de material e de espaço físico, facilitando sua execução, principalmente nos trabalhos de campo. A sensibilidade do método adaptado, objetivando o encontro de larvas de Strongyloides stercoralis foi, em números relativos, 2,8% maior do que o método original e 6,5% do que o de LutzWe have adapted the Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho's technique and the results have demonstrated that more economy of material and physical space have been obtained becoming easier to work in the laboratory and in the field. The sensitivity of the adapted technique was somewhat higher for Strongyloides stercoralis (2,8% when compared with the original technique and 6,5% for sedimentarion methods.

  2. MAMÃO “FORMOSA” MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADO ACRESCENTADO DE ANTIOXIDANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ferreira Chaves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Além de permitir um melhor aproveitamento e agregar valor ao fruto, o produto minimamente processado é mais prático. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade físico-química de mamão “Formosa” minimamente processado adicionado de antioxidante. Após o preparo os mamões foram embalados e armazenados durante 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas a 5 e 10 °C. Paralelamente foi realizada a adição de ácido cítrico e ascórbico, ambos na concentração de 2%, e realizada as análises físico-químicas de acordo com as metodologias propostas pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Houve diferença (p

  3. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  4. Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro Arruda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination of lettuces (Lactuca saliva with parasites of Public Health peculiar interest sold in Lages, Santa Catarina. Materials and Methods: A nonprobabilitic intentional sampling method was used, in which eight supermarkets and two public markets were selected according to their scope of activity and sales volume for the town. The 122 samples obtained from eight supermarkets and from two open-air markets were analyzed by the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (Lutz, centrifugation and fluctuation in zinc sulphate (Faust, centrifugation and fluctuation in sucrose solution (Sheather and modified Ziehl Neelsen coloration. Results: The total parasitism rate was 88.5% (108/122, 77% (94/122 in the supermarkets samples and 11.5% (14/122 in the open-air markets samples. The Lutz technique has detected 46.7% (57/122 infected lettuces; Sheather and Faust technique identified 31.1% (38/122 and 10.6% (13/122 of lettuces infected with eggs and/or oocysts of parasites, respectively. The Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba were the most prevalent genders. Conclusions: The analyzed samples presented low hygienic standards, showing that more intense sanitary inspection is needed during all stages of vegetable productive process.Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14

  5. Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly A Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, two important vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of Posse county, Petrópolis municipality, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in CDC light traps. Analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of L. intermedia and L. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the CDC traps.

  6. Severe agitation in severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease resolves with ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksay SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Suna Su Aksay, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Dementia-related behavioral disturbances are mostly treated with antipsychotics; however, the observed beneficial effects are modest and the risk of serious adverse effects high. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and severe agitation, whom we treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. A significant clinical improvement was achieved over eight ECT sessions, which were tolerated well without cognitive worsening, and lasted approximately 3 months. Our case demonstrates the safe and effective use of ECT in pharmacotherapy-resistant severe agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. The risk–benefit profile of ECT for dementia-related agitation should be further investigated in clinical trials. Keywords: dementia, electroconvulsive therapy, cognition, emotional distress, disinhibition.

  7. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  8. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  9. Decision support by Operations Research in the energy sector and environment sector. Proceedings; Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch Operations Research im Energie- und Umweltbereich. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renatus, Fabian; Kunze, Robert; Karschin, Ingo; Geldermann, Jutta; Fichtner, Wolf (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the workshop of the GOR work groups ''OR in Environmental Protection'' and ''Decision theory and decision-making practice'' from 1st to 2nd March, 2012, in Goslar (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) An extended solution representation for the biobjective inventory routing problem (Thibaut Barthelemy); (2) Decision support at load management (Lutz Hillemacher); (3) A quantitative demand analysis of cogeneration units in a virtual network (Marius Hilleke); (4) Decision behaviour in the Newsvendor model (Christian Koester); (5) Operational environmental information systems for the next generation (Fabian Renatus); (6) Fuzzy decision theory - A satisfying Approach (Heinrich J. Rommelfanger); (7) Optimization of the expansion planning of electrical distribution systems with evolutionary algorithms under consideration of economic-regulatory contexts (Stefan Schnabel).

  10. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  11. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.

  12. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  13. Estudo comparativo de tecnicas parasitologicas e imunologica no diagnostico de parasitos intestinais

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: O diagnóstico parasitológico deve ser realizado de maneira apropriada, com maior sensibilidade e especificidade para a detecção dos parasitos intestinais, uma vez que dele dependerá o tratamento específico. Foi desenvolvido um estudo comparativo para avaliar a concordância entre os métodos Kato-Katz e Coprotest® na detecção de helmintos em 332 indivíduos do município de Pedro de Toledo e entre os métodos de Coprotest®, Lutz, hematoxilina férrica e ELISA (antígenos nas fezes) para diag...

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  15. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  16. SU-E-T-300: Spatial Variations of Multiple Off-Axial Targets for a Single Isocenter SRS Treatment Plan in ExacTrac 6D Robotic Couch System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S [Genesis Medical Center, Davenport, IA (United States); Tseng, T [Mount Sinai Hospital, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial variations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system (BrainLab AG). Methods: Five metallic ball bearing (BB) markers were placed sparsely in 3D off-axial locations (non-coplanar) inside a skull phantom as the representatives of multiple targets mimicking multiple brain metastases. The locations of the BB markers were carefully chosen to minimize overlapping of each other in a port imaging detector plane. The skull phantom was immobilized by a frameless mask and CT scanned with a BrainLab Head and Neck Localizer using a GE Optima MDCT scanner. The CT images were exported to iPlan software (BrainLab AG) and a multiple target PTV was drawn by combining all the contours of the BBs. The margin of the MLC opening was selected as 3 mm expansion outward. Two coplanar arc beams were placed to generate a single isocenter SRS plan to treat the PTV. The arc beams were delivered using Novalis Tx system with portal imaging acquisition mode per 10% temporal resolution. The locations of the BBs were visualized and analyzed with respect to the MLC aperture in the treatment plan similar to the Winston-Lutz test. Results: All the BBs were clearly identified inside the MLC openings. The positional errors for the BBs were overall less than 1 mm along the rotational path of the two arcs. Conclusion: This study verified that the spatial deviations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter SRS treatment plan is within sub-millimeter range in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system. Accompanied with the Winston-Lutz test, this test will quality-assure the spatial accuracies of the isocenter as well as the positions of multiple off-axial targets for the SRS treatment using a single isocenter multiple target treatment plan.

  17. Proeminência na mídia, reputação em ciências: a construção de uma feminista paradigmática e cientista normal no Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertha Lutz foi uma das mulheres de sua geração que desfrutaram de incontestável autoridade política e científica. Escreveu muito, e mais ainda se escreveu sobre ela, especialmente em sua época. Notícias de jornais, crônicas de Lima Barreto, inúmeras cartas, artigos científicos e textos inéditos da própria Bertha, comentados neste artigo, nos permitem observar que seu feminismo emprestou-lhe notoriedade e visibilidade - cuidadosamente construídas -, que se articulariam com seu desempenho profissional, impulsionando-o. A ciência lhe conferia prestígio social e garantia legitimidade para suas causas. Nesse período em que a comunidade científica tomou para si a tarefa de tornar públicas as suas conquistas, a proeminência feminista de Bertha na mídia emprestou-lhe reputação em ciências.Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism - inseparable from other dimensions of her life - fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  18. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças

  20. Relação entre a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos e aspectos epidemiológicos em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Relationship between intestinal parasites in food handlers and epidemiological factors in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Costa Nolla

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a presença de enteroparasitas e os aspectos epidemiológicos em 238 indivíduos que trabalhavam em uma empresa de alimentos e trabalhadores de feiras livres e "sacolões", na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. As técnicas parasitológicas utilizadas neste estudo foram: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham e Faust, e as taxas de infecção parasitária encontradas, 42,85% e 47,06%, respectivamente. Os fatores sócio-econômicos, como distribuição de renda, escolaridade e categorias ocupacionais, foram importantes dentro deste contexto. O hábito de ingerir hortaliças e frutas foram os fatores mais associados ao alto grau de parasitismo. Conclui-se que, nesta cidade, os manipuladores de alimentos apresentaram elevados índices de parasitose, havendo necessidade de uma melhor vigilância epidemiológica por meio de exames parasitológicos e educação sanitária a todos esses indivíduos.The presence of intestinal parasites and epidemiological aspects were evaluated in 238 workers from a fast food company and other individuals working in street markets and farmers' produce markets in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Parasitological techniques used in this study were: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham, and Faust, and parasite infection rates were 42.85% and 47.06%, respectively. Socioeconomic factors such as income distribution, schooling, and occupational categories proved to be relevant in this context. Habitual daily intake of fruits and vegetables was the factor most heavily associated with infection. These data suggest that intestinal parasites are frequent among food handlers in this city and that there is a need for constant epidemiological surveillance through periodic parasitological tests and health education for this entire population segment.

  1. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Larissa; Stallard, Robert F.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.

    2017-01-01

    Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90–150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973–2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha). The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees) is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  2. Simuliidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha no Brasil - XII sobre o gênero Thyrsopelma Enderlein, 1934: descrição de T. jeteri Sp.N., considerações sobre o cibário e chave para as pupas Brazilian Simuliidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha - XII about the genus Thyrsopelma Enderlein, 1934: description of the T. jeteri new species, considerations related with cibarium and key for the pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor PY-Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É acrescentado um novo caráter pupal para a espécie T. hirtipupa (Lutz,1910. É evidenciada a existência de dentes no cibário da fêmea de T. guianense (Wise,1911, principal espécie envolvida na transmissão da filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart,1893 no foco da região amazônica. É proposta uma nova relação para os artículos antenais da larva de T. guianense. É descrita uma nova espécie para o gênero Thyrsopelma Enderlein,1934, T. jeteri sp.n., proveniente da bacia hidrográfica do rio Uruguai, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. São apresentados os parâmetros físico-químicos do criadouro de onde provem o material tipo. É apresentada uma chave para diferenciação das pupas das espécies constantes neste gênero.A new pupal character is increased for T. hirtipupa (Lutz,1910. The existence of teeth is evidenced in the female cibarium of T. guianense (Wise,1911, main species involved in the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart,1893 in the focus of the Amazonian area. A new relationship is proposed among the antenna articles of the T. guianense larva. A new species is described for the genus Thyrsopelma Enderlein,1934, T. jeteri sp.n., collected in Uruguay basin, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The physico-chemical parameters are presented for the type locality. A key is presented for the pupal differentiation inside of Thyrsopelma.

  3. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  4. SU-E-T-373: A Motorized Stage for Fast and Accurate QA of Machine Isocenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J; Velarde, E; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Precision delivery of radiation dose relies on accurate knowledge of the machine isocenter under a variety of machine motions. This is typically determined by performing a Winston-Lutz test consisting of imaging a known object at multiple gantry/collimator/table angles and ensuring that the maximum offset is within specified tolerance. The first step in the Winston-Lutz test is careful placement of a ball bearing at the machine isocenter as determined by repeated imaging and shifting until accurate placement has been determined. Conventionally this is performed by adjusting a stage manually using vernier scales which carry the limitation that each adjustment must be done inside the treatment room with the risks of inaccurate adjustment of the scale and physical bumping of the table. It is proposed to use a motorized system controlled outside of the room to improve the required time and accuracy of these tests. Methods: The three dimensional vernier scales are replaced by three motors with accuracy of 1 micron and a range of 25.4mm connected via USB to a computer in the control room. Software is designed which automatically detects the motors and assigns them to proper axes and allows for small shifts to be entered and performed. Input values match calculated offsets in magnitude and sign to reduce conversion errors. Speed of setup, number of iterations to setup, and accuracy of final placement are assessed. Results: Automatic BB placement required 2.25 iterations and 13 minutes on average while manual placement required 3.76 iterations and 37.5 minutes. The average final XYZ offsets is 0.02cm, 0.01cm, 0.04cm for automatic setup and 0.04cm, 0.02cm, 0.04cm for manual setup. Conclusion: Automatic placement decreased time and repeat iterations for setup while improving placement accuracy. Automatic placement greatly reduces the time required to perform QA.

  5. Alguns dados sobre a leishmaniose visceral americana e doença de Chagas no Nordeste Brasileiro (Relatório de uma excursão realizada nos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pondé

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de nossas pesquisas, nas zonas emque trabalhamos, haviam sido asinalados cinco casos vivos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, três no Ceará e dois em Pernambuco. Alem desses, oito tinham sido evidenciados por viscerotomia na Baía, município de Jacobina. Já se tinha conhecimento tambem, de um caso de Doença de Chagas no Ceará. Na confecção do presente trabalho visitamos regiões dos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía, onde realizamos rápidos inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre as duas protozooses. No Ceará, região do Cariri, encontramos dois novos casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica, e cinco de Doença de Chagas, evidenciandos pelos xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, F. villelai Mangabeira., F. limai Fonseca e F. nordestinus Mangabeira, assim com Panstrongylus megistus (Burm., 13.5% dos quais infectados. Examinamos animais domésticos (cães e gatos e silvestres com resultado negativo. Em Pernambuco, município de Exú, fizemos um inquérito sobre os dois casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana anteriormente assinalados, não encontrando outros. foram capturados F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, alem de Panstrongylus magistus (Burm. e Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva; nenhum deles estava infectado. Dos animais domésticos foram autopsiados três cães sendo encontrado um com leishmanias no fígado e no baço. O exame de 43 animais silvestres nada revelou. Na Baía, município de Jacobina, encontramos, na zona periférica da cidade, um caso de Leishmaniose visceral Americana e, em outras localidades do município, três outros casos, cujos diagnósticos foram confirmados pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica; encontramos, também dois casos de Doença de Chagas, evidenciados pelo xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados F. evandroi Costa Lima, F. lenti Mangabeira e F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva; Panstrongylus

  6. A role for WDR5 in TRA-1/Gli mediated transcriptional control of the sperm/oocyte switch in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengguo; Kelly, William G

    2014-05-01

    The hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans initially engages in spermatogenesis and then switches to oogenesis during late stages of larval development. TRA-1, a member of the Ci/Gli family of transcriptional repressors, plays an essential role in this switch by repressing genes that promote spermatogenesis. WDR5 proteins are conserved components of histone methyltransferase complexes normally associated with gene activation. However, two C. elegans WDR5 homologs, wdr-5.1 and wdr-5.2 are redundantly required for normal TRA-1 dependent repression, and this function is independent of their roles in histone methylation. Animals lacking wdr-5.1/wdr-5.2 function fail to switch to oogenesis at 25°C, resulting in a masculinization of germline (Mog) phenotype. The Mog phenotype is caused by ectopic expression of fog-3, a direct target of TRA-1 repression. WDR-5.1 associates with the fog-3 promoter and is required for TRA-1 to bind to fog-3 promoter. Other direct targets of TRA-1 are similarly derepressed in the double mutant. These results show that WDR5 plays a novel and important role in stabilizing transcriptional repression during C. elegans sex determination, and provide evidence that this important protein may operate independently of its established role in histone methyltransferase complexes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Behavioural and physiological responses to prey-related cues reflect higher competitiveness of invasive vs. native ladybirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2017-06-16

    Understanding the traits that might be linked with biological invasions represents a great challenge for preventing non-target effects on local biodiversity. In predatory insects, the ability to exploit habitats for oviposition and the physiological response to prey availability differs between species. Those species that respond more readily to environmental changes may confer to their offspring a competitive advantage over other species. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) makes better use of information from a plant-prey (Vicia faba - Aphis fabae) system compared to the native Oenopia conglobata. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays revealed that both species used olfactory cues from the system, but H. axyridis exhibited a more complete response. This species was also attracted by plants previously infested by aphids, indicating the capacity to exploit volatile synomones induced in plants by aphid attack. Oocyte resorption was investigated when different olfactory stimuli were provided under prey shortage and the readiness of new oogenesis was measured when prey was available again. H. axyridis exhibited higher plasticity in oogenesis related to the presence/absence of plant-aphid volatiles. Our results support the hypothesis that H. axyridis is more reactive than O. conglobata to olfactory cues from the plant-prey system.

  8. gld-1, a tumor suppressor gene required for oocyte development in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Francis, R.; Schedl, T. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Barton, M.K.; Kimble, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We have characterized 31 mutations in the gld-1 (defective in germline development) gene of Caenorhabditis elegans. In gld-1 (null) hermaphrodites, oogenesis is abolished and a germline tumor forms where oocyte development would normally occur. By contrast, gld-1 (null) males are unaffected. The hermaphrodite germline tumor appears to derive from germ cells that enter the meiotic pathway normally but then exit pachytene and return to the mitotic cycle. Certain gld-1 partial loss-of-function mutations also abolish oogenesis, but germ cells arrest in pachytene rather than returning to mitosis. Our results indicate that gld-1 is a tumor suppressor gene required for oocyte development. The tumorous phenotype suggests that gld-1(+) may function to negatively regulate proliferation during meiotic prophase and/or act to direct progression through meiotic prophase. We also show that gld-1(+) has an additional nonessential role in germline sex determination: promotion of hermaphrodite spermatogenesis. This function of gld-1 is inferred from a haplo-insufficient phenotype and from the properties of gain-of-function gld-1 mutations that cause alterations in the sexual identity of germ cells. 69 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Initiation of two ovarian cell lines fromFugu rubripes (Temminck et. Schlegel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Debin; ZHANG Bo; SONG Wenping; PAN Luqing; MA Chao; XIAO Guangxia

    2015-01-01

    The ovary is an excellent system for studying stem cell renewal and differentiation, which is under the control of ovarian somatic cells. In order to understand oogenesis inFugu rubripes (Temminck et. Schlegel) as a marine fish model of aquaculture importance, we established cell lines called TSOC1 and TSOC2 from a juvenile ovary of this organism. TSOC1 is composed of spindle epithelial-like cells, while the other is cobblestone-like cells. Therefore, TSOC1 and TSOC2 appear to consist of ovarian somatic cells. Growth requirement condition was investigated including temperature, concentration of FBS and pH. Significant fluorescent signals were observed after TSOC1 and TSOC2 cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 vector, indicating its potential utility for genetic manipulation such as gene function studies. It is shown that these cell lines are effective for infection by the turbot reddish body iridovirus and flounder lymphosystis disease virus as evidenced by the appearance of cytopathic effect and virus propagation in the virus-infected cells, and most convincingly, the observation of viral particles by electron microscopy, demonstrating that TSOC1 and TSOC2 are suitable to study interactions between virus and host cells. It is believed that TSOC1 and TSOC2 will be useful tools to study sex-related events and interactions between primordial germ cells and oogonia cells during oogenesis. Therefore, establishment of ovary cell lines fromFugu rubripes seems to be significant for those research areas.

  10. Noninheritable Maternal Factors Useful for Genetic Manipulation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Shindo, Takayuki; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian early embryogenesis is supported by maternal factors, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins, produced and accumulated during oogenesis at least up to the stage when zygotic activation commences. These maternal factors are involved in biologically important events such as epigenetic activation, reprogramming, and mitochondrial growth. Most of these maternal mRNAs are degraded by the 2-cell to 4 ~ 8-cell stages. Maternal proteins, which are produced during oogenesis or by the maternal mRNAs, are degraded by the 4 ~ 8-cell stage. In other words, the maternal factors exist during specific stages of early embryogenesis. In this chapter, we will briefly summarize the property of these maternal factors and mention possible applications of these factors for developing new reproduction engineering-related technologies and producing genetically modified animals. More specifically, we will show the usefulness of maternally accumulated Cas9 protein as a promising tool for CRISPR-/Cas9-based simultaneous genetic modification of multiple loci in mammals.

  11. Contribution of de novo synthesis of Gαs-proteins to 1-methyladenine production in starfish ovarian follicle cells stimulated by relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Uzawa, Haruka; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    In starfish, the peptide hormone gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) secreted from nervous tissue stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) production by ovarian follicle cells. The hormonal action of GSS on follicle cells involves its receptor, G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase. However, GSS failed to induce 1-MeAde and cAMP production in follicle cells of ovaries during oogenesis. At the maturation stage, follicle cells acquired the potential to respond to GSS by producing 1-MeAde and cAMP. Adenylyl cyclase activity in follicle cells of fully grown stage ovaries was also stimulated by GSS in the presence of GTP. These activations depended on the size of oocytes in ovaries. The α subunit of Gs-proteins was not detected immunologically in follicle cells of oogenesis stage ovaries, although Gαi and Gαq were detectable. Using specific primers for Gαs and Gαi, expression levels of Gαs in follicle cells were found to increase significantly as the size of oocytes in ovaries increased, whereas the mRNA levels of Gαi were almost constant regardless of oocyte size. These findings strongly suggest the potential of follicle cells to respond to GSS by producing 1-MeAde and cAMP is brought by de novo synthesis of Gαs-proteins.

  12. Reproduction in two deep-sea anemones (Actiniaria); Phelliactis hertwigi and P. robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Praët, M.; Rice, A. L.; Thurston, M. H.

    Bathymetric distribution, abundance, substrate choice and gametogenesis have been investigated in two species of deep-sea actiniarians found in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Phelliactis hertwigi occurs at 719-1448m in the Porcupine Seabight, usually encloses a bolus of sediment within its highly concave pedal disc (79.7%), and has abundances of up to 14.5 individuals 1000m -2. Phelliactis robusta occurs at 1600-2173m in the Porcupine Seabight, but extends deeper in the Bay of Biscay. In areas of soft sediment it is associated strongly with clinker (92.7%) and attains densities of 2.9 individuals 1000m -2. Both species are dioecious. Their sperm appear similar to those of the related intertidal Calliactis spp. Previtellogenesis and vitellogenesis of the oocytes have been defined by ultrastructural and histochemical studies. In P. hertwigi mature oocytes measure up to 180μm, and to 210μm in P. robusta. In P. hertwigi oogenesis takes 8-9 months, with spawning in October/November, whereas in the deeper-living P. robusta oogenesis occupies 15 to 19 months and spawning occurs in April/ May. Evidence is produced to suggest that these two contrasting cycles are related to the rate and seasonality of deposition of organic matter to the deep-sea floor.

  13. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  14. The methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for meiosis and mitosis in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymery, Angeline; Liu, Zichuan; Ozonov, Evgeniy A; Stadler, Michael B; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2016-08-01

    Oocytes develop the competence for meiosis and early embryogenesis during their growth. Setdb1 is a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for post-implantation development and has been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of genes and endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs). To address its role in oogenesis and pre-implantation development, we conditionally deleted Setdb1 in growing oocytes. Loss of Setdb1 expression greatly impaired meiosis. It delayed meiotic resumption, altered the dynamics of chromatin condensation, and impaired kinetochore-spindle interactions, bipolar spindle organization and chromosome segregation in more mature oocytes. The observed phenotypes related to changes in abundance of specific transcripts in mutant oocytes. Setdb1 maternally deficient embryos arrested during pre-implantation development and showed comparable defects during cell cycle progression and in chromosome segregation. Finally, transcriptional profiling data indicate that Setdb1 downregulates rather than silences expression of ERVK and ERVL-MaLR retrotransposons and associated chimearic transcripts during oogenesis. Our results identify Setdb1 as a newly discovered meiotic and embryonic competence factor safeguarding genome integrity at the onset of life. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Integrin alpha chains exhibit distinct temporal and spatial localization patterns in epithelial cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Michael B; Fratto, Victoria M; Lemosy, Ellen K

    2008-12-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that modulate cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Multiple integrin chains contribute to development and morphogenesis of a given tissue. Here, we analyze the expression of Drosophila integrin alpha chains in the ovarian follicular epithelium, a model for tissue morphogenesis and cell migration. We find expression throughout development of the beta chain, betaPS. Alpha chains, however, exhibit both spatial and temporal expression differences. alphaPS1 and alphaPS2 integrins are detected during early and mid-oogenesis on apical, lateral, and basal membranes with the betaPS chain, whereas alphaPS3-family integrins (alphaPS3, alphaPS4, alphaPS5) are expressed in anterior cells late in oogenesis. Surprisingly, we find that alphaPS3-family integrins are dispensable for dorsal appendage morphogenesis but play a role in the final length of the egg, suggesting redundant functions of integrins in a simple tissue. We also demonstrate roles for alphaPS3betaPS integrin in border cell migration and in stretch cells.

  16. Analyses of the development and glycoproteins present in the ovarian follicles of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

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    Thiago L. Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphofunctional aspects of oogenesis of Poecilia vivipara were studied aiming to understand the reproductive biology and development of species with internal fertilization, particularly those belonging to the family Poeciliidae. The stages of gonadal maturation and follicular development were characterized using mesoscopic, histological, histochemical, and lectin cytochemical analyses. Through mesoscopic evaluation the ovarian development was classified in six phases of development: immature, in maturation I, in maturation II, mature I, mature II, and post-spawn. Based on microscopic examination of the ovaries, we identified the presence of oocytes types I and II during the previtellogenic phase and types III, IV, and V during the vitellogenic phase. As oogenesis proceeded the oocyte cytosol increased in volume and presented increased cytoplasmic granule accumulation, characterizing vitellogenesis. The zona radiata (ZR increased in thickness and complexity, and the follicular epithelium, which was initially thin and consisting of pavimentous cells, in type III oocytes exhibited cubic simple cells. The histochemical and cytochemical analyses revealed alterations in the composition of the molecular structures that form the ovarian follicle throughout the gonadal development. Our study demonstrated differences in the female reproductive system among fish species with internal and external fertilization and we suggest P. vivipara can be used as experimental model to test environmental toxicity.

  17. Maternal Germinal Trisomy 21 in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj A. Hultén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now been over 50 years since it was discovered that Down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome 21, i.e., trisomy 21. In the interim, it has become clear that in the majority of cases, the extra chromosome is inherited from the mother, and there is, in this respect, a strong maternal age effect. Numerous investigations have been devoted to clarifying the underlying mechanism, most recently suggesting that this situation is exceedingly complex, involving both biological and environmental factors. On the other hand, it has also been proposed that germinal trisomy 21 mosaicism, arising during the very early stages of maternal oogenesis with accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells during subsequent development, may be the main predisposing factor. We present data here on the incidence of trisomy 21 mosaicism in a cohort of normal fetal ovarian samples, indicating that an accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells does indeed take place during fetal oogenesis, i.e., from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. We presume that this accumulation of trisomy 21 (T21 cells is caused by their delay in maturation and lagging behind the normal cells. We further presume that this trend continues during the third trimester of pregnancy and postnatally, up until ovulation, thereby explaining the maternal age effect in Down syndrome.

  18. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  19. A germline-specific isoform of eIF4E (IFE-1) is required for efficient translation of stored mRNAs and maturation of both oocytes and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Melissa A; Cronland, Elizabeth; Dunkelbarger, Steve; Contreras, Vince; Strome, Susan; Keiper, Brett D

    2009-05-15

    Fertility and embryonic viability are measures of efficient germ cell growth and development. During oogenesis and spermatogenesis, new proteins are required for both mitotic expansion and differentiation. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein synthesis occur by translational control of mRNAs, mediated in part by eIF4E, which binds the mRNAs 5' cap. IFE-1 is one of five eIF4E isoforms identified in C. elegans. IFE-1 is expressed primarily in the germ line and associates with P granules, large mRNPs that store mRNAs. We isolated a strain that lacks IFE-1 [ife-1(bn127)] and demonstrated that the translation of several maternal mRNAs (pos-1, pal-1, mex-1 and oma-1) was inefficient relative to that in wild-type worms. At 25 degrees C, ife-1(bn127) spermatocytes failed in cytokinesis, prematurely expressed the pro-apoptotic protein CED-4/Apaf-1, and accumulated as multinucleate cells unable to mature to spermatids. A modest defect in oocyte development was also observed. Oocytes progressed normally through mitosis and meiosis, but subsequent production of competent oocytes became limiting, even in the presence of wild-type sperm. Combined gametogenesis defects decreased worm fertility by 80% at 20 degrees C; ife-1 worms were completely sterile at 25 degrees C. Thus, IFE-1 plays independent roles in late oogenesis and spermatogenesis through selective translation of germline-specific mRNAs.

  20. [The plate in the zone of oocyte and germinal epithelium contact in scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita binds antibodies to ZP-domain-containing protein mesoglein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, L S; Podgornaia, O I; Matveev, I V; Shaposhnikova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Cnidaria are lower multicellular animals with the body consisting of two epithelial layers. An extracellular substance--mesoglea--is situated between epidermal and gastrodermal layers of these animals. Mesoglein is one of the major mesogleal proteins of adult medusa of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Search for the known domains in mesoglein amino acid sequence reveals prominent zona pellucida (ZP) domain (which was found at first in the mammal oocyte zona pellucida proteins), so the protein belongs to ZP family of extracellular matrix proteins and it is an early metazoan member of ZP-domain-containing protein family. However, nothing is known about oogenesis related ZP-domain proteins in the lower multicellular animals. Oogenesis in Scyphozoa is described poorly. In this work morphological features of the zone in contact area between the oocyte and the germinal epithelium were investigated in semi-fine sections: To make it more convenient we identified seven stages according to the oocyte size and the structure found in this area was named the plate. It was shown that the components of the plate bound specifically the antibodies against mesoglein. So it seems the plate material contains ZP-domain proteins. Electrophoresis and immunoblot results give evidence that the proteins immunologically related to mesoglein have a higher molecular mass. It might be due to either the posttranslational modifications of the precursors or that they represent other proteins of ZP-domain family in Cnidaria.

  1. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  2. Uncovering Notch pathway in the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lizandra G; Morais, Enyara R; Machado, Carla B; Gomes, Matheus S; Cabral, Fernanda J; Souza, Julia M; Soares, Cláudia S; Sá, Renata G; Castro-Borges, William; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    Several signaling molecules that govern development in higher animals have been identified in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, including the transforming growth factor β, protein tyrosine kinases, nuclear hormone receptors, among others. The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling mechanism which is involved in a wide variety of developmental processes including embryogenesis and oogenesis in worms and flies. Here we aimed to provide the molecular reconstitution of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni using the available transcriptome and genome databases. Our results also revealed the presence of the transcripts coded for SmNotch, SmSu(H), SmHes, and the gamma-secretase complex (SmNicastrin, SmAph-1, and SmPen-2), throughout all the life stages analyzed. Besides, it was observed that the viability and separation of adult worm pairs were not affected by treatment with N-[N(3,5)-difluorophenacetyl)-L-Alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor. Moreover, DAPT treatment decreased the production of phenotypically normal eggs and arrested their development in culture. Our results also showed a significant decrease in SmHes transcript levels in both adult worms and eggs treated with DAPT. These results provide, for the first time, functional validation of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni and suggest its involvement in parasite oogenesis and embryogenesis. Given the complexity of the Notch pathway, further experiments shall highlight the full repertoire of Notch-mediated cellular processes throughout the S. mansoni life cycle.

  3. Masculinization of female golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus using an aromatase inhibitor treatment during sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Toru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate the involvement of endogenous estrogen (estradiol-17beta; E2) and the decisive factor (somatic or germinal element) in the ovarian differentiation of tropical marine teleosts, the effect of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) fadrozole on gonadal sex differentiation in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) was examined for different dosages and periods of treatment. Fadrozole interrupted ovarian cavity formation at a dose of 500 microg g(-1) diet, while there was little effect at 10 or 100 microg g(-1). The gonads from both the 30-day and 90-day administration (500 microg g(-1) diet) groups were significantly biased toward testes (P=0.002 and <0.0001, respectively), which suggests strongly that E2 is involved in early ovarian differentiation and that its suppression is an indispensable condition for testicular differentiation in S. guttatus. The results from the two different AI treatment periods imply that the initial feminization of somatic gonadal elements determines subsequent ovarian differentiation, including oogenesis: a conclusion supported by the considerable time lag between ovarian cavity formation and subsequent oogenesis during normal ovarian differentiation in S. guttatus.

  4. Vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory egg coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhorst, Ellen; Selwood, Lynne

    2008-11-01

    Extracellular egg coats deposited by maternal or embryonic tissues surround all vertebrate conceptuses during early development. In oviparous species, the time of hatching from extracellular coats can be considered equivalent to the time of birth in viviparous species. Extracellular coats must be lost during gestation for implantation and placentation to occur in some viviparous species. In the most recent classification of vertebrate extracellular coats, Boyd and Hamilton (Cleavage, early development and implantation of the egg. In: Parkes AS (ed.), Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction, vol. 2, 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co; 1961:1-126) defined the coat synthesized by the oocyte during oogenesis as primary and the coat deposited by follicle cells surrounding the oocyte as secondary. Tertiary egg coats are those synthesized and deposited around the primary or secondary coat by the maternal reproductive tract. This classification is difficult to reconcile with recent data collected using modern molecular biological techniques that can accurately establish the site of coat precursor synthesis and secretion. We propose that a modification to the classification by Boyd and Hamilton is required. Vertebrate egg coats should be classed as belonging to the following two broad groups: the preovulatory coat, which is deposited during oogenesis by the oocyte or follicle cells, and the postovulatory coats, which are deposited after fertilization by the reproductive tract or conceptus. This review discusses the origin and classification of vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory coats and illustrates what is known about coat homology between the vertebrate groups.

  5. Neurl4 contributes to germ cell formation and integrity in Drosophila

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    Jennifer Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs form at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo, and then migrate to their final destination in the gonad where they will produce eggs or sperm. Studies of the different stages in this process, including assembly of germ plasm in the oocyte during oogenesis, specification of a subset of syncytial embryonic nuclei as PGCs, and migration, have been informed by genetic analyses. Mutants have defined steps in the process, and the identities of the affected genes have suggested biochemical mechanisms. Here we describe a novel PGC phenotype. When Neurl4 activity is reduced, newly formed PGCs frequently adopt irregular shapes and appear to bud off vesicles. PGC number is also reduced, an effect exacerbated by a separate role for Neurl4 in germ plasm formation during oogenesis. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila Neurl4 protein is concentrated in centrosomes and downregulates centrosomal protein CP110. Reducing CP110 activity suppresses the abnormal PGC morphology of Neurl4 mutants. These results extend prior analyses of Neurl4 in cultured cells, revealing a heightened requirement for Neurl4 in germ-line cells in Drosophila.

  6. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

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    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  7. Impact of glycosylation on the unimpaired functions of the sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yong-Pil; Kim, Chung-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    One of the key factors of early development is the specification of competence between the oocyte and the sperm, which occurs during gametogenesis. However, the starting point, growth, and maturation for acquiring competence during spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mammals are very different. Spermatogenesis includes spermiogenesis, but such a metamorphosis is not observed during oogenesis. Glycosylation, a ubiquitous modification, is a preliminary requisite for distribution of the structural and functional components of spermatids for metamorphosis. In addition, glycosylation using epididymal or female genital secretory glycans is an important process for the sperm maturation, the acquisition of the potential for fertilization, and the acceleration of early embryo development. However, nonemzymatic unexpected covalent bonding of a carbohydrate and malglycosylation can result in falling fertility rates as shown in the diabetic male. So far, glycosylation during spermatogenesis and the dynamics of the plasma membrane in the process of capacitation and fertilization have been evaluated, and a powerful role of glycosylation in spermatogenesis and early development is also suggested by structural bioinformatics, functional genomics, and functional proteomics. Further understanding of glycosylation is needed to provide a better understanding of fertilization and embryo development and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools for infertility.

  8. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  9. MYBL2 guides autophagy suppressor VDAC2 in the developing ovary to inhibit autophagy through a complex of VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Sheng, Yue; Fu, Xiazhou; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    Oogenesis is essential for female gamete production in mammals. The total number of ovarian follicles is determined early in life and production of ovarian oocytes is thought to stop during the lifetime. However, the molecular mechanisms underling oogenesis, particularly autophagy regulation in the ovary, remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal an important MYBL2-VDAC2-BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway linking autophagy suppression in the developing ovary. The transcription factors GATA1 and MYBL2 can bind to and activate the Vdac2 promoter. MYBL2 regulates the spatiotemporal expression of VDAC2 in the developing ovary. Strikingly, in the VDAC2 transgenic pigs (Sus scrofa/Ss), VDAC2 exerts its function by inhibiting autophagy in the ovary. In contrast, Vdac2 knockout promotes autophagy. Moreover, VDAC2-mediated autophagy suppression is dependent on its interactions with both BECN1 and BCL2L1 to stabilize the BECN1 and BCL2L1 complex, suggesting VDAC2 as an autophagy suppressor in the pathway. Our findings provide a functional connection among the VDAC2, MYBL2, the BECN1-BCL2L1 pathway and autophagy suppression in the developing ovary, which is implicated in improving female fecundity.

  10. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; de Oliveira, Carlos Jorge Logullo; Campos, Eldo; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  11. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  12. Aspectos reprodutivos de Sphoeroides greeleyi (Gilbert, Pisces, Osteichthyes, Tetraodontidae, da gamboa do Baguaçu, Baia De Paranaguá, Paraná, Brasil Reproductive aspects of Sphoeroides greeleyi (Gilbert, Tetraodontidae, from gamboa do Baguaçu, Paranaguá, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Yart Damasceno Schultz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the reproductive aspects of Sphoeroides greeleyi (Gilbert, 1900, such as morphology and histochemistry of carbohydrates in the oogenesis phases, maturity scale, time and type of spawn, sexual rate and first ripened mature size for females. From the monthly captured animais (Nov 1998 to Nov 1999 the morphometric data (entire length and total weight were extracted and the sex and the gonadal maturity were determined. Some ovaries were prepared for microscopic analysis that charac-terized six phases for the development of the ovarian folheies. Through the carbohydrates analysis the acid carbohydrates could be related to the oogenesis maintenance and the neutral carbohydrates to the beginning of embryonic development. A maturity scale containing six stages of gonadal development was determined. The reproductive period is between August and January and the spawn time is from October to January. The first ripened mature size for females oceurs between 6,5cm and 7.5 cm of total length. The sexual rate shows that there are more females than males during the reproductive period.

  13. In Situ Labeling of Mitochondrial DNA Replication in Drosophila Adult Ovaries by EdU Staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-15

    The mitochondrial genome is inherited exclusively through the maternal line. Understanding of how the mitochondrion and its genome are proliferated and transmitted from one generation to the next through the female oocyte is of fundamental importance. Because of the genetic tractability, and the elegant, ordered simplicity by which oocyte development proceeds, Drosophila oogenesis has become an invaluable system for mitochondrial study. An EdU (5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine) labeling method was utilized to detect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Drosophila ovaries. This method is superior to the BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling method in that it allows for good structural preservation and efficient fluorescent dye penetration of whole-mount tissues. Here we describe a detailed protocol for labeling replicating mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila adult ovaries with EdU. Some technical solutions are offered to improve the viability of the ovaries, maintain their health during preparation, and ensure high-quality imaging. Visualization of newly synthesized mtDNA in the ovaries not only reveals the striking temporal and spatial pattern of mtDNA replication through oogenesis, but also allows for simple quantification of mtDNA replication under various genetic and pharmacological perturbations.

  14. The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila.

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    Serbus, Laura R; White, Pamela M; Silva, Jessica Pintado; Rabe, Amanda; Teixeira, Luis; Albertson, Roger; Sullivan, William

    2015-03-01

    While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose- and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

  15. The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila.

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    Laura R Serbus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose- and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

  16. Combined activities of Gurken and decapentaplegic specify dorsal chorion structures of the Drosophila egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, F; Roth, S

    2000-02-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis Gurken, associated with the oocyte nucleus, activates the Drosophila EGF receptor in the follicular epithelium. Gurken first specifies posterior follicle cells, which in turn signal back to the oocyte to induce the migration of the oocyte nucleus from a posterior to an anterior-dorsal position. Here, Gurken signals again to specify dorsal follicle cells, which give rise to dorsal chorion structures including the dorsal appendages. If Gurken signaling is delayed and starts after stage 6 of oogenesis the nucleus remains at the posterior pole of the oocyte. Eggs develop with a posterior ring of dorsal appendage material that is produced by main-body follicle cells expressing the gene Broad-Complex. They encircle terminal follicle cells expressing variable amounts of the TGFbeta homologue, decapentaplegic. By ectopically expressing decapentaplegic and clonal analysis with Mothers against dpp we show that Decapentaplegic signaling is required for Broad-Complex expression. Thus, the specification and positioning of dorsal appendages along the anterior-posterior axis depends on the intersection of both Gurken and Decapentaplegic signaling. This intersection also induces rhomboid expression and thereby initiates the positive feedback loop of EGF receptor activation, which positions the dorsal appendages along the dorsal-ventral egg axis.

  17. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

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    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  18. Identification of differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

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    Iliev Dimitar B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, a semelparous teleost that exhibits synchronous follicle development. Methods Reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries were generated from ovaries with perinucleolus (P or cortical alveolus (CA stage follicles and selected genes were assessed with quantitative PCR (qPCR. An assessment of changes in RNA composition during oocyte growth and its relationship to transcript levels was also conducted. Results SSH revealed several differentially expressed genes during early oogenesis, some which will not likely be utilized until 1–3 years later in salmon. Zona pellucida glycoprotein (zp genes, vitellogenin receptor (vldlr isoforms, cathepsin B (ctsba, cyclin E (ccne, a DnaJ transcript (dnaja2, and a ferritin subunit (fth3 were significantly elevated at the P stage, while a C-type lectin, retinol dehydrogenase (rdh1, and a coatomer protein subunit (cope were upregulated at the CA stage. Putative follicle cell transcripts such as anti-Müllerian hormone (amh, lipoprotein lipase (lpl, apolipoprotein E (apoe, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr also increased significantly at the CA stage. The analysis of RNA composition during oocyte growth showed that the total RNA yield and proportion of messenger RNA relative to non-polyadenylated RNAs declined as oogenesis progressed. This influenced apparent transcript levels depending on the type of RNA template used and normalization method. Conclusion In coho salmon, which exhibit a dramatic change in oocyte size and RNA composition during oogenesis, use of messenger RNA as template and normalization of qPCR data to a housekeeping gene, ef1a, yielded results that best reflected transcript abundance within the ovarian follicle. Synthesis of zp transcripts and proteins involved in

  19. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

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    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  20. Aging and the germ line: where mortality and immortality meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Leanne

    2007-01-01

    Germ cells are highly specialized cells that form gametes, and they are the only cells within an organism that contribute genes to offspring. Germline stem cells (GSCs) sustain gamete production, both oogenesis (egg production) and spermatogenesis (sperm production), in many organisms. Since the genetic information contained within germ cells is passed from generation to generation, the germ line is often referred to as immortal. Therefore, it is possible that germ cells possess unique strategies to protect and transmit the genetic information contained within them indefinitely. However, aging often leads to a dramatic decrease in gamete production and fecundity. In addition, single gene mutations affecting longevity often have a converse effect on reproduction. Recent studies examining age-related changes in GSC number and activity, as well as changes to the stem cell microenvironment, provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the observed reduction in gametogenesis over the lifetime of an organism.

  1. Amphibians as Model Organisms for Studying the Dynamics of Eukaryote Genetic Material Architecture

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    Burlibaşa, L.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians have played a key role in the elucidation of the mechanisms of early development over the last century. Much of our knowledge about the mechanisms of vertebrate early development comes from studies using Xenopus laevis. Xenopus sp. is a major contributor to our understanding of cell biological and biochemical processes, including: (1 chromosome replication; (2 chromatin, cytoskeleton and nuclear assembly; (3 cell cycle progression and (4 intracellular signaling. Amphibian embryos remained the embryos of choice for experimental embryology for many decades. European embryologists used predominantly urodele embryos (such as Triturus and embryos of the frog Rana temporaria, which is related to the North American species Rana pipiens. Using light, fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and molecular investigations, some peculiar aspects of chromatin and chromosome organization and evolution in oogenesis and spermatogenesis of amphibians were investigated. We have focused our investigations on dynamics of the chromatin structure in different stages of development.

  2. Mitochondrial dynamics and inheritance during cell division, development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant; Chan, David C

    2014-10-01

    During cell division, it is critical to properly partition functional sets of organelles to each daughter cell. The partitioning of mitochondria shares some common features with that of other organelles, particularly in the use of interactions with cytoskeletal elements to facilitate delivery to the daughter cells. However, mitochondria have unique features - including their own genome and a maternal mode of germline transmission - that place additional demands on this process. Consequently, mechanisms have evolved to regulate mitochondrial segregation during cell division, oogenesis, fertilization and tissue development, as well as to ensure the integrity of these organelles and their DNA, including fusion-fission dynamics, organelle transport, mitophagy and genetic selection of functional genomes. Defects in these processes can lead to cell and tissue pathologies.

  3. A thirty million year-old inherited heteroplasmy.

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    Vincent Doublet

    Full Text Available Due to essentially maternal inheritance and a bottleneck effect during early oogenesis, newly arising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations segregate rapidly in metazoan female germlines. Consequently, heteroplasmy (i.e. the mixture of mtDNA genotypes within an organism is generally resolved to homoplasmy within a few generations. Here, we report an exceptional transpecific heteroplasmy (predicting an alanine/valine alloacceptor tRNA change that has been stably inherited in oniscid crustaceans for at least thirty million years. Our results suggest that this heteroplasmy is stably transmitted across generations because it occurs within mitochondria and therefore escapes the mtDNA bottleneck that usually erases heteroplasmy. Consistently, at least two oniscid species possess an atypical trimeric mitochondrial genome, which provides an adequate substrate for the emergence of a constitutive intra-mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Persistence of a mitochondrial polymorphism on such a deep evolutionary timescale suggests that balancing selection may be shaping mitochondrial sequence evolution in oniscid crustaceans.

  4. Transcriptional properties and splicing of the flamenco piRNA cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriaux, Coline; Desset, Sophie; Renaud, Yoan; Vaury, Chantal; Brasset, Emilie

    2014-04-01

    In Drosophila, the piRNA cluster, flamenco, produces most of the piRNAs (PIWI-interacting RNAs) that silence transposable elements in the somatic follicle cells during oogenesis. These piRNAs are thought to be processed from a long single-stranded precursor transcript. Here, we demonstrate that flamenco transcription is initiated from an RNA polymerase II promoter containing an initiator motif (Inr) and downstream promoter element (DPE) and requires the transcription factor, Cubitus interruptus. We show that the flamenco precursor transcript undergoes differential alternative splicing to generate diverse RNA precursors that are processed to piRNAs. Our data reveal dynamic processing steps giving rise to piRNA cluster precursors.

  5. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

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    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  6. Spontaneous event of mitochondrial DNA mutation, A3243G, found in a family of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihara, Shinji; Nakamura, Kennichi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Takeuchi, Fujio

    2013-04-01

    A mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A3243G is an important cause of some serious mitochondrial diseases, and maternal inheritance of the mutation has been reported. In order to investigate the heredity of the mutation, we measured the ratio of the mutated mtDNA molecule among 32 families of identical twins. Both twins from one family showed 20.16% and 18.49% mutated molecules, and the level is significantly high in comparison with members of other families and control subjects (0.23-0.86%). Their parents, however, showed normal level of mutated molecules (0.70% and 0.66%). The high-level mutation of the twins may be due to a spontaneous event, which occurred during development of germ line of their mother, or oogenesis of their mother, or during early stage of their development.

  7. First report of a patient with a mixoploidy 47,XXX/94,XXXXXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Criado, G; Galán Gómez, E; Tizzano, E F; García Rodríguez, E; Gómez de Terreros, I

    2007-01-01

    We present a 16 years old female with a chromosomal mixoploidy and multiple phenotypic anomalies. Peripheral blood G-band karyotype was 47,XXX and her skin fibroblast karyotype revealed a mosaic with a 47,XXX cell line in 88% of metaphases and a 94,XXXXXX cell line in 12% of metaphases, consistent with a hypertetraploidy. The most prominent clinical signs were: short stature, left upper limb asymmetry, senile-like appearance, generalized hypertrichosis, and small hands and feet. Radiological examination showed bone dysplasia. The result of molecular studies demonstrated that the patient inherited the two X chromosomes from the mother and one from the father, indicating that her 47,XXX trisomy resulted from an oogenesis error in the first meiotic division. The 94,XXXXXX cell line was likely the result of a cytokinesis error. To our knowledge, this is the first documented patient with a trisomy and a hypertetraploidy.

  8. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis......, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies...... and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome....

  9. BmECM25, from the silkworm Bombyx mori, is an extracellular matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ziliang; Xu, Yunmin; Ma, Bi; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-10-01

    BmECM25 (previously reported as BmVMP25) was previously predicted as a gene encoding the vitelline membrane protein in silkworm, Bombyx mori. In this study, we investigated the detail temporal and spatial patterns of BmECM25 protein. Western blot results showed that BmECM25 was expressed in the follicular epithelium cells from stages -6 to +1, and was then secreted into the oocytes. However, the abundance of BmECM25 decreased during the subsequent oogenesis and finally disappeared in the mature follicles. Immunofluorescence detection showed that BmECM25 locates inside the VM layer and forms a discontinuous layer. These features of BmECM25 suggest that it is an oocyte membrane matrix protein, not a vitelline membrane protein.

  10. Effects of precocene and azadirachtin in Rhodnius prolixus: some data on development and reproduction

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    Eloi S. Garcia

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that precocene and azadirachtin are effective inhibitors of moulting and reproduction in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus. The time of application is important and only applications of these substances early in the intermoulting period cause their effects in nymphs. The inhibition of moulting is fully reversed by ecdysone therapy. Precocene and azadirachtin also affected drastically the oogenesis and egg deposition in this insect. Precocene-induced sterilization is reversed by application of juvenile hormone III. However, this hormone is unable to reverse the effect of azadirachtin on reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers in nymphs and adult females are decreased by these treatments. In vitro analysis suggest that precocene and azadirachtin may act directly on the prothoracic glands and ovaries producing ecdysteroids. Based on these and other findings the possible mode of action of these compounds on the development and reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus is discussed.

  11. β-Spectrin regulates the hippo signaling pathway and modulates the basal actin network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth Kin Lam; Li, Wenyang; An, Yanru; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Zhuoheng; Kang, Yibin; Yan, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests functional regulation of the Hippo pathway by the actin cytoskeleton, although the detailed molecular mechanism remains incomplete. In a genetic screen, we identified a requirement for β-Spectrin in the posterior follicle cells for the oocyte repolarization process during Drosophila mid-oogenesis. β-spectrin mutations lead to loss of Hippo signaling activity in the follicle cells. A similar reduction of Hippo signaling activity was observed after β-Spectrin knockdown in mammalian cells. We further demonstrated that β-spectrin mutations disrupt the basal actin network in follicle cells. The abnormal stress fiber-like actin structure on the basal side of follicle cells provides a likely link between the β-spectrin mutations and the loss of the Hippo signaling activity phenotype.

  12. Effect of growth hormone on testicular dysfunction induced by methotrexate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, H Serati; Azarmi, Y; Movahedin, M

    2009-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent causing defective oogenesis and spermatogenesis. This study was performed to assess the role of human growth hormone (GH) on testis recovery after treatment with MTX. Forty male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): control (vehicle), GH group (0.3 mg kg(-1) GH for 28 days, IP), MTX group (MTX 1 mg kg(-1) week(-1) for 4 weeks, IP) and GH/MTX group (0.3 mg kg(-1) GH for 28 day plus 1 mg kg(-1) week(-1) MTX for 4 weeks, IP). On days 14 and 28, five rats from each group were killed, testes of rats of all groups were removed, spermatozoa were collected from epididymis and then prepared for analysis. MTX caused significant increase in interstitial tissue and capsular thickness and decrease of testicular and body weight (P rat testes and thus improved sperm parameters.

  13. Production of fat-1 transgenic rats using a post-natal female germline stem cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Lei; Kang, Jing X; Xie, Wenhai; Li, Xiaoyong; Wu, Changqing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ji

    2014-03-01

    Germline stem cell lines possess the abilities of self-renewal and differentiation, and have been established from both mouse and human ovaries. Here, we established a new female germline stem cell (FGSC) line from post-natal rats by immunomagnetic sorting for Fragilis, which showed a normal karyotype, high telomerase activity, and a consistent gene expression pattern of primordial germ cells after 1 year of culture. Using an in vitro differentiation system, the FGSC line could differentiate into oocytes. After liposome-based transfection with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or fat-1 vectors, the FGSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of infertile rats. The transplanted FGSCs underwent oogenesis, and the rats produced offspring carrying the GFP or fat-1 transgene after mating with wild-type male rats. The efficiency of gene transfer was 27.86-28.00%, and 2 months was needed to produce transgenic rats. These findings have implications in biomedical research and potential applications in biotechnology.

  14. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  15. Sex determination in mammalian germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassy M Spiller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Germ cells are the precursors of the sperm and oocytes and hence are critical for survival of the species. In mammals, they are specified during fetal life, migrate to the developing gonads and then undergo a critical period during which they are instructed, by the soma, to adopt the appropriate sexual fate. In a fetal ovary, germ cells enter meiosis and commit to oogenesis, whereas in a fetal testis, they avoid entry into meiosis and instead undergo mitotic arrest and mature toward spermatogenesis. Here, we discuss what we know so far about the regulation of sex-specific differentiation of germ cells, considering extrinsic molecular cues produced by somatic cells, as well as critical intrinsic changes within the germ cells. This review focuses almost exclusively on our understanding of these events in the mouse model.

  16. Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Development of human gonads is a sex-dimorphic process which evolved to produce sex-specific types of germ cells. The process of gonadal sex differentiation is directed by the action of the somatic cells and ultimately results in germ cells differentiating to become functional gametes through...... spermatogenesis or oogenesis. This tightly controlled process depends on the proper sequential expression of many genes and signalling pathways. Disturbances of this process can be manifested as a large spectrum of disorders, ranging from severe disorders of sex development (DSD) to - in the genetic male - mild...... reproductive problems within the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), with large overlap between the syndromes. These disorders carry an increased but variable risk of germ cell neoplasia. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia associated with gonadal dysgenesis, especially...

  17. Evolution of sexual traits influencing vectorial capacity in anopheline mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N.; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; South, Adam; Howell, Paul I.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2015-01-01

    The availability of genome sequences from 16 anopheline species provides unprecedented opportunities to study the evolution of reproductive traits relevant for malaria transmission. In Anopheles gambiae, a likely candidate for sexual selection is male 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Sexual transfer of this steroid hormone as part of a mating plug dramatically changes female physiological processes intimately tied to vectorial capacity. By combining phenotypic studies with ancestral state reconstructions and phylogenetic analyses, we show that mating plug transfer and male 20E synthesis are both derived characters that have coevolved in anophelines, driving the adaptation of a female 20E-interacting protein that promotes oogenesis via mechanisms also favoring Plasmodium survival. Our data reveal coevolutionary dynamics of reproductive traits between the sexes likely to have shaped the ability of anophelines to transmit malaria. PMID:25722409

  18. Epigenetic: A new approach to etiology of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia W. Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complex disease which could be caused by male and female factors. The etiology from both factors needs further study. There are some approaches to understanding the etiology of infertility, one of them is epigenetic. Epigenetic modifications consist of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelling. Male and female germinal cells undergo epigenetic modifications dynamically during differentiation into matured sperm and oocyte cells. In a male, the alteration of DNA methylation in spermatogenesis will cause oligo/asthenozoospermia. In addition, the histone methylation, acetylation, or other histone modification may lead sperm lose its ability to fertilize oocyte. Similarly, in a female, the alteration of DNA methylation and histone modification affects oogenesis, created aneuploidy in fertilized oocytes and resulted in embryonic death in the uterus. Alteration of these epigenetic modification patterns will cause infertility, both in male and female.

  19. The Autosomal Chorion Locus of the Medfly Ceratitis Capitata. I. Conserved Synteny, Amplification and Tissue Specificity but Sequence Divergence and Altered Temporal Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, D.; Konsolaki, M.; Tolias, P. P.; Kafatos, F. C.; Komitopoulou, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the isolation, full sequence characterization, amplification and expression properties of medfly chorion genes corresponding to the autosomal chorion locus of Drosophila. These genes are found adjacent to the paramyosin gene and are organized in the same order and tandem orientation as their Drosophila homologues, although they are spaced further apart. They show substantial sequence divergence from their Drosophila homologues, including novel peptide repeats and a new spacing of the tyrosines, which are known to be cross-linked in Dipteran chorion. The genes are amplified and expressed during oogenesis, as in Drosophila. Three of them are expressed in the same relative temporal order as in Drosophila but the fourth gene, the homologue of s15, shows a clear shift to an earlier expression period. This is the first known instance of changed temporal regulation in dipteran chorion genes. PMID:9409839

  20. CYTOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF GAMETOGENESIS OF SCALLOPS,ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS AND CHLAMYS FARRERI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新红; 刘保忠; 吴长功; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Histological characteristics of gametogenesis of two kinds of sca llops, gonochoric Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri and hermaphroditic bay scallop, Argopecten irradians were investigated in this study. Spermatogenesis in C. Farreri h as different developmental stages: spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, second spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoon. A large number of same developmental stage spermatic cells converg e at a definite area of the testis. Premeiotic, previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes ca n be found during oogenesis in C. Farreri, where oocyte distribution is obviously irregular. T he A. Irradians gonad consists of two different parts in one individual: one part functions as testis, the other as ovary. Between these two parts is a special appearance area, where a large number of spermatic cells are bound with two layers of acellular substance with many oocytes in it.