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Sample records for fuscovarius oogenesis lutz

  1. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  2. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis

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    2013-01-01

    Background Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. Results A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. Conclusions This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function. PMID:23622113

  3. Neo-oogenesis in mammals.

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    Porras-Gómez, Tania Janeth; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life. Currently, the concept of neo-oogenesis has gained momentum due to the discovery of cells with mitotic activity in adult ovaries of various mammalian species (mice, humans, rhesus monkeys, domestic animals such as pigs, and wild animals such as bats). Despite these reports, the concept of neo-oogenesis has not been widely accepted by the scientific community, generating much criticism and speculation about its accuracy because it has been impossible to reproduce some evidence. This controversy has led to the creation of two positions: one in favour of neo-oogenesis and the other against it. Various animal models have been used in support of both camps, including both classic laboratory animals and domestic and wild animals. The aim of this review is to critically present the current literature on the subject and to evaluate the arguments pro and contra neo-oogenesis in mammals.

  4. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis

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    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  5. Anfíbios Anuros da coleção Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939

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    Bertha Lutz

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyla claresignata Lutz & Lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known Brazilian hylas. It is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. The specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. It belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the Marítime Range. The adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. DESCRIPTION. Vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. Tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. Snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. Eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. Tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. Lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. Toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. No dermal appendage on the hell. Habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. Legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. Type (female: 61 mm. (Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS of TADPOLE (by G. Orton. "A large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly

  6. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

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    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  7. Select aspects of oogenesis and folliculogenesis

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    Cezary Grygoruk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The processes of oogenesis and folliculogenesis begin very early in foetal life and are continued until the end of the reproductive period. Despite the numerous research conducted, the mechanism which initiates the growth of primary follicles has not been fully elucidated. The process of oocyte maturation begins after the recruitment of the primary follicle and continues until ovulation. This involves synthesis and accumulation of an appropriate number and kind of compounds and redistribution of cellular organelles inside the oocyte, which are necessary for the processes of fertilization and early embryonic development. The complexity and multi-functionality of these mechanisms and the factors which take part in the process of oogenesis indicate a necessity to conduct further research concerning this issue. A more thorough understanding of the processes of oogenesis and folliculogenesis will allow in time to develop more effective methods of treatment for a range of gynaecological, oncological, and endocrinological disorders.

  8. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis; Teste de Winston-Lutz: uma analise quantitativa

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    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas, E-mail: dnandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  9. Control of melanin synthesis during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis

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    Kidson, S H

    1985-01-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms that control the synthesis of pigment during Xenopus laevis oogenesis. In this study, in vitro and in vivo assays indicate that the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, the only enzyme necessary for the synthesis of pigment also reaches a peak during mid-oogenesis. The isotopes carbon 14, tritium, phosphorus 32 and sulfur 35 are used in this experiments. Furthermore, in vitro tyrosinase assays of polysomes isolated from different stage oocytes show that the rise in tyrosinase activity during mid-oogenesis is accompanied by a rise in polysomes synthesizing tyrosinase. This suggests that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis. It was also established that oocyte tyrosinase is synthesized as a 32 kd polypeptide and is processed intra-melanosomally into a 120-130 kd tetramer. It is this form that is catalytically active in vivo. Oocyte tyrosinase does not require post-translational protease activation. To investigate the hypothesis that the synthesis of tyrosinase is restricted to mid-oogenesis, the accumulation of messenger RNA coding for tyrosinase was measured at different stages of oogenesis using a tyrosinase cDNA probe. The preparation of the tyrosinase cDNA probe required the purification of tyrosinase mRNA. This was achieved by a technique based on affinity chromatography of polysomes. This enriched 'tyrosinase mRNA' translated in vitro into two major proteins of 32 kd and 20 kd. The mRNA microinjected into Xenopus oocytes is translated into active tyrosinase. Hybridization of the tyrosinase cDNA probe to dot blots of oocyte mRNA suggested that tyrosinase mRNA accumulation reaches a peak just before maximal tyrosinase synthesis. The absence of tyrosinase mRNA late in oogenesis suggests that this message is not synthesized at this stage. These results are interpreted in terms of the functional significance of lampbrush chromosomes.

  10. The dynamic landscape of gene regulation during Bombyx mori oogenesis.

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    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Wei; Sun, Bang-Yong; Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Ze

    2017-09-11

    Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis. A total of 1932 genes were identified to be differentially expressed among different stages, most of which occurred during the transition from late vitellogenesis to early choriogenesis. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified six stage-specific gene modules that correspond to multiple regulatory pathways. Strikingly, the biosynthesis pathway of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was enriched in one of the modules. Further analysis showed that the ecdysteroid 20-hydroxylase gene (CYP314A1) of steroidgenesis genes was mainly expressed in previtellogenesis and early vitellogenesis. However, the 20E-inactivated genes, particularly the ecdysteroid 26-hydroxylase encoding gene (Cyp18a1), were highly expressed in late vitellogenesis. These distinct expression patterns between 20E synthesis and catabolism-related genes might ensure the rapid decline of the hormone titer at the transition point from vitellogenesis to choriogenesis. In addition, we compared landscapes of gene regulation between silkworm (Lepidoptera) and fruit fly (Diptera) oogeneses. Our results show that there is some consensus in the modules of gene co-expression during oogenesis in these insects. The data presented in this study provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis in insects with polytrophic meroistic ovaries. The results also provide clues for further investigating the roles of epigenetic reconfiguration and circadian rhythm in insect oogenesis.

  11. The induction of non-disjunction by irradiation in mammalian oogenesis and spermatogenesis

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    Hansmann, I.; Probeck, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Test systems to detect non-disjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis are described and the results obtained from a study of radiation effects on non-disjunction presented. It is shown that X-rays may induce non-disjunction in mouse oogenesis and spermatogenesis, thereby increasing the potential risk of aneuploidies among the F1 generation. (C.F.)

  12. Germline stem cells and neo-oogenesis in the adult human ovary.

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    Liu, Yifei; Wu, Chao; Lyu, Qifeng; Yang, Dongzi; Albertini, David F; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2007-06-01

    It remains unclear whether neo-oogenesis occurs in postnatal ovaries of mammals, based on studies in mice. We thought to test whether adult human ovaries contain germline stem cells (GSCs) and undergo neo-oogenesis. Rather than using genetic manipulation which is unethical in humans, we took the approach of analyzing the expression of meiotic marker genes and genes for germ cell proliferation, which are required for neo-oogenesis, in adult human ovaries covering an age range from 28 to 53 years old, compared to testis and fetal ovaries served as positive controls. We show that active meiosis, neo-oogenesis and GSCs are unlikely to exist in normal, adult, human ovaries. No early meiotic-specific or oogenesis-associated mRNAs for SPO11, PRDM9, SCP1, TERT and NOBOX were detectable in adult human ovaries using RT-PCR, compared to fetal ovary and adult testis controls. These findings are further corroborated by the absence of early meiocytes and proliferating germ cells in adult human ovarian cortex probed with markers for meiosis (SCP3), oogonium (OCT3/4, c-KIT), and cell cycle progression (Ki-67, PCNA), in contrast to fetal ovary controls. If postnatal oogenesis is confirmed in mice, then this species would represent an exception to the rule that neo-oogenesis does not occur in adults.

  13. [Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae), its history and importance].

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    Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão, Ana Margarida; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2003-01-01

    This is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  14. Internal Auger emitters: effects on spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice

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    Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The in vivo biological effects of Auger emitters are investigated using [A] spermatogenesis in mouse testis, and [B] oogenesis in mouse ovary as experimental models. Spermhead survival and induction of abnormal sperm, following intratesticular administration of radiopharmaceuticals, were the end points in Model A. Of interest in Model B is primary oocyte survival after intraperitoneal injection of the radiochemicals. The effectiveness of the Auger emitter is determined relative to its beta emitting companion or external X-rays in the absence of such an analogue. Results reveal pronounced effects of Auger emitters on all end points, not dependent on mode of administration. The efficacy of the Auger emitter is related intimately to its subcellular distribution, which, is governed by the chemical form of the carrier molecule. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate and biophysically meaningful dosimetric approaches are needed to understand in vivo effects of Auger emitters. (author)

  15. Taxonomic study and redescription of Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on type examination, Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 is redescribed. The species Cx. (Mel. chrysonotum Dyar & Knab, 1908, was put back as synonym of theobaldi. Besides, examination of Cx. (Mel. chrysothorax (Newstead & Thomas, 1910 type, leads to retiring as synonym of theobaldi and considered it as "species inquirenda".

  16. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

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    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  17. Mitochondrial behavior during oogenesis in zebrafish: a confocal microscopy analysis.

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    Zhang, Yong-Zhong; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of mitochondria during early oogenesis remains largely unknown in zebrafish. We used three mitochondrial probes (Mito Tracker Red CMXRos, Mito Tracker Green FM, and JC-1) to stain early zebrafish oocyte mitochondria, and confocal microscopy to analyze mitochondrial aggregation and distribution. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we traced mitochondrial movement. The microtubule assembly inhibitor nocodazole and microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB) were used to analyze the role of microtubules and microfilaments on mitochondrial movement. By using the dual emission probe, JC-1, and oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), we determined the distribution of active and inactive (low-active) mitochondria. Green/red fluorescence ratios of different sublocations in different oocyte groups stained by JC-1 were detected in merged (green and red) images. Our results showed that mitochondria exhibited a unique distribution pattern in early zebrafish oocytes. They tended to aggregate into large clusters in early stage I oocytes, but in a threadlike state in latter stage I oocytes. We detected a lower density mitochondrial area and a higher density mitochondrial area on opposite sides of the germinal vesicle. The green/red fluorescence ratios in different sublocations in normal oocytes were about 1:1. This implies that active mitochondria were distributed in all sublocations. FCCP treatment caused significant increases in the ratios. CB and nocodazole treatment caused an increase of the ratios in clusters and mitochondrial cloud, but not in dispersed areas. Mitochondria in different sublocations underwent fast dynamic movement. Inhibition or disruption of microtubules or microfilaments resulted in even faster mitochondrial free movement.

  18. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

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    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  19. DAF-2 and ERK Couple Nutrient Availability to Meiotic Progression during Caenorhabditis elegans Oogenesis

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    Lopez, Andrew L.; Chen, Jessica; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Drake, Melanie; Shidate, Miri; Kseib, Cedric; Arur, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Coupling the production of mature gametes and fertilized zygotes to favorable nutritional conditions improves reproductive success. In invertebrates, the proliferation of female germ line stem cells is regulated by nutritional status. But, in mammals the number of female germ line stem cells is set early in development, with oocytes progressing through meiosis later in life. Mechanisms that couple later steps of oogenesis to environmental conditions remain largely undefined. We show that in the presence of food, the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor signals through the RAS-ERK pathway to drive meiotic prophase I progression and oogenesis; in the absence of food, the resultant inactivation of insulin-like signaling leads to downregulation of RAS-ERK pathway, and oogenesis is stalled. Thus, the insulin-like signaling pathway couples nutrient sensing to meiotic I progression and oocyte production in C. elegans, ensuring that oocytes are only produced under conditions favorable for the survival of the resulting zygotes. PMID:24120884

  20. Study of radioadaptive response in Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages

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    Glushkova, I.V.; Aksyutik, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    We study radioadaptive response in the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster at different oogenesis stages using the test of dominant lethal mutations (DLM). AR was not revealed at the stages of 14-7 and 7--1 oocytes in the studied Drosophila stock. It is likely to be associated with a genetic constitution of the Drosophila strain under study. (authors)

  1. Autoradiographic study of the nucleolar RNA metabolism during the oogenesis of Lineus ruber Mueller (Heteronemertes)

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    Rue, Gerard; Gontcharoff, Marie

    1975-01-01

    During Lineus ruber oogenesis, there is a very high uridine uptake by the oocyte before the yolk formation. At the end of this stage, the nucleolus shows a special structure that seems to be related to a decrease of the ribosomal RNA synthesis. During the yolk formation, the nucleolus scatters in the nucleus, allowing ribonucleoprotein granules to go towards the cytoplasm [fr

  2. Sobre as espécies do gênero Echinostoma Rudolphi, 1809 descritas por Adolpho Lutz em 1924 On the species of the genus Echinostoma Rudolphi, 1809, described by Adolpho Lutz in 1924

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    Anna Kohn

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores redescrevem as espécies E. erraticum, E. exile, E. microrchis, E. neglectum, E. nephrocystis e E. parcespinosum, criadas por Lutz em 1924, apresentando figuras e quadros de medidas.In 1924, LUTZ in his work "Estudos sobre a evolução dos Endotrematodeos brazileiros", proposed six new species under the genus Echinostoma and described them although without offering many details. For this reason, it was not possible to achieve a complete knowledge of these species and as almost the whole material studied by LUTZ was encolosed in the Oswaldo Cruz Helminthological Collection, the authors revised it, presenting redescriptions of the species, as well as original camera lucida drawings, in order to facilitate further investigations on the matter.

  3. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis

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    Barth Julia MI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC, but not in the germline cells (GCs. However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Results Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Conclusion Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline and signal receiving cell (FC, thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  4. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Hee Jin Shim

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  5. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

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    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  6. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

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    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  7. Coleção de simuliídeos (Diptera - Simuliidae de Adolpho Lutz, sua história e importância Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae, its history and importance

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    Ana Margarida Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é parte de uma dissertação de mestrado em elaboração no curso de pós-graduação em biologia animal da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, apoiado pela CAPES. Nele, são apresentadas as espécies de simuliídeos que pertencem à coleção de Adolpho Lutz depositadas no Laboratório de Simuliídeos e Oncocercose do Departamento de Entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC. Pioneiro no estudo desses dípteros, Lutz descreveu cerca de 25 espécies de diferentes localidades do Brasil. Vetor da oncocercose, os simuliídeos tiveram sua importância médico-sanitária reconhecida em fins da década de 1920.This paper is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  8. Isolation of oogenesis-specific genes transcribed in the germ-line of Calliphora erythrocephala and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA from early or mid-stage ovarian follicles of C. erythrocephala was used to generate radiolabelled oogenesis-specific cDNA probes for screening the phage libraries. A cDNA probe made from mid-stage embryo poly(A) + RNA was used as the differential screening probe. Thus plaques hybridizing to the two oogenesis-specific probes but not the mid-stage embryo probe were selected as potentially containing oogenesis-specific genes. Two further rounds of screening were used to eliminate false positives and, after plaque purification, restriction digests of the remaining clones were screened by Southern blot hybridization to identify DNA fragments transcribed in an oogenesis-specific manner. In situ hybridization to sections of ovarian follicles has been used to determine the cell types within the follicles in which the various genes are expressed. Radiolabelled RNA probes for four of the C. erythrocephala oogenesis-specific clones and the two D. melanogaster clones have been hybridized to ovarian follicles. Further studies have been concentrated on the two germ-line transcribed, oogenesis-specific clones isolated from the D. melanogaster clone library. Detailed genetic mapping of the DA clone and of these mutations was performed to determine which mutations might represent the DA gene. cDNA clones have been isolated for the transcribed region of clone DA and have been used to further define the transcription unit from this region of the D. melanogaster genome

  9. Ovarian stem cells and neo-oogenesis: A breakthrough in reproductive biology research

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    S Mooyottu1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ovarian stem cells which can replenish the ovarian reserve in postnatal mammalian females is a revolutionary breakthrough in reproductive biology. This idea overturned the central dogma existed in female reproductive physiology. Contradicting the popular belief that oogenesis does not occur in post natal life, researchers proved the existence of putative stem cells in ovary, which can supply functional follicles in post natal ovaries. Even though the idea of neo-oogenesis in postnatal ovaries in normal conditions is controversial, the isolation and manipulation of ovarian stem cells have got tremendous application in medical, veterinary and animal production fields. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 89-91

  10. Ultrastructure of oogenesis in imposex females of Babylonia areolata (Caenogastropoda: Buccinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenpo, C.; Suwanjarat, J.; Klepal, W.

    2011-09-01

    During a tributyltin (TBT)-exposure experiment, the ultrastructural features of oogenesis have been examined in TBT-induced imposex females of Babylonia areolata and compared with those of the normal female. The results obtained from such experiment demonstrates that B. areolata exhibits a low to moderate intensity of imposex because all VDSI values are never higher than 3. Ultrastructures of germ cell development including oogonia, pre-vitellogenic, early vitellogenic, late vitellogenic and mature oocytes show that oogenesis in imposex female is similar to that of normal females except for the presence of numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the oocytes and the follicle cells in imposex females, indicating the degeneration of their oocytes. Vitellogenesis in B. areolata involves both auto- and heterosynthetic processes that resemble those of the basal gastropods and the pulmonates. In addition, the presence of cortical granules and microvilli are unique structures of this species.

  11. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  12. Mental Illness within Family Context: Visual Dialogues in Joshua Lutz's Photographic Essay "Hesitating Beauty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sile, Agnese

    2018-01-01

    The status of photography within medical arts or humanities is still insecure. Despite a growing number of published photographic essays that disclose illness experience of an individual and how illness affects close relatives, these works have received relatively little scholarly attention. Through analysis of Joshua Lutz's "Hesitating…

  13. Transcriptome profiling of the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) ovary reveals genes involved in oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Fan; Zou, Ming-Min; He, Wei-Yi; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qing; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-12-30

    As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening for the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops. Based on transcriptome sequencing, a total of 7.88Gb clean nucleotides was obtained, with 19,934 genes and 1861 new transcripts being identified. Expression profiling indicated that 61.7% of the genes were expressed (FPKM≥1) in the P. xylostella ovary. GO annotation showed that the pathways of multicellular organism reproduction and multicellular organism reproduction process, as well as gamete generation and chorion were significantly enriched. Processes that were most likely relevant to reproduction included the spliceosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, endocytosis, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, and focal adhesion were identified in the top 20 'highly represented' KEGG pathways. Functional genes involved in oogenesis were further analyzed and validated by qRT-PCR to show their potential predominant roles in P. xylostella reproduction. Our newly developed P. xylostella ovary transcriptome provides an overview of the gene expression profiling in this specialized tissue and the functional gene network closely related to the ovary development and oogenesis. This is the first genome-wide transcriptome dataset of P. xylostella ovary that includes a subset of functionally activated genes. This global approach will be the basis for further studies on molecular mechanisms of P. xylostella reproduction aimed at screening potential molecular targets for integrated pest

  14. Rasputin functions as a positive regulator of orb in Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Alexandre Costa

    Full Text Available The determination of cell fate and the establishment of polarity axes during Drosophila oogenesis depend upon pathways that localize mRNAs within the egg chamber and control their on-site translation. One factor that plays a central role in regulating on-site translation of mRNAs is Orb. Orb is a founding member of the conserved CPEB family of RNA-binding proteins. These proteins bind to target sequences in 3' UTRs and regulate mRNA translation by modulating poly(A tail length. In addition to controlling the translation of axis-determining mRNAs like grk, fs(1K10, and osk, Orb protein autoregulates its own synthesis by binding to orb mRNA and activating its translation. We have previously shown that Rasputin (Rin, the Drosophila homologue of Ras-GAP SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP, associates with Orb in a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP complex. Rin is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein believed to function as a link between Ras signaling and RNA metabolism. Here we show that Orb and Rin form a complex in the female germline. Characterization of a new rin allele shows that rin is essential for oogenesis. Co-localization studies suggest that Orb and Rin form a complex in the oocyte at different stages of oogenesis. This is supported by genetic and biochemical analyses showing that rin functions as a positive regulator in the orb autoregulatory pathway by increasing Orb protein expression. Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis shows that several canonical stress granule proteins are associated with the Orb-Rin complex suggesting that a conserved mRNP complex regulates localized translation during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  15. Rasputin functions as a positive regulator of orb in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alexandre; Pazman, Cecilia; Sinsimer, Kristina S; Wong, Li Chin; McLeod, Ian; Yates, John; Haynes, Susan; Schedl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The determination of cell fate and the establishment of polarity axes during Drosophila oogenesis depend upon pathways that localize mRNAs within the egg chamber and control their on-site translation. One factor that plays a central role in regulating on-site translation of mRNAs is Orb. Orb is a founding member of the conserved CPEB family of RNA-binding proteins. These proteins bind to target sequences in 3' UTRs and regulate mRNA translation by modulating poly(A) tail length. In addition to controlling the translation of axis-determining mRNAs like grk, fs(1)K10, and osk, Orb protein autoregulates its own synthesis by binding to orb mRNA and activating its translation. We have previously shown that Rasputin (Rin), the Drosophila homologue of Ras-GAP SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP), associates with Orb in a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex. Rin is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein believed to function as a link between Ras signaling and RNA metabolism. Here we show that Orb and Rin form a complex in the female germline. Characterization of a new rin allele shows that rin is essential for oogenesis. Co-localization studies suggest that Orb and Rin form a complex in the oocyte at different stages of oogenesis. This is supported by genetic and biochemical analyses showing that rin functions as a positive regulator in the orb autoregulatory pathway by increasing Orb protein expression. Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis shows that several canonical stress granule proteins are associated with the Orb-Rin complex suggesting that a conserved mRNP complex regulates localized translation during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  16. MPK-1 ERK controls membrane organization in C. elegans oogenesis via a sex-determination module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arur, Swathi; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Berkseth, Matt; Nayak, Sudhir; Hansen, David; Zarkower, David; Schedl, Tim

    2011-05-17

    Tissues that generate specialized cell types in a production line must coordinate developmental mechanisms with physiological demand, although how this occurs is largely unknown. In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, the developmental sex-determination cascade specifies gamete sex in the distal germline, while physiological sperm signaling activates MPK-1/ERK in the proximal germline to control plasma membrane biogenesis and organization during oogenesis. We discovered repeated utilization of a self-contained negative regulatory module, consisting of NOS-3 translational repressor, FEM-CUL-2 (E3 ubiquitin ligase), and TRA-1 (Gli transcriptional repressor), which acts both in sex determination and in physiological demand control of oogenesis, coordinating these processes. In the distal germline, where MPK-1 is not activated, TRA-1 represses the male fate as NOS-3 functions in translational repression leading to inactivation of the FEM-CUL-2 ubiquitin ligase. In the proximal germline, sperm-dependent physiological MPK-1 activation results in phosphorylation-based inactivation of NOS-3, FEM-CUL-2-mediated degradation of TRA-1 and the promotion of membrane organization during oogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. M6 membrane protein plays an essential role in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, María Paula; Brocco, Marcela Adriana; Billi, Silvia C; Frasch, Alberto C; Ceriani, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    We had previously shown that the transmembrane glycoprotein M6a, a member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, regulates neurite/filopodium outgrowth, hence, M6a might be involved in neuronal remodeling and differentiation. In this work we focused on M6, the only PLP family member present in Drosophila, and ortholog to M6a. Unexpectedly, we found that decreased expression of M6 leads to female sterility. M6 is expressed in the membrane of the follicular epithelium in ovarioles throughout oogenesis. Phenotypes triggered by M6 downregulation in hypomorphic mutants included egg collapse and egg permeability, thus suggesting M6 involvement in eggshell biosynthesis. In addition, RNAi-mediated M6 knockdown targeted specifically to follicle cells induced an arrest of egg chamber development, revealing that M6 is essential in oogenesis. Interestingly, M6-associated phenotypes evidenced abnormal changes of the follicle cell shape and disrupted follicular epithelium in mid- and late-stage egg chambers. Therefore, we propose that M6 plays a role in follicular epithelium maintenance involving membrane cell remodeling during oogenesis in Drosophila.

  18. Sexual and asexual oogenesis require the expression of unique and shared sets of genes in the insect Acyrthosiphon pisum

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    Gallot Aurore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sexual reproduction is dominant within eukaryotes, asexual reproduction is widespread and has evolved independently as a derived trait in almost all major taxa. How asexuality evolved in sexual organisms is unclear. Aphids, such as Acyrthosiphon pisum, alternate between asexual and sexual reproductive means, as the production of parthenogenetic viviparous females or sexual oviparous females and males varies in response to seasonal photoperiodism. Consequently, sexual and asexual development in aphids can be analyzed simultaneously in genetically identical individuals. Results We compared the transcriptomes of aphid embryos in the stages of development during which the trajectory of oogenesis is determined for producing sexual or asexual gametes. This study design aimed at identifying genes involved in the onset of the divergent mechanisms that result in the sexual or asexual phenotype. We detected 33 genes that were differentially transcribed in sexual and asexual embryos. Functional annotation by gene ontology (GO showed a biological signature of oogenesis, cell cycle regulation, epigenetic regulation and RNA maturation. In situ hybridizations demonstrated that 16 of the differentially-transcribed genes were specifically expressed in germ cells and/or oocytes of asexual and/or sexual ovaries, and therefore may contribute to aphid oogenesis. We categorized these 16 genes by their transcription patterns in the two types of ovaries; they were: i expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis; ii expressed during sexual and asexual oogenesis but with different localizations; or iii expressed only during sexual or asexual oogenesis. Conclusions Our results show that asexual and sexual oogenesis in aphids share common genetic programs but diverge by adapting specificities in their respective gene expression profiles in germ cells and oocytes.

  19. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  20. Estudo comparativo dos métodos coprológicos de Lutz, Kato-Katz e Faust modificado A comparative study of the coprologic methods of Lutz, Kato-Katz and the Faust modified

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    Adelú Chaves

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, comparativamente, em 500 pacientes, os métodos de exames de fezes de Lutz, Faust modificado e Kato-Katz para o diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes. O método de Kato-Katz proporcionou maiores índices de positividade do que as outras duas técnicas no diagnóstico de ancilostomideos, T. trichiurus e S. mansoni. Nenhuma diferença foi observada quanto ao diagnóstico de A. lumbricoides. Para o diagnóstico das protozooses não houve diferença significativa entre os métodos de Faust modificado e de Lutz. Baseado nos dados obtidos, eficiência, simplicidade e rapidez de execução recomenda-se a associação dos métodos de Kato-Katz e Faust modificado na rotina de diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes.A comparative study was of the Lutz, Faust (modified, and Kato-Katz stool examination methods for parasitological diagnosis using 500 patients. The Kato-Katz method provided higher rates of positivity than the other two techniques in the diagnosis of Ancylostomidae, T. trichiurus, and S. mansoni. No differences were observed in the diagnosis of A. lumbicoides. Nor was a statistically significant difference observed in the diagnosis of protozoosis when using the Lutz and modified Faust methods. The data obtained led to a recommendation for an association of Kato-Katz and modified Faust methods for routine parasitological diagnosis due to Us simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency.

  1. A developmental stage-specific switch from DAZL to BOLL occurs during fetal oogenesis in humans, but not mice.

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    Jing He

    Full Text Available The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX, but not male (XY human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll(-/- mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis.

  2. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberg, D; Irrer, J; Kessler, M; Lam, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  3. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  4. Bisphenol A exposure in utero disrupts early oogenesis in the mouse.

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    Martha Susiarjo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen plays an essential role in the growth and maturation of the mammalian oocyte, and recent studies suggest that it also influences follicle formation in the neonatal ovary. In the course of studies designed to assess the effect of the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A (BPA on mammalian oogenesis, we uncovered an estrogenic effect at an even earlier stage of oocyte development--at the onset of meiosis in the fetal ovary. Pregnant mice were treated with low, environmentally relevant doses of BPA during mid-gestation to assess the effect of BPA on the developing ovary. Oocytes from exposed female fetuses displayed gross aberrations in meiotic prophase, including synaptic defects and increased levels of recombination. In the mature female, these aberrations were translated into an increase in aneuploid eggs and embryos. Surprisingly, we observed the same constellation of meiotic defects in fetal ovaries of mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of ERbeta, one of the two known estrogen receptors. This, coupled with the finding that BPA exposure elicited no additional effects in ERbeta null females, suggests that BPA exerts its effect on the early oocyte by interfering with the actions of ERbeta. Together, our results show that BPA can influence early meiotic events and, importantly, indicate that the oocyte itself may be directly responsive to estrogen during early oogenesis. This raises concern that brief exposures during fetal development to substances that mimic or antagonize the effects of estrogen may adversely influence oocyte development in the exposed female fetus.

  5. Liquid facets-related (lqfR is required for egg chamber morphogenesis during Drosophila oogenesis.

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    Peter A Leventis

    Full Text Available Clathrin interactor 1 [CLINT1] (also called enthoprotin/EpsinR is an Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH domain-containing adaptor protein that functions in anterograde and retrograde clathrin-mediated trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosome. Removal of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs, Ent3p and Ent5p, result in yeast that are viable, but that display a cold-sensitive growth phenotype and mistrafficking of various vacuolar proteins. Similarly, either knock-down or overexpression of vertebrate CLINT1 in cell culture causes mistrafficking of proteins. Here, we have characterized Drosophila CLINT1, liquid-facets Related (lqfR. LqfR is ubiquitously expressed throughout development and is localized to the Golgi and endosome. Strong hypomorphic mutants generated by imprecise P-element excision exhibit extra macrochaetae, rough eyes and are female sterile. Although essentially no eggs are laid, the ovaries do contain late-stage egg chambers that exhibit abnormal morphology. Germline clones reveal that LqfR expression in the somatic follicle cells is sufficient to rescue the oogenesis defects. Clones of mutant lqfR follicle cells have a decreased cell size consistent with a downregulation of Akt1. We find that while total Akt1 levels are increased there is also a significant decrease in activated phosphorylated Akt1. Taken together, these results show that LqfR function is required to regulate follicle cell size and signaling during Drosophila oogenesis.

  6. C30F12.4 influences oogenesis, fat metabolism, and lifespan in C. elegans

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    Lu Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Reproduction, fat metabolism, and longevity are intertwined regulatory axes; recent studies in C. elegans have provided evidence that these processes are directly coupled. However, the mechanisms by which they are coupled and the reproductive signals modulating fat metabolism and lifespan are poorly understood. Here, we find that an oogenesis-enriched gene, c30f12.4, is specifically expressed and located in germ cells and early embryos; when the gene is knocked out, oogenesis is disrupted and brood size is decreased. In addition to the reproductive phenotype, we find that the loss of c30f12.4 alters fat metabolism, resulting in decreased fat storage and smaller lipid droplets. Meanwhile, c30f12.4 mutant worms display a shortened lifespan. Our results highlight an important role for c30f12.4 in regulating reproduction, fat homeostasis, and aging in C. elegans, which helps us to better understand the relationship between these processes.

  7. Coordination of cellular differentiation, polarity, mitosis and meiosis - New findings from early vertebrate oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-10-15

    A mechanistic dissection of early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates is key to advancing our knowledge of germline development, reproductive biology, the regulation of meiosis, and all of their associated disorders. Recent advances in the field include breakthroughs in the identification of germline stem cells in Medaka, in the cellular architecture of the germline cyst in mice, in a mechanistic dissection of chromosomal pairing and bouquet formation in meiosis in mice, in tracing oocyte symmetry breaking to the chromosomal bouquet of meiosis in zebrafish, and in the biology of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule. Many of the major events in early oogenesis are universally conserved, and some are co-opted for species-specific needs. The chromosomal events of meiosis are of tremendous consequence to gamete formation and have been extensively studied. New light is now being shed on other aspects of early oocyte differentiation, which were traditionally considered outside the scope of meiosis, and their coordination with meiotic events. The emerging theme is of meiosis as a common groundwork for coordinating multifaceted processes of oocyte differentiation. In an accompanying manuscript we describe methods that allowed for investigations in the zebrafish ovary to contribute to these breakthroughs. Here, we review these advances mostly from the zebrafish and mouse. We discuss oogenesis concepts across established model organisms, and construct an inclusive paradigm for early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-F-T-547: Off-Isocenter Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery/stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Liu, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a quantitative study to verify that the mechanical field center coincides with the radiation field center when both are off from the isocenter during the single-isocenter technique in linear accelerator-based SRS/SBRT procedure to treat multiple lesions. Methods: We developed an innovative method to measure this accuracy, called the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test, and here we provide a practical clinical guideline to implement this technique. We used ImagePro V.6 to analyze images of a Winston-Lutz phantom obtained using a Varian 21EX linear accelerator with an electronic portal imaging device, set up as for single-isocenter SRS/SBRT for multiple lesions. We investigated asymmetry field centers that were 3 cm and 5 cm away from the isocenter, as well as performing the standard Winston-Lutz test. We used a special beam configuration to acquire images while avoiding collision, and we investigated both jaw and multileaf collimation. Results: For the jaw collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the mechanical field deviated from the radiation field by about 2.5 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 3 mm, up to 4.27 mm. For the multileaf collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the deviation was below 1 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 1 mm, up to 1.72 mm, which is 72% higher than the tolerance threshold. Conclusion: These results indicated that the further the asymmetry field center is from the machine isocenter, the larger the deviation of the mechanical field from the radiation field, and the distance between the center of the asymmetry field and the isocenter should not exceed 3 cm in of our clinic. We recommend that every clinic that uses linear accelerator, multileaf collimator-based SRS/SBRT perform the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test in addition to the standard Winston-Lutz test and use their own deviation data to design the treatment plan.

  9. Adolpho Lutz: um esboço biográfico

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    Benchimol Jaime Larry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as origens familares e a trajetória de Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940 até sua transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, em 1908. Utiliza o cientista como fio condutor para a análise da instituição das medicinas pasteuriana e tropical no Brasil. Examina seus estudos superiores e de aperfeiçoamento na Europa germânica, suas atividades como clínico e como investigador de temas relacionados à helmintologia, parasitologia, veterinária e bacteriologia no interior de São Paulo, sua estada no leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí, e controvérsias médicas de que participou durante o período em que chefiou o Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo, especialmente aquelas concernentes ao cólera, às disenterias, à febre tifóide, à malária e à febre amarela.

  10. Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia: Report of two cases in a family

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    Bhawna Bhutoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV, is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen′s disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

  11. Phylogeography and population diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

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    Vanderly Andrade-Souza

    Full Text Available High morphological homogeneity and cryptic speciation may cause the diversity within Simuliidae to be underestimated. Recent molecular studies on population genetics and phylogeography have contributed to reveal which factors influenced the diversity within this group. This study aimed at examining the genetic diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz, 1910 in populations from the biomes Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest. In this study, we carried out phylogeographic and population genetic analyses using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI. The 19 populations studied were clustered into seven groups, most of which are associated with geography indicating certain genetic structure. The northern region of the state of Minas Gerais is most likely the center of origin of this species. The average intergroup genetic distance was 3.7%, indicating the presence of cryptic species. The species tree as well as the haplotype network recovered all groups forming two major groups: the first comprises groups Gr-Bahia (in which the São Francisco river has not acted as geographical barrier, Gr-Pernambuco, and Gr-Mato Grosso do Sul. The second included groups comprising populations of the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo, and Espírito Santo. The mismatch distribution for groups was consistent with the model of demographic expansion, except for the Gr-Central-East_1 group. The diversification in this group occurred about 1.19 Mya during the Pleistocene, influenced by paleoclimatic oscillations during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

  12. Studying Oogenesis in a Non-model Organism Using Transcriptomics: Assembling, Annotating, and Analyzing Your Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a guide to processing and analyzing RNA-Seq data in a non-model organism. This approach was implemented for studying oogenesis in the Speckled Wood Butterfly Pararge aegeria. We focus in particular on how to perform a more informative primary annotation of your non-model organism by implementing our multi-BLAST annotation strategy. We also provide a general guide to other essential steps in the next-generation sequencing analysis workflow. Before undertaking these methods, we recommend you familiarize yourself with command line usage and fundamental concepts of database handling. Most of the operations in the primary annotation pipeline can be performed in Galaxy (or equivalent standalone versions of the tools) and through the use of common database operations (e.g. to remove duplicates) but other equivalent programs and/or custom scripts can be implemented for further automation.

  13. No evidence for neo-oogenesis may link to ovarian senescence in adult monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jihong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mengyuan; Mao, Jian; Yin, Yu; Ye, Xiaoying; Liu, Na; Han, Jihong; Gao, Yingdai; Cheng, Tao; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Female germline or oogonial stem cells transiently residing in fetal ovaries are analogous to the spermatogonial stem cells or germline stem cells (GSCs) in adult testes where GSCs and meiosis continuously renew. Oocytes can be generated in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but the existence of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in adult mammalian ovaries is less clear. Preliminary findings of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in mice and humans have not been consistently reproducible. Monkeys provide the most relevant model of human ovarian biology. We searched for GSCs and neo-meiosis in ovaries of adult monkeys at various ages, and compared them with GSCs from adult monkey testis, which are characterized by cytoplasmic staining for the germ cell marker DAZL and nuclear expression of the proliferative markers PCNA and KI67, and pluripotency-associated genes LIN28 and SOX2, and lack of nuclear LAMIN A, a marker for cell differentiation. Early meiocytes undergo homologous pairing at prophase I distinguished by synaptonemal complex lateral filaments with telomere perinuclear distribution. By exhaustive searching using comprehensive experimental approaches, we show that proliferative GSCs and neo-meiocytes by these specific criteria were undetectable in adult mouse and monkey ovaries. However, we found proliferative nongermline somatic stem cells that do not express LAMIN A and germ cell markers in the adult ovaries, notably in the cortex and granulosa cells of growing follicles. These data support the paradigm that adult ovaries do not undergo germ cell renewal, which may contribute significantly to ovarian senescence that occurs with age. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

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    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  15. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  16. Bromeliaceae do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Encholirium Lutzii L. B. Smith n. sp

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    Lyman B. Smith

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Encholirium Lutzii is distinguished from the majority of species by its branched inflorescence. Only E. horridum L. B. Smith and rarely E. spectabile Martius exhibit this character, but have much larger flowers than E. Lutzii and stout floral axes. Also the wing of the seed in E. horridum is very long-caudate. We feel that it is particularly appropriate to dedicate this new species to Dr. Adolpho Lutz because of his great discoveries in the biological relationships of the Bromeliaceae.

  17. RNA-binding proteins in human oogenesis: Balancing differentiation and self-renewal in the female fetal germline

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    Roseanne Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation. In this review we examine the role of exemplars of such proteins, namely LIN28, DAZL, BOLL and FMRP, and highlight how their roles during germ cell development are critical to oogenesis and the establishment of the primordial follicle pool.

  18. Lie Group Analysis of the Photo-Induced Fluorescence of Drosophila Oogenesis with the Asymmetrically Localized Gurken Protein.

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    Jen-Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Lie group analysis of the photo-induced fluorescence of Drosophila oogenesis with the asymmetrically localized Gurken protein has been performed systematically to assess the roles of ligand-receptor complexes in follicle cells. The (2×2 matrix representations resulting from the polarized tissue spectra were employed to characterize the asymmetrical Gurken distributions. It was found that the fluorescence of the wild-type egg shows the Lie point symmetry X 23 at early stages of oogenesis. However, due to the morphogen regulation by intracellular proteins and extracellular proteins, the fluorescence of the embryogenesis with asymmetrically localized Gurken expansions exhibits specific symmetry features: Lie point symmetry Z 1 and Lie point symmetry X 1. The novel approach developed herein was successfully used to validate that the invariant-theoretical characterizations are consonant with the observed asymmetric fluctuations during early embryological development.

  19. MPK-1 ERK Controls Membrane Organization in C. elegans Oogenesis via a Sex-Determination Module

    OpenAIRE

    Arur, Swathi; Ohmachi, Mitsue; Berkseth, Matt; Nayak, Sudhir; Hansen, David; Zarkower, David; Schedl, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Tissues that generate specialized cell-types in a production line must coordinate developmental mechanisms with physiological demand, although how this occurs is largely unknown. In the C. elegans hermaphrodite, the developmental sex-determination cascade specifies gamete sex in the distal germline, while physiological sperm signaling activates MPK-1/ERK in the proximal germline to control plasma membrane biogenesis/organization during oogenesis. We discovered repeated utilization of a self-c...

  20. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly

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    Deepa Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes. These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility.

  1. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  2. Oogenesis, follicular development and reproductive performance in the prenatally irradiated bovine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Reynolds, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the radioresponse of the various developmental stages of the prenatal bovine germ cell, cows bearing foetuses varying in age from 40+-5 (point of gonadal sex differentiation) to 270+-10 (approximately 13 days before parturition) days of gestation were irradiated with 300 R of 60 Co gamma radiation at 25-50 R/min, a level just below that likely to cause maternal deaths and gross foetal abnormalities at some developmental stages. Dose to the foetal gonad was approximately 100 rad. When the prenatally irradiated heifers were approximately 10 months old their ovaries were recovered at slaughter, serially sectioned, and prepared for microscopic analysis. A complete quantitative analysis of oocytes in primordial, growing and vesicular follicles was effected. Follicular development (reflected by counts of growing and vesicular follicles) was apparently unaffected at all ages tested (P>0.25), whereas oogenesis (reflected by counts of oocytes in primordial follicles) was significantly impeded (64% of control) only between 70 and 90 days of gestation (P<0.05). The germ-cell population at this period differs from later developmental stages principally by the presence of a high proportion of mitotically active oogonia, hence it appears that the oogonium is the most vulnerable cell type. Neither the viability nor reproductive performance of 60 cows that were prenatally irradiated (100 rad) at either 80+-10 or 130+-20 days of gestation was affected through a minimum of 5 years of postnatal life and three pregnancies. (author)

  3. Oogenesis and spawn formation in the invasive lionfish, Pterois miles and Pterois volitans

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    James A. Morris, Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois miles and P. volitans, have recently invaded the U.S. east coast and the Caribbean and pose a significant threat to native reef fish communities. Few studies have documented reproduction in pteroines from the Indo-Pacific. This study provides a description of oogenesis and spawn formation in P. miles and P. volitans collected from offshore waters of North Carolina, U.S.A and the Bahamas. Using histological and laboratory observations, we found no differences in reproductive biology between P. miles and P. volitans. These lionfish spawn buoyant eggs that are encased in a hollow mass of mucus produced by specialized secretory cells of the ovarian wall complex. Oocytes develop on highly vascularized peduncles with all oocyte stages present in the ovary of spawning females and the most mature oocytes placed terminally, near the ovarian lumen. Given these ovarian characteristics, these lionfish are asynchronous, indeterminate batch spawners and are thus capable of sustained reproduction throughout the year when conditions are suitable. This mode of reproduction could have contributed to the recent and rapid establishment of these lionfish in the northwestern Atlantic and Caribbean.

  4. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis.

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    Merly Saare

    Full Text Available Targeting of G proteins to the cell cortex and their activation is one of the triggers of both asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates a certain subgroup of G protein α-subunits in a receptor independent manner. RIC8 controls the asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and symmetric cell division in cultured mammalian cells, where it regulates the mitotic spindle orientation. Although intensely studied in mitosis, the function of RIC8 in mammalian meiosis has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that the expression and subcellular localization of RIC8 changes profoundly during mouse oogenesis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that RIC8 expression is dependent on oocyte growth and cell cycle phase. During oocyte growth, RIC8 is abundantly present in cytoplasm of oocytes at primordial, primary and secondary preantral follicle stages. Later, upon oocyte maturation RIC8 also populates the germinal vesicle, its localization becomes cell cycle dependent, and it associates with chromatin and the meiotic spindle. After fertilization, RIC8 protein converges to the pronuclei and is also detectable at high levels in the nucleolus precursor bodies of both maternal and paternal pronucleus. During first cleavage of zygote RIC8 localizes in the mitotic spindle and cell cortex of forming blastomeres. In addition, we demonstrate that RIC8 co-localizes with its interaction partners Gαi1/2:GDP and LGN in meiotic/mitotic spindle, cell cortex and polar bodies of maturing oocytes and zygotes. Downregulation of Ric8 by siRNA leads to interferred translocation of Gαi1/2 to cortical region of maturing oocytes and reduction of its levels. RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility.

  5. Molecular markers of oocyte differentiation in European eel during hormonally induced oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Martínez-Miguel, Leticia; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Vílchez, M Carmen; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz; Cancio, Ibon

    2017-09-01

    Reproduction in captivity is a key study issue in Anguilla anguilla as a possible solution for its dwindling population. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the production of ribosomal building blocks during artificially induced oocyte maturation could be particularly interesting. Transcription levels of ribosomal biogenesis associated genes could be used as markers to monitor oogenesis. Eels from the Albufera Lagoon were injected with carp pituitary extract for 15weeks and ovaries in previtellogenic (PV) stage (non-injected), in early-, mid-, late-vitellogenesis (EV, MV, LV), as well as in migratory nucleus stage (MN) were analysed. 5S rRNA and related genes were highly transcribed in ovaries with PV oocytes. As oocytes developed, transcriptional levels of genes related to 5S rRNA production (gtf3a), accumulation (gtf3a, 42sp43) and nucleocytoplasmic transport (rpl5, rpl11) and the 5S/18S rRNA index decreased (PV>EV>MV>LV>MN). On the contrary, 18S rRNA was at its highest at MN stage while ubtf1 in charge of activating RNA-polymerase I and synthesising 18S rRNA behaved as 5S related genes. Individuals that did not respond (NR) to the treatment showed 5S/18S index values similar to PV females, while studied genes showed EV/LV-like transcription levels. Therefore, NR females fail to express the largest rRNAs, which could thus be taken as markers of successful vitellogenesis progression. In conclusion, we have proved that the transcriptional dynamics of ribosomal genes provides useful tools to characterize induced ovarian development in European eels. In the future, such markers should be studied as putative indicators of response to hormonal treatments and of the quality of obtained eel oocytes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The current status of evidence for and against postnatal oogenesis in mammals: a case of ovarian optimism versus pessimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L; Niikura, Yuichi; Rueda, Bo R

    2009-01-01

    Whether or not oogenesis continues in the ovaries of mammalian females during postnatal life was heavily debated from the late 1800s through the mid-1900s. However, in 1951 Lord Solomon Zuckerman published what many consider to be a landmark paper summarizing his personal views of data existing at the time for and against the possibility of postnatal oogenesis. In Zuckerman's opinion, none of the evidence he considered was inconsistent with Waldeyer's initial proposal in 1870 that female mammals cease production of oocytes at or shortly after birth. This conclusion rapidly became dogma, and remained essentially unchallenged until just recently, despite the fact that Zuckerman did not offer a single experiment proving that adult female mammals are incapable of oogenesis. Instead, 20 years later he reemphasized that his conclusion was based solely on an absence of data he felt would be inconsistent with the idea of a nonrenewable oocyte pool provided at birth. However, in the immortal words of Carl Sagan, an "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." Indeed, building on the efforts of a few scientists who continued to question this dogma after Zuckerman's treatise in 1951, we reported several data sets in 2004 that were very much inconsistent with the widely held belief that germ cell production in female mammals ceases at birth. Perhaps not surprisingly, given the magnitude of the paradigm shift being proposed, this work reignited a vigorous debate that first began more than a century ago. Our purpose here is to review the experimental evidence offered in recent studies arguing support for and against the possibility that adult mammalian females replenish their oocyte reserve. "Never discourage anyone who continually makes progress, no matter how slow."-Plato (427-347 BC).

  7. Expression pattern and developmental behaviour of cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) during folliculogenesis and oogenesis in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2005-08-15

    In vertebrates, folliculogeneis establishes an intricate system for somatic cell-oocyte interaction, and ultimately leads to the acquisition of their respective competences. Although the formation process and corresponding interactions are strikingly similar in diverse organisms, knowledge of genes and signaling pathways involved in follicle formation is very incomplete and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain enigmatic. CNBP has been identified for more than ten years, and the highest level of CNBP transcripts has been observed in adult zebrafish ovary, but little is known about its functional significance during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. In this study, we clone CNBP cDNA from gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and demonstrate its predominant expression in gibel carp ovary and testis not only by RT-PCR but also by Western blot. Its full-length cDNA is 1402 bp, and has an ORF of 489 nt for encoding a peptide of 163 aa. And its complete amino acid sequence shared 68.5%-96.8% identity with CNBPs from other vertebrates. Based on the expression characterization, we further analyze its expression pattern and developmental behaviour during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Following these studies, we reveal an unexpected discovery that the CagCNBP is associated with follicular cells and oocytes, and significant distribution changes have occurred in degenerating and regenerating follicles. More interestingly, the CagCNBP is more highly expressed in some clusters of interconnected cells within ovarian cysts, no matter whether the cell clusters are formed from the original primordial germ cells or from the newly formed cells from follicular cells that invaded into the atretic oocytes. It is the first time to reveal CNBP relevance to folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Moreover, a similar stage-specific and cell-specific expression pattern has also been observed in the gibel carp testis. Therefore, further studies on CNBP expression pattern and developmental

  8. Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of "nuage" during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei

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    F. C. Abdalla

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence and ultrastructurally characterized electrondense nuclear material (nuage released from the nucleus during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus, a fish from Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil having a seasonal reproductive cycle. The female germ cells presented two instances of nuclear material extrusion: in the oogonia and in the oocyte in the perinucleolar phase. In males, material with similar morphology and behavior occurred in the spematogonia. In all cases, this material was associated to mitochondria. The possible function of this material is discussed.

  9. Tributyltin impaired reproductive success in female zebrafish through disrupting oogenesis, reproductive behaviors and serotonin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2018-07-01

    study demonstrated that TBT may impair the reproductive success of zebrafish females probably through disrupting oogenesis, disturbing reproductive behaviors and altering serotonin synthesis. The present study greatly extends our understanding on the reproductive toxicity of TBT on fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein 4.1 and its interaction with other cytoskeletal proteins in Xenopus laevis oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Rosa; Petrucci, Tamara C; Correas, Isabel; Vaccaro, Maria C; De Marco, Nadia; Dale, Brian; Wilding, Martin

    2009-06-01

    In human red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80-kDa polypeptide that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane. In non-erythroid cells there is a great variety of 4.1R isoforms, mainly generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, which localize at various intracellular sites, including the nucleus. We studied protein 4.1R distribution in relation to beta-spectrin, actin and cytokeratin during Xenopus oogenesis. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that at least two isoforms of protein 4.1R are present in Xenopus laevis oocytes: a 56-kDa form in the cytoplasm and a 37-kDa form in the germinal vesicle (GV). Antibodies to beta-spectrin reveal two bands of 239 and 100 kDa in the cytoplasm. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that both the 37- and 56-kDa isoforms of protein 4.1R associate with the 100-kDa isoform of beta-spectrin. Moreover, the 56-kDa form coimmunoprecipitates with a cytokeratin of the same molecular weight. Confocal immunolocalization shows that protein 4.1R distribution is in the peripheral cytoplasm, in the mitochondrial cloud (MC) and in the GV of previtellogenic oocytes. In the cytoplasm of vitellogenic oocytes, a loose network of fibers stained by the anti-protein 4.1R antibody spreads across the cytoplasm. beta-Spectrin has a similar distribution. Protein 4.1R was found to colocalize with actin in the cortex of oocytes in the form of fluorescent dots. Double immunolocalization of protein 4.1R and cytokeratin depicts two separate networks that overlap throughout the whole cytoplasm. Protein 4.1R filaments partially colocalize with cytokeratin in both the animal and vegetal hemispheres. We hypothesize that protein 4.1R could function as a linker protein between cytokeratin and the actin-based cytoskeleton.

  11. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

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    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  12. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín; Caudle, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, Nov 23 (2012), č. článku 97. ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Fetal neo-oogenesis * Follicular selection * Follicular renewal in mammals Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  13. Monitoramento da autenticidade de amostras de bebidas alcoólicas enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Araujo Farah NAGATO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc. enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante caramelo e que por falta de controle dessas matérias-primas, podem oferecer risco potencial à saúde humana pela presença de metanol. A técnica empregada na análise dos componentes secundários e metanol das amostras foi realizada através da cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. Observou-se que em 608 amostras de bebidas alcoólicas analisadas, 391 eram falsificadas e dentre estas 2 apresentaram teores de metanol acima do limite tolerado (200mg/100mL de álcool anidro pela legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma grande persistência em se produzir bebidas alcoólicas falsificadas. Desta forma, é muito importante estar sempre monitorando estes produtos e identificando os diferentes tipos de falsificações existentes no país.This work aimed at verifying the authenticity of alcoholic beverages (whisky, vodka, ginger spirit, etc. sent for analysis by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo from 1993 to August 1999. The chemical composition of these drinks was studied because of the presence of illicit alcoholic beverages on the national market, especially those with a high commercial value. These products are usually elaborated with alcohol, water, flavor and caramel coloring. Since there is no control over these raw materials, these drinks could offer a potential risk to human health because of the presence of methanol. The method employed in the analysis of congeners and methanol in alcoholic

  14. Role of Scrib and Dlg in anterior-posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingzhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2giant larvae (lgl, a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the posterior follicle cell (PFC fate induction at mid-oogenesis. Here we explore the role of another two tumor suppressor genes, scribble (scrib and discs large (dlg, in the epithelial patterning. Results We found that removal of scrib or dlg function from the follicle cells at posterior terminal of the egg chamber causes a complete loss of the PFC fate. Aberrant specification and differentiation of the PFCs in the mosaic clones can be ascribed to defects in coordinated activation of the EGFR, JAK and Notch signaling pathways in the multilayered cells. Meanwhile, the clonal analysis revealed that loss-of-function mutations in scrib/dlg at the anterior domains result in a partially penetrant phenotype of defective induction of the stretched and centripetal cell fate, whereas specification of the border cell fate can still occur in the most anterior region of the mutant clones. Further, we showed that scrib genetically interacts with dlg in regulating posterior patterning of the epithelium. Conclusion In this study we provide evidence that scrib and dlg function differentially in anterior and posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicates that scrib and dlg act in a common pathway to regulate PFC fate induction. This study may open another window for elucidating role of scrib/dlg in controlling epithelial polarity and cell proliferation during development.

  15. 70-Day Supraphysiologic Dose of the Power-Enhancing Drug Oxymetholone: the Effects on Oogenesis in NMRI Mice

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    M. Azarniya

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesOxymetholone is an orally-administered active anabolic-androgenic steroid. This drug was synthesized in 1959. It is a 17α-methylated, 5α-saturated compound. It is used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including anemia, growth delay in children, myocardial damage in heart failure and treatment of HIV associated wasting. This is one of the drugs used in high doses by the doping athletes because of its anabolic effects and its influence on muscular mass. In this study, the effect of oxymetholone in supraphysiologic doses was evaluated on oogenesis in NMRI mice.MethodsIn our experiments, 12 mg/kg/day oxymetholone was injected intraperitoneally to 4- and 6-week old mice for 70 days. ResultsThe results demonstrated a significant difference between treatment and control groups after both 35 and 70 days of treatment. This drug led to significant decrease in the number of corpus lutea, decrease in the number of atretic follicles, decrease in the weight and diameter of ovaries, decrease in the diameter of granulosa layer, increase in number of primordial follicles, decrease in number of primary follicles, decrease in number of growing follicles, decrease in the number of graafian follicles, and decrease in the progesterone level. Additionally, disordered formation of granulosa layers and growing of oocytes in antra, anomaly of the ovular medulla and formation of two oocytes in one folliculus were observed in some mice.ConclusionThe results show that oxymetholone decreases the ovarian growth and the rate of ovulation. Keywords: Oxymetholone; Anabolic Steroid; Oogenesis; Androgens

  16. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  17. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  18. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  19. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

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    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  1. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia and Corinto (N. neivai in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26ºC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  3. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

    2004-10-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia) and Corinto (N. neivai) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26 masculineC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  4. 70-Day Supraphysiologic Dose of the Power-Enhancing Drug Oxymetholone: the Effects on Oogenesis in NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azarniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Oxymetholone is an orally-administered active anabolic-androgenic steroid. This drug was synthesized in 1959. It is a 17α-methylated, 5α-saturated compound. It is used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including anemia, growth delay in children, myocardial damage in heart failure and treatment of HIV associated wasting. This is one of the drugs used in high doses by the doping athletes because of its anabolic effects and its influence on muscular mass. In this study, the effect of oxymetholone in supraphysiologic doses was evaluated on oogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Methods

    In our experiments, 12 mg/kg/day oxymetholone was injected intraperitoneally to 4- and 6-week old mice for 70 days.

    Results

    The results demonstrated a significant difference between treatment and control groups after both 35 and 70 days of treatment. This drug led to significant decrease in the number of corpus lutea, decrease in the number of atretic follicles, decrease in the weight and diameter of ovaries, decrease in the diameter of granulosa layer, increase in number of primordial follicles, decrease in number of primary follicles, decrease in number of growing follicles, decrease in the number of graafian follicles, and decrease in the progesterone level. Additionally, disordered formation of granulosa layers and growing of oocytes in antra, anomaly of the ovular medulla and formation of two oocytes in one folliculus were observed in some mice.

    Conclusion

    The results show that oxymetholone decreases the ovarian growth and the rate of ovulation.

  5. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  6. Regulation of Pattern Formation and Gene Amplification During Drosophila Oogenesis by the miR-318 microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Wanzhong; Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Pattern formation during epithelial development requires the coordination of multiple signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the functions of an ovary-enriched miRNA, miR-318, in epithelial development during Drosophila oogenesis. miR-318 maternal loss-of-function mutants were female sterile...... and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of miR-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. miR-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells, due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone......RNAs in maintaining cell fate and promoting the developmental transition in the female follicular epithelium....

  7. Lovesongs and period gene polymorphisms indicate Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) as a sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Araki, Alejandra S; Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-08-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) is implicated as a vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in some areas of Brazil. Lutzomyia cruzi is closely related to Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) the main Latin American vector of AVL and a species complex. Although females of the two species are identical, the males can be distinguished by differences in the genitalia. Nevertheless, pheromone analysis shows that Lu. cruzi males produce 9-methyl-germacrene-B, which has also been found in a number of Latin American populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. In addition, analysis of microsatellite loci shows that the level of divergence between Lu. cruzi and Lu. longipalpis s.l. is similar to that observed among the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. Here we present the lovesongs of Lu. cruzi males which are similar to the Burst-type songs produced by one of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. We also present data on the molecular polymorphisms of the period gene of Lu. cruzi that indicate this species as another sibling within the Lu. longipalpis complex. The results highlight the importance of an integrative approach to understand the patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence among very closely related vector species. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F

    2011-01-01

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.

  9. Descripción y comparación del condrocráneo en larvas de Hyla raniceps (Cope, 1862, Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871 y Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae

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    Alcalde, Leandro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el condrocráneo en larvas de 3 especies de hílidos neotropicales, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus y S. squalirostris, las cuales presentan larvas de charca, tipo IV, con desarrollo exotrófico, nectónicas (Scinax spp. o bentónicas (H. raniceps. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con la información conocida acerca de Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus y S. ruber. Las especies de Scinax se diferencian de las de Hyla, en forma independiente del tipo ecológico que presentan sus larvas, por la presencia de un proceso lateral al cóndilo articular del ceratohial (ausente en Hyla spp.. No ha sido posible dilucidar si este proceso es una sinapomorfía de Scinax o de las especies que componen el clado rubra. Diecisiete caracteres varían entre especies independientemente del ambiente y la dieta de las larvas: cinco de ellos son del neurocráneo, cinco del arco mandibular y siete del hiobranquium. El grado de desarrollo del proceso anterohial lateral del ceratohial muestra asociación con el mecanismo de alimentación de las larvas. Tres caracteres soportan grupos de especies en el género Hyla. Hyla lanciformis e H. raniceps (grupo albopuntacta presentan la comisura cuadrado craneal con la mitad del ancho que presenta el proceso muscular en su base y la pars reuniens con forma de "V". Hyla geographica (grupo geographica presenta la pars reuniens de forma cuadrada. Hyla nana (grupo microcephala carece de seno hipobranquial posterior y proceso cuadrado etmoidal. El grupo rostrata del género Scinax está soportado por la presencia de una conexión sindesmótica entre cuerpo y ala del cartílago suprarrostral. La existencia de diferencias en las estructuras del condrocráneo relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas larvas que presentan el mismo mecanismo de alimentación micrófago, indican que este tipo

  10. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  11. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos

  12. The Drosophila IKK-related kinase (Ik2 and Spindle-F proteins are part of a complex that regulates cytoskeleton organization during oogenesis

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    Shaanan Boaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IkappaB kinases (IKKs regulate the activity of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors by targeting their inhibitory partner proteins, IkappaBs, for degradation. The Drosophila genome encodes two members of the IKK family. Whereas the first is a kinase essential for activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, the latter does not act as IkappaB kinase. Instead, recent findings indicate that Ik2 regulates F-actin assembly by mediating the function of nonapoptotic caspases via degradation of DIAP1. Also, it has been suggested that ik2 regulates interactions between the minus ends of the microtubules and the actin-rich cortex in the oocyte. Since spn-F mutants display oocyte defects similar to those of ik2 mutant, we decided to investigate whether Spn-F could be a direct regulatory target of Ik2. Results We found that Ik2 binds physically to Spn-F, biomolecular interaction analysis of Spn-F and Ik2 demonstrating that both proteins bind directly and form a complex. We showed that Ik2 phosphorylates Spn-F and demonstrated that this phosphorylation does not lead to Spn-F degradation. Ik2 is localized to the anterior ring of the oocyte and to punctate structures in the nurse cells together with Spn-F protein, and both proteins are mutually required for their localization. Conclusion We conclude that Ik2 and Spn-F form a complex, which regulates cytoskeleton organization during Drosophila oogenesis and in which Spn-F is the direct regulatory target for Ik2. Interestingly, Ik2 in this complex does not function as a typical IKK in that it does not direct SpnF for degradation following phosphorylation.

  13. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Leporinus striatus Kner (Teleostei, Characiformes, Anostomidae from the Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Helena A.S. Chini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a sequense of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells. These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature females were collected monthly, during one year, from the Rio Sapucaí, tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir system in the state of Minas Gerais. The observed material showed that oogonias were small spherical cells, had a big spherical nucleus, with a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (FG stained, which indicate their protein content. The primary oocytes showed a big basophilic nucleus, with a large peripheral nucleolus, and several smaller nucleoli. They show a reduced cytoplasmic content. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. The zona radiata had two layers, the outer and the inner, which showed its protein content when stained with CM and FG techniques. TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 staining showed that oocytes undergoing vitellogenesis presented weakly stained cytoplasm and peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles. The follicle cells that were squamous became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the yolk granules that filled the cytoplasm became green and blue when stained with FG and CM techniques, indicating their protein content. The perivitclline region showed rosy stained vesicles (TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 spread among the weakly stained peripheral vesicles, which seemed to be the cortical alveoli. The zona radiata cells, CM and FG stained, still showed two layers like the oocytes from the previous stage, but thicker.

  14. The Drosophila Su(var)3-7 gene is required for oogenesis and female fertility, genetically interacts with piwi and aubergine, but impacts only weakly transposon silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basquin, Denis; Spierer, Anne; Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3-7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3-7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3-7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3-7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3-7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3-7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3-7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3-7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3-7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing.

  15. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  16. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Le Pont

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  17. Efeitos de níveis de privação alimentar sobre a oogênese de Panstrongylus megistus Effects of food deprivation levels on the oogenesis of Panstrongylus megistus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vianna Braga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da privação alimentar sobre a oogênese de P. megistus foram estudados em laboratório. Imediatamente após a ecdise imaginária, foram formados seis grupos (GI a GVI de 15 casais, que receberam alimentação da seguinte maneira: GI -- no 5º e no 25º dias de jejum; GII -- no 5º e 35º dias; GIII -- no 5º e no 45º dias; GIV -- no 20º dia; GV -- no 30º dia; GVI -- no 40º dia de jejum. Após esses períodos, todos os grupos receberam alimentação a cada 15 dias. O grupo de controle foi formado por 15 casais, alimentados no 5º dia após a ecdise imaginária e, subseqüentemente, a cada 15 dias. GI apresentou o maior número de acasalamentos, produziu mais ovos e maior fertilidade. GII teve maior vida média, maior fecundidade e maior número de eclosões. GIII apresentou o menor período de sobrevivência, baixas fecundidade, fertilidade e eclosões. GVI apresentou os resultados menos favoráveis em todos os parâmetros, exceto em relação ao período de pré-ovipostura. O grupo de controle apresentou os melhores resultados em todos os parâmetros.The effects of various levels of food deprivation on the oogenesis of P. megistus was studied. Immediately after the imaginal ecdysis, six groups (GI to GVI of 15 couples each were formed. Each group was fed as follows: GI -- on days 5 and 25; G-II -- on days 5 and 35; GIII -- on days 5 and 45; GIV -- on day 20; GV -- on day 30; GVI -- on day 40 after the imaginal ecdysis. After the established fasting period, all groups were fed fortnightly. Fifteen couples were in the control group (CG, which was fed on the day 5 after the imaginal ecdysis and subsequently fortnightly. GI produced more eggs, matings and fertile eggs. GII had longer life spans, higher fecundity and hatchings. GIII had a shorter life span, low fecundity, fertility and hatchings. GVI presented the least favorable results for all parameters, except for the pre-oviposition period. The CG had the best results in all

  18. The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Culex theileri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epithelium is maintained at 48 h PBM, its appearance at 60 h PBM is indicative of degenerative changes. By 60 h PBM .... of the' fme structure of the cytoplasm with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi ... is formed from secretory droplets in a fashion similar to the formation of the vitelline membrane and ...

  19. Cup regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E

    2017-01-01

    The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Oogenesis in cultures derived from adult human ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Michael R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten years ago, we reported that in adult human females the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is a source of germ cells. Recently, we also demonstrated that new primary follicles are formed by assembly of oocytes with nests of primitive granulosa cells in the ovarian cortex. The components of the new primary follicles, primitive granulosa and germ cells, differentiated sequentially from the OSE, which arises from cytokeratin positive mesenchymal progenitor cells residing in the ovarian tunica albuginea. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the oocytes and granulosa cells may differentiate in cultures derived from adult human ovaries. Cells were scrapped from the surface of ovaries and cultured for 5 to 6 days, in the presence or absence of estrogenic stimuli [phenol red (PhR]. The OSE cells cultured in the medium without PhR differentiated into small (15 micron cells of granulosa phenotype, and epithelial, neural, and mesenchymal type cells. In contrast, OSE cells cultured in the presence of PhR differentiated directly into large (180 micron cells of the oocyte phenotype. Such cells exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown, expulsion of the polar body, and surface expression of zona pellucida proteins, i.e. characteristics of secondary oocytes. These in vitro studies confirm our in vivo observations that in adult human ovaries, the OSE is a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells. Development of numerous mature oocytes from adult ovarian stem cells in vitro offers new strategies for the egg preservation, IVF utilization, and treatment of female infertility. In addition, other clinical applications aiming to utilize stem cells, and basic stem cell research as well, may employ totipotent embryonic stem cells developing from fertilized oocytes.

  1. Die Politik der EZB an den Grenzen ihres Mandats? / Lutz Lammers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lammers, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Riigi võlakirjade ostmisega seotud rahanduspoliitikast. Saksamaa põhiseaduskohtu seisukohast Euroopa Keskpanga väljakuulutatud OMT-programmi kohta, mis võimaldab keskpangal piiramatult võlakirju osta. Riigi võlakirjade ostmisest järelturgudel

  2. Test Reviews: Loranger, A. W. (2001). "OMNI Personality Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The OMNI Personality Inventory (OMNI) is a self-report questionnaire designed for use with adolescents and adults between 18 and 74 years of age. The questionnaire is not based on a particular theory, consistent with current trends in test development, according to the author. An abbreviated form of the OMNI, the OMNI-IV Personality Disorder…

  3. Baseline susceptibility to alpha-cypermethrin in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) from Lapinha Cave (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas Davila; Lopes, Josiane Valadão; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Pinheiro, Letícia C; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-09-17

    Given the increase in cases of visceral leishmaniasis in recent years, associated with the socio-economic impact of this disease, as well as the wide distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil and the likelihood that this vector may develop resistance to insecticides used for control, the Ministry of Health considers as crucial the creation of a network in order to study and monitor the resistance of this vector to insecticides used for control. In this sense, this study aimed: 1) to characterize the susceptibility of L. longipalpis from Lapinha Cave (Lagoa Santa, MG - Brazil) to Alfateck SC200 in field bioassays, and 2) to define the susceptibility baseline to alpha-cypermethrin in laboratory bioassays, checking the possibility of using it as susceptibility reference lineage (SRL). The field bioassays revealed that the tested population was highly susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin in all time periods with high mortality (~100 %) in all treated surfaces before six months after spraying. In the laboratory bioassays, the studied population presented LD50, LD95 and LD99 to 0.78013, 10.5580 and 31.067 mg/m(2), respectively. The slope was 1.454121. The studied population of L. longipalpis was considered as adequate for SRL according criterion recommended by Pan-American Health Organization and has proven susceptibility to tested insecticide in the field. One cannot rule out the possibility of finding populations of L. longipalpis more susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin; therefore, further research is necessary on other populations with potential use as a SRL.

  4. bullwinkle and shark regulate dorsal-appendage morphogenesis in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, David H; Berg, Celeste A

    2003-12-01

    bullwinkle (bwk) regulates embryonic anteroposterior patterning and, through a novel germline-to-soma signal, morphogenesis of the eggshell dorsal appendages. We screened for dominant modifiers of the bullwinkle mooseantler eggshell phenotype and identified shark, which encodes an SH2-domain, ankyrin-repeat tyrosine kinase. At the onset of dorsal-appendage formation, shark is expressed in a punctate pattern in the squamous stretch cells overlying the nurse cells. Confocal microscopy with cell-type-specific markers demonstrates that the stretch cells act as a substrate for the migrating dorsal-appendage-forming cells and extend cellular projections towards them. Mosaic analyses reveal that shark is required in follicle cells for cell migration and chorion deposition. Proper shark RNA expression in the stretch cells requires bwk activity, while restoration of shark expression in the stretch cells suppresses the bwk dorsal-appendage phenotype. These results suggest that shark plays an important downstream role in the bwk-signaling pathway. Candidate testing implicates Src42A in a similar role, suggesting conservation with a vertebrate signaling pathway involving non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

  5. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  6. Female nutrition and assisted reproduction in European eel: influences on oogenesis and egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa

    of egg production involves a long-term hormonal treatment of salmon or carp pituitary extracts (SPE or CPE) followed by the induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation which includes a SPE primer and a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), generally 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP). Recent progress...

  7. Exclusion of dysfunctional mitochondria from Balbiani body during early oogenesis of Thermobia

    OpenAIRE

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Jankowska, Wladyslawa; Witwicka, Alicja; Bilinski, Szczepan M.

    2016-01-01

    Oocytes of many invertebrate and vertebrate species contain a characteristic organelle complex known as the Balbiani body (Bb). Until now, three principal functions have been ascribed to this complex: delivery of germ cell determinants and localized RNAs to the vegetal cortex/posterior pole of the oocyte, transport of the mitochondria towards the germ plasm, and participation in the formation of lipid droplets. Here, we present the results of a computer-aided 3D reconstruction of the Bb in th...

  8. Effects of various freezing containers for vitrification freezing on mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul; Kim, Jae Myeoung; Seo, Byoung Boo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, various freezing containers were tested for mouse embryos of respective developmental stages; embryos were vitrified and then their survival rate and developmental rate were monitored. Mouse two cell, 8 cell, and blastula stage embryos underwent vitrification freezing-thawing and then their recovery rate, survival rate, development rate, and hatching rate were investigated. EM-grid, OPS, and cryo-loop were utilized for vitrification freezing-thawing of mouse embryos. It was found that recovery rate and survival rate were higher in the group of cryo-loop compared to those of EM-grid (p containers on vitrified embryos of respective developmental stages; it was demonstrated that higher developmental rate was shown in more progressed (or developed) embryos with more blastomeres. There was however, no difference in embryonic development rate was shown amongst containers. Taken together, further additional studies are warranted with regards to 1) manipulation techniques of embryos for various vitrification freezing containers and 2) preventive measures against contamination via liquid nitrogen.

  9. Oogenesis, fecundity and condition of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.): A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. Hagstrøm; Tomkiewicz, J.; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2013-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extre...... was a good predictor of potential fecundity within maturing stages of females. Combined with estimates of skipped spawning, this ovary weight could be used to estimate egg production thereby improving Central Baltic herring stock-recruitment models.......-regulation of fecundity. Although determined as spring spawners by otolith hatch type, 15% of the randomly sampled females were characterized by oocytes in CA stage in the prespawning period, indicating skipped spawning. The condition of these females was poor, which might have resulted in skipped spawning. Ovary weight......Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extreme...

  10. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehreh Yaghmaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATPthat potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSHin the serum of female Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Two groups of rats (180 ± 15 grams were gavaged with doses of 50and 100 mg/kg body weight imatinib dissolved in distilled water for 14 days. The control groupreceived sterile water. On day 7, after termination of the treatment, blood serum concentrationwas measured with the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Also, sections (5 μm thick of ovariesstained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were investigated histologically.Results: Progesterone concentration in the experimental groups was increased (p<0.001,estrogen and FSH concentrations were decreased (p<0.01, and the LH concentration decreasedbut was not statistically different in comparison with the control group. The weight of ovaries andnumber of atretic follicles in the experimental groups was increased compared with the controlgroup (p<0.05. The diameter of corpus lutea were increased but the number of corpus luteadecreased in both experimental groups (p<0.01.Conclusion: These findings suggest that administration of imatinib may have profound effects onfemale fertility.

  11. [An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthe, Paludicola)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alwasal, Saleh H; Alhazza, Ibrahim; Zghal, Fathia; Tekaya, Saida

    2011-07-01

    The ovary of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been studied for the first time using both light and electron microscopy methods. The ultrastructure of the ovary revealed two types of cells: accessory cells and germinal cells at various stages of differentiation, distributed along a maturation axis. Initially, oogonia underwent cytoplasm growth due to the development of organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondria, which are all involved in the production of cytoplasmic inclusions or yolk globules. It is shown that the chromatoid body and fibrogranular aggregates may participate in the synthesis of vitelline inclusions. When completely mature, the oocytes have become larger, due to the accumulation of nutritive inclusions, which are round in shape and have a paracrystalline structure. These inclusions are interpreted as being yolk globules and may represent a kind of nutritive material for the developing embryo. These ultrastructural features of the ovary agree with the available phylogenetic tree, based on morphological and karyological characters that considers Schmidtea group as a genus and not a subgenus. The presence of sperm between the oocytes suggests that fertilization may occur within the ovary, representing an uncommon condition within the Triclads, in which fertilization usually takes places outside of the ovaries. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of X-rays on oogenesis of Oreochromis mossambicus Peters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilevskij, D.A.; Mel'nikova, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The fry at the age of 30 and 60 days after hatching were X-irradiated (350 R) and the gonads were studied until the age of 120 days. Previtellogenic oocytes, which were the older generation in the experimental fishes, were more resistant than oogonia and oocytes at various stages of the early meiotic prophase, the number of the latter having been gretly reduced. In some previtellogenic oocytes the nucleus and cytoplasm were damaged, leading to their death. When the 30 day old fishes were irradiated, the nuclei of the previtellogenic oocytes were fragmented. Within 30 days after irradiation of the 60 day old fishes bud-like evaginations of the nuclear envelope appeared in the early vitellogenic oocytes, their function and fate being unclear. The fishes irradiated at the age of 60 days had by 120 days much lesser previtellogenic oocytes than the control fishes; this might decrease the fecundity of fishes in the second spawning

  13. Radioautographic study of RNA synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans (Bergerac variety) oogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starck, Joelle

    1977-01-01

    An original method of incubation allowing the use of radioactive precursor for RNA synthesis study, is described. This in vitro incubation technique offers the advantages of: being simple (it does not require axenic culture as various authors concluded when they attempted nematode labelling); being rapid (in vivo system requires 20 to 24 hours incubation to obtain labelling); being repeatable (the ten different preparations of each of our experiments behave in a very homogeneous way). Then, this technique offers a great interest to study: the kinetic of RNA synthesis in oogonia and oocytes, and also in the rachis, specific to nematodes of which function is poorly understood; the reproduction of this hermaphroditic C. elegans as compared in the wild-type and in the thermosensitive or female sterile mutants

  14. Hermes (Rbpms is a Critical Component of RNP Complexes that Sequester Germline RNAs during Oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Aguero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The germ cell lineage in Xenopus is specified by the inheritance of germ plasm that assembles within the mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani body in stage I oocytes. Specific RNAs, such as nanos1, localize to the germ plasm. nanos1 has the essential germline function of blocking somatic gene expression and thus preventing Primordial Germ Cell (PGC loss and sterility. Hermes/Rbpms protein and nanos RNA co-localize within germinal granules, diagnostic electron dense particles found within the germ plasm. Previous work indicates that nanos accumulates within the germ plasm through a diffusion/entrapment mechanism. Here we show that Hermes/Rbpms interacts with nanos through sequence specific RNA localization signals found in the nanos-3′UTR. Importantly, Hermes/Rbpms specifically binds nanos, but not Vg1 RNA in the nucleus of stage I oocytes. In vitro binding data show that Hermes/Rbpms requires additional factors that are present in stage I oocytes in order to bind nanos1. One such factor may be hnRNP I, identified in a yeast-2-hybrid screen as directly interacting with Hermes/Rbpms. We suggest that Hermes/Rbpms functions as part of a RNP complex in the nucleus that facilitates selection of germline RNAs for germ plasm localization. We propose that Hermes/Rbpms is required for nanos RNA to form within the germinal granules and in this way, participates in the germline specific translational repression and sequestration of nanos RNA.

  15. Hermes (Rbpms) is a Critical Component of RNP Complexes that Sequester Germline RNAs during Oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguero, Tristan; Zhou, Yi; Kloc, Malgorzata; Chang, Patrick; Houliston, Evelyn; King, Mary Lou

    2016-03-01

    The germ cell lineage in Xenopus is specified by the inheritance of germ plasm that assembles within the mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani body in stage I oocytes. Specific RNAs, such as nanos1 , localize to the germ plasm. nanos1 has the essential germline function of blocking somatic gene expression and thus preventing Primordial Germ Cell (PGC) loss and sterility. Hermes/Rbpms protein and nanos RNA co-localize within germinal granules, diagnostic electron dense particles found within the germ plasm. Previous work indicates that nanos accumulates within the germ plasm through a diffusion/entrapment mechanism. Here we show that Hermes/Rbpms interacts with nanos through sequence specific RNA localization signals found in the nanos -3'UTR. Importantly, Hermes/Rbpms specifically binds nanos , but not Vg1 RNA in the nucleus of stage I oocytes. In vitro binding data show that Hermes/Rbpms requires additional factors that are present in stage I oocytes in order to bind nanos1 . One such factor may be hnRNP I, identified in a yeast-2-hybrid screen as directly interacting with Hermes/Rbpms. We suggest that Hermes/Rbpms functions as part of a RNP complex in the nucleus that facilitates selection of germline RNAs for germ plasm localization. We propose that Hermes/Rbpms is required for nanos RNA to form within the germinal granules and in this way, participates in the germline specific translational repression and sequestration of nanos RNA .

  16. Radioautographic study of RNA synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans (Bergerac variety) oogenesis. [Nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starck, J [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1977-11-01

    An original method of incubation allowing the use of radioactive precursor for RNA synthesis study, is described. This in vitro incubation technique offers the advantages of: being simple (it does not require axenic culture as various authors concluded when they attempted nematode labelling); being rapid (in vivo system requires 20 to 24 hours incubation to obtain labelling); being repeatable (the ten different preparations of each of our experiments behave in a very homogeneous way). Then, this technique offers a great interest to study: the kinetic of RNA synthesis in oogonia and oocytes, and also in the rachis, specific to nematodes of which function is poorly understood; the reproduction of this hermaphroditic C. elegans as compared in the wild-type and in the thermosensitive or female sterile mutants.

  17. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals included opossums (39.3%, followed by rats (37.9%, bats (14.3%, raccoons (3.6%, foxes (2.1%, snakes (1.4%, and frogs (1.4%. The peridomiciliary presence of domestic and synanthropic animals as well as sandflies that had fed on human, opossum, and canid blood supports the hypothesis that kala azar transmission has been taking place in the anthropic environment in the municipality of Raposa.

  18. Implementation of an automated assessment system of the Winston-Lutz test based on the transformed generalized Hough; Implementacion de un sistema de evaluacion automatizada del test de Winston-Lutz basado en la transformada generalizada de Hough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Fernandez Canadillas, M. J.; Caballero Lucena, E.; Cantero Carrillo, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has implemented a software tool based on the generalized Hough transform to automate the evaluation of test WL This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the test. It also eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluator which is an uncertainty of 0.3 mm. (Author)

  19. Estudo da competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911 Study of the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae do Vale do Ribeira (SP para estirpes de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, mediante pesquisa de infectividade natural; exposições de fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas (F1 às lesões de hamsters experimentalmente infectados e testes de transmissão via picada. A infectividade natural e os testes de transmissão revelaram-se negativos e, nas exposições, foram obtidas positividades de 74% (123+/166 dissecados e 70% (115+/164 dissecados para fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas respectivamente, e o desenvolvimento das formas evolutivas compatíveis com o modelo Peripilaria. A suscetibilidade às estirpes testadas associada aos indicadores epidemiológicos concorrem para a suspeita do papel vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia na região estudada.This paper investigated the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae in Vale do Ribeira (SP to strains of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, by means of a search for natural infection; exposure of wild and colonized females (F1 to the lesions of experimentally infected hamsters and transmission tests by bite. The natural infection and the transmission tests were negative. In the exposures of Lu. intermedia to infected lesions we found rates of 74% (123+/166 dissected and 70% (115+/164 dissected for the wild and colonized females respectively. The development of the parasites was compatible with the development model of Peripilaria. The susceptibility of the tested strains associated with the epidemiological indicators contribute to the vectorial role suspicion of Lutzomyia intermedia in the studied region.

  20. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  1. Estabelecimento de colonia, em laboratório, de Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Establishment of colony, in laboratory, of Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a utilização em infecções experimentais e xenodiagnósticos de infecções naturais por leishmânias dermotrópicas do Rio de Janeiro, estabelecemos, em laboratório, uma colônia de Lutzomyia intermedia apresentando aqui a metodologia seguida, juntamente com dados relativos ao rendimento e duração de cada fase evolutiva nas quatro primeiras gerações.A laboratory colony of the sandfly Lutzomyia intermedia was established (at present in its seventh generation in order to provide specimens for experimental infection and for experimental xenodiagnosis of natural infections due to cutaneous leishmanias in Rio de Janeiro. Date are presented on the methodology and on the yield and duration of each stage of development, during the first four generations.

  2. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.

  3. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  4. Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

    2008-08-01

    The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover.

  5. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae from Asunción, Paraguay

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    Caballero Norath

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L. infantum (Nicolle, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  6. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 and Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus 1977, in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Soares, Maria Regiane; Lopes Antunes, Jadson Emanuel; de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Lima, Rogério Nora; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui - Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site. Luminous CDC and Damasceno traps were simultaneously installed at the visited sites, where two specimens of L. longipalpis and one L. termitophila were captured. The identification of the dens and trails, allows us to infer that the dens are not used only by the C. thous. Finding the VL vector in natural C. thous natural dens, reinforces the hypothesis of transmission of Le. infantum in the outskirts of the large urban centers, in a cycle that independs from dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  8. Tribute to P.L. Lutz: cardiac performance and cardiovascular regulation during anoxia/Hypoxia in freshwwater turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J.; Gesser, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater turtles overwintering in ice-covered ponds in North America may be exposed to prolonged anoxia, and survive this hostile environment by metabolic depression. Here, we review their cardiovascular function and regulation, with particular emphasis on the factors limiting cardiac performance....... The pronounced anoxia tolerance of the turtle heart is based on the ability to match energy consumption with the low anaerobic ATP production during anoxia. Together with a well-developed temporal and spatial energy buffering by creatine kinase, this allows for cellular energy charge to remain high during anoxia....... Furthermore, the turtle heart is well adapted to handle the adverse effects of free phosphate arising when phosphocreatine stores are used. Anoxia causes tenfold reductions in heart rate and blood flows that match the metabolic depression, and blood pressure is largely maintained through increased systemic...

  9. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  10. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Demilson Rodrigues Dos; Ferreira, Adão Celestino; Bisetto Junior, Alceu

    2012-10-01

    We report the first find of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The specimens were captured in the urban area of the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu, with Falcão light traps, in domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of 61 properties, on two consecutive nights from 18:00 to 06:00hs in March 2012. We captured 40 specimens of Lu. longipalpis and 54 specimens of other sandfly species. This find expands knowledge of the geographical distribution of this sandfly in Brazil.

  11. Sex pheromone and period gene characterization of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Posadas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar D; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James Gc; Acardi, Soraya A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-11-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the primary vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum in the New World. In this study, male Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens from Posadas, Argentina were characterized for two polymorphic markers: the male sex pheromone and the period (per) gene. The male sex pheromone was identified as (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, the same compound produced by Lu. longipalpis from Paraguay and many populations from Brazil. The analysis of per gene sequences revealed that the population from Argentina is significantly differentiated from previously studied Brazilian populations. Marker studies could contribute to the understanding of the distribution and spread of urban American visceral leishmaniasis, thus aiding in the design of regional surveillance and control strategies.

  12. Genetic variation among natural and laboratory colony populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)(Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzaro, G C; Alexander, B; Mutebi, J P; Montoya-Lerma, J; Warburg, A

    1998-01-01

    Genetic diversity among three field populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Colombia was studied using isozyme analysis. Study sites were as much as 598 km apart and included populations separated by the eastern Cordillera of the Andes. Genetic variability among populations, estimated by heterozygosity, was within values typical for insects in general (8.1%). Heterozygosity for field populations were compared with a laboratory colony from Colombia (Melgar colony) and were only slightly lower. These results suggest that establishment and long term maintenance of the Melgar colony has had little effect on the level of isozyme variability it carries. Genetic divergences between populations was evaluated using estimates of genetic distance. Genetic divergence among the three field populations was low (D = 0.021), suggesting they represent local populations within a single species. Genetic distance between field populations and the Melgar colony was also low (D = 0.016), suggesting that this colony population does not depart significantly from natural populations. Finally, comparisons were made between Colombian populations and colonies from Brazil and Costa Rica. Genetic distance values were high between Colombian and both Brazil and Costa Rica colony populations (D = 0.199 and 0.098 respectively) providing additional support for our earlier report that populations from the three countries represent distinct species.

  13. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-11-02

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2.In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  14. Genetic Variation among Natural and Laboratory Colony Populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera:Psychodidae from Colombia

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    Lanzaro Gregory C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among three field populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Colombia was studied using isozyme analysis. Study sites were as much as 598 km apart and included populations separated by the eastern Cordillera of the Andes. Genetic variability among populations, estimated by heterozygosity, was within values typical for insects in general (8.1%. Heterozygosity for field populations were compared with a laboratory colony from Colombia (Melgar colony and were only slightly lower. These results suggest that establishment and long term maintenance of the Melgar colony has had little effect on the level of isozyme variability it carries. Genetic divergences between populations was evaluated using estimates of genetic distance. Genetic divergence among the three field populations was low (D=0.021, suggesting they represent local populations within a single species. Genetic distance between field populations and the Melgar colony was also low (D=0.016, suggesting that this colony population does not depart significantly from natural populations. Finally, comparisons were made between Colombian populations and colonies from Brazil and Costa Rica. Genetic distance values were high between Colombian and both Brazil and Costa Rica colony populations (D=0.199 and 0.098 respectively providing additional support for our earlier report that populations from the three countries represent distinct species

  15. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  16. Bisphenol A Effects on Mammalian Oogenesis and Epigenetic Integrity of Oocytes: A Case Study Exploring Risks of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, originally developed as a synthetic oestrogen, is nowadays extensively used in the production of polymeric plastics. Under harsh conditions, these plastics may release BPA, which then can leach into the environment. Detectable concentrations of BPA have been measured in most analysed samples of human serum, plasma, or urine, as well as in follicular fluid, foetal serum, and amniotic fluid. Here we summarize the evidence about adverse BPA effects on the genetic and epigenetic integrity of mammalian oocytes. We conclude that increasing evidence supports the notion that low BPA concentrations adversely affect the epigenome of mammalian female germ cells, with functional consequences on gene expression, chromosome dynamics in meiosis, and oocyte development. Specific time windows, during which profound chromatin remodelling occurs and maternal imprints are established or protected, appear particularly vulnerable to epigenetic deregulation by BPA. Transgenerational effects have been also observed in the offspring of BPA-treated rodents, although the epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance still need to be clarified. The relevance of these findings for human health protection still needs to be fully assessed, but they warrant further investigation in both experimental models and humans.

  17. Influence of X-rays on oogenesis in Tilapia mossambica. 3. Irradiation of 20 days old larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilevskij, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tilapia mossambica Peters larvae of 20 days old after hatching were irradiated with a dose of 350 R. Gonads recovery in irradiated fishes began from the age of 95 days; anatomic sexual differentiation in gonads delayed; death of developing oocytes was noted: gonads development in the irradiated fishes of 144 days old was sharply suppressed, some fishes were sterile

  18. Effect of X-rays on oogenesis of Tilapia mossambica Peters 2. Irradiation of 15 days old larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmilevskij, D.A. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-07-01

    Tilapia larvae of 15 days old after hatching were exposed to x-rays at a dose of 350 R and gonad state in fishes of up to 120 days old was studied. The largest part of sex cells was perished in fishes of 20-30 days old. At the age of 60 days the process of gonad recovery began in consequence of which the number of sex cells in experimental fishes till the end of experiment (fishes of 120 days old after hatching) was the same as in control fishes of the same age. However, unlike the experiment with irradiation of larvae of 6 days old, during irradiation of larvae of 15 days old there was no complete recovery of gonads-oocytes of the irradiated fishes didn't reach the stage of oocyte development under control.

  19. Sex-lethal enables germline stem cell differentiation by down-regulating Nanos protein levels during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Johnnie; Kulnane, Laura Shapiro; Salz, Helen K

    2012-06-12

    Drosophila ovarian germ cells require Sex-lethal (Sxl) to exit from the stem cell state and to enter the differentiation pathway. Sxl encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein and in somatic cells serves as the developmental switch gene for somatic sex determination and X-chromosome dosage compensation. None of the known Sxl target genes are required for germline differentiation, leaving open the question of how Sxl promotes the transition from stem cell to committed daughter cell. We address the mechanism by which Sxl regulates this transition through the identification of nanos as one of its target genes. Previous studies have shown that Nanos protein is necessary for GSC self-renewal and is rapidly down-regulated in the daughter cells fated to differentiate in the adult ovary. We find that this dynamic expression pattern is limited to female germ cells and is under Sxl control. In the absence of Sxl, or in male germ cells, Nanos protein is continuously expressed. Furthermore, this female-specific expression pattern is dependent on the presence of canonical Sxl binding sites located in the nanos 3' untranslated region. These results, combined with the observation that nanos RNA associates with the Sxl protein in ovarian extracts and loss and gain of function studies, suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional down-regulation of nanos expression. These findings connect sexual identity to the stem cell self-renewal/differentiation decision and highlight the importance of posttranscriptional gene regulatory networks in controlling stem cell behavior.

  20. The Syk kinase SmTK4 of Schistosoma mansoni is involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Beckmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The signal transduction protein SmTK4 from Schistosoma mansoni belongs to the family of Syk kinases. In vertebrates, Syk kinases are known to play specialized roles in signaling pathways in cells of the hematopoietic system. Although Syk kinases were identified in some invertebrates, their role in this group of animals has not yet been elucidated. Since SmTK4 is the first Syk kinase from a parasitic helminth, shown to be predominantly expressed in the testes and ovary of adult worms, we investigated its function. To unravel signaling cascades in which SmTK4 is involved, yeast two-/three-hybrid library screenings were performed with either the tandem SH2-domain, or with the linker region including the tyrosine kinase domain of SmTK4. Besides the Src kinase SmTK3 we identified a new Src kinase (SmTK6 acting upstream of SmTK4 and a MAPK-activating protein, as well as mapmodulin acting downstream. Their identities and colocalization studies pointed to a role of SmTK4 in a signaling cascade regulating the proliferation and/or differentiation of cells in the gonads of schistosomes. To confirm this decisive role we performed biochemical and molecular approaches to knock down SmTK4 combined with a novel protocol for confocal laser scanning microscopy for morphological analyses. Using the Syk kinase-specific inhibitor Piceatannol or by RNAi treatment of adult schistosomes in vitro, corresponding phenotypes were detected in the testes and ovary. In the Xenopus oocyte system it was finally confirmed that Piceatannol suppressed the activity of the catalytic kinase domain of SmTK4. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal role of SmTK4 in gametogenesis, a new function for Syk kinases in eukaryotes.

  1. Effect of X-rays on oogenesis of Telapia mossambica Peters 2. Irradiation of 15 days old larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilevskij, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tilapia larvae of 15 days old after hatching were exposed to x-rays at a dose of 350 R and gonad state in fishes of up to 120 days old was studied. The largest part of sex cells was perished in fishes of 20-30 days old. At the age of 60 days the process of gonad recovery began in consequence of which the number of sex cells in experimetnal fishes tall the end of experiment (fishes of 120 days old after hatching) was the same as in control fishes of the same age. However, unlike the experiment with irradiation of larvae of 6 days old, during irradiation of larvae of 15 days old there was no complete recovery of gonads-oocutes of the irradiated fishes didn't reach the stage of oocyte development under control

  2. The retained capacity of Lutzomya longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva to transmit Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas after eight years (64 generations in a closed laboratory colony

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    M. de N. A. Gonçalves

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed Lutzomyia longipalpis colony, from Ceará has been used to transmit Leishmania chagasi isolated from a fox in Pará state. The last time this colony was successfully used in similar transmission experiments was eight years (64 generations ago indicating that this colony of Lu. longipalpis has fully maintained its vectorial capacity in spite of such a long period of maintainance in the laboratory.Lutzomyia longipalpis foi alimentado através de membrana com uma suspensão de macerado de fígado e baço em sangue desfibrinado de coelho. Este material foi originário de um hamster infectado com Leishmania chagasi, realimentado em hamsters limpos, transmitindo os parasitos em duas ocasiões. Esta mesma colônia de Lu. longipalpis, do Ceará, foi usada para a primeira transmissão há oito anos e 64 gerações atrás e não teve a capacidade vetorial diminuída.

  3. New species of Myxosporea from frogs and resurrection of the genus Cystodiscus Lutz, 1889 for species with myxospores in gallbladders of amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2012), s. 478-496 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cystodiscus axonis * Cystodiscus australis * new species * Myxidium * Myxosporea * amphibians * frogs * tadpoles * brain * liver * disease * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  4. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  5. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS--Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL--Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Mrazik, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), an individually administered test of intelligence for use with individuals between the ages of 3 and 94. The RIAS represents the newest intelligence test on the marketplace and incorporates the most current intelligence test theory…

  6. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of vacant lots and constructions in the urban area were evaluated. After an epidemiological study, educational measures such as the distribution of pamphlets, cleaning group work, visits to residences and cooperation from High School teachers and students were also suggested. Chemical control was indicated in high-risk sites, especially those of nearschool buildings. Furthermore, the use of natural predators was also mentioned within the present sanitation regulations for urban areas. The authors assert that these procedures must be integrated and continued aninterrruptedly for several years. They also suggest a collaborative work with those responsible for the dengue erradication program, as well as the institution of the "scorpion study week", which would greatly contribute to the education of the population, to preventive programs and to scorpion control.

  7. Espécies novas do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Melastomataceae Tibouchina Lutzii Brade n.sp

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    A. C. Brade

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available A posição desta espécie é após Tibouchina floribunda Cogn. No hábito assemelha-se a Tibouchina Schwackei Cogn. mas distingue-se bem desta pelo revestimento diferente e a côr alva da página inferior da folha.

  8. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  9. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

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    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  10. PRIMEIRA OCORRÊNCIA DE Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis LUTZ & NEIVA, 1912 (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE) NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo; Clicia Denis Galardo; Aderbal Amanajás Santana; José Claudio Cortes Mendes; Francisco Redivaldo Almeida de Souza; Jorge Pereira Duarte; José Ferreira Saraiva; Luiz Carlos Leite Pinna; Raimundo Wilson Carvalho; Ana Paula Sales de Andrade Correa; Ana Cristina da Silva Ferreira Lima

    2013-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Lutzomyia longipalpis, o mais importante vetor biológico do agente causador da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana (LVA), no município de Ferreira Gomes, estado do Amapá, Brasil e por tratar-se de uma espécie com grande importância epidemiológica, os autores alertam as autoridades locais.   Palavras-chave: Amapá, Ferreira Gomes, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Leishmaniose Visceral Americana.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n2p179-...

  11. The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Getúlio Dornelles; Santos, Edmilson dos; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2009-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread zoonosis in Brazil and, up to now, there has been no record of the main vector of its agent, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the Southern Region. Due to the diagnosis of VL in a dog in October 2008 in the city of São Borja, in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a collection of phlebotomines was undertaken to detect the presence of the vector Lu. longipalpis. The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector.

  12. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) no estado de Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Lima, Giovana Belem Moreira

    2006-01-01

    A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipa...

  13. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  14. Spatial population dynamics and temporal analysis of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the city of Clorinda, Formosa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bravo, Andrea; German, Alba; Abril, Marcelo; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar D

    2017-07-25

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector for the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), has extended its distribution in the southern cone in the Americas. The first urban record of Lu. longipalpis in Argentina was from the City of Clorinda in 2004. The aim of this study was to analyse the monthly distribution and abundance of Lu. longipalpis and to evaluate its association with environmental and climatic variables in Clorinda City, Province of Formosa. Phlebotominae sampling was performed using CDC light mini-traps that were placed in different sites of the city between January 2012 and December 2013. Environmental variables including the normalised difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, land surface temperature and precipitation were evaluated using a spatiotemporal model. A total of 4996 phlebotomine sandflies were captured during the study period, and eight species were reported: Lu. longipalpis, Migonemyia migonei, Nyssomyia whitmani, Ny. neivai, Brumptomyia guimaraesi, Evandromyia cortelezzii/sallesi, Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Expapillata firmatoi. This is the first urban record of Ex. firmatoi in Argentina. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the most abundant species between 2012 and 2013, and it appeared in all the sampled sites. Moreover, the model applied showed that ground humidity and temperature were significantly associated with the abundance of Lu. longipalpis. This longitudinal approach at city scale allows for modelling that explains more than 60% of the temporal variability of the abundance of Lu. longipalpis based exclusively on satellite obtained data. The results support the hypothesis of steady 'hot spots' of abundance with time, while other sites could change its abundance due to eventual microenvironment changes. The Lu. longipalpis abundance driving factors are breeding site-related variables, highlighting the importance both for modelling and surveillance to use lag data.

  15. [Expansion of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the department of Caldas: Increased risk of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Luz Adriana; Mondragón-Shem, Karina; Vergara, Daniela; Vélez-Mira, Andrés; Cadena, Horacio; Carrillo-Bonilla, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Diverse taxonomical and molecular studies suggest that Lutzomyia longipalpis , main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of species widely distributed throughout the continent and adapted to different habitats. To carry out entomological surveillance in the area of influence of the Miel I Hydroelectric Plant. Adhesive traps were used in a transect covering an area of approximately 400 km for the capture of insects, which were then identified using the Young and Duncan taxonomical key. This study reports the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the municipalities of Norcasia at an altitude of 392 masl, and in Marquetalia at 1,387 masl. We suggest that the increase in the geographical and altitudinal distribution could be related to the existence of the Lu. longipalpis species complex, or to environmental factors, such as the rise in temperature due to global climate changes, which create the establishment of Lu. longipalpis , generating a new epidemiological risk for new visceral leishmaniasis foci in the country.

  16. Modification of fecundity and fertility during oogenesis by γ radiation and/or ozone with a cytological analysis in the ectoparasitic wasp, Habrobracon juglandis (Ashmead)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofuoku, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In Experiment I, adult female wasps were exposed to ozone for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, and 27 h. The results indicated that the 27 h of ozone exposure produced 100% lethality on the first day. Exposures below 27 h progressively decreased life span with increasing length of exposure. In Experiment II A, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to ozone for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 h to determine the effects of ozone on fecundity (egg laying ability) and fertility (egg hatching ability). The results showed that ozone significantly decreased fecundity and fertility in all meiotic stages except metaphase I. In Experiment II B, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to Co-60 γ radiation. All treated wasps showed significant progressive decreases in fecundity and fertility with increases in radiation dose. In Experiment II C, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to Co-60 γ radiation, to ozone, or to combinations thereof to determine the effects of these insults on fecundity and fertility. Together or singly ozone and radiation reduced fecundity and fertility. In Experiment III, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to the conditions of Experiment II C to correlate by cytological examination of the ovarioles the effects of ionizing radiation and/or ozone on the germ cells at specific meiotic stages. Results obtained from the cytological study explain the fecundity and fertility observations

  17. Novos registros de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera: Psychodidae na região Centro-Leste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil New records of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Central East Region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Cutolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência das leishmanioses tegumentar (LTA e visceral (LVA americanas, especialmente essa última, em hospedeiros caninos e humanos, encontra-se em expansão no Estado de São Paulo. Na vigilância epidemiológica dessas endemias, torna-se fundamental o conhecimento da distribuição e ecologia das diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos. Assim, a divulgação de novos registros de seus vetores é fundamental para apontar novas áreas de risco para a transmissão dessas doenças. Neste estudo, realizaram-se capturas de flebotomíneos em ambiente de mata, em diferentes localidades dos municípios de Ipeúna, Itirapina e Analândia, entre agosto e setembro de 2007. Foram capturados 248 flebotomíneos de nove espécies diferentes, em Ipeúna, seis e sete espécimes de duas espécies distintas coletados respectivamente em Itirapina e Analândia. A espécie mais abundante em Ipeúna foi Pintomyia pessoai (37,5%, seguida de P. fischeri (33,06% e Migonemyia migonei (16,53%. Essas três espécies são consideradas importantes vetores de LTA no território paulista. O registro de Lutzomyia longipalpis pela primeira vez em Ipeúna e Analândia e a confirmação de sua presença em Itirapina indicam risco de essabelecimento da LVA na área e a necessidade de mais estudos locais sobre sua ecologia, sobretudo em relação à ocupação de ambientes antrópicos.Cutaneous (LTA and Visceral (LVA American Leishmaniasis incidences are increasing in human and canine hosts, especially LVA, which is expanding its range through São Paulo State. Distribution and ecology knowledge of different sand fly species is essential for leishmaniasis epidemiology vigilance. The communication of new findings of its vectors is mandatory for risk determination for transmission of these illnesses. On this study sand flies were trapped in bushed areas, in different localities at rural areas of Ipeúna, Itirapina and Analândia counties, between August and September 2007. A total of 248 specimens of nine different species were sampled in Ipeúna, six and seven specimens of two different species were trapped in Itirapina and Analândia, respectively. The most abundant species in Ipeúna was Pintomyia pessoai (37.5%, followed by Pintomyia fischeri (33.06% and Migonemyia migonei (16.53%, all three species are considered vectors of LTA in São Paulo State. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Ipeúna and Analândia for the first time and its presence confirmed in Itirapina, indicating a risk of LVA essablishment in the area and the need for further local studies on its ecology, especially regarding its occupation of the anthropic environment.

  18. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) no estado de Mato Grosso Spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) in the State of Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Akemi Missawa; Giovana Belem Moreira Lima

    2006-01-01

    A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipa...

  19. Primeiro encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG, concomitante com o relato de primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral humana First finding of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in the urban area of Uberlândia, MG, concomitant with the first reported autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis

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    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do vetor da leishmaniose visceral, Lutzomyia longipalpis, na área urbana de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais e o primeiro caso de leishmaniose visceral humana autóctone no município, notificado ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, por meio da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Discute-se a importância deste encontro na transmissão da doença nessa área.The first occurrence of the vector for visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the urban area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, and the first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis recorded in the same locality are reported. These were notified to the Zoonosis Control Center, through the Epidemiological Surveillance sector of the Municipal Health Department. The importance of these findings regarding transmission of the disease in this area is discussed.

  20. Ampliación de la distribución de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae en el departamento de Caldas: potencial aumento del riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral

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    Luz Adriana Acosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Diversos estudios a nivel taxonómico y molecular sugieren que Lutzomyia longipalpis, principal vector de la leishmaniasis visceral en Latinoamérica, es un complejo de especies con ampliadistribución a lo largo del continente y con adaptaciones a diferentes hábitats. Objetivo. Realizar vigilancia entomológica en el área de influencia de la hidroeléctrica Miel I. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron trampas adhesivas en una intersección de 400 km, aproximadamente, para la captura de insectos, los cuales fueron identificados con la clave taxonómica de Youngy Duncan. Resultados. En este estudio se reporta la presencia de Lu. longipalpis en los municipios de Norcasia a una altitud de 392 msnm y en Marquetalia a 1.387 msnm; es el primer reporte a esta altura para esta especie en Colombia. Conclusiones. Se sugiere que la ampliación de la distribución geográfica y altitudinal de Lu. longipalpis en el país podría estar relacionada con la existencia del complejo de especies Lu. longipalpis, o a factores ambientales como el aumento de temperatura debido al cambio climático global que viene sucediendo en las últimas décadas. Esta última hipótesis sugeriría que se están creando nuevos hábitats propiciospara el establecimiento de Lu. longipalpis, lo cual genera un nuevo riesgo epidemiológico de posiblesnuevos focos de leishmaniasis visceral en el país.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.762

  1. Observations on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Campo Grande, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Marassá, Ana Maria; Consales, Cleide Aschenbrenner; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; de Oliveira, Gilliard Rezende; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2008-09-01

    Sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps from December 2003 to November 2005 in three areas of Campo Grande, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. These areas incorporated two patches of remnant forest and five houses. The blood meals of engorged female sand flies were identified using the avidin-biotin system of immunoenzymatic ELISA capture. Most (327/355) of the females analysed were Lutzomyia longipalpis, of which 66.4% reacted with human blood, 64.8% with that of birds and 8.9% with that of dogs. Females that had taken human blood predominated in the residential areas and two forest patches. The following combinations of blood were also detected for L. longipalpis in some of the samples analysed: bird+human (43.4%), bird+human+dog (6.1%). The combination bird+human+dog+pig was also found for Nyssomyia whitmani. Dogs and pigs appear to have little attractiveness for L. longipalpis. The results obtained demonstrate the eclecticism and high anthropophily of L. longipalpis and raise new questions with regard to the importance of dogs in VL epidemiology and the possible role of man as a source of infection for sand flies.

  2. Analysis of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Mirian Francisca Martins; Varjão, Jane Ramos; Moraes, Sinara Cristina de; Salcedo, Gladys Elena

    2012-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious and parasitic zoonotic, non-contagious, vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1934) is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, was designated as a priority area by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for american visceral leishmaniasis, and it is important to identify the vector species present in this municipality. Our objective was to raise sandflies and study the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis. We performed entomological monitoring in 3 districts using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and recorded human cases of american visceral leishmaniasis in the city. We calculated the relative frequency and richness of sandflies and applied a transfer function model to the vector density correlate with relative humidity. The sandfly population was composed of 2 genera and 27 species, totaling 8,097 individuals. Monitoring identified Lutzomyia longipalpis (44%), followed by Lutzomyia lenti (18.9%), Lutzomyia whitmani (13.9%), Lutzomyia carmelinoi (9.1%), Lutzomyia evandroi (5.1%), Lutzomyia termitophila (3.3%), Lutzomyia sordellii (1.9%), and 20 other species (Lutzomyia longipalpis showed occurrence peaks during the rainy season; there was a temporal correlation with humidity, but not with frequency or temperature. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the urban area of Barra do Garças underscores the changing disease profile, which was previously restricted to the wild environment.

  3. Identificação do sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999) pela técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina

    OpenAIRE

    Marassá,Ana Maria; Consales,Cleide Aschenbrenner; Galati,Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Nunes,Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2006-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi, espécies integrantes da fauna flebotomínea da Serra da Bodoquena, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, têm sido objeto de estudo devido às suas elevadas abundâncias no Assentamento Guaicurus, foco de leishmaniose tegumentar humana e visceral canina. Em pesquisas que vem sendo realizadas neste acampamento para a identificação de vetores destas parasitoses, foram capturados no período de 2002 a 2004, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas em amb...

  4. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler.…

  5. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  6. "Keset filmi" Kiasmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome kunstniku Tellervo Kalleineni filmiprojektist "In the middle of a movie'". Eestist esinesid projektis Taavi Eelmaa, Tarrvi Laamann, Silva Lutz, Anders Melts, Anneli Remme, Siiri Salem, Martin Palm, Kaja Prikk, Peeter Ristsoo, filmisid Peeter Maimik ja Marianne Kõrver

  7. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN LHC : global layout

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephane Maridor

    2006-01-01

    from left to right: Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  8. ALICE industrial award ceremony in Bologna at Santa Cristina

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    from left to right:Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  9. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  10. The use of genetic transformation in the study of ovarian-specific gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzi, A.; Andone, S.; Rotoli, D.; Capua, M.R.; Gargiulo, G.; Graziani, F.; Malva, C.

    1998-01-01

    We are using genetic and molecular approaches to understand the mechanisms controlling the establishment of the cellular specificity of expression during oogenesis. Female-sterile mutations have been isolated and the molecular analysis is revealing interesting cell-cell interaction systems that work not only during oogenesis but also at other developmental stages. We will review in this paper our most recent studies on genes involved in ovarian development. (author)

  11. A generalization of resource-bounded measure, with an application (Extended abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; van Melkebeek, Dieter; Regan, Kenneth W.; Sivakumar, D.; Strauss, Martin

    We introduce resource-bounded betting games, and propose a generalization of Lutz's resource-bounded measure in which the choice of next string to bet on is fully adaptive. Lutz's martingales are equivalent to betting games constrained to bet on strings in lexicographic order. We show that if strong pseudo-random number generators exist, then betting games are equivalent to martingales, for measure on E and EXP. However, we construct betting games that succeed on certain classes whose Lutz measures are important open problems: the class of polynomial-time Turing-complete languages in EXP, and its superclass of polynomial-time Turing-autoreducible languages. If an EXP-martingale succeeds on either of these classes, or if betting games have the "finite union property" possessed by Lutz's measure, one obtains the non-relativizable consequence BPP ≠ EXP. We also show that if EXP ≠ MA, then the polynomial-time truth-table-autoreducible languages have Lutz measure zero, whereas if EXP = BPP, they have measure one.

  12. Ablation of the MiR-17-92 MicroRNA Cluster in Germ Cells Causes Subfertility in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Bo; Tian, Geng G; Sun, Tao; Wu, Ji

    2018-01-01

    Oogenesis is a highly complex process that is intricately regulated by interactions of multiple genes and signaling molecules. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. There is emerging evidence that microRNAs contribute to oogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-17-92 cluster in regulating oogenesis. The miR-17-92 cluster was genetically ablated in germ cells of female mice by applying the Cre-loxp system for conditional gene knockout. Mating experiment, superovulation and histological analysis were used to assess the fertility of the model female mice. TUNEL assay was used to identify apoptotic cells in ovaries. The expression level of apoptosis- and follicular atresia- related genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was performed to detect protein expression. Bioinformatics software and dual luciferase reporter assay were applied to predict and verify the target of miR-17-92 cluster. Deletion of miR-17-92 cluster in germ cells of female mice caused increased oocyte degradation and follicular atresia, perturbed oogenesis, and ultimately led to subfertility. Genes involved in follicular atresia and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were obviously up-regulated. Furthermore, we verified that miR-19a regulated oogenesis at the post-transcriptional level by targeting Bmf in the ovaries of miR-17-92 cluster conditional knockout female mice. The miR-17-92 cluster is an important regulator of oogenesis. These findings will assist in better understanding the etiology of disorders in oogenesis and in developing new therapeutic targets for female infertility. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Literature Review of Cultural Resources in Morgan County, Colorado,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-02

    MILES APPRCXI: %TE LOCATIONS OF SURVEY AREAS 1. NARROWS DAM SURVEY 2. WILDCAT CREEK SURVEY 3. BRUS { FLOOD CO’IOL PROJECT L B3I B LI 0 RAP H Y...Kenneth L. 1975 Edible plants available to aboriginal occupants of the Narrows area. IN Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N. Ted Ohr, Timothy J...Reservoi - , Morgan County. Prepared for -1e Riverside IrrigaLion District and Public Service Company of Colorado. Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N

  14. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

    2009-06-01

    Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.

  15. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-27

    Oct 27, 2004 ... Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones and more than twenty heat stress transcription factors. Sanjeev Kumar Baniwal Kapil Bharti Kwan Yu Chan Markus Fauth Arnab Ganguli Sachin Kotak Shravan Kumar Mishra Lutz Nover Markus Port Klaus-Dieter Scharf Joanna Tripp ...

  17. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  18. Modifiers and mechanisms of multi-system polyglutamine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    case of polyQ repeat disorders such as HD (reviewed in Lutz. 2007). The different .... saccades, h ypertrophic cardiomyopath y, diabetes mellitus. Campuzano et al . (1996), ...... serine–threonine kinase Akt which phosphorylates mutant huntingtin at ...... systematic analysis of human disease-associated gene sequences.

  19. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  20. Mechanism of Huiru decoction on hyperprolactinemia in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of HD (9.6 g/kg body weight) reduced PRL level of hyperPRL rats effectively (p < 0.01). HD increased dopamine ..... 4. Gerhard Lutz. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. ... benefits of herbal medicines for schizophrenia: from empirical ...

  1. Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker-Kreichgauer, Gisela

    1982-01-01

    Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness : hostility in a debate / Lutz von Rosenstiel ; Gisela Stocker- Kreichgauer. - In: Group decision making / ed. by Gisela Stocker-Kreichgauer ... - London u.a. : Acad. Press, 1982. - S. 241-255. - (European monographs in social psychology ; 25)

  2. Darshana Jolts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can recall this dedication in the names of the week in all languages, in Indian ... That is what the game of science is all about: to go beyond the impressions created by our ... The book, dating back roughly to the second century C E, was known ..... See Lutz B Schmadel, Dictionary of minor planet names (online Edition).

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones and more than twenty heat stress transcription factors · Sanjeev Kumar Baniwal Kapil Bharti Kwan Yu Chan Markus Fauth Arnab Ganguli Sachin Kotak Shravan Kumar Mishra Lutz Nover Markus Port Klaus-Dieter Scharf Joanna Tripp Christian Weber Dirk ...

  4. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck

  5. Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duellman William E.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Los anuros marsupiales se hallan representados en Colombia por diez y seis especies pertenecientes al género Gastrotheca. G. humbertoi  Lutz, 1977, pasa a la sinonimia de G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran y Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz y Ruiz, 1977, y G. yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978, son incluidas en la sinonimia de G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico y comentario sobre la distribución para cada una de las especies colombianas junto con una clave para su identificación. Marsupial frogs are represented in Colombia by sixteen species of Gastrotheca. Gastrotheca humbertoi Lutz, 1977 is placed in the synonymy of G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran and Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz and Ruiz, 1977, and G.Yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978 are placed inthesynonymy of G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. A brief diagnosis and statement of distribution are presented for each Colombian species, and a key for identification of the species is provided.

  6. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    Sobre o encontro de Lutzomyiu longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rev. Saude Publ. Sac Paulo 4:99-100. 3 Forattini, 0. P...Almeida. /1964. Flebotomos do nordeste. I. Encontro de "Plboou cht, " "P. gmgxi e ’T. 1QnstispinJ. em Pernambuco (Diptera, Psychodidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol

  7. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-31

    1971. S-6bre o encontro deiutzomtyia longipalpis (Lutz& Neiva, 1912) no Estado do Sio Paulo, Brasil. Rev. Silude Pub]. Sio Paulo 4:99-100. Forattini, 0...271-282. t~~ f References Cited 831 Lucern, D. T. & L. Almeida. 1964. Fleb6tomos do nordeste. I. Encontro de "Phlebotomus choti," "P. aragaoi" e "P

  8. DMPD: Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14726496 Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Cor...osine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. PubmedID 14726496 Title Receptor tyrosine...rell PH, Morrison AC, Lutz MA. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):731-7. Epub 2004 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Receptor tyr

  9. Development of a Novel Method to Detect Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Lewis Phillips, G. D.; Li, G.; Dugger, D. L.; Crocker, L. M.; Parsons, K. L.; Mai, E.; Blattler, W. A.; Lambert , J. M.; Chari, R. V. J.; Lutz, R...cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis. doi:10.1002/mc.22014. 150. Sun, Y., Campisi, J., Higano, C., Beer , T. M., Porter, P., Coleman, I., True, L., & Nelson, P

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (28th) of the Military Testing Association Held in New London, Connecticut on 3-7 November 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-07

    Lutz, R.J. (1975). Changing Brand Attitudes through Modification of Cognitive Burke, J.S. and Faris, J.H. (1982). Structure, Journal of Consumer...as design: Using typography to improve access and understanding. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), The technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing

  11. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  12. Taking Centrioles to the Elimination Round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2016-07-11

    Two recent papers published in The Journal of Cell Biology (Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016) and Science (Pimenta-Marques et al., 2016) have begun to shed light on the mechanism of centriole elimination during female oogenesis, highlighting a protective role for Polo kinase and the pericentriolar material. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The gametic synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Angus D.; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between th...

  14. Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, M.D.; Pagano, J.F.B.; Ensink, W.A.; van Olst, M.; van Leeuwen, S.; Nehrdich, U.; Zhu, K.; Spaink, H.P.; Girard, G.; Rauwerda, H.; Jonker, M.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Breit, T.M.

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue,

  15. Differential expression of gonadotropin and estrogen receptors and oocyte cytology during follicular maturation associated with egg viability in European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa F. G.; Tveiten, Helge; Maugars, Gersende

    2018-01-01

    In captivity, oogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation in European eel can be induced experimentally using hormonal therapy. The follicle's ability to respond effectively to the induction of maturation and ovulation, resulting in viable eggs, depends on the oocyte stage at the time of induction....

  16. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  17. Birth Weight Corrected for Gestational Age is Related to the Incidence of Down’s Syndrome Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfrans, J.M.; Bakker, P.S.M.; Rekers-Mombarg, L.T.M.; Weissenbruch, M.M.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three recent studies reported that early depletion of the primordial follicle pool is likely to be an independent risk factor for Down’s syndrome pregnancies. The size of the primordial follicle pool at birth is determined by oogenesis and by the rate of follicle atresia during the intra uterine

  18. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  19. Ovarian Stem Cell Niche and Follicular Renewal in Mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 8 (2011), s. 1284-1306 ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : ovary * stem cell niche * neo-oogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2011

  20. Reproduction now or later: optimal host-handling strategies in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a dynamic state variable model for studying optimal host-handling strategies in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We assumed that (a) the function of host feeding is to gain nutrients that can be matured into eggs, (b) oogenesis is continuous and

  1. Notes on the cytogenetics of some South African Xiphinema species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytogenetics of several South African species of Xiphinemawere studied and compared with the existing data for this genus from Europe. The process of oogenesis appears to be very similar in all species studied, with little interspecific and intraspecific differences. The ovaries of the South African specimens are larger, ...

  2. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Charkraborty, Tapas [South Ehime Fisheries Research Center, Ehime University, Ainan, 798-4206 (Japan); Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Wang, Deshou, E-mail: wdeshou@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  3. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  4. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ningling [Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong1168@126.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Li, Rong [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Huang, Hefeng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  5. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise D.M. Leal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads. The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20% were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.Os animais silvestres estão expostos a inúmeros patógenos,dentre eles estão os hemoparasitas. Podem-se destacar espécies do gênero Trypanosoma e do grupo das hemogregarinas,que ocorrem com freqüência parasitando anuros (rãs, pererecas e sapos. Normalmente, a descrição destes hemoparasitas é feita através da morfologia dos estágios observados nosangue periférico do hospedeiro e as pesquisas sobre o ciclobiológico desses hemoparasitas são escassas. Os objetivos dopresente estudo foram avaliar a presença de hemogregarinas eTrypanosoma spp. em anuros capturados nos Estados de São Paulo e

  6. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    models. The objective of ReqSpec is to support the elicitation , definition, and modeling of requirements for real-time embedded systems in an iterative...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software En- gineering Institute at

  7. Multidisciplinary pain management programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Arnold, Bernhard; Pfingsten, Michael; Nagel, Bernd; Lutz, Johannes; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University ...

  8. New Sabethes (Diptera: Culicidae) species records for Ecuador, from Colonso-Chalupas biological reserve, province of Napo (Amazon)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, J.C.; Enríquez, S.; Campaña, Y.; Benítez Ortíz, W.

    2015-01-01

    Two new records of Sabethes mosquitoes (Culicidae: Nematocera) are reported for Ecuador with the respective extension of their geographical distribution in the Neotropics: Sabethes intermedius Lutz and Sabethes soperi Lane & Cerqueira, from the provinces of Napo (Amazon) into the Natural Reserve of Colonso-Chalupas at 1,200 m altitude, beside Tena city, Ecuador. Both species are considered as potential vectors of sylvatic Yellow Fever virus and Mayaro virus. Information on collection local...

  9. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  10. A Novel Phosphatase Gene on 10q23, MINNP, in Hereditary and Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    surrounding stroma. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES human cancer genetics, breast cancer 28 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...Genetics. All rights reserved. et al. 1998). CS is a poorly recognized autosomal dom- 0002-929712001/6904-0005$02.00 inant cancer syndrome...58, 1348-1352. 24. Coles, C., Condie, A., Chetty, U., Steel. C.M., Evans, H.J. and Prosser, J. 36. Wolf, C., Rouyer, N., Lutz, Y.. Adida . C., Loriot, M

  11. A Developmental Approach to Characterizing the Tissue-Invasion Gene Program in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    OF PAGES Breast Cancer 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF...induced host response. Am J. Pathol. 149:273-282, 1996. 4. Wolf, c., Rouyer, N., Lutz, Y., Adida , C., Loriot, M., Bellocq, J.P., Chambon, P., and Basset...following a 5 d incubation period. (upper left and right panels). In contrast, MT1-MMP-transfected cells perforated the BM in representative TEM and

  12. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  13. Asset Management Process (AMP) Improvement Project: Final Report of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Beach, Sue Meade-Lutz, Gary Reid, Deanna Tauvela, and Larry Majure . John Gorman served as the event’s Process Owner. INVESTIGATIONAL QUESTION The...Reid, Deanna Tauvela, and Larry Majure . John Gorman served as the event’s Process Owner. INVESTIGATIONAL QUESTION For years, the Center has...Provide custodians with receipts that are electronically tracked and use the receipt transaction to trigger forced asset transfers in ERP. See Appendix F

  14. Proceedings of Conference on Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory 3

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, PK

    2011-01-01

    A collection dealing with language documentation and linguistic theory from a conference held at SOAS on 19- 20 November 2011. Papers by Peter Austin, Oliver Bond, Lutz Marten & David Nathan, Balthasar Bickel, Anju Saxena, Anvita Abbi, Cathryn Bartram, Henrik Bergqvist, Martine Bruil, Eliane Camargo & Sabine Reiter, Kearsy Cormier, Jordan Fenlon, Ramas Rentelis, & Adam Schembri, Simeon Floyd & Martine Bruil, Diana Forker, Michael Franjieh & Kilu von Prince, Brent Henderson & Charl...

  15. An Economic Evaluation of a Vaccine Acquisition Strategy to Mitigate Acute Diarrheal Illness Among Deployed US Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    one cause for hospital admission among troops deployed to Operation Restore Hope in Somalia from 1992 to 1993. [35] These data suggest that not only... Hope , Somalia, 1992-1993. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1995. 52(2): p. 188-93. 124 30. Taylor, S.F., R.H. Lutz, and J.A. Millward, Disease and nonbattle...Hux, C. Attard, and N. Milkovich, Cost- effectiveness of becaplermin for nonhealing neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage, 2003. 49

  16. Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) is a UNESCO Category 2 water center headquartered at the USACE Institute for Water...Resources (IWR) in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. ICIWaRM was officially created by an agreement between the U.S. Government and UNESCO in October 2009 to...csc.noaa.gov/ digitalcoast/sites/default/files/files/publications/04062013/ InfrastructureSystemsRebuildingPrinciples.pdf Patterson LA , Lutz B, Doyle MW

  17. SU-G-BRB-02: An Open-Source Software Analysis Library for Linear Accelerator Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J; Yaldo, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. Methods: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence. The analysis library was built using the general programming language Python. Each test was analyzed with the library algorithms and compared to manual measurements taken at the time of acquisition. Results: VMAT QA results agreed within 0.1% between the library and manual measurements. Machine logs (dynalogs & trajectory logs) were successfully parsed; mechanical axis positions were verified for accuracy and MLC fluence agreed well with EPID measurements. CBCT QA measurements were within 10 HU and 0.2mm where applicable. Winston Lutz isocenter size measurements were within 0.2mm of TrueBeam’s Machine Performance Check. Starshot analysis was within 0.2mm of the Winston Lutz results for the same conditions. Picket fence images with and without a known error showed that the library was capable of detecting MLC offsets within 0.02mm. Conclusion: A new routine QA software library has been benchmarked and is available for use by the community. The library is open-source and extensible for use in larger systems.

  18. SU-G-BRB-02: An Open-Source Software Analysis Library for Linear Accelerator Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yaldo, D [Advocate Health Care, Park Ridge, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. Methods: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence. The analysis library was built using the general programming language Python. Each test was analyzed with the library algorithms and compared to manual measurements taken at the time of acquisition. Results: VMAT QA results agreed within 0.1% between the library and manual measurements. Machine logs (dynalogs & trajectory logs) were successfully parsed; mechanical axis positions were verified for accuracy and MLC fluence agreed well with EPID measurements. CBCT QA measurements were within 10 HU and 0.2mm where applicable. Winston Lutz isocenter size measurements were within 0.2mm of TrueBeam’s Machine Performance Check. Starshot analysis was within 0.2mm of the Winston Lutz results for the same conditions. Picket fence images with and without a known error showed that the library was capable of detecting MLC offsets within 0.02mm. Conclusion: A new routine QA software library has been benchmarked and is available for use by the community. The library is open-source and extensible for use in larger systems.

  19. Genetic hazard of 3H: estimation by oocyte uptake of 2H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium can be incorporated biosynthetically from tritiated water into non-exchangeable C- 3 H bonds of deoxyribonucleotides during DNA synthesis. Thus, accidental ingestion of tritiated water during pregnance may result in some degree of tritiation of DNA in primary oocytes of female progeny. The genetic hazard posed by such incorporation would depend mainly upon the amount of tritium incorporated into long-lived primary oocytes and upon the persistence of tritium in those cells. To study this problem in mammals while avoiding tritium-induced inhibition of oogenesis, it is proposed to measure deuterium that persists in the primary oocytes of mice after exposure to deuterated water in utero. Data from such measurements could be extrapolated to estimate the fraction of tritium that persists in human primary oocytes after incorporation from tritiated water during prenatal oogenesis. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrate the feasibility of these stable isotope tracer measurements

  20. Ovarian Stem Cells–-the Pros and Cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Evron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential for postnatal de novo oogenesis in mammals and in humans has become very controversial in the fields of reproductive science and biology. Historically, it has been thought that females of most mammalian species lose the ability to produce oocytes at birth. A contemporary understanding of stem cell biology together with novel experimental methods has challenged the model of a prenatal fixed ovarian primordial follicle pool that declines with age. Researchers have suggested replenishment of post-natal oocytes by germ-line stem cells (GSCs. According to this theory, GSCs produce oocytes and primordial follicles throughout the lifetime of the adult female. This review describes recent approaches supporting the revolutionary idea of de novo oogenesis in mammals and humans of reproductive-age and provides counter arguments from opponents of this novel and innovative concept.

  1. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  2. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    the level of ligand production, that result in human breast cancer. We have integrated genetic and biochemical methods to study (1) the effects of a...and spindle-B encode components of the RAD52 DNA repair pathway and affect meiosis and patterning in Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Dev 12, 2711-2723...findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision

  3. Purification of Oogonial Stem Cells From Adult Mouse and Human Ovaries: An Assessment of the Literature and a View Toward the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonat...

  4. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size1

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H.; Trasler, Jacquetta M.; Baltz, Jay M.

    2016-01-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocyt...

  5. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for assessing development under conditions of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. K.; Hilgenfeld, R. B.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    More is known about the regulation of early developmental events in Drosophila than any other animal. In addition, its size and short life cycle make it a facile experimental system. Since developmental perturbations have been demonstrated when both oogenesis and embryogenesis occur in the space environment, there is a strong rationale for using this organism for the elucidation of specific gravity-sensitive developmental events.

  7. From stem cell to embryo without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Naomi R; Raposo, Alexandre A S F; Basto, Renata; St Johnston, Daniel; Raff, Jordan W

    2007-09-04

    Centrosome asymmetry plays a key role in ensuring the asymmetric division of Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts [NBs]) and male germline stem cells (GSCs) [1-3]. In both cases, one centrosome is anchored close to a specific cortical region during interphase, thus defining the orientation of the spindle during the ensuing mitosis. To test whether asymmetric centrosome behavior is a general feature of stem cells, we have studied female GSCs, which divide asymmetrically, producing another GSC and a cystoblast. The cystoblast then divides and matures into an oocyte, a process in which centrosomes exhibit a series of complex behaviors proposed to play a crucial role in oogenesis [4-6]. We show that the interphase centrosome does not define spindle orientation in female GSCs and that DSas-4 mutant GSCs [7], lacking centrioles and centrosomes, invariably divide asymmetrically to produce cystoblasts that proceed normally through oogenesis-remarkably, oocyte specification, microtubule organization, and mRNA localization are all unperturbed. Mature oocytes can be fertilized, but embryos that cannot support centriole replication arrest very early in development. Thus, centrosomes are dispensable for oogenesis but essential for early embryogenesis. These results reveal that asymmetric centrosome behavior is not an essential feature of stem cell divisions.

  8. Transcription factors SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 coordinate oocyte differentiation without affecting meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Ren, Yu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Golnoski, Kayla J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Mico, Vasil; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary. We found that SOHLH2 protein was expressed in the mouse germline as early as E12.5 and preceded SOHLH1 protein expression, which occurred circa E15.5. SOHLH1 protein appearance at E15.5 correlated with SOHLH2 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and was dependent on SOHLH1 expression. NOBOX oogenesis homeobox (NOBOX) and LIM homeobox protein 8 (LHX8), two important regulators of postnatal oogenesis, were coexpressed with SOHLH1. Single deficiency of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 disrupted the expression of LHX8 and NOBOX in the embryonic gonad without affecting meiosis. Sohlh1-KO infertility was rescued by conditional expression of the Sohlh1 transgene after the onset of meiosis. However, Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 transgene expression could not rescue Sohlh2-KO infertility due to a lack of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 expression in rescued mice. Our results indicate that Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are essential regulators of oocyte differentiation but do not affect meiosis I.

  9. Cytochemistry of fat body trophocytes and ovaries of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-de-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2012-12-01

    The fat body (FB) of insects is where yolk proteins are synthesized. Therefore, relationships between the FB and oogenesis were studied in nurse workers, virgins, and physogastric queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, a stingless bee in which the workers produce and lay eggs while provisioning brood cells. The relationships between FB and oogenesis, as well as the routes of materials from hemolymph to the oocytes, were studied through the cytochemical detection of lipids by osmium imidazole (OI), carbohydrates by ruthenium red (RR) and basic proteins by ammoniacal silver (AS). The results show differences in the presence of the studied materials in FB trophocytes and ovary of the classes of females studied and oogenesis phases. Material that tested positive for the treatments was detected among the classes of individuals studied in both, trophocytes and oocytes, and in the route of those materials from hemolymph to the oocytes. The differences found among the individual classes indicate relationships with the nutrition and adaptation to the parsimonious use of nutrients in the metabolism of reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Generation of eggs from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Saitou, Mitinori

    2013-08-01

    Oogenesis is an integrated process through which an egg acquires the potential for totipotency, a fundamental condition for creating new individuals. Reconstitution of oogenesis in a culture that generates eggs with proper function from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is therefore one of the key goals in basic biology as well as in reproductive medicine. Here we describe a stepwise protocol for the generation of eggs from mouse PSCs, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). ESCs and iPSCs are first induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) that are in turn aggregated with somatic cells of female embryonic gonads, the precursors for adult ovaries. Induction of PGCLCs followed by aggregation with the somatic cells takes up to 8 d. The aggregations are then transplanted under the ovarian bursa, in which PGCLCs grow into germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes in ∼1 month. The PGCLC-derived GV oocytes can be matured into eggs in 1 d by in vitro maturation (IVM), and they can be fertilized with spermatozoa by in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain healthy and fertile offspring. This method provides an initial step toward reconstitution of the entire process of oogenesis in vitro.

  11. Redefining reproductive dormancy in Drosophila as a general stress response to cold temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirakis, Manolis; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2018-04-09

    Organisms regularly encounter unfavorable conditions and the genetic adaptations facilitating survival have been of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. Winter is one particularly stressful condition for insects, during which they encounter low temperatures and scarcity of food. Despite dormancy being a well-studied adaptation to facilitate overwintering, there is still considerable controversy about the distribution of dormancy among natural populations and between species in Drosophila. The current definition of dormancy as developmental arrest of oogenesis at the previtellogenic stage (stage 7) distinguishes dormancy from general stress related block of oogenesis at early vitellogenic stages (stages 8 - 9). In an attempt to resolve this, we scrutinized reproductive dormancy in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that dormancy shows the same hallmarks of arrest of oogenesis at stage 9, as described for other stressors and propose a new classification for dormancy. Applying this modified classification, we show that both species express dormancy in cosmopolitan and African populations, further supporting that dormancy uses an ancestral pathway induced by environmental stress. While we found significant differences between individuals and the two Drosophila species in their sensitivity to cold temperature stress, we also noted that extreme temperature stress (8 °C) resulted in very strong dormancy incidence, which strongly reduced the differences seen at less extreme temperatures. We conclude that dormancy in Drosophila should not be considered a special trait, but is better understood as a generic stress response occurring at low temperatures. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Emoções e guerras: da Micronésia às bases militares americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Saraiva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Lutz tem um PhD em antropologia cultural da Universidade de Harvard, é professora do Departamento de Antropologia da Brown University, e investigadora do Watson Institute for International Studies da mesma universidade. Os seus temas de pesquisa debruçam-se sobre a antropologia das emoções, construção do género e da noção de raça, teoria crítica, mudanças na democracia e, mais recentemente, guerra, grupos militares e sociedade, nomeadamente através do estudo de bases militares americanas e do retorno de militares americanos dissidentes da guerra do Iraque. Lutz conduziu igualmente pesquisa para organizações activistas e todas estas temáticas se relacionam com a vontade de compreender as articulações socais e culturais das construções de poder e de desigualdade. Algumas das suas obras, influentes no campo da antropologia das emoções, da antropologia cognitiva e da história política são Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and their Challenge to Western Theory; Language and the Politics of Emotion(com Abu-Lughod; Reading National Geographic; Homefront: a Military City and the American 20th Century; Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics; The Bases of the Empire. The Struggle against US Military Posts, além de vários artigos como "Empire is in the details" e "Making war at home in the United States: militarization and the current crisis". Nesta entrevista Lutz fala sobre o que tem sido o seu trabalho e as suas preocupações académicas mas também sociais e interventivas.

  13. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al 1 using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA

  14. CWF and TABLE - Two Fortran programmes for the calculation of Coulomb penetration and shift factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.S.; James, M.F.

    1965-12-01

    CWF and TABLE are Fortran programmes, written for the IBM 7090 and English-Electric Leo Marconi KDF9 computers, that calculate the penetration and shift factors for a charged particle in a Coulomb field. The numerical methods used are those of Lutz and Karvelis. The two programmes are very similar. Input to TABLE is in the form of the centre-of-mass co-ordinates. CWF is intended for use in calculating cross-sections for neutron-induced reactions which result in charged particle emission, and the input is in the form of the neutron energy in the laboratory frame of reference, together with other necessary reaction data. (author)

  15. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  16. Intermarried couples, mental health and psychosocial well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Holm, Dagny

    2012-01-01

    up in visibly ethnically different households. In Lutz, V., & L. Supik (Eds.), Framing intersectionality: Debates on a multi-faceted concept in gender studies. Surrey: Ashgate]. The analysis indicates that internal, personal and family aspects, such as realistic plans, mixing everyday practices...... and focussing on the fun part, are in interplay with external aspects such as formal and informal acceptance of the intermarriage in society, dominant gender roles, recognition and inclusion for the mixed couples. Recognition of the significance of these aspects and practices is important for promoting positive...

  17. Water in the Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Valentin, Ch. Claveau A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, VN. Saveliev , L.N. Sinitsa « THE TCPE MANY-BODY MODEL FOR WATER » 79 M. Masella and J-P. Flament...Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et Applications, CNRS Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, V.N. Saveliev , L.N...T19 Lozada M. T4 Rothman L.S. T22 Lutz B. L. T33 Ruiz J. P24 Lynch R. P3 Sadlej A. T5 Lynden-Bell R. M. P8 Saveliev V.N. P4 Maemets V. P18 Saykally

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Maxillofacial Region: A Report of 5 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Dionízio De Albuquerque Neto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection initially described in Brazil in 1908 by Adolfo Lutz. Manifestation of this disease depends on numerous factors, such as microorganism virulence, hormonal profile, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and immune system. It is characterized classically by cutaneous lesions, lymphadenopathy, and pulmonary involvement. It presents male predilection, which can be explained by the protective effect of female hormones. Classic presentation within oral cavity is a superficial ulcer characterized by hemorrhagic dots of moriform aspect. Treatment should be established individually and closely monitored. This manuscript aims at reporting five cases of this pathology.

  19. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  20. Multidisciplinary pain management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, Germany

  1. A new species of Bufo Laurenti (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nazaré Stevaux

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid load, Bufo jimi sp. nov., is described from Maracás and Itagibá, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species shows close relationships to B. paracnemis Lutz, 1925 by sharing the presence of tibial glands and the paratoid glands shape. The new species is a member of the Bufo marinus-group, and is characlerized by having well-defined glands in most part of dorsal faceof the forearms, in the extcrn side of the feet and in both sides of cloacal region.

  2. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    and olive ridley marine turtle hatchlings. T.T. Jones, R.R. Reina Symposium and P.L. Lutz. Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca 44.0 REGULATION OF VERTEBRATE... preference of 16[deg]C acclimated emabs was a genseralist woodrat, with a choice bersween control anod 50% juniper diet under Wsarm (26 1 4.6fdeg]C and thsey...and Olive Ridley Marine Turtle Harvey B. Lillywhite’, Jaishri G. Mceon2, Gopinathan K. Menon’. Ming C. Tuo: ’University, Hatchllngs of Florida

  3. QALMA: A computational toolkit for the analysis of quality protocols for medical linear accelerators in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Lei, Yu; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerator (linac) is one of the primary concerns in external beam radiation Therapy. Continued advancements in clinical accelerators and computer control technology make the QA procedures more complex and time consuming which often, adequate software accompanied with specific phantoms is required. To ameliorate that matter, we introduce QALMA (Quality Assurance for Linac with MATLAB), a MALAB toolkit which aims to simplify the quantitative analysis of QA for linac which includes Star-Shot analysis, Picket Fence test, Winston-Lutz test, Multileaf Collimator (MLC) log file analysis and verification of light & radiation field coincidence test.

  4. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  5. Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Google and YouTube use Python because it's highly adaptable, easy to maintain, and allows for rapid development. If you want to write high-quality, efficient code that's easily integrated with other languages and tools, this hands-on book will help you be productive with Python quickly -- whether you're new to programming or just new to Python. It's an easy-to-follow self-paced tutorial, based on author and Python expert Mark Lutz's popular training course. Each chapter contains a stand-alone lesson on a key component of the language, and includes a unique Test Your Knowledge section with p

  6. Trans-generational plasticity in physiological thermal tolerance is modulated by maternal pre-reproductive environment in the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Prevedelli, Daniela; Simonini, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Maternal temperature is known to affect many aspects of offspring phenotype, but its effect on offspring physiological thermal tolerance has received less attention, despite the importance of physiological traits in defining organismal ability to cope with temperature changes. To fill this gap, we used the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to investigate the influence of maternal temperature on offspring upper and lower thermal tolerance limits, and assess whether maternal influence changed according to the stage of offspring pre-zygotic development at which a thermal cue was provided. Measurements were taken on adult offspring acclimated to 18 or 30°C, produced by mothers previously reared at 24°C and then exposed to 18 or 30°C at an early and late stage of oogenesis. When the shift from 24°C was provided early during oogenesis, mothers produced offspring with greater cold and heat tolerance whenever mother-offspring temperatures did not match, with respect to when they matched, suggesting the presence of an anticipatory maternal effect triggered by the thermal variation. Conversely, when the cue was provided later during oogenesis, more tolerant offspring were observed when temperatures persisted across generations. In this case, maternal exposure to 18 or 30°C may have benefited offspring performance, while limitations in the transmission of the thermal cue may account for the lack of correlation between maternal experiences and offspring performance when mother-offspring environments did not match. Our results provided evidence for a trans-generational effect of temperature on physiological performance characterised by a high context dependency, and are discussed in the light of maternal pre-reproductive experiences. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Bombyx mori histone methyltransferase BmAsh2 is essential for silkworm piRNA-mediated sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqian; You, Lang; Yan, Dong; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2018-02-01

    Sex determination is a hierarchically-regulated process with high diversity in different organisms including insects. The W chromosome-derived Fem piRNA has been identified as the primary sex determination factor in the lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori, revealing a distinctive piRNA-mediated sex determination pathway. However, the comprehensive mechanism of silkworm sex determination is still poorly understood. We show here that the silkworm PIWI protein BmSiwi, but not BmAgo3, is essential for silkworm sex determination. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion of BmSiwi results in developmental arrest in oogenesis and partial female sexual reversal, while BmAgo3 depletion only affects oogenesis. We identify three histone methyltransferases (HMTs) that are significantly down-regulated in BmSiwi mutant moths. Disruption one of these, BmAsh2, causes dysregulation of piRNAs and transposable elements (TEs), supporting a role for it in the piRNA signaling pathway. More importantly, we find that BmAsh2 mutagenesis results in oogenesis arrest and partial female-to-male sexual reversal as well as dysregulation of the sex determination genes, Bmdsx and BmMasc. Mutagenesis of other two HMTs, BmSETD2 and BmEggless, does not affect piRNA-mediated sex determination. Histological analysis and immunoprecipitation results support a functional interaction between the BmAsh2 and BmSiwi proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that the HMT, BmAsh2, plays key roles in silkworm piRNA-mediated sex determination.

  8. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Dean A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of egg development to the female life cycle in Drosophila, global patterns of gene expression have not been examined in detail, primarily due to the difficulty in isolating synchronised developmental stages in sufficient quantities for gene expression profiling. Entry into vitellogenesis is a key stage of oogenesis and by forcing females into reproductive diapause we are able to arrest oogenesis at the pre-vitellogenic stages. Releasing females from diapause allows collection of relatively synchronous developing egg populations and an investigation of some of the transcriptional dynamics apparent before and after reproductive diapause. Results Focusing on gender-biased transcription, we identified mechanisms of egg development suppressed during reproductive dormancy as well as other molecular changes unique to the diapausing female. A microarray based analysis generated a set of 3565 transcripts with at least 2-fold greater expression in females as compared to control males, 1392 such changes were biased during reproductive dormancy. In addition, we also detect 1922 up-regulated transcriptional changes after entry into vitellogenesis, which were classified into discrete blocks of co-expression. We discuss some of the regulatory aspects apparent after re-initiation of egg development, exploring the underlying functions, maternal contribution and evolutionary conservation of co-expression patterns involved in egg production. Conclusion Although much of the work we present is descriptive, fundamental aspects of egg development and gender-biased transcription can be derived from our time-series experiment. We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila.

  9. Bombyx mori histone methyltransferase BmAsh2 is essential for silkworm piRNA-mediated sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is a hierarchically-regulated process with high diversity in different organisms including insects. The W chromosome-derived Fem piRNA has been identified as the primary sex determination factor in the lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori, revealing a distinctive piRNA-mediated sex determination pathway. However, the comprehensive mechanism of silkworm sex determination is still poorly understood. We show here that the silkworm PIWI protein BmSiwi, but not BmAgo3, is essential for silkworm sex determination. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion of BmSiwi results in developmental arrest in oogenesis and partial female sexual reversal, while BmAgo3 depletion only affects oogenesis. We identify three histone methyltransferases (HMTs that are significantly down-regulated in BmSiwi mutant moths. Disruption one of these, BmAsh2, causes dysregulation of piRNAs and transposable elements (TEs, supporting a role for it in the piRNA signaling pathway. More importantly, we find that BmAsh2 mutagenesis results in oogenesis arrest and partial female-to-male sexual reversal as well as dysregulation of the sex determination genes, Bmdsx and BmMasc. Mutagenesis of other two HMTs, BmSETD2 and BmEggless, does not affect piRNA-mediated sex determination. Histological analysis and immunoprecipitation results support a functional interaction between the BmAsh2 and BmSiwi proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that the HMT, BmAsh2, plays key roles in silkworm piRNA-mediated sex determination.

  10. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  11. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2016-06-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocytes by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The folate receptors FOLR1 and FOLR2 as well as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, SLC19A1 protein) each appeared to be present in follicular cells including granulosa cells. In growing oocytes, however, only FOLR2 immunoreactivity appeared abundant. Localization of apparent FOLR2 immunofluorescence near the plasma membrane increased with oocyte growth and peaked in oocytes as they neared full size. We assessed folate transport using the model folate leucovorin (folinic acid). Unexpectedly, there was a transient burst of folate transport activity for a brief period during oocyte growth as they neared full size, while folate transport was otherwise undetectable for the rest of oogenesis and in fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes. This folate transport was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis, but insensitive to the anion transport inhibitor stilbene 4-acetamido-40-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,20-disulfonic acid, consistent with folate receptor-mediated transport but not with RFC1-mediated transport. Thus, near the end of their growth, growing oocytes may take up folates that could support the final stage of oogenesis or be stored to provide the endogenous folates needed in early embryogenesis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Quantitative assessment of the dose-response of alkylating agents in DNA repair proficient and deficient ames tester strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Leilei; Guérard, Melanie; Zeller, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenic and clastogenic effects of some DNA damaging agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have been demonstrated to exhibit a nonlinear or even "thresholded" dose-response in vitro and in vivo. DNA repair seems to be mainly responsible for these thresholds. To this end, we assessed several mutagenic alkylators in the Ames test with four different strains of Salmonella typhimurium: the alkyl transferases proficient strain TA1535 (Ogt+/Ada+), as well as the alkyl transferases deficient strains YG7100 (Ogt+/Ada-), YG7104 (Ogt-/Ada+) and YG7108 (Ogt-/Ada-). The known genotoxins EMS, MMS, temozolomide (TMZ), ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and methylnitrosourea (MNU) were tested in as many as 22 concentration levels. Dose-response curves were statistically fitted by the PROAST benchmark dose model and the Lutz-Lutz "hockeystick" model. These dose-response curves suggest efficient DNA-repair for lesions inflicted by all agents in strain TA1535. In the absence of Ogt, Ada is predominantly repairing methylations but not ethylations. It is concluded that the capacity of alkyl-transferases to successfully repair DNA lesions up to certain dose levels contributes to genotoxicity thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stability of vitamin A in irradiated beef liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Lamardo, Leda C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carorene were analized in 3KGy Co-60 γ-irradiation and unirradiated samples of bovine liver. Six different lots of samples were obtained at meat market, two samples per lot weighing about 100g each, keot at -15 0 C as long as possible. Pre-treatment and analysis methopds were those described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in duplicates. The total viramin A content of the samples varied a lot. The means and standard deviations of vitamin A retention percentage after irradiation were 106±8.2 (12 replications). Similarly, β-carotene retention percentage was 98±2.4 (24 replications). The results show that there were no losses of neither vitamin A nor protovitamin A as consequence of irradiation with a dose suitable for the reduction of spoilage and pathogenic organisms. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  15. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  16. Paracoccidioidomicose: centenário do primeiro relato de caso Paracoccidioidomycosis: a century from the first case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Há 100 anos Adolpho Lutz publicava relato pioneiro de enfermidade descrita como mycose pseudococcidica, hoje paracoccidioidomicose, em que discorria sobre suas manifestações clínico-histopatológicas e micológicas. Com precisão, em abril de 1908, descreveu que "O agrupamento de corpúsculos kysticos é bastante característico. Geralmente há um maior no centro e outros pequenos em redor, o que sempre me produziu a impressão de resultar de um processo de gemmação". Inaugurava-se novo campo para investigações científicas.One hundred years ago Adolpho Lutz published published the frist report of a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis, then referred as mycosis pseudococcidica. in his original article published in April 1908, he accurately informed that "The arrangement of cystic corpuscles is highly characteristic. Generally one finds a large central corpuscle surrounded by small ones, and this feature has always left me under the impression that it is the results of a gemulation process" A new field of scientific research was then opened.

  17. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  18. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

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    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  19. [General transmission of sigma virus in "Drosophila melanogaster". II. - Revelation of late vertical tansmission in females which have acquired the virus only by the father spermatozoon (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregliano, J; Fleuriet, A

    1975-12-01

    This report concern work with Drosophila melanogaster females, which have only acquired the sigma virus strictly vertically through the father spermatozoon. After than the 20th day of life, most of these show an increased frequency of infected progeny. These results obtained provide evidence that the phenomenon is similar to the classical "passing over to germen", described in sigma-drosophila relationships. They confirm that germ-line infection in non-stabilized females can only occur during oogenesis. In these females, oogonia are never infected.

  20. Are queen ants inhibited by their own pheromone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, L.; Leroy, C.; Jørgensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    . Communication in social insects is predominantly chemical, and the mechanisms regulating processes such as reproductive division of labor are becoming increasingly well understood. Recently, a queen cuticular hydrocarbon (3-MeC31) that inhibits worker reproduction and aggression was isolated in the ant Lasius...... niger. Here, we find that this pheromone also has a weak negative effect on queen productivity and oogenesis. Because 3-MeC31 is present on both queens and their brood, we suggest that it is used by ants of both castes to adjust their fecundity to the amount of developing brood and the presence of other...

  1. Study of the oocyte degenerescence at mouse: role of the caspases and toxicity of natural uranium; Etude de la degenerescence ovocytaire chez la souris: role des caspases et toxicite de l'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnault, E

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the uranium toxicity on the ovarian function and on the oocyte and more fundamentally to characterize the molecular ways regulating the oocyte degenerescence. At first, will be described the different exposure modes at uranium and the known toxic effects of this heavy metal on man and animal. The mechanisms regulating the follicle genesis and the oogenesis are then developed. At last, will be given the data available in literature and concerning the apoptosis ways intervening in the follicular atresia and in the oocyte degenerescence while referring to the known ways of the somatic cells. (O.M.)

  2. The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzner, Robert A.

    1983-03-01

    Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental factors of the study area such as surface water temperature and daylength are described as well as the condition factors of male and female fish. Observations on food and behaviour during the winter months are also included.

  3. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  4. Study of the oocyte degenerescence at mouse: role of the caspases and toxicity of natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnault, E.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the uranium toxicity on the ovarian function and on the oocyte and more fundamentally to characterize the molecular ways regulating the oocyte degenerescence. At first, will be described the different exposure modes at uranium and the known toxic effects of this heavy metal on man and animal. The mechanisms regulating the follicle genesis and the oogenesis are then developed. At last, will be given the data available in literature and concerning the apoptosis ways intervening in the follicular atresia and in the oocyte degenerescence while referring to the known ways of the somatic cells. (O.M.)

  5. Genetic effects of mammal exposure to ionizing radiation: topical aspects of the problem (review of the literature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, I.Yu.; Nefedova, I.Yu.; Palyga, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic effects of participating the irradiated males and nonirradiated females, irradiated females and nonirradiated males as well as both irradiated parents in gametes impregnation are analyzed and summarized in the literature review. The interconnection between the conditions of external radiation effect on gametogenesis of parents and the progeny effects in the embryogenesis and after the birth is traced. The sequence of change in genetic radiovulnerability of gametes at various stages of spermatogenesis and oogenesis and their combinations by participation of two irradiated parents in the gametes impregnation is shown. Some general regularities in the hereditary effects of the mammals irradiation are formulated [ru

  6. Transcriptional Adaptor ADA3 of Drosophila melanogaster Is Required for Histone Modification, Position Effect Variegation, and Transcription▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Benjamin; Popescu, Cristina; Torroja, Laura; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Boros, Imre; Ferrús, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gene diskette (also known as dik or dAda3) encodes a protein 29% identical to human ADA3, a subunit of GCN5-containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. The fly dADA3 is a major contributor to oogenesis, and it is also required for somatic cell viability. dADA3 localizes to chromosomes, and it is significantly reduced in dGcn5 and dAda2a, but not in dAda2b, mutant backgrounds. In dAda3 mutants, acetylation at histone H3 K9 and K14, but not K18, and at hist...

  7. Stem Cell Interaction with Somatic Niche May Hold the Key to Fertility Restoration in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous return of fertility after bone marrow transplantation or heterotopic grafting of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue has surprised many, and a possible link with stem cells has been proposed. We have reviewed the available literature on ovarian stem cells in adult mammalian ovaries and presented a model that proposes that the ovary harbors two distinct populations of stem cells, namely, pluripotent, quiescent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, and slightly larger “progenitor” ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs. Besides compromising the somatic niche, oncotherapy destroys OGSCs since, like tumor cells, they are actively dividing; however VSELs persist since they are relatively quiescent. BMT or transplanted ovarian cortical tissue may help rejuvenate the ovarian niche, which possibly supports differentiation of persisting VSELs resulting in neo-oogenesis and follicular development responsible for successful pregnancies. Postnatal oogenesis in mammalian ovary from VSELs may be exploited for fertility restoration in cancer survivors including those who were earlier deprived of gametes and/or gonadal tissue cryopreservation options.

  8. Structure of ovarioles in adult queens and workers of the common wasp, Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, A; Biliński, S M

    2001-01-01

    The ovaries of the common wasp, Vespula germanica are polytrophic-meroistic and consist of 2-3 (workers) or 7 (queens) ovarioles. The ovarioles are differentiated into three regions: a terminal filament, a germarium, and a vitellarium. The germaria of both castes consist of two zones: an anterior zone of germ-cell cluster formation and a posterior one of germ-cell cluster differentiation. The vitellaria comprise 4-6 (workers) or 7-10 (queens) ovarian follicles (egg chambers). Each chamber consists of an oocyte and about 60 isodiametric nurse cells (trophocytes). The egg chambers have been arbitrarily classified into four developmental categories: early and late previtellogenic, vitellogenic, and choriogenic. The process of oogenesis in workers proceeds only up to the onset of the late previtellogenesis. Neither vitellogenic nor choriogenic egg chambers were observed in this caste. During early and late previtellogenesis the envelope of the oocyte nucleus proliferates and becomes highly folded. This process leads to the formation of characteristic organelles, termed accessory nuclei (AN). Although AN arise in the oocytes of both queens and workers, their number in the latter caste is always considerably lower. At the onset of the late previtellogenesis AN start to migrate towards the periphery of the oocyte where they reside till the end of oogenesis. The physiological state of the worker ovaries is discussed in the light of the presented results.

  9. The methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for meiosis and mitosis in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymery, Angeline; Liu, Zichuan; Ozonov, Evgeniy A; Stadler, Michael B; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2016-08-01

    Oocytes develop the competence for meiosis and early embryogenesis during their growth. Setdb1 is a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for post-implantation development and has been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of genes and endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs). To address its role in oogenesis and pre-implantation development, we conditionally deleted Setdb1 in growing oocytes. Loss of Setdb1 expression greatly impaired meiosis. It delayed meiotic resumption, altered the dynamics of chromatin condensation, and impaired kinetochore-spindle interactions, bipolar spindle organization and chromosome segregation in more mature oocytes. The observed phenotypes related to changes in abundance of specific transcripts in mutant oocytes. Setdb1 maternally deficient embryos arrested during pre-implantation development and showed comparable defects during cell cycle progression and in chromosome segregation. Finally, transcriptional profiling data indicate that Setdb1 downregulates rather than silences expression of ERVK and ERVL-MaLR retrotransposons and associated chimearic transcripts during oogenesis. Our results identify Setdb1 as a newly discovered meiotic and embryonic competence factor safeguarding genome integrity at the onset of life. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. No maternal or direct effects of ocean acidification on egg hatching in the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Vermandele, Fanny; Carignan, Marie-Helene; Jacque, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean and the Arctic is recognised as the region where this transformation will occur at the fastest rate. Moreover, many Arctic species are considered less capable of tolerating OA due to their lower capacity for acid-base regulation. This inability may put severe restraints on many fundamental functions, such as growth and reproductive investments, which ultimately may result in reduced fitness. However, maternal effects may alleviate severe effects on the offspring rendering them more tolerant to OA. In a highly replicated experiment we studied maternal and direct effects of OA predicted for the Arctic shelf seas on egg hatching time and success in the keystone copepod species Calanus glacialis. We incubated females at present day conditions (pHT 8.0) and year 2100 extreme conditions (pHT 7.5) during oogenesis and subsequently reciprocally transplanted laid eggs between these two conditions. Statistical tests showed no effects of maternal or direct exposure to OA at this level. We hypothesise that C. glacialis may be physiologically adapted to egg production at low pH since oogenesis can also take place at conditions of potentially low haemolymph pH of the mother during hibernation in the deep.

  11. Wolbachia utilizes host microtubules and Dynein for anterior localization in the Drosophila oocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Ferree

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the host cytoskeleton in the maternal transmission of the endoparasitic bacteria Wolbachia, we have characterized their distribution in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. In the germarium, Wolbachia are distributed to all germ cells of the cyst, establishing an early infection in the cell destined to become the oocyte. During mid-oogenesis, Wolbachia exhibit a distinct concentration between the anterior cortex and the nucleus in the oocyte, where many bacteria appear to contact the nuclear envelope. Following programmed rearrangement of the microtubule network, Wolbachia dissociate from this anterior position and become dispersed throughout the oocyte. This localization pattern is distinct from mitochondria and all known axis determinants. Manipulation of microtubules and cytoplasmic Dynein and Dynactin, but not Kinesin-1, disrupts anterior bacterial localization in the oocyte. In live egg chambers, Wolbachia exhibit movement in nurse cells but not in the oocyte, suggesting that the bacteria are anchored by host factors. In addition, we identify mid-oogenesis as a period in the life cycle of Wolbachia in which bacterial replication occurs. Total bacterial counts show that Wolbachia increase at a significantly higher rate in the oocyte than in the average nurse cell, and that normal Wolbachia levels in the oocyte depend on microtubules. These findings demonstrate that Wolbachia utilize the host microtubule network and associated proteins for their subcellular localization in the Drosophila oocyte. These interactions may also play a role in bacterial motility and replication, ultimately leading to the bacteria's efficient maternal transmission.

  12. Purification of oogonial stem cells from adult mouse and human ovaries: an assessment of the literature and a view toward the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; White, Yvonne A R; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonatal and adult mouse ovaries by 4 independent groups using multiple strategies. Two of these groups also reported that isolated mouse OSCs, once transplanted back into ovaries of adult female mice, differentiate into fully functional eggs that ovulate, fertilize, and produce healthy embryos and offspring. Arguably, one of the most significant advances in this emerging field was provided by a new research study published this year, which reported the successful isolation and functional characterization of OSCs from ovaries of reproductive age women. Two commentaries on this latest work, one cautiously supportive and one highly skeptical, were published soon afterward. This article evaluates the current literature regarding postnatal oogenesis in mammals and discusses important next steps for future work on OSC biology and function.

  13. Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. The Female Reproductive Cycle of the Bedriaga Plate-Tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai (Sauria: Gekkonidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mojibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bedriaga Plate-tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai Nikolsky, 1900, is distributed in the northern and eastern desert basins of the Central Plateau of Iran, Sistan, and the desert regions of southern Afghanistan. Iranian specimens are believed to be rare in collections. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species has been investigated through focusing on oogenesis from 5 April to 5 August, 2013. Generally, 15 adult females were collected by hand at midnight from southern parts of Damghan County, situated in Semnan Province of Iran. Ovaries were removed and processed for the purpose of histological and morphometric studies. The results revealed that oocyte growth starts in early April and terminates in late July. Moreover, mating commences in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to late July. Approximately, 1 to 2 eggs are laid by females per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. The maximum reproductive activity takes place in May and continues with a decreasing trend in June and more reduction in July and finally ends in August. No significant difference was observed between right and left side of reproductive system. Therefore, oogenesis occurs from April to July, while T. bedriagai follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  16. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantoni, L; Giusti, F; Cristofaro, M; Pasqualini, L; Esposito, F; Lupetti, P; Habluetzel, A

    2006-12-01

    Secondary metabolites of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have addressed the effects of neem extracts or compounds in arthropods of medical importance. In this study, a laboratory strain of Anopheles stephensi was used to assess the effects of a commercial formulation (Neem Azal) (NA)), containing azadirachtin A at 34%, on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure. Oral administration of Neem Azal) to A. stephensi females through artificial blood meals did impair blood intake and oviposition in a concentration dependent manner. Similar results were obtained on females, which had consumed Neem Azal) in sucrose solution before taking a blood meal of plain blood. Neem treated females displayed a delay in oocyte development in both the phase of vitellogenesis and the phase of choriogenesis. The ultrastructural studies on ovaries from Neem Azal) treated females revealed distinct structural modifications indicative of: (i) a complete block of oogenesis, (ii) impairment of vitellogenesis and vitelline envelope formation, (iii) a severe degeneration of follicle cells. In agreement with results obtained in other insects, this study indicates that Neem Azal) impairs hormone control of oogenesis and exerts a cytotoxic effect on both follicular cells and oocytes of the Asian malaria vector A. stephensi.

  17. A mutation in the nucleoporin-107 gene causes XX gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg-Shukron, Ariella; Renbaum, Paul; Kalifa, Rachel; Zeligson, Sharon; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Dreifuss, Amatzia; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Maatuk, Noa; Fardian, Nilly; Rekler, Dina; Kanaan, Moien; Samson, Abraham O; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Gerlitz, Offer; Zangen, David

    2015-11-02

    Ovarian development and maintenance are poorly understood; however, diseases that affect these processes can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms. XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by underdeveloped, dysfunctional ovaries, with subsequent lack of spontaneous pubertal development, primary amenorrhea, uterine hypoplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we report an extended consanguineous family of Palestinian origin, in which 4 females exhibited XX-GD. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a recessive missense mutation in nucleoporin-107 (NUP107, c.1339G>A, p.D447N). This mutation segregated with the XX-GD phenotype and was not present in available databases or in 150 healthy ethnically matched controls. NUP107 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and the NUP107-associated protein SEH1 is required for oogenesis in Drosophila. In Drosophila, Nup107 knockdown in somatic gonadal cells resulted in female sterility, whereas males were fully fertile. Transgenic rescue of Drosophila females bearing the Nup107D364N mutation, which corresponds to the human NUP107 (p.D447N), resulted in almost complete sterility, with a marked reduction in progeny, morphologically aberrant eggshells, and disintegrating egg chambers, indicating defective oogenesis. These results indicate a pivotal role for NUP107 in ovarian development and suggest that nucleoporin defects may play a role in milder and more common conditions such as premature ovarian failure.

  18. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  20. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  1. The oogenic cycle of the Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Hojati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian bent-toed gecko, Cyrtopodion caspium, is one of the commonest lizards in northern Iran. It is nocturnal, anthropophile and oviparous. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied by focusing on oogenesis, from April 5 to October 20, 2011. In total, 70 adult females were obtained from Mazandaran, one of the northern provinces of Iran where the climate is temperate. Ovaries were removed and processed for histological and morphometric studies. The results show that oocyte growth starts in late April and ends in August. Mating starts in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to mid August. Females lay 1-2 eggs per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. Maximum reproductive activity occurs in May and peaks in June. There was no significant difference between right and left side of reproductive system. With oogenesis occurring from April through July, C. caspium follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  2. Neurl4 contributes to germ cell formation and integrity in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs form at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo, and then migrate to their final destination in the gonad where they will produce eggs or sperm. Studies of the different stages in this process, including assembly of germ plasm in the oocyte during oogenesis, specification of a subset of syncytial embryonic nuclei as PGCs, and migration, have been informed by genetic analyses. Mutants have defined steps in the process, and the identities of the affected genes have suggested biochemical mechanisms. Here we describe a novel PGC phenotype. When Neurl4 activity is reduced, newly formed PGCs frequently adopt irregular shapes and appear to bud off vesicles. PGC number is also reduced, an effect exacerbated by a separate role for Neurl4 in germ plasm formation during oogenesis. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila Neurl4 protein is concentrated in centrosomes and downregulates centrosomal protein CP110. Reducing CP110 activity suppresses the abnormal PGC morphology of Neurl4 mutants. These results extend prior analyses of Neurl4 in cultured cells, revealing a heightened requirement for Neurl4 in germ-line cells in Drosophila.

  3. Impact of Environment and Ontogeny on Relative Fecundity and Egg Quality of Female Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Four Sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandon, Hillary Lane; Michaelis, Adriane K; Politano, Vincent A; Alexander, Stephanie T; Vlahovich, Emily A; Reece, Kimberly S; Koopman, Heather N; Meritt, Donald W; Paynter, Kennedy T

    2016-12-01

    Resource allocation to reproduction is a primary physiological concern for individuals, and can vary with age, environment, or a combination of both factors. In this study we quantified the impact of environment and individual age on the reproductive output of female oysters Crassostrea virginica. We determined the relative fecundity, egg total lipid content, and overall and omega-3/omega-6 (ω3/ω6) fatty acid signatures (FAS) of eggs spawned by female oysters over a 2-year period (n = 32 and n = 64). Variation was quantified spatially and ontogenetically by sampling young and old oyster populations from two rivers in Chesapeake Bay, totaling four collection sites. During Year 1, when oysters underwent oogenesis in different locations, overall and ω3/ω6 egg FAS varied significantly by river, with no significant differences observed in the FAS of oysters by age in Year 1. In Year 2, when oysters from different sites underwent oogenesis in a single location, no significant differences in the overall egg FAS or ω3/ω6 egg FAS by river or age were observed. These findings suggest that oysters integrate environment into their reproductive output, but that time spent growing at a specific location (in this case, represented by oyster age) plays a relatively minor role in the biochemical composition of oyster eggs. These results have consequences for our understanding of how resources are allocated from the female oyster to eggs and, more generally, the impact of environment and ontogeny on reproductive physiology.

  4. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  5. Regulation of the formin Cappuccino is critical for polarity of Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Bois, Justin S.; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) creates an actin mesh-like structure that traverses the oocyte during mid-oogenesis. This mesh is thought to prevent premature onset of fast cytoplasmic streaming which normally happens during late-oogenesis. Proper cytoskeletal organization and cytoplasmic streaming are crucial for localization of polarity determinants such as osk, grk, bcd and nanos mRNAs. Capu mutants disrupt these events, leading to female sterility. Capu is regulated by another nucleator, Spire, as well as by autoinhibition in vitro. Studies in vivo confirm that Spire modulates Capu’s function in oocytes; however, how autoinhibition contributes is still unclear. To study the role of autoinhibition in flies, we expressed a Capu construct that is missing the Capu Inhibitory Domain, CapuΔN. Consistent with a gain of activity due to loss of autoinhibition, the actin mesh was denser in CapuΔN oocytes. Further, cytoplasmic streaming was delayed and fertility levels decreased. Localization of osk mRNA in early stages, and bcd and nanos in late stages, were disrupted in CapuΔN-expressing oocytes. Finally, evidence that these phenotypes were due to a loss of autoinhibition comes from co-expression of the N-terminal half of Capu with CapuΔN, which suppressed the defects in actin, cytoplasmic streaming and fertility. From these results, we conclude that Capu can be autoinhibited during Drosophila oocyte development. PMID:25557988

  6. The extraordinary biology and development of marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae) in comparison with fish, mammals, birds, amphibians and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2018-01-03

    The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis, Dendrobates auratus, Epipedobates anthonyi, Epipedobates machalilla, Epipedobates tricolor, and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae); Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N; Laurel, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the

  8. Quality assurance for a six degrees-of-freedom table using a 3D printed phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kyle; Ayan, Ahmet S; Woollard, Jeffrey; Gupta, Nilendu

    2018-01-01

    To establish a streamlined end-to-end test of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) robotic table using a 3D printed phantom for periodic quality assurance. A 3D printed phantom was fabricated with translational and rotational offsets and an imbedded central ball-bearing (BB). The phantom underwent each step of the radiation therapy process: CT simulation in a straight orientation, plan generation using the treatment planning software, setup to offset marks at the linac, registration and corrected 6DoF table adjustments via hidden target test, delivery of a Winston-Lutz test to the BB, and verification of table positioning via field and laser lights. The registration values, maximum total displacement of the combined Winston-Lutz fields, and a pass or fail criterion of the laser and field lights were recorded. The quality assurance process for each of the three linacs were performed for the first 30 days. Within a 95% confidence interval, the overall uncertainty values for both translation and rotation were below 1.0 mm and 0.5° for each linac respectively. When combining the registration values and other uncertainties for all three linacs, the average deviations were within 2.0 mm and 1.0° of the designed translation and rotation offsets of the 3D print respectively. For all three linacs, the maximum total deviation for the Winston-Lutz test did not exceed 1.0 mm. Laser and light field verification was within tolerance every day for all three linacs given the latest guidance documentation for table repositioning. The 3D printer is capable of accurately fabricating a quality assurance phantom for 6DoF positioning verification. The end-to-end workflow allows for a more efficient test of the 6DoF mechanics while including other important tests needed for routine quality assurance. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N [Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH (United States); Laurel, A [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the

  10. Garantia de qualidade em citopatologia: aspectos da correlação cito-histopatológica Quality assurance in cytopathology: aspects of the cytohistological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. di Loreto

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a concordância diagnóstica cito-histológica de lesões de colo uterino e discutiram as eventuais discrepâncias. OBJETIVO. Averiguar o nível de concordância cito-histológica nos casos da Divisão de Patologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL e aprimorar a estratégia de garantia de qualidade na instituição. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Estudaram 157 casos consecutivos dos arquivos do IAL em que foram enviadas citologia cérvico-vaginal e biópsia. RESULTADO. Houve concordância absoluta em 119 (75,8% casos; nos demais, a citologia superestimou 11 lesões (7,0% e subestimou 27 (17,2%. Observou-se que em 5 casos, inicialmente diagnosticados como inflamatório pela citologia, dois foram, à revisão, considerados como NIC 1; os demais foram ratificados como inflamatórios, apesar de suas respectivas biópsias terem diagnóstico de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical. CONCLUSÃO. Tais resultados demonstram a importância da correlação cito-histológica para o sistema de garantia de qualidade em diagnóstico citológico e apontam para a colheita como um dos fatores determinantes nas discrepâncias diagnósticas.The cytohistologic diagnosis concordance of the cervix-uterine lesions was evaluated and the discordances are discussed. PURPOSE. To evalute the level of cytohistological diagnosis agreement in the Pathology Division of the Adolfo Lutz Institute and enhance parameters of quality assurance system developed in this institution. METHODS. The authors retrospectively evaluated 157 pairs of cytologyhistology consecutive cases from the files the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Division of Pathology. RESULTS. Agreement was found in 119 cases (75.8%; in the remaining cases cytologic diagnosis were higher than histology in 11 lesions (7.0% and lower in 27 (17.2%. We also observed that in 5 cases previously diagnosed as inflammatory, 2 of them were reclassified as CIN 1; after revision, the others remained as inflammatory even though they had a

  11. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter

  12. Delfina Serrano Ruano (éd.), Crueldad y compasíon en la literatura árabe e islámica

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, François

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage constitue les actes du séminaire « Narrar y suscitar : violencia, compasíon y crueldad en la literatura árabe e islámica », qui s’est tenu en octobre 2008 à l’Institut des langues et cultures de la Méditerranée et du Proche-Orient (CCHS-CSIC, Madrid). Il s’inscrit dans le champ des recherches sur l’histoire des émotions, un domaine de plus en plus exploré (voir les travaux de C. Lutz et L. Abu-Lughod, B. H. Rosenwein, ou D. Boquet et P. Nagy), mais encore largement en friche en ce...

  13. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003 and Lainson and Rangel (2005 have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  14. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  15. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  16. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  17. [Paths taken by Dr. Jorge Clarke Bleyer in the fields of tropical medicine and Brazilian prehistory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer Martins Costa, Terezinha de Jesus Thibes

    2003-01-01

    This research note presents a preliminary evaluation of the life history of Georg Carl Adolf Bleyer, physician, hygienist and naturalist who played a crucial role in the institution of public health in Santa Catarina and was a pioneer in tropical medicine, anthropology and archeology of Brazil. Adolpho Lutz was one of the main partners in Brazil of this equally multifacted physician who published important articles in German journals. His most thorough study was important to the history of the disciplines which which he worked; it provides the basis for understanding the conditions of medical and scientific practice in places far from the urban centers of southeastern Brazil that dominate the historiography of medicine and science.

  18. Quality assurance procedure for assessing mechanical accuracy of a radiation field center in stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Daisaku; Ienaga, Akinori; Nakada, Ryosei; Yomoda, Akane; Inoue, Makoto; Ichida, Takao; Hosono, Masako

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy requires a quality assurance (QA) program that ensures the mechanical accuracy of a radiation field center. We have proposed a QA method for achieving the above requirement by conducting the Winston Lutz test using an electronic portal image device (EPID). An action limit was defined as three times the standard deviation. Then, the action limits for mean deviations of the radiation field center during collimator rotation, gantry rotation, and couch rotation in clockwise and counterclockwise resulted in 0.11 mm, 0.52 mm, 0.37 mm, and 0.41 mm respectively. Two years after the QA program was launched, the mean deviation of the radiation field center during gantry rotation exceeded the above action limit. Consequently, a mechanical adjustment for the gantry was performed, thereby restoring the accuracy of the radiation field center. A field center shift of 0.5 mm was also observed after a micro multi-leaf collimator was unmounted. (author)

  19. L’amor come stile culturale. Auto-poiesi e strategie emozionali tra i giovani di Bubaque, Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’antropologia delle emozioni è legata in prevalenza a contesti etnografici descritti, direbbero Gupta e Ferguson (a cura, 1997, come “campi puri”. La maggior parte degli antropologi che lavora sulle emozioni, ha osservato William Reddy (1999, p. 256, utilizzano nelle loro etnografie il presente etnografico e si avvalgono di generalizzazioni che si fondano implicitamente su una concezione dei contesti culturali come ambiti di significati articolati logicamente in un sistema e segnati da confini precisi. Anche quando viene riconosciuta una molteplicità di discorsi contrastanti sulle emozioni, come nell’analisi di Lila Abu-Lughod (1986 delle performance emozionali tra i beduini awlad’ ali, l’ordine culturale all’interno del quale queste collisioni discorsive vengono comunque orchestrate getta un fondato sospetto sull’utilizzabilità degli strumenti di analisi proposti nel “manifesto” di Abu-Lughod e Lutz (a cura, 1990 in contesti meno puri o, forse, meno purificati.

  20. The atomic conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.

    1981-01-01

    This book provides a general view at the atomic programmes of several countries and makes an attempt to unmask the atomic industrial combines with their interlockings. The governments role is analysed as well as the atomic policy of the parties, union-trades and associations. Then, the anti-atomic movements in those countries, their forms of resistance, the resonance and the alternative proposals are presented. The countries concerned are Australia, the FRG, COMECON, Danmark, the EG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and the USA. For the pocket book version, Lutz Mez adds an updating epilogue which continues with the developments until springtime 1981. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  2. Effects of azadirachtin on the development and mortality of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Coelho, Claudia Alves; de Souza, Nataly Araújo; Feder, Maria Denise; da Silva, Carlos Eugênio; Garcia, Elói de Souza; Azambuja, Patricia; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2006-03-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the standard diet on the development, mortality, and metamorphosis of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 were studied. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg of azadirachtin/mg of diet significantly increased larval mortality in comparison with nontreated insects. Concentrations 0.1 and 1.0 microg blocked the molt of larvae, which remained as third instars until the end of the experiment. The 10 microg/mg concentration resulted in greater molt inhibition. In this group, all insects stopped their development as second instars. Simultaneous addition of ecdysone (1 microg/mg) to the standard diet containing azadirachtin counteracted the effects of azadirachtin on mortality and inhibition of ecdysis. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent growth inhibitor of L. longipalpis.

  3. Severe agitation in severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease resolves with ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksay SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Suna Su Aksay, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Dementia-related behavioral disturbances are mostly treated with antipsychotics; however, the observed beneficial effects are modest and the risk of serious adverse effects high. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and severe agitation, whom we treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. A significant clinical improvement was achieved over eight ECT sessions, which were tolerated well without cognitive worsening, and lasted approximately 3 months. Our case demonstrates the safe and effective use of ECT in pharmacotherapy-resistant severe agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. The risk–benefit profile of ECT for dementia-related agitation should be further investigated in clinical trials. Keywords: dementia, electroconvulsive therapy, cognition, emotional distress, disinhibition.

  4. L'inutile nozione di "moneta naturale"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ASCHHEIM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of neutral money occupies a notable place in monetary theory, from neoclassical literature to the present. This paper reconsiders the meaning of the neutrality of money and the nature of the conditions that make for such neutrality. The author first focuses on Knut Wicksell’s pathbreaking formulation of the neutrality of the interest rate in a monetary economy. The subsequent expositions of the neutrality of money are considered with special reference to their recent analysis by Friedrich A. Lutz. The author finds that the neutrality of money is conceptually contradictory, and that the specification of conditions under which money would be neutral is inherently misleading. JEL: E43, B31, E40

  5. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  6. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  7. Achieving process intensification form the application of a phenomena based synthesis, Design and intensification methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John

    of PI still faces challenges [2] because the identification and design of intensified processes is not simple [3]. Lutze et al [3] has developed a systematic PI synthesis/design method at the unit operations (Unit-Ops) level, where the search space is based on a knowledge-base of existing PI equipment...... for the manufacture of methyl acetate by replacing with one single reactive distillation column the multi-step process which consisted of one reactor, extractive distillation, liquid-liquid separation and azeotropic distillation. However, except for reactive distillation and dividing wall columns, the implementation......, the starting point is knowledge of existing Unit-Ops and therefore a limitation arising from their application is that they are able to generate new integrations/combinations of intensified equipment but are unable to generate novel PI solutions employing new Unit-Ops. Therefore, incentives exist for a more...

  8. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  9. Syagrus schizophylla: Unconventional Food Plant of the Caatinga Biome with a high caloric value | Syagrus schizophylla: Planta alimentícia não convencional do bioma de caatinga com alto valor calórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Fátima Padilha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present day world concern relates to the effects of climate on plantations. In various parts of the world, forests, fields, plantations continue to disappear or are degraded. Brazil is a country that concentrates a great diversity of plants, this also refers to the Caatinga biome that participates in the vegetal cover of the state of Pernambuco, where this vegetation still displays the presence of unconventional food plants (UFP. Seeking to know in more detail the nutritional value of fruits of the palm Syagrus schizophylla known as Catolé coconut, this study sought to assess the centesimal composition of its almonds. Physico-chemical tests were performed in triplicate and according to methodologies of Instituto Adolfo Lutz-IAL. Before the results, it is concluded that the Catolé coconut almond is very nutritious and presents high caloric value.

  10. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  11. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.

  12. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  13. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o conteúdo de tocoferóis em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliação sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sinigallia Taipina

    2009-01-01

    O conteúdo e o percentual de retenção de atividade de vitamina E, bem como, as características sensoriais foram analisados em amostras de alimentos fontes de vitamina E: nozes pecãs; biscoitos integrais e alimento fortificado em pó irradiados com doses de 1 e 3 kGy de radiação gama de 60Co. Para a determinação de vitamina E (como equivalentes em -tocoferol) foram utilizados três lotes dos produtos e aplicado método colorimétrico padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo. Para a anál...

  14. RECORRÊNCIA DE NOMINALIZAÇÔES DEVERBAIS em RESUMOS DE CARTAS científicAs em língua portuguesa E A INDEXAÇÂO TEMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    da Silveira Guedes, Vânia Lisbôa; Veloso da Costa Santos, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo investiga a recorrência de nominalizações deverbais em resumo de cartas científicas em língua portuguesa, do arquivo da cientista Bertha Lutz, com intuito de estimar os graus de produtividade das nominalizações e observar suas funções de índice. A pesquisa situa-se entre a Linguística e a Ciência da Informação e objetiva contribuir para o refinamento da indexação. Estabeleceu-se a hipótese de que as nominalizações em -ção prevalecem, em cartas científicas, e exercem funções de índ...

  15. Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2014-09-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD.

  16. Monodeuterated methane in the outer solar system. I. Spectroscopic analysis of the bands at 1.55 and 1.95 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, B.L.; de Bergh, C.; Maillard, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of monodeuterated methane (CH 3 D) near 6400 cm -1 and 5100 cm -1 is presented as the first of a series of papers dealing with laboratory studies of this molecule and with observational searches for it in outer solar system objects. Three new parallel bands which have locally perturbed upper states connecting with the ground state are identified, and approximate rotational constants are derived. The band centered near 6425 cm -1 and the 9613 A band previously analyzed by Lutz, Danehy, and Ramsay are found to form an apparent vibrational progression with the ν 2 fundamental at 2200 cm -1 , and vibrational assignments of 3ν 2 and 5ν 2 , respectively, are proposed. Detailed comparison of the rotational constants of the states involved is shown to support these assignments

  17. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  18. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic structure of local populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munstermann, L E; Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M

    1998-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis in the New World tropics, has a broad but discontinuous geographical distribution from southern Mexico to Argentina. A baseline for population genetic structure and genetic variability for this species was obtained by analyzing 5 local, peridomestic populations at the approximate center of its distribution, the Magdalena River Valley of central Colombia. Three populations of L. longipalpis from El Callejón, a small rural community, were compared with 2 populations from neighboring areas 12 and 25 km distant for genetic variation at 15 isoenzyme loci. The mean heterozygosity ranged from 11 to 16%, with 1.2 to 2.3 alleles detected per locus. Nei's genetic distances among the populations were very low, ranging from 0.001 to 0.007. Gene flow estimates based on FST indicated high levels of gene flow among local L. longipalpis populations, with minimal population substructuring.

  20. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  1. The taxonomic status of genetically divergent populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on the distribution of mitochondrial and isozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Piñango, Hermes; Norris, Douglas; Alexander, Bruce; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2003-09-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) reputedly is a complex of cryptic species; however, there is currently no consensus as to the number of species in the complex or their geographic distributions. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of 31 populations from throughout the species range, using seven isozyme loci and genes in the mitochondrial genome. Analyses of these two independent sets of markers were largely concordant and revealed four distinct clades that support the existence of four species. The four clades have distinct geographic ranges: (1) Brazil (Species A = Lu. longipalpis sensu stricto), (2) Laran (Species B = Lu. pseudolongipalpis), (3) cis-Andean (Species C), and (4) trans-Andean (Species D). The cis-Andean clade may be subdivided further into two groups, one in Colombia and one in northwestern Venezuela, but their taxonomic status remains unresolved. Knowledge that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of species may ultimately shed light on anomalies in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World.

  2. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  3. Relação entre a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos e aspectos epidemiológicos em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Relationship between intestinal parasites in food handlers and epidemiological factors in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Costa Nolla

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a presença de enteroparasitas e os aspectos epidemiológicos em 238 indivíduos que trabalhavam em uma empresa de alimentos e trabalhadores de feiras livres e "sacolões", na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. As técnicas parasitológicas utilizadas neste estudo foram: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham e Faust, e as taxas de infecção parasitária encontradas, 42,85% e 47,06%, respectivamente. Os fatores sócio-econômicos, como distribuição de renda, escolaridade e categorias ocupacionais, foram importantes dentro deste contexto. O hábito de ingerir hortaliças e frutas foram os fatores mais associados ao alto grau de parasitismo. Conclui-se que, nesta cidade, os manipuladores de alimentos apresentaram elevados índices de parasitose, havendo necessidade de uma melhor vigilância epidemiológica por meio de exames parasitológicos e educação sanitária a todos esses indivíduos.The presence of intestinal parasites and epidemiological aspects were evaluated in 238 workers from a fast food company and other individuals working in street markets and farmers' produce markets in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Parasitological techniques used in this study were: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham, and Faust, and parasite infection rates were 42.85% and 47.06%, respectively. Socioeconomic factors such as income distribution, schooling, and occupational categories proved to be relevant in this context. Habitual daily intake of fruits and vegetables was the factor most heavily associated with infection. These data suggest that intestinal parasites are frequent among food handlers in this city and that there is a need for constant epidemiological surveillance through periodic parasitological tests and health education for this entire population segment.

  4. SU-E-T-373: A Motorized Stage for Fast and Accurate QA of Machine Isocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J; Velarde, E; Wong, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Precision delivery of radiation dose relies on accurate knowledge of the machine isocenter under a variety of machine motions. This is typically determined by performing a Winston-Lutz test consisting of imaging a known object at multiple gantry/collimator/table angles and ensuring that the maximum offset is within specified tolerance. The first step in the Winston-Lutz test is careful placement of a ball bearing at the machine isocenter as determined by repeated imaging and shifting until accurate placement has been determined. Conventionally this is performed by adjusting a stage manually using vernier scales which carry the limitation that each adjustment must be done inside the treatment room with the risks of inaccurate adjustment of the scale and physical bumping of the table. It is proposed to use a motorized system controlled outside of the room to improve the required time and accuracy of these tests. Methods: The three dimensional vernier scales are replaced by three motors with accuracy of 1 micron and a range of 25.4mm connected via USB to a computer in the control room. Software is designed which automatically detects the motors and assigns them to proper axes and allows for small shifts to be entered and performed. Input values match calculated offsets in magnitude and sign to reduce conversion errors. Speed of setup, number of iterations to setup, and accuracy of final placement are assessed. Results: Automatic BB placement required 2.25 iterations and 13 minutes on average while manual placement required 3.76 iterations and 37.5 minutes. The average final XYZ offsets is 0.02cm, 0.01cm, 0.04cm for automatic setup and 0.04cm, 0.02cm, 0.04cm for manual setup. Conclusion: Automatic placement decreased time and repeat iterations for setup while improving placement accuracy. Automatic placement greatly reduces the time required to perform QA

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  6. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças

  7. Intestinal parasites and commensals among individuals from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Parasitos e comensais intestinais entre indivíduos de um acampamento de sem-terras na área rural de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Maria Cecília Oliveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children and adults from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October to November 2001. Stool samples from 78 individuals were examined by both the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Fifty-one (65.4%; CI 54.8 - 76.0 individuals were found to be infected, 23 (45.1% children and 28 (54.9% adults, of whom 34 (66.7% were mono-infected, 9 (17.6% bi-infected, and 8 (15.7% poly-infected. In conclusion, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals suggests that parasitological exams should be periodically carried out in addition to the sanitation education and health special care in this population.Avaliou-se a ocorrência de parasitos e comensais intestinais entre crianças e adultos de um acampamento de sem-terras na área rural de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de outubro a novembro de 2001. Amostras de fezes dos 78 indivíduos foram examinadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e Lutz. Cinqüenta e um (65,4%; IC 54.8 - 76.0 indivíduos estavam infectados, 23 (45,1% crianças e 28 (54,9% adultos, dos quais 34 (66,7% estavam monoparasitados, 9 (17,6% biparasitados e 8 (15,7% poliparasitados. A elevada ocorrência de parasitos e comensais intestinais aponta para a necessidade da realização de exames parasitológicos periódicos, educação sanitária e acompanhamento das condições de saúde desta população.

  8. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  9. Proeminência na mídia, reputação em ciências: a construção de uma feminista paradigmática e cientista normal no Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional

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    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertha Lutz foi uma das mulheres de sua geração que desfrutaram de incontestável autoridade política e científica. Escreveu muito, e mais ainda se escreveu sobre ela, especialmente em sua época. Notícias de jornais, crônicas de Lima Barreto, inúmeras cartas, artigos científicos e textos inéditos da própria Bertha, comentados neste artigo, nos permitem observar que seu feminismo emprestou-lhe notoriedade e visibilidade - cuidadosamente construídas -, que se articulariam com seu desempenho profissional, impulsionando-o. A ciência lhe conferia prestígio social e garantia legitimidade para suas causas. Nesse período em que a comunidade científica tomou para si a tarefa de tornar públicas as suas conquistas, a proeminência feminista de Bertha na mídia emprestou-lhe reputação em ciências.Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism - inseparable from other dimensions of her life - fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  10. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest.

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    Larissa Albrecht

    Full Text Available Figs (Ficus sp. are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years and maturing (about 90-150 year old secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973-2011, with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha. The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  11. Lutzomyia wellcomei Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae em Fragmento de Mata Atlântica do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Paulo Gomes Pinheiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. As leishmanioses podem afetar seres humanos e animais nas formas visceral e tegumentar. A forma tegumentar tem sido associada, entre outras espécies, a Lutzomyia wellcomei Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson, inicialmente encontrado na região amazônica. O estudo se baseou em coletas mensais de janeiro a dezembro em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica e em um ambiente peridomiciliar, com armadilhas luminosas CDC. Esse é o primeiro estudo sistematizado sobre essa espécie no Rio Grande do Norte. Os insetos foram identificados e analisados em relação às chuvas no local. Alguns espécimes de L. wellcomei foram metalizados sob fita de carbono, visualizados e fotografados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. A espécie mais abundante na área de mata foi Lutzomyia walkeri Newstead seguida por L. wellcomei. Do total capturado no ambiente de mata e no peridomicílio, cerca de 8% corresponde a L. wellcomei, sendo esta a espécie predominante no ambiente de mata no período chuvoso. Flebotomíneos L. wellcomei não foram capturados em ambiente peridomiciliar. Na mata essa espécie foi encontrada juntamente às espécies Lutzomyia whitmani Antunes & Coutinho e Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva. Machos e fêmeas Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva foram predominantes no ambiente peridomiciliar. A análise microscópica da morfologia externa de L. wellcomei revela detalhes da cabeça de machos e fêmeas.

  12. Alguns dados sobre a leishmaniose visceral americana e doença de Chagas no Nordeste Brasileiro (Relatório de uma excursão realizada nos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía

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    R. Pondé

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de nossas pesquisas, nas zonas emque trabalhamos, haviam sido asinalados cinco casos vivos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, três no Ceará e dois em Pernambuco. Alem desses, oito tinham sido evidenciados por viscerotomia na Baía, município de Jacobina. Já se tinha conhecimento tambem, de um caso de Doença de Chagas no Ceará. Na confecção do presente trabalho visitamos regiões dos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía, onde realizamos rápidos inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre as duas protozooses. No Ceará, região do Cariri, encontramos dois novos casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica, e cinco de Doença de Chagas, evidenciandos pelos xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, F. villelai Mangabeira., F. limai Fonseca e F. nordestinus Mangabeira, assim com Panstrongylus megistus (Burm., 13.5% dos quais infectados. Examinamos animais domésticos (cães e gatos e silvestres com resultado negativo. Em Pernambuco, município de Exú, fizemos um inquérito sobre os dois casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana anteriormente assinalados, não encontrando outros. foram capturados F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, alem de Panstrongylus magistus (Burm. e Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva; nenhum deles estava infectado. Dos animais domésticos foram autopsiados três cães sendo encontrado um com leishmanias no fígado e no baço. O exame de 43 animais silvestres nada revelou. Na Baía, município de Jacobina, encontramos, na zona periférica da cidade, um caso de Leishmaniose visceral Americana e, em outras localidades do município, três outros casos, cujos diagnósticos foram confirmados pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica; encontramos, também dois casos de Doença de Chagas, evidenciados pelo xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados F. evandroi Costa Lima, F. lenti Mangabeira e F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva; Panstrongylus

  13. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

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    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  14. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  15. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  16. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  17. The Drosophila PNG kinase complex regulates the translation of cyclin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Leah; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2007-01-01

    The Drosophila PAN GU (PNG) kinase complex regulates the developmental translation of cyclin B. cyclin B mRNA becomes unmasked during oogenesis independent of PNG activity, but PNG is required for translation from egg activation. We find that although polyadenylation of cyclin B augments translation, it is not essential, and a fully elongated poly(A) is not required for translation to proceed. In fact, changes in poly(A) tail length are not sufficient to account for PNG-mediated control of cyclin B translation and of the early embryonic cell cycles. We present evidence that PNG functions instead as an antagonist of PUMILIO-dependent translational repression. Our data argue that changes in poly(A) tail length are not a universal mechanism governing embryonic cell cycles, and that PNG-mediated derepression of translation is an important alternative mechanism in Drosophila.

  18. The parental origin of the extra X chromosome in 47,XXX females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K M; Jacobs, P A; Lee, M; Ratcliffe, S; Robinson, A; Nielsen, J; Hassold, T J

    1990-01-01

    We used X-linked DNA polymorphisms to study the parental origin of X chromosome nondisjunction in 28 47,XXX live-born females. Errors in oogenesis accounted for 26 of the cases, with the majority of these being attributable to an error at meiosis I. We observed an association between advanced parental age and meiosis I nondisjunction--but not meiosis II nondisjunction--in the maternally derived cases. In studies of recombination we found little evidence for an association between pairing failure and X chromosome nondisjunction, but our results suggest that increased recombination near the centromere may play a role in the etiology of the 47,XXX condition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2316522

  19. The histone codes for meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Xu, Zhiliang; Khawar, Muhammad Babar; Liu, Chao; Li, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'. The purpose of this review is to summarize the histone codes that are required for meiosis during spermatogenesis and oogenesis, involving meiosis resumption, meiotic asymmetric division and other cellular processes. We not only systematically review the functional roles of histone codes in meiosis but also discuss future trends and perspectives in this field. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. First report of a patient with a mixoploidy 47,XXX/94,XXXXXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Criado, G; Galán Gómez, E; Tizzano, E F; García Rodríguez, E; Gómez de Terreros, I

    2007-01-01

    We present a 16 years old female with a chromosomal mixoploidy and multiple phenotypic anomalies. Peripheral blood G-band karyotype was 47,XXX and her skin fibroblast karyotype revealed a mosaic with a 47,XXX cell line in 88% of metaphases and a 94,XXXXXX cell line in 12% of metaphases, consistent with a hypertetraploidy. The most prominent clinical signs were: short stature, left upper limb asymmetry, senile-like appearance, generalized hypertrichosis, and small hands and feet. Radiological examination showed bone dysplasia. The result of molecular studies demonstrated that the patient inherited the two X chromosomes from the mother and one from the father, indicating that her 47,XXX trisomy resulted from an oogenesis error in the first meiotic division. The 94,XXXXXX cell line was likely the result of a cytokinesis error. To our knowledge, this is the first documented patient with a trisomy and a hypertetraploidy.

  1. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  2. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis......, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies...... and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome....

  3. A thirty million year-old inherited heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Doublet

    Full Text Available Due to essentially maternal inheritance and a bottleneck effect during early oogenesis, newly arising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations segregate rapidly in metazoan female germlines. Consequently, heteroplasmy (i.e. the mixture of mtDNA genotypes within an organism is generally resolved to homoplasmy within a few generations. Here, we report an exceptional transpecific heteroplasmy (predicting an alanine/valine alloacceptor tRNA change that has been stably inherited in oniscid crustaceans for at least thirty million years. Our results suggest that this heteroplasmy is stably transmitted across generations because it occurs within mitochondria and therefore escapes the mtDNA bottleneck that usually erases heteroplasmy. Consistently, at least two oniscid species possess an atypical trimeric mitochondrial genome, which provides an adequate substrate for the emergence of a constitutive intra-mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Persistence of a mitochondrial polymorphism on such a deep evolutionary timescale suggests that balancing selection may be shaping mitochondrial sequence evolution in oniscid crustaceans.

  4. Effects of precocene and azadirachtin in Rhodnius prolixus: some data on development and reproduction

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    Eloi S. Garcia

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that precocene and azadirachtin are effective inhibitors of moulting and reproduction in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus. The time of application is important and only applications of these substances early in the intermoulting period cause their effects in nymphs. The inhibition of moulting is fully reversed by ecdysone therapy. Precocene and azadirachtin also affected drastically the oogenesis and egg deposition in this insect. Precocene-induced sterilization is reversed by application of juvenile hormone III. However, this hormone is unable to reverse the effect of azadirachtin on reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers in nymphs and adult females are decreased by these treatments. In vitro analysis suggest that precocene and azadirachtin may act directly on the prothoracic glands and ovaries producing ecdysteroids. Based on these and other findings the possible mode of action of these compounds on the development and reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus is discussed.

  5. Breeding biology of the freshwater copepoda, heliodiaptomus viduus (gurney) and its prospects as live food organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaff, K.

    2003-01-01

    The tropical freshwater copepoda, Heliodiaptomus viduus occur commonly in the peninsular India. This species is comparatively bigger (total mean length of female and male is 2.05 plus minus 0.09 mm and 1.7 plus minus 0.04 mm respectively) than other freshwater diaptomids. Aspects of reproductive biology such as sexual dimorphism, organization of female and male reproductive system, oogenesis, spermatogenesis and spermatophore formation are described for the first time. Details pertaining to fertilization, embryonic and post embryonic development of this specie is reported. Studies on live span and reproductive potential of this specie indicate continuous breeding with short interclutch period. Importance of the live food in aquahatcheries and prospects of H. viduus as alternate live food to Artemia nauplii is discussed. (author)

  6. Study the impact of gamma irradiation on the vitellogenin gene in Galleria mellonella females by using the comparative CT method

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    Y.S. Zaghloul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The eggs deposited by oviparous organisms contain large amounts of vitellus, or yolk, which are utilized by the growing embryo. Vitellogenesis is the process of vitellus accumulation involves massive heterosynthetic synthesis of the protein vitellogenin (Vg and its deposition in the oocyte. Vg levels are indicative for the efficiency of the oogenesis process. This work summarizes data on Vg levels in Galleria mellonella females exposed to various doses of gamma radiation. The results stated that vitellogenin was affected by irradiation. The decreased levels of Vg was dose dependent reaching an undetermined level at 160Gy which is the sterileing dose for G. mellonella female that suppress the egg production by them.

  7. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  8. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  9. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae, a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Aboubakar Souna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.

  10. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834

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    S. Asin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental groups during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  11. In utero exposure to nanosized carbon black (Printex90) does not induce tandem repeat mutations in female murine germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of particles has been shown to induce mutations in the male germline in mice following both prenatal and adult exposures in several experiments. In contrast, the effects of particles on female germ cell mutagenesis are not well established. Germline mutations are induced during active...... cell division, which occurs during fetal development in females. We investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB) on induction of mutations in the female mouse germline during fetal development, spanning the critical developmental stages of oogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6...... mutation rates in the resulting F2 generation were determined from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 female mice (178 CB-exposed and 258 control F2 offspring). ESTR mutation rates in CB-exposed F2 female offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 female control offspring....

  12. Juvenile exposure to vinclozolin shifts sex ratios and impairs reproductive capacity of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Yer; Revak, Andrew; Weigand, Jenna; Hicks, Elisabeth; Howard, David R; King-Heiden, Tisha C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors during critical periods of development can impact the sustainability of wild fish populations. Anti-androgenic compounds have received less attention, but are capable of modulating gonad differentiation and maturation, and impairing reproduction in fish. The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) has been shown to impair reproduction in adult fish, but less is known about its effects following exposure earlier in development. Here we show that waterborne exposure to 400μg VZ/L during critical periods of sex differentiation (21-35 days post fertilization) permanently shifts sex ratios towards females, and alters the maturation of the gonad. Both fecundity and fertility were reduced, even when oogenesis and spermatogenesis recover and sperm motility is not altered. These results demonstrate the need to better understand the impacts of early exposure to anti-androgenic compounds on fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conservation of the Type IV secretion system throughout Wolbachia evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichon, Samuel; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , encoding a T4SS were previously identified and characterized at two separate genomic loci. Using the largest data set of Wolbachia strains studied so far, we show that vir gene sequence and organization are strictly conserved among 37 Wolbachia strains inducing various phenotypes such as cytoplasmic...... incompatibility, feminization, or oogenesis in their arthropod hosts. In sharp contrast, extensive variation of genomic sequences flanking the virB8-D4 operon suggested its distinct location among Wolbachia genomes. Long term conservation of the T4SS may imply maintenance of a functional effector translocation...... system in Wolbachia, thereby suggesting the importance for the T4SS in Wolbachia biology and survival inside host cells....

  14. Polypeptide profiles of human oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

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    Capmany, G; Bolton, V N

    1993-11-01

    The polypeptides that direct fertilization and early development until activation of the embryonic genome occurs, at the 4-8 cell stage in the human, are exclusively maternal in origin, and are either synthesized during oogenesis or translated later from maternal mRNA. Using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver stain, we have visualized and compared the polypeptides present in different populations of human oocytes and cleavage stage embryos obtained after superovulation and insemination in vitro. Two polypeptide patterns were resolved, differing in the region of mol. wt 69 kDa. The distribution of these patterns showed no correlation with the ability of individual oocytes to achieve fertilization and develop normally to the 8-cell stage.

  15. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035μg TPT-SnL−1, whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088μg TPT-SnL−1. In FEN exposed females proliferation...... to act as androgens in vertebrates. The digestive tract, musculature, nervous system, reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands were examined by light microscopy after routine staining and immune-labelling for detection of apoptosis and determination of proliferation activities. MET induced...... of gametes was reduced and yolk formation showed irregular features at 2.8–105μgL−1. In FEN exposed males an elevated proliferation activity was observed. No pathological alterations in other organ systems, e.g. the digestive tract including the hindgut acting as respiratory organ, the nervous system...

  16. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...... identified as well as functional and pathway enrichments associated with the oocytes from the two developmental hallmarks. A total of 729 genes were highly enriched in oocytes from primodial follicles and 1456 genes were highly enriched in MII oocytes (>10-fold, P...

  17. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  18. Deconstructing mammalian reproduction: using knockouts to define fertility pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Angshumoy; Matzuk, Martin M

    2006-02-01

    Reproduction is the sine qua non for the propagation of species and continuation of life. It is a complex biological process that is regulated by multiple factors during the reproductive life of an organism. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms regulating reproduction in mammals have been rapidly unraveled by the study of a vast number of mouse gene knockouts with impaired fertility. The use of reverse genetics to generate null mutants in mice through targeted disruption of specific genes has enabled researchers to identify essential regulators of spermatogenesis and oogenesis in vivo and model human disorders affecting reproduction. This review focuses on the merits, utility, and the variations of the knockout technology in studies of reproduction in mammals.

  19. Dystroglycan is required for polarizing the epithelial cells and the oocyte in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Wu-Min; Schneider, Martina; Frock, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Dystroglycan is a central element of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many forms of muscular dystrophy. Dystroglycan is a receptor for multiple extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as Laminin, agrin and perlecan......, and plays a role in linking the ECM to the actin cytoskeleton; however, how these interactions are regulated and their basic cellular functions are poorly understood. Using mosaic analysis and RNAi in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we show that Dystroglycan is required cell......, possibly by organizing the Laminin ECM. These data suggest that the primary function of Dystroglycan in oogenesis is to organize cellular polarity; and this study sets the stage for analyzing the Dystroglycan complex by using the power of Drosophila molecular genetics....

  20. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  1. Influence of Wolbachia on host gene expression in an obligatory symbiosis

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    Kremer Natacha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria known to be facultative reproductive parasites of numerous arthropod hosts. Apart from these reproductive manipulations, recent findings indicate that Wolbachia may also modify the host’s physiology, notably its immune function. In the parasitoid wasp, Asobara tabida, Wolbachia is necessary for oogenesis completion, and aposymbiotic females are unable to produce viable offspring. The absence of egg production is also associated with an increase in programmed cell death in the ovaries of aposymbiotic females, suggesting that a mechanism that ensures the maintenance of Wolbachia in the wasp could also be responsible for this dependence. In order to decipher the general mechanisms underlying host-Wolbachia interactions and the origin of the dependence, we developed transcriptomic approaches to compare gene expression in symbiotic and aposymbiotic individuals. Results As no genetic data were available on A. tabida, we constructed several Expressed Sequence Tags (EST libraries, and obtained 12,551 unigenes from this species. Gene expression was compared between symbiotic and aposymbiotic ovaries through in silico analysis and in vitro subtraction (SSH. As pleiotropic functions involved in immunity and development could play a major role in the establishment of dependence, the expression of genes involved in oogenesis, programmed cell death (PCD and immunity (broad sense was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. We showed that Wolbachia might interfere with these numerous biological processes, in particular some related to oxidative stress regulation. We also showed that Wolbachia may interact with immune gene expression to ensure its persistence within the host. Conclusions This study allowed us to constitute the first major dataset of the transcriptome of A. tabida, a species that is a model system for both host/Wolbachia and host/parasitoid interactions. More specifically, our results

  2. Embryo transcriptome response to environmental factors: implication for its survival under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl

    2014-09-01

    After its formation, the mammalian zygote undergoes a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations prior to undergoing cell differentiation. The zygote is then transformed into a complex multicellular organism in a defined time window which may differ between species. These orderly embryonic developmental events are tightly regulated by temporal and spatial activation and/or deactivation of genes and gene products. This phenomenon may in turn be dependent on the intrinsic characteristics of the embryo itself, the physiological and biochemical composition of the maternal environment or by in vitro culture condition. In fact, when embryos are subjected to suboptimal culture condition, some of the embryos may escape the environmental stress by activating certain transcripts and some others which are unable to activate anti-stress agents may die or exhibit abnormal development. This phenomenon may partly depend on transcripts and proteins stored during oogenesis. Indeed after embryonic genome activation, the embryo destiny is governed by its own transcripts and protein synthesized over time. Therefore, this review begins by highlighting the type and quality of transcripts accumulated or degraded during oogenesis and its impact on the embryo survival. Thereafter, emphasis is given to the transcriptome response of preimplantation embryos to suboptimal culture conditions. In addition, the long term effect of preimplantation culture environment on the transcriptome response embryos/fetus during peri and post implantation has been addressed. Finally, a brief summary of the epigenetic control of culture induced genetic variation of the embryos has been highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carry-over effects modulated by salinity during the early ontogeny of the euryhaline crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from the Southeastern Pacific coast: Development time and carbon and energy content of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Bascur, Miguel; Guzmán, Fabián; Urbina, Mauricio

    2018-03-01

    Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key species of coastal and estuarine ecosystems in the Southeastern Pacific and New Zealand. Since the gravid females-and their embryos-develop under conditions of variable salinity, we propose that low external salinity will be met with an increase in energy expenditures in order to maintain osmoregulation; subsequently, the use of energy reserves for reproduction will be affected. In this study, we investigate in H. crenulatus whether 1) the biomass and energy content of embryos is influenced by salinity experienced during oogenesis and embryogenesis and 2) how variation in the biomass and energy content of embryos affects larval energetic condition at hatching. Here at low salinity (5PSU), egg-bearing females experienced massive and frequent egg losses, and therefore the development of their eggs during embryogenesis was not completed. In turn, at intermediate and high salinity (15 and 30PSU) embryogenesis was completed, egg development was successful, and larvae were obtained. Consistently, larvae hatched from eggs produced and incubated at high salinity (30PSU) were larger, had higher dry weight, and had increased carbon content and energy than larvae hatched from eggs produced at intermediate salinity (15PSU). From these results, it is seen that the size and biomass of early life stages of H. crenulatus can be affected by environmental salinity experienced during oogenesis and embryogenesis, and this variation can then directly affect the energetic condition of offspring at birth. Therefore, this study reveals a "cascade effect" modulated by salinity during the early ontogeny. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2012-06-01

    In the present experiments the effect of GSM radiation on ovarian development of virgin Drosophila melanogaster female insects was studied. Newly emerged adult female flies were collected and divided into separate identical groups. After the a lapse of certain number of hours-different for each group-the insects (exposed and sham-exposed) were dissected and their intact ovaries were collected and photographed under an optical microscope with the same magnification. The size of the ovaries was compared between exposed and sham-exposed virgin female insects, during the time needed for the completion of oogenesis and maturation of the first eggs in the ovarioles. Immediately after the intact ovaries were photographed, they were further dissected into individual ovarioles and treated for TUNEL and acridine-orange assays to determine the degree of DNA damage in the egg chamber cells. The study showed that the ovarian size of the exposed insects is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding sham-exposed insects, due to destruction of egg chambers by the GSM radiation, after DNA damage and consequent cell death induction in the egg chamber cells of the virgin females as shown in previous experiments on inseminated females. The difference in ovarian size between sham-exposed and exposed virgin female flies becomes most evident 39-45 h after eclosion when the first eggs within the ovaries are at the late vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages (mid-late oogenesis). More than 45 h after eclosion, the difference in ovarian size decreases, as the first mature eggs of the sham-exposed insects are leaving the ovaries and are laid.

  5. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

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    Mehrnoush Dehghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  6. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  7. Differing strategies of patterning of follicular cells in higher and lower brachycerans (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Jablonska, Anna; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2005-10-01

    In all higher dipterans (Brachycera), including the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, each egg chamber (ovarian follicle) consists of a group (clone) of germ cells (one oocyte and 15 accompanying nurse cells) that is surrounded by a layer of somatic mesodermal follicular cells (FCs). As oogenesis progresses the initially uniform FCs diversify into several morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations. In D. melanogaster some of these subpopulations, e.g., border, centripetal, and dorsolateral cells, undertake coordinated migration or rearrangement over the surface of the germ cells. During the final stages of oogenesis these subpopulations participate in the formation of a complex, regionally specialized eggshell. In representatives of lower brachycerans (Orthorrhapha), only FCs that undertake active, directed migration are the border cells. These cells originate at the anterior pole of the ovarian follicle and migrate between the nurse cells to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Reduced motility of FCs in lower brachycerans results in the absence of certain FC subpopulations in their egg chambers and subsequent simplicity of their eggshells. We found that the lack of some FC subpopulations coincided with the appearance of lamellipodium-like protrusions of the oocyte. These protrusions penetrated between the apposing membranes of nurse and FCs and partially enveloped the nurse cell compartment. Analysis of whole-mount preparations stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin revealed that the protrusions contained microfilaments and that their tips were equipped with actin-rich filopodium-like processes. We also found that in some lower brachycerans (representatives of the family Rhagionidae), the FCs located at the posterior pole of the oocyte, became enlarged and morphologically similar to the anterior border cells. These findings indicate that in higher dipterans the processes leading to the formation of a functional egg are variable and often markedly

  8. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kaushiki P; Carrillo, Robert A; Zinn, Kai

    2015-07-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with two genes, EndoA and Dap160, that encode proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The oogenic germline starvation response in C. elegans.

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    Hannah S Seidel

    Full Text Available Many animals alter their reproductive strategies in response to environmental stress. Here we have investigated how L4 hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans respond to starvation. To induce starvation, we removed food at 2 h intervals from very early- to very late-stage L4 animals. The starved L4s molted into adulthood, initiated oogenesis, and began producing embryos; however, all three processes were severely delayed, and embryo viability was reduced. Most animals died via 'bagging,' because egg-laying was inhibited, and embryos hatched in utero, consuming their parent hermaphrodites from within. Some animals, however, avoided bagging and survived long term. Long-term survival did not rely on embryonic arrest but instead upon the failure of some animals to produce viable progeny during starvation. Regardless of the bagging fate, starved animals showed two major changes in germline morphology: All oogenic germlines were dramatically reduced in size, and these germlines formed only a single oocyte at a time, separated from the remainder of the germline by a tight constriction. Both changes in germline morphology were reversible: Upon re-feeding, the shrunken germlines regenerated, and multiple oocytes formed concurrently. The capacity for germline regeneration upon re-feeding was not limited to the small subset of animals that normally survive starvation: When bagging was prevented ectopically by par-2 RNAi, virtually all germlines still regenerated. In addition, germline shrinkage strongly correlated with oogenesis, suggesting that during starvation, germline shrinkage may provide material for oocyte production. Finally, germline shrinkage and regeneration did not depend upon crowding. Our study confirms previous findings that starvation uncouples germ cell proliferation from germline stem cell maintenance. Our study also suggests that when nutrients are limited, hermaphrodites scavenge material from their germlines to reproduce. We discuss

  10. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Amanda Fraga

    Full Text Available Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and hexokinase (HexA genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  11. Expression of XNOA 36 in the mitochondrial cloud of Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, M C; Wilding, M; Dale, B; Campanella, C; Carotenuto, R

    2012-08-01

    In Xenopus laevis oocytes a mitochondrial cloud (MC) is found between the nucleus and the plasma membrane at stages I-II of oogenesis. The MC contains RNAs that are transported to the future vegetal pole at stage II of oogenesis. In particular, germinal plasm mRNAs are found in the Message Transport Organiser (METRO) region, the MC region opposite to the nucleus. At stages II-III, a second pathway transports Vg1 and VegT mRNAs to the area where the MC content merges with the vegetal cortex. Microtubules become polarized at the sites of migration of Vg1 and VegT mRNAs through an unknown signalling mechanism. In early meiotic stages, the centrioles are almost completely lost with their remnants being dispersed into the cytoplasm and the MC, which may contain a MTOC to be used in the later localization pathway of the mRNAs. In mammals, XNOA 36 encodes a member of a highly conserved protein family and localises to the nucleolus or in the centromeres. In the Xenopus late stage I oocyte, XNOA 36 mRNA is transiently segregated in one half of the oocyte, anchored by a cytoskeletal network that contains spectrin. Here we found that XNOA 36 transcript also localises to the nucleoli and in the METRO region. XNOA 36 protein immunolocalization, using an antibody employed for the library immunoscreening that depicted XNOA 36 expression colonies, labels the migrating MC, the cytoplasm of stage I oocytes and in particular the vegetal cortex facing the MC. The possible role of XNOA 36 in mRNA anchoring to the vegetal cortex or in participating in early microtubule reorganization is discussed.

  12. The DEAD-box protein MEL-46 is required in the germ line of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasaki, Ryuji; Puoti, Alessandro; Streit, Adrian

    2009-06-17

    In the hermaphrodite of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the first germ cells differentiate as sperm. Later the germ line switches to the production of oocytes. This process requires the activity of a genetic regulatory network that includes among others the fem, fog and mog genes. The function of some of these genes is germline specific while others also act in somatic tissues. DEAD box proteins have been shown to be involved in the control of gene expression at different steps such as transcription and pre-mRNA processing. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene mel-46 (maternal effect lethal) encodes a DEAD box protein that is related to the mammalian DDX20/Gemin3/DP103 genes. mel-46 is expressed throughout development and mutations in mel-46 display defects at multiple developmental stages. Here we focus on the role of mel-46 in the hermaphrodite germ line. mel-46(yt5) mutant hermaphrodites are partially penetrant sterile and fully penetrant maternal effect lethal. The germ line of mutants shows variable defects in oogenesis. Further, mel-46(yt5) suppresses the complete feminization caused by mutations in fog-2 and fem-3, two genes that are at the top and the center, respectively, of the genetic germline sex determining cascade, but not fog-1 that is at the bottom of this cascade. The C. elegans gene mel-46 encodes a DEAD box protein that is required maternally for early embryogenesis and zygotically for postembryonic development. In the germ line, it is required for proper oogenesis. Although it interacts genetically with genes of the germline sex determination machinery its primary function appears to be in oocyte differentiation rather than sex determination.

  13. Silencing of Iron and Heme-Related Genes Revealed a Paramount Role of Iron in the Physiology of the Hematophagous Vector Rhodnius prolixus

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    Ana B. Walter-Nuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes. We observed that blood-meal modulates the expression of ferritin, Iron Responsive protein (IRP, Heme Oxygenase (HO and the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus C Receptor (FLVCR, components of major pathways involved in the regulation of iron and heme metabolism, particularly in the posterior midgut (PM, where an intense release of free heme occurs during the course of digestion. Knockdown of these genes impacted the survival of nymphs and adults, as well as molting, oogenesis and embryogenesis at different rates and time-courses. The silencing of FLVCR caused the highest levels of mortality in nymphs and adults and reduced nymph molting. The oogenesis was mildly affected by the diminished expression of all of the genes whereas embryogenesis was dramatically impaired by the knockdown of ferritin expression. Furthermore, an intense production of ROS in the midgut of blood-fed insects occurs when the expression of ferritin, but not HO, was inhibited. In this manner, the degradation of dietary heme inside the enterocytes may represent an oxidative challenge that is counteracted by ferritins, conferring to this protein a major antioxidant role. Taken together these results demonstrate that the regulation of iron and heme metabolism is of paramount importance for R. prolixus physiology and imbalances in the levels of

  14. Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Galassi, Silvana; Gnass, Katarina; Kusk, Kresten O; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2016-11-09

    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) for 21 days covering a full life cycle are described. Histological alterations were studied with a focus on reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands. Exposure to ≥1.2 µg L(-1) CPA caused degeneration of spermatocytes and deformation of the spermatophore in males. In a single male exposed to 33 µg L(-1) CPA, an ovotestis was observed. In CPA exposed females, enhancement of oogenesis, increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation occurred. Exposure of males to ≥12 µg L(-1) LIN caused degenerative effects in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and at 4.7 µg L(-1) LIN, the spermatophore wall displayed an irregular formation. In LIN exposed females, no such structural alterations were found; however, the proliferation index was reduced at 29 µg L(-1) LIN. At an exposure concentration of ≥100 µg L(-1) VIN, distinct areas in male gonad were stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p,p'-DDE-exposed females, a statistical significant increase of the proliferation index and an intensification of oogenesis were observed at 0.0088 µg L(-1).

  15. Transcriptome and gene expression profile of ovarian follicle tissue of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo N.; Logullo, Raquel; Ramos, Isabela B.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Coutinho, Maria Alice; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Capurro, Margareth L.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Cardoso Braz, Glória Regina; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-01-01

    Insect oocytes grow in close association with the ovarian follicular epithelium (OFE), which escorts the oocyte during oogenesis and is responsible for synthesis and secretion of the eggshell. We describe a transcriptome of OFE of the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, to increase our knowledge of the role of FE in egg development. Random clones were sequenced from a cDNA library of different stages of follicle development. The transcriptome showed high commitment to transcription, protein synthesis, and secretion. The most abundant cDNA was a secreted (S) small, proline-rich protein with maximal expression in the vitellogenic follicle, suggesting a role in oocyte maturation. We also found Rp45, a chorion protein already described, and a putative chitin-associated cuticle protein that was an eggshell component candidate. Six transcripts coding for proteins related to the unfolded protein response (UPR) by were chosen and their expression analyzed. Surprisingly, transcripts related to UPR showed higher expression during early stages of development and downregulation during late stages, when transcripts coding for S proteins participating in chorion formation were highly expressed. Several transcripts with potential roles in oogenesis and embryo development are also discussed. We propose that intense protein synthesis at the FE results in reticulum stress (RS) and that lowering expression of a set of genes related to cell survival should lead to degeneration of follicular cells at oocyte maturation. This paradoxical suppression of UPR suggests that ovarian follicles may represent an interesting model for studying control of RS and cell survival in professional S cell types. PMID:21736942

  16. Bovine Lhx8, a Germ Cell-Specific Nuclear Factor, Interacts with Figla.

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    Liyuan Fu

    Full Text Available LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8 is a germ cell-specific transcription factor essential for the development of oocytes during early oogenesis. In mice, Lhx8 deficiency causes postnatal oocyte loss and affects the expression of many oocyte-specific genes. The aims of this study were to characterize the bovine Lhx8 gene, determine its mRNA expression during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, and evaluate its interactions with other oocyte-specific transcription factors. The bovine Lhx8 gene encodes a protein of 377 amino acids. A splice variant of Lhx8 (Lhx8_v1 was also identified. The predicted bovine Lhx8 protein contains two LIM domains and one homeobox domain. However, one of the LIM domains in Lhx8_v1 is incomplete due to deletion of 83 amino acids near the N terminus. Both Lhx8 and Lhx8_v1 transcripts were only detected in the gonads but none of the somatic tissues examined. The expression of Lhx8 and Lhx8_v1 appears to be restricted to oocytes as none of the transcripts was detectable in granulosa or theca cells. The maternal Lhx8 transcript is abundant in GV and MII stage oocytes as well as in early embryos but disappear by morula stage. A nuclear localization signal that is required for the import of Lhx8 into nucleus was identified, and Lhx8 is predominantly localized in the nucleus when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Finally, a novel interaction between Lhx8 and Figla, another transcription factor essential for oogenesis, was detected. The results provide new information for studying the mechanisms of action for Lhx8 in oocyte development and early embryogenesis.

  17. Localisation of RNAs into the germ plasm of vitellogenic Xenopus oocytes.

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    Sarbjit Nijjar

    Full Text Available We have studied the localisation of mRNAs in full-grown Xenopus laevis oocytes by injecting fluorescent RNAs, followed by confocal microscopy of the oocyte cortex. Concentrating on RNA encoding the Xenopus Nanos homologue, nanos1 (formerly Xcat2, we find that it consistently localised into aggregated germ plasm ribonucleoprotein (RNP particles, independently of cytoskeletal integrity. This implies that a diffusion/entrapment-mediated mechanism is active, as previously reported for previtellogenic oocytes. Sometimes this was accompanied by localisation into scattered particles of the "late", Vg1/VegT pathway; occasionally only late pathway localisation was seen. The Xpat RNA behaved in an identical fashion and for neither RNA was the localisation changed by any culture conditions tested. The identity of the labelled RNP aggregates as definitive germ plasm was confirmed by their inclusion of abundant mitochondria and co-localisation with the germ plasm protein Hermes. Further, the nanos1/Hermes RNP particles are interspersed with those containing the germ plasm protein Xpat. These aggregates may be followed into the germ plasm of unfertilized eggs, but with a notable reduction in its quantity, both in terms of injected molecules and endogenous structures. Our results conflict with previous reports that there is no RNA localisation in large oocytes, and that during mid-oogenesis even germ plasm RNAs localise exclusively by the late pathway. We find that in mid oogenesis nanos1 RNA also localises to germ plasm but also by the late pathway. Late pathway RNAs, Vg1 and VegT, also may localise into germ plasm. Our results support the view that mechanistically the two modes of localisation are extremely similar, and that in an injection experiment RNAs might utilise either pathway, the distinction in fates being very subtle and subject to variation. We discuss these results in relation to their biological significance and the results of others.

  18. Combining the auxin-inducible degradation system with CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing for the conditional depletion of endogenous Drosophila melanogaster proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, Melinda; Jankovics, Ferenc; Lukácsovich, Tamás; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-04-01

    Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in nonplant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins. We demonstrate that the AID system induces efficient and reversible protein depletion of maternally provided proteins both in the ovary and the early embryo. Moreover, the AID system provides a fine spatiotemporal control of protein degradation and allows for the generation of different levels of protein knockdown in a well-regulated manner. These features of the AID system enable the unraveling of the discrete phenotypes of genes with highly complex functions. We utilized this system to generate a conditional loss-of-function allele which allows for the specific degradation of the Vasa protein without affecting its alternative splice variant (solo) and the vasa intronic gene (vig). With the help of this special allele, we demonstrate that dramatic decrease of Vasa protein in the vitellarium does not influence the completion of oogenesis as well as the establishment of proper anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarity in the developing oocyte. Our study suggests that both the localization and the translation of gurken mRNA in the vitellarium is independent from Vasa. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, J D; Holdcraft, R; Chevalier, B; Berg, C A

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the genes that interact with Ras signaling pathways to regulate morphogenesis. The synthesis of dorsal eggshell structures in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple rounds of Ras signaling followed by dramatic epithelial sheet movements. We took advantage of this process to identify genes that link patterning and morphogenesis; we screened lethal mutations on the second chromosome for those that could enhance a weak Ras1 eggshell phenotype. Of 1618 lethal P-element mutations tested, 13 showed significant enhancement, resulting in forked and fused dorsal appendages. Our genetic and molecular analyses together with information from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project reveal that 11 of these lines carry mutations in previously characterized genes. Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion. Seven lines represent cell signaling and cytoskeletal components that are new to the Ras1 pathway; these are Chickadee (Profilin), Tec29, Dreadlocks, POSH, Peanut, Smt3, and MESK2, a suppressor of dominant-negative Ksr. A twelfth insertion disrupts two genes, Nrk, a "neurospecific" receptor tyrosine kinase, and Tpp, which encodes a neuropeptidase. These results suggest that Ras1 signaling during oogenesis involves novel components that may be intimately associated with additional signaling processes and with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To determine whether these Ras1 Enhancers function upstream or downstream of the Egf receptor, four mutations were tested for their ability to suppress an activated Egfr construct (lambdatop) expressed in oogenesis exclusively in the follicle cells. Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype.

  20. Regulation of Injury-Induced Ovarian Regeneration by Activation of Oogonial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Piril; Sweeney, Alexandra; Monaghan, James R

    2017-01-01

    Some animals have the ability to generate large numbers of oocytes throughout life. This raises the question whether persistent adult germline stem cell populations drive continuous oogenesis and whether they are capable of mounting a regenerative response after injury. Here we demonstrate the presence of adult oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in the adult axolotl salamander ovary and show that ovarian injury induces OSC activation and functional regeneration of the ovaries to reproductive capability. Cells that have morphological similarities to germ cells were identified in the developing and adult ovaries via histological analysis. Genes involved in germ cell maintenance including Vasa, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Bmp15, Piwil1, Piwil2, Dazl, and Lhx8 were expressed in the presumptive OSCs. Colocalization of Vasa protein with H3 mitotic marker showed that both oogonial and spermatogonial adult stem cells were mitotically active. Providing evidence of stemness and viability of adult OSCs, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) adult OSCs grafted into white juvenile host gonads gave rise to EGFP OSCs, and oocytes. Last, the axolotl ovaries completely regenerated after partial ovariectomy injury. During regeneration, OSC activation resulted in rapid differentiation into new oocytes, which was demonstrated by Vasa + /BrdU + coexpression. Furthermore, follicle cell proliferation promoted follicle maturation during ovarian regeneration. Overall, these results show that adult oogenesis occurs via proliferation of endogenous OSCs in a tetrapod and mediates ovarian regeneration. This study lays the foundations to elucidate mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that will assist regenerative medicine in treating premature ovarian failure and reduced fertility. Stem Cells 2017;35:236-247. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  2. Macroinvertebrates as tadpole food: importance and body size relationships Macroinvertebrados como alimento de girinos: importância e relações com tamanho de corpo

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    Silvia L. Dutra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates as food were recorded for three anurans tadpoles: Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae, and Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. These species are commonly found in the mountain streams at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tadpoles were collected in pools of second-order reach in Mascates stream and third and fourth order reaches of Indaiá stream from March-October, 2003. Biometrical data were recorded before dissecting each individual and a feeding importance index was estimated. Eight taxa of chironomids and three taxa of mayfly exuviae were found in the guts, but no significantly differences were found between tadpole species (ANOVA, p > 0.05. The results support the drift transport hypothesis that predicts that tadpoles commonly ingest suspended matter in lotic ecosystems, are generalist feeders, and macroinvertebrates are probably incidental ingested.A presença de macroinvertebrados como item na dieta de girinos foi estudada para as espécies Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae e Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. Estas espécies são comumente encontradas nos córregos de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os girinos foram coletados em poções em um trecho de segunda ordem no córrego Mascates, e em trechos de terceira e quarta ordens no córrego Indaiá, entre março e outubro de 2003. Medidas biométricas foram mensuradas antes da dessecação de cada indivíduo e foi estimado um índice de importância de alimentação para os macroinvertebrados encontrados. Oito taxa de Chironomidae e três taxa de exúvias de Ephemeroptera foram encontrados, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os macroinvertebrados encontrados nas espécies de girinos (ANOVA, p > 0,05. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese de transporte por

  3. Narrativas da violência: a dimensão micropolítica das emoções Narratives of violence: the micropolitical dimension of emotions

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    Maria Claudia Coelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar as emoções presentes em relatos de experiências de vitimização em segmentos das camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. A proposta é explorar a fecundidade da vertente "contextualista" (Lutz & Abu Lughod 1990 da antropologia das emoções para a compreensão da violência, com foco na dimensão micropolítica dos discursos sobre as emoções ligadas à vitimização. Os dados analisados são um conjunto de oito entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com casais que passaram, marido e mulher, pela experiência de terem suas residências assaltadas enquanto estavam em casa. A análise está focada na recorrência de duas emoções presentes nas descrições que os entrevistados fazem de seus sentimentos em relação aos assaltantes: compaixão e desprezo. A emergência destas duas emoções, cujas relações com a hierarquia já foram apontadas pelas ciências sociais, é então interpretada como uma tentativa de restabelecer hierarquias que teriam sido ameaçadas pelos assaltos.This paper analyzes the emotions described in narratives of victimization among Rio de Janeiro's middle classes. It explores the so-called 'contextualist' trend (Lutz & Abu-Lughod 1990 in the anthropology of emotions as a means to understanding violence, focusing on the micropolitical dimension of emotion discourses on victimization. The data analyzed is derived from eight in-depth interviews with married couples who have been through the experience of having their residences assaulted while both of them were at home. The analysis focuses on the recurrence of two emotions in the interviewees' depictions of their feelings towards their assailants: sympathy and contempt. The emergence of these two emotions, whose relations to hierarchy have already been well documented by social scientists, is interpreted as an attempt to re-establish the hierarchies perceived to have been overturned by the assaults.

  4. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Litzenberg, D [Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Covington, E [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from

  5. Enteroparasitoses em escolares do Distrito de Martinésia, Uberlândia, MG: um estudo piloto

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    Carla Borges Ferreira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em estudantes do Distrito de Martinésia, município de Uberlândia (MG. Foram examinadas 103 crianças, no período de setembro a novembro de 1995, segundo o método de Lutz ou Hoffman, Pons & Janer. O coeficiente geral de prevalência foi de 22,3% e os índices de infecção mais elevados foram observados no grupo etário 8 a 9 anos (34,8%, nos moradores da vila (30,0% e no sexo feminino (26,9%. Helmintoses e protozooses apresentaram taxas de prevalência similares (10,7% e 12,6%, respectivamente. Giardia lamblia foi o único protozoário parasito verificado e apenas um caso de poliparasitismo foi encontrado. Conclui-se que a prevalência de enteroparasitoses no grupo estudado é menor do que o esperado para uma comunidade rural, o que é, provavelmente, uma conseqüência das boas condições sanitárias presentes naquele distrito.This work evaluates the occurence of intestinal parasites in the students of the Martinesia district, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State. A total of 103 children were examined, from september to november 1995, according to Lutz or Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The overall prevalence rate was 22.3% and the highest indices of infection were observed in 8-9 age group (34.8%, in village dwellers (30.0% and in females (26.9%. Helminthosis and protozoosis showed similar prevalence rates (10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Giardia lamblia was the unique protozoan parasite verified and only one case of poliparasitism was found. We concluded that: the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the studied group is lower than expectations for a rural community, what is, probably, a consequence of the good sanitary conditions presenting in that district.

  6. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  7. Estudios sobre leishmaniasis tegumentaria en el Perú: VI. Relación entre leishmaniasis tegumentaria y Phlebotomus

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    Arístides Herrer

    1951-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Son conocidas en el Perú 12 especies del género Phlebotomus, dos de las cuales aún no han sido identificadas. De acuerdo con la región geográfica donde han sido encontradas se las puede agrupar de la siguiente manera: a. Región occidental de los Andes y valle interandino del Santa. Entre éstas se encuentran: P. verrucarum TOWNSEND, P. peruensis SHANNON, P. noguchii SHANNON y una especie aún no identificada, la que ha sido hallada tan sólo en el valle del Santa. Los límites de altura de la distribución de estas especies van de los 1,000 a 3,000 metros. b. Valle interandino del Marañón, con las siguientes especies: P. battistinii HERTIG, P. pesceí HERTIG, P. imperatrix ALEXANDER y una no identificada. La altura sobre el nivel del mar de las localidades donde han sido obtenidas estas especies van de los 1,500 a los 2,800 metros. En esta región también ha sido hallado el P.verrucadum. c. Región selvática, con las siguientes especies: P. Panamensis. SHANNON, P. squamiventris LUTZ y NEIVA, P. intermedius LUTZ Y NEIVA Y P. amazonensis ROOT. Altura sobre el nivel del mar, alrededor de los 100 metros. 2. Sólo en alguno valles de la región occidental de la Cordillera de los Andes y en el llamado Callejón de Huaylas, se han llevado a cabo estudios entomológicos que permitan interpretar las relaciones existentes entre las diversas especies de phlebotomus y la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria. Según esto, el P. verrucarum y el P. peruensis serían las que muestran más estrechas relaciones con la distribución geográfica e incidencia de la uta, forma clínica de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria existente en regiones conocidas en el Perú con el nombre de sierra.

  8. Ensaio terapêutico com «mebendazole suspensão» nas helmintíases intestinais em crianças

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    Donald Huggins

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available O Autor medicou 24 crianças portadoras de poliverminoses, com idades entre 8 a 14 anos, todas do sexo feminino, com Mebendazole (suspensão, na dose de 5 ml (100 mg duas vezes por dia e durante três dias consecutives. O diagnóstico e o controle de cura parasitológica foram realizados pelas técnicas de Lutz, Willis, Baerman-Moraes e Graham, antes e no 7.°, 14.° e 21.° dias após o tratamento para as três primeiras, enquanto a última foi executada durante sete dias consecutivos a partir do sétimo dia de encerrada a terapêutica. Verificou cura parasitológica em 100% dos casos para ascariase e enterobiase, 69,2% para tricocefalíase, 36,36% para ancilostomíase e 0% para estrongiloidiase. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada pelos doentes.The Author reports the therapeutic activity of a new anthelmintic drug - Mebendazole suspension, in the treatment of twenty-four children, aged from 8 to 14 years-old, all females, with multiple intestinal parasitic infections. Mebendazole (suspension was given in a dose of 5 ml (100 mg two times per day (taken all at a morning after breakfast, and night after dinner, for three consecutives days. The diagnosis and the control laboratory data were made before the medication, and repeated 7th, 14th, 21th days after its completion and consisting of Lutz, Willis and Baerman-Moraes methods, and the anal swab technique was made for seven consecutives days, beginning the 7th day after completion of treatment. The percentual of parasitological cure rate obtained was the following: 100% for Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis; 69,2% for Trichuris trichiura; 36,36% for Ancylostomidae sp and 0% for Strongyloides stercoralis. The drug under observation did not produce any side-affects.

  9. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  10. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M; Litzenberg, D; Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M; Keranen, W; Covington, E; Moran, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from

  11. Doença de além-mar: estudos comparativos da oncocercose na América Latina e África Overseas disease: comparative studies of oncocercosis in Latin America and Africa

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    Magali Romero Sá

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A oncocercose é causada por um verme parasita, a Onchocerca, e transmitida pelo mosquito borrachudo, simuliídeo, podendo causar cegueira em seu estado agudo. Oriunda do continente africano onde é disseminada, foi descoberta na América Latina, na Guatemala, em 1917, com registros posteriores no México, Venezuela, Colômbia e Brasil. O estabelecimento da doença nas Américas tem intrigado os especialistas, e ainda hoje é uma questão em aberto. O projeto multidisciplinar descrito nesta nota de pesquisa objetiva investigar os aspectos históricos da introdução e disseminação da doença na América Latina, e realizar estudos comparativos sobre a história da doença nos dois continentes. A importância que adquiriu acarretou a revalorização das coleções de simuliídeos, cujas espécies brasileiras começaram a ser estudadas por Adolpho Lutz no início do século XX.Round worm is a parasite, Onchocerca, and is transmitted by a black fly, simuliídeo; it can cause blindness. Originally from the African continent, where it is widespread, in Latin America it was first discovered in Guatemala in 1917; later instances were recorded in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The establishment of this disease in the Americas has intrigued scientists since then and today it is an open question. The multidisciplinary project described in this research note aims to investigate historical aspects of the arrival and spread of the disease in Latin America and, to make comparative studies of the history of the disease on both continents. The increasing importance of the disease has meant greater value being attributed to collections of simuliídeo, whose Brazilian species were first studied by Adolpho Lutz at the beginning of the 20th century.

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF Salmonella spp IN RED-FOOT-TORTOISES FROM WILDLIFE TRADE ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CEPAS DE Salmonella spp DE JABUTIS-PIRANGA ORIUNDOS DO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRES

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    Oberdan Coutinho Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Salmonella sp. in red-foot tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria because of the fact this particular reptile shows high frequency of illegal commerce, and also because this situation represents a serious risk for health. We collected feces of 89 turtles from the wildlife center “Chico Mendes” - IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Characteristic colonies of Salmonella sp. were isolated in 12.36% of the tortoises (11/89. Nine colonies were identificated at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, distributed into six different sorotypes: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan. All of them, according to literature, without previous description of infection in C. carbonaria whatsoever. However, there are previous cases of infections and antibiotics resistance involving these sorotypes, confirming the risk represented by wildlife trade to public health concerning the children’s exposition to the source of infection as well as the dissemination of resistant sorotypes.

    KEY WORDS: Epidemiology, reptiles, zoonosis.

    Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ocorrência de Salmonella sp. em jabutis-piranga (Chelonoides carbonaria, dada sua elevada frequência no comércio ilegal e risco que representa para a saúde. Coletaram-se fezes de 89 jabutis mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres Chico Mendes – IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Isolaram-se colônias características de Salmonella sp. em 12,36% dos jabutis (11/89. Destas, nove foram identificadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, distribuindo-se em seis diferentes sorovares: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan, todas, segundo a literatura consultada, sem prévia descrição para C. carbonária. No entanto, estão presentes em relatos de infecções e em estudos sobre resistência a antibióticos, confirmando o risco representado pelo tráfico de animais para a sa

  13. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Detecção de Cryptosporidium sp. em fezes não diarréicas de crianças, em uma escola de educação infantil de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therezinha T. Carvalho-Almeida

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Cryptosporidium sp. has been frequently detected in faeces from children with persistent diarrhoea. This work achieved to investigate an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, in a day care center, attending children of high socio-economic level, between 0 and six years old. The outbreak was detected through the network of public health, when stool samples, not diarrhoeic, were examined at the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. Among the 64 examined children, 13 (20.3% showed oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the faeces examined by Kinyoun technique: seven children one year old, three, two years old and three, three years old. Among the 23 examined adults, only a 22 years old woman, possibly having an immunocomprometiment, was positive. Clinical and epidemiological aspects were investigated by questionnaires, highlighting the occurrence of the outbreak in a very dry period.O protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. tem sido detectado com freqüência em fezes de crianças com diarréia persistente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar um surto de criptosporidiose, em uma escola de educação infantil, que atende crianças de classe média alta, de 0 a seis anos de idade. O surto foi detectado a partir de amostras fecais não diarréicas encaminhadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz através da rede de saúde pública. Das 64 crianças 13 (20,3% apresentaram oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes, examinadas pelo método de Kinyoun, sendo sete crianças com um ano de idade, três com dois anos de idade e três, com três anos de idade. Dos 23 adultos examinados, apenas uma mulher de 22 anos, com possível imunocomprometimento, foi positiva. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos foram investigados por meio de questionários, ressaltando-se que o surto ocorreu em período muito seco.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of swine raised in different management systems in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Alynne S. Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05. Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.

  15. Is automated platelet counting still a problem in thrombocytopenic blood?

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    Raimundo Antônio Gomes Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Reliable platelet counting is crucial for indicating prophylactic platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision and accuracy of platelet counting for thrombocytopenic patients, using four different automated counters in comparison with the Brecher & Cronkite reference method recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH. TYPE OF STUDY: Automated platelet counting assessment in thrombocytopenic patients. SETTING: Hematology Laboratory, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, and the Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Brecher & Cronkite reference method and four different automated platelet counters. PARTICIPANTS: 43 thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts of less than 30,000/µl RESULTS: The ADVIA-120 (Bayer, Coulter STKS, H1 System (Technicom-Bayer and Coulter T-890 automatic instruments presented great precision and accuracy in relation to laboratory thrombocytopenic samples obtained by diluting blood from normal donors. However, when thrombocytopenic patients were investigated, all the counters except ADVIA (which is based on volume and refraction index showed low accuracy when compared to the Brecher & Cronkite reference method (ICSH. The ADVIA counter showed high correlation (r = 0.947. However, all counters showed flags in thrombocytopenic samples. CONCLUSION: The Brecher & Cronkite reference method should always be indicated in thrombocytopenic patients for platelet counts below 30,000 plt /µl obtained in one dimensional counters.

  16. Análise físico-química e legalidade em bebidas de laranja
    Physical-chemical analysis and legality in orange beverages

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    R. FIGUEIRA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o °Brix, acidez titulável (AT e ratio em sucos concentrados, sucos, néctares e refrigerantes de laranja comerciais e compará-los com os seus Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ publicados pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA e Codex Alimentarius. Quatro sucos concentrados, vinte e dois sucos, sete néctares e treze refrigerantes foram analisados. A densidade das bebidas foi mensurada em densímetro digital e convertida para °Brix, utilizando uma tabela que relaciona estas variáveis. A AT foi calculada conforme as Normas Analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ratio foi obtido pela razão entre °Brix e AT. Todos os sucos concentrados estavam em acordo com o Codex Alimentarius. A grande maioria dos sucos e refrigerantes comerciais respeita a legislação brasileira. Os néctares de laranja não puderam ser comparados com padrões legais, pois estes são inexistentes tanto no MAPA quanto no Codex Alimentarius.

  17. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

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    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  18. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  19. Wing geometry as a tool for studying the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae complex

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    J De la Riva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Toro Toro (T and Yungas (Y have been described as genetically well differentiated populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 complex in Bolivia. Here we use geometric morphometrics to compare samples from these populations and new populations (Bolivia and Nicaragua, representing distant geographical origins, qualitative morphological variation ("one-spot" or "two-spots" phenotypes, ecologically distinct traits (peridomestic and silvatic populations, and possibly different epidemiological roles (transmitting or nor transmitting Leishmania chagasi. The Nicaragua (N (Somotillo sample was "one-spot" phenotype and a possible peridomestic vector. The Bolivian sample of the Y was also "one-spot" phenotype and a demonstrated peridomestic vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The three remaining samples were silvatic, "two-spots" phenotypes. Two of them (Uyuni and T were collected in the highlands of Bolivian where VL never has been reported. The last one (Robore, R came from the lowlands of Bolivia, where human cases of VL are sporadically reported. The decomposition of metric variation into size and shape by geometric morphometric techniques suggests the existence of two groups (N/Y/R, and U/T. Several arguments indicate that such subdivision of Lu. longipalpis could correspond to different evolutionary units.

  20. Sanitary quality of the rivers in the Communities of Manguinhos´ Territory, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

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    Natasha Berendonk Handam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation actions are rare in the communities of Manguinhos, so evaluation of the sanitary conditions of the river waters and the peridomestic soils of the communities allows the diagnosis of the risk of contamination. This study evaluated coliform levels (total coliforms and Escherichia coli by the filter membrane method, and parasitological (by adapted Lutz and Baermann-Moraes methods in the waters and soils of the Faria-Timbó, Jacaré and Canal do Cunha Rivers that pass through the communities of the Territory of Manguinhos, RJ, according to the standards established in Brazilian legislation. In all points of the rivers, the water was unfit, with an average level of Escherichia coli 3,800 times higher than that standardized in CONAMA Resolution No. 274/2000. Larvae, helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts were observed. Soil samples were also unfit, with mean total coliform level 77,000 times higher than that considered acceptable by SMAC Resolution 468/2010. The Escherichia coli average level was 53,000 times higher than that permitted by the legislation. However, helminths eggs were found in only one soil sample. It was concluded that the lack of sanitation in this locality results in the high coliform and parasitological levels of the river waters and in the peridomestic soils, and that immediate modifications are needed to the Brazilian environmental paradigm, which uses its water bodies as sewage disposal ditches.

  1. CINÉTICA DE FEIJÃO PRETO (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L. EM SECADOR DE BANDEJA

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    Deyzi Santos Gouveia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propôs estudar a cinética de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, l. em secador de bandeja a diferentes temperaturas do ar e posterior ajuste dos dados experimentais, obtidos com os diferentes modelos matemáticos ( Fick, Page e Cavalcante Mata. O teor de umidade inicial das sementes foi determinado pelo método padrão da estufa, 105 ± 3 °C, durante 72 h, com três repetições, de acordo com as regras do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Os tratamentos de secagem foram realizados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (40, 50, 60 ,70 e 80 ºC. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 60 g de feijão por repetição. Para este fim utilizou-se um desidratador de frutas, Polidryer PD-25. O ar foi aquecido por meio de gás de cozinha, enquanto a temperatura foi controlada com o auxílio de um termopar, conectado ao secador. Os resultados mostraram que as equações propostas por Cavalcanti Mata e Page foram as que melhor representaram os dados experimentais, quando comparada com a equação de Fick utilizando um termo da série.

  2. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

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    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  3. How do males of Hypsiboas goianus (Hylidae: Anura respond to conspecific acoustic stimuli?

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    Alessandro R. Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of anurans. Acoustic signals, which can be used in different contexts such as mate attraction and territory defense, may mediate social interactions among individuals. Herein, we used playback experiments to test whether males of Hypsiboas goianus (Lutz, 1968 change their vocal behavior in response to conspecific advertisement calls. Specifically, we used different field playback experiments in which we modified the time interval between advertisement calls to simulate males with distinct states of motivation (Sequence A and B. We did not observe differences in the acoustic response of males of H. goianus between the two types of field playback experiments. On the other hand, we observed that H. goianus males reduce the dominant frequency of the advertisement call and increase the rate of aggressive calls in response to a conspecific competitor. Our results suggest that the acoustic plasticity observed in males of H. goianus represents an aggressive response that allows repelling conspecific individuals.

  4. Geohelminth contamination of public areas and epidemiological risk factors in Curitiba, Brazil

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    Lew Kan Sprenger

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the frequency of geohelminthic contamination of public parks and squares in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between August and December 2010. A total of 345 samples were collected from 69 sandboxes in different areas and were tested using the Faust, Lutz and Baermann parasitological techniques. Potential risk factors associated with soil contamination were also analyzed. A total of 36% of the samples (124/345 were positive for helminths and 65.2% of the areas (45/69 were classified as contaminated in one or more samples. The most commonly identified parasite eggs were Ancylostoma sp. (14.5%; 50/345; followed by Toxocara sp. (9.6%; 33/345 and the Strongyloidea superfamily (excluding hookworms (2.3%; 8/345. The analysis on the epidemiological risk factors indicated that the presence of dogs and feces in the sandboxes increased the chances of contamination of the site. Use of fences had a protective positive impact that reduced soil contamination. Health education programs should be applied within the community to minimize the risk of human contact with dogs' feces. Use of fencing in these areas is highly recommended to prevent or reduce the users' contact with animal excrement.

  5. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

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    Nao Hisakawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight, thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995. Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  6. Beyond-Born-Oppenheimer effects in sub-kHz-precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Mateusz; Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S.; Yamada, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takahashi, Kakeru; Takasu, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2017-12-01

    We present high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates of ytterbium atoms. The use of narrow Raman resonances and careful examination of systematic shifts enabled us to measure 13 bound-state energies for three isotopologues of the ground-state ytterbium molecule with standard uncertainties of the order of 500 Hz. The atomic interactions are modeled using an ab initio based mass-scaled Born-Oppenheimer potential whose long-range van der Waals parameters and total WKB phase are fitted to experimental data. We find that the quality of the fit of this model, of about 112.9 kHz (rms) can be significantly improved by adding the recently calculated beyond-Born-Oppenheimer (BBO) adiabatic corrections [J. J. Lutz and J. M. Hutson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 43 (2016), 10.1016/j.jms.2016.08.007] and by partially treating the nonadiabatic effects using distance-dependent reduced masses. Our BBO interaction model represents the experimental data to within about 30.2 kHz on average, which is 3.7 times better than the "reference" Born-Oppenheimer model. We calculate the s -wave scattering lengths for bosonic isotopic pairs of ytterbium atoms with error bars over two orders of magnitude smaller than previous determinations. For example, the s -wave scattering length for 174Yb is +5.55812 (50 ) nm.

  7. Gênero, emoções e vitimização: percepções sobre a violência urbana no Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria Claudia Coelho

    Full Text Available Este texto examina emoções relatadas em depoimentos de vítimas de assaltos a residências pertencentes às camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. Insere-se na área de antropologia das emoções, adotando como perspectiva teórica, o "contextualismo" de Catherine Lutz e Lila Abu-Lughod. O ponto central desta perspectiva é a atenção voltada à capacidade micropolítica das emoções, tributárias de uma "gramática" social, sendo capazes, por isso, de dramatizar/alterar/reforçar aspectos "macro" da organização social que modelam as relações interpessoais. Os dados são um conjunto de entrevistas com casais que vivenciaram assaltos às suas residências. O objetivo é examinar as atitudes "prescritas" em seus relatos como "ideais" ou "eficazes" para lidar com a condição de vítima e sua relação com identidades de gênero. O foco da análise são as formas de "controle emocional" presentes em seus relatos, com ênfase na oposição entre o controle da raiva e o controle do medo.

  8. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  9. Occurrence and Probability Maps of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Filho, J D; Scholte, R G C; Amaral, A L G; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, O S; Caldeira, R L

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniases are serious diseases caused by trypanosomatid protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. We analyzed records pertaining to Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) in Brazil from the following sources: the collection of phlebotomine sand flies of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou/Fiocruz (FIOCRUZ-COLFLEB), the "SpeciesLink" (CRIA) database, from systematic surveys of scientific articles and gray literature (dissertations, theses, and communications), and disease data obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases/Ministry of Health (SINAN/MS). Environmental data and ecological niche modeling (ESMS) using the approach of MaxEnt algorithm produced maps of occurrence probability for both Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in 229 Brazilian municipalities and Lu. cruzi in 27. The species were sympatric in 16 municipalities of the Central-West region of Brazil. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis is widely distributed and associated with the high number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis reported in Brazil. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  11. Novel topical therapy for mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis: focus on calcitriol

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    Lutz Kowalzick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz KowalzickDepartment of Dermatology and Allergology, HELIOS Vogtland-Klinikum Plauen GmbH Plauen, GermanyAbstract: The benefits of vitamin D derivatives for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis are well documented. Of importance is how compatible they are with, and how they compare to, other established treatments for psoriasis. This paper reviews 15 studies with calcitriol 3 µg g-1 ointment (Silkis®/Vectical™ ointment; Galderma Laboratories applied twice daily for up to 52 weeks. The ointment was found to be effective and safe for the treatment of mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis including sensitive skin areas. Calcitriol 3 µg g-1 ointment was found to be as effective as, or even superior to, other established treatment modalities and more highly tolerated than other local treatment modalities in most studies’ comparisons. It could be combined with other psoriasis treatment modalities such as ultraviolet B phototherapy or topical corticosteroids in order to achieve a faster response and in order to reduce the risk of adverse events.Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol, psoriasis, therapy

  12. The role of duplications in the evolution of genomes highlights the need for evolutionary-based approaches in comparative genomics

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    Levasseur Anthony

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the evolutionary plasticity of the genome requires a global, comparative approach in which genetic events are considered both in a phylogenetic framework and with regard to population genetics and environmental variables. In the mechanisms that generate adaptive and non-adaptive changes in genomes, segmental duplications (duplication of individual genes or genomic regions and polyploidization (whole genome duplications are well-known driving forces. The probability of fixation and maintenance of duplicates depends on many variables, including population sizes and selection regimes experienced by the corresponding genes: a combination of stochastic and adaptive mechanisms has shaped all genomes. A survey of experimental work shows that the distinction made between fixation and maintenance of duplicates still needs to be conceptualized and mathematically modeled. Here we review the mechanisms that increase or decrease the probability of fixation or maintenance of duplicated genes, and examine the outcome of these events on the adaptation of the organisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Etienne Joly, Dr. Lutz Walter and Dr. W. Ford Doolittle.

  13. American visceral leishmaniasis: disease control strategies in dracen microregion in alta paulista, SP, Brazil

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    LAZ D'Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite measures adopted to control American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, the disease is spreading in a fast and worrying way throughout western São Paulo state. The aim of this work was to study the variables involved in the disease cycle as well as the effectiveness of controlling measures. The study was carried out in the microregion of Dracena, which is composed of twelve cities and belongs to Alta Paulista, a region of western São Paulo. The necessary data were provided by the Superintendence for Endemic Disease Control and Adolfo Lutz Institute, Regional Laboratory of Presidente Prudente. From August 2005 to January 2008, the following factors were observed: detection of phlebotomine sandflies in the cities and periods in which dogs or humans were diagnosed; number of human deaths; prevalence of suspected dogs tested by serology; percentage of euthanasia in suspected dogs; a possible correlation between positive dogs and cases of the disease in humans; and the disease prevalence among municipalities from the studied region. It was verified that, despite the strategies adopted in Dracena microregion to control AVL, the disease continues to rise. Thus, some procedures of the AVL Monitoring and Control Program should be reviewed, to grant the initiative more credibility and effectiveness.

  14. Feeding patterns of Haemagogus capricornii and Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro and Goiás).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2008-09-01

    We present the identification of bloodfeeding sources of Haemagogus (Haemagogus) capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different regions of Brazil, as analyzed by precipitin tests. Anti-sera for bird, bovine, equine, human, opossum, and rodent were used. Two hundred one mosquitoes were examined (147 Hg. leucocelaenus and 54 Hg. capricornii), of which 177 reacted for some anti-serum. For Hg. leucocelaenus, 86 (68.3%) reacted to one blood source, 38 (30.2%) to two sources, and two (1.6%) to three sources; the combinations of bird + human (18.4%), bird + rodent (15.8%), and bird + marsupial (15.8%) were the most frequent. For Hg. capricornii, 34 (66.7%) reacted to one blood source; combinations bird + rodent (37.5%) and bird + marsupial (25%) were the most frequent combinations. Mosquito preference for bloodfeeding sources was different in these areas, possibly because of the availability of sources. This diversity of sources can have important epidemiological implications.

  15. Ensaio terapêutico com «mebendazole suspensão» nas helmintíases intestinais em crianças

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    Donald Huggins

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available O Autor medicou 24 crianças portadoras de poliverminoses, com idades entre 8 a 14 anos, todas do sexo feminino, com Mebendazole (suspensão, na dose de 5 ml (100 mg duas vezes por dia e durante três dias consecutives. O diagnóstico e o controle de cura parasitológica foram realizados pelas técnicas de Lutz, Willis, Baerman-Moraes e Graham, antes e no 7.°, 14.° e 21.° dias após o tratamento para as três primeiras, enquanto a última foi executada durante sete dias consecutivos a partir do sétimo dia de encerrada a terapêutica. Verificou cura parasitológica em 100% dos casos para ascariase e enterobiase, 69,2% para tricocefalíase, 36,36% para ancilostomíase e 0% para estrongiloidiase. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada pelos doentes.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasites in food handlers, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Mizutani, Angelica Sayuri; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Ferreira, Erika Cristina; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and risk factors for enteroparasites were determined in food handlers from Maringá, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Fecal and subungual materials of 150 street food vendors were analyzed by the methods of Lutz, Faust, and Mello, respectively. A questionnaire on hygiene and sanitary conditions of the workplace and of domicile was applied. The prevalence of enteroparasites was 28%, and the protozoa infection was more expressive (21.3%) than by helminths (6.7%), but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Entamoeba coli was the most frequent species occurring in 15.3%, while the prevalence of protozoa pathogenic was low (Giardia lamblia: 2.7% and Entamoeba histolytica: 0.7%). The subungual material presented negative results. The presence of pets in domiciles has increased twice the risk of infection. The working conditions of the majority of street food vendors were inappropriate. The results highlight the need for more rigorous programs of continuing education, parasitological examination every six months, and health surveillance. In this way, the quality of the service provided to the population can be improved and the transmission of food-borne diseases can be prevented.

  17. Major Denice Santiago: uma mulher negra e feminista num lugar de poder da Polícia Militar da Bahia

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    Margarida Paredes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Major Denice Santiago foi uma das pioneiras da Polícia Militar da Bahia (PMBA, tendo ingressado em 1990 como sargenta nas primeiras turmas de praças e oficiais. Dois anos depois, foi admitida na primeira turma de oficiais para mulheres, ostentando hoje a patente de Major. Atualmente, também é uma das duas únicas oficiais da PMBA a ter quebrado o “teto de vidro” que impede a ascensão de mulheres em organizações dominadas pela “masculinidade hegemônica” e a ocupar um posto de comando na PM baiana, como comandante da Ronda Maria da Penha. Graduada em Psicologia, é Mestre em Desenvolvimento Territorial e Gestão Social pela UFBA. Em 2017, recebeu o Diploma Bertha Lutz, premiação do Senado Federal pela sua contribuição na defesa dos direitos das mulheres e políticas de gênero.

  18. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rodrigues Machado Eleuza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13% were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4% of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenole-pis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  1. APPLICATION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ISOCENTER QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOTHERAPY

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    Michał Niedźwiecki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major procedures for testing the geometrical accuracy of devices used in radiotherapy treatments is the test of the geometrical position of the radiation isocenter. The importance of the test reflects the fact that geometrical position of the radiation isocenter generally affects the tumor targeting. At present the geometric accuracy is assessed with the Winston-Lutz test which checks the position of an image of a ball marker with the respect to the center of the radiation field as projected on a detector plane. Obviously, determination of coordinates of a single marker is not sufficient to fully account for a complicated geometry of a therapeutic device. The purpose of the study was to design a new image analysis tool to better determine the isocenter. The proposed automated procedure for determining isocenter position uses projection data acquired for a special cube phantom. The projection images of a phantom are acquired for various angles of rotation of the gantry. A procedure is proposed to extract some geometric characteristics of a therapeutic device from the projection images.

  2. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

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    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  4. Novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade nas taxas de resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas de pneumococo New susceptibility breakpoints in antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal strains

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    Paula Carolina Bejo Wolkers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar impacto dos novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade à penicilina nas taxas de resistência de cepas de pneumococo obtidas de crianças com pneumonia. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no laboratório de análises clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia (MG, a partir de amostras de pacientes internados foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo (SP, para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2008 foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz 330 cepas de pneumococo, sendo 195 (59% provenientes de pacientes com diagnóstico de pneumonia. Destas, foram analisadas 100 cepas de pacientes com idade ≤ 12 anos; a idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 12,6 anos, com média de 2,4 e mediana de 1,7 anos; 47 pacientes eram do sexo masculino; as fontes de recuperação foram sangue (42% e líquido pleural (58%. Foram detectadas 35 cepas oxacilina-resistentes: segundo os critérios do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI de 2007 [concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ≤ 0,06 µg/mL para sensibilidade (S, 0,12 a 1 µg/mL para resistência intermediária (RI e ≥ 2 µg/mL para resistência plena (RP], 22 cepas apresentaram RI e 11, RP para penicilina. De acordo com os critérios atuais do CLSI de 2008 (≤ 2 µg/mL para S, 4 µg/mL para RI e ≥ 8 µg/mL para RP apenas uma cepa confirmou RI à penicilina. Detectou-se resistência a cotrimoxazol (80%, tetraciclina (21%, eritromicina (13%, clindamicina (13% e ceftriaxona (uma cepa, simultaneamente resistente a penicilina. CONCLUSÕES: Com a aplicação dos novos pontos de corte para sensibilidade in vitro, as taxas de resistência a penicilina caíram 97%, de 33 para 1%.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints on resistance rates of pneumococcal strains collected from children with pneumonia. METHODS

  5. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

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    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  6. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV/ AIDS patients in relation to their clinical and epidemiological status in a specialized medical service in Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa; Silva, Lorena de Freitas E; Dias, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães; Menezes Filho, Hélio Ranes de; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2018-03-08

    Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters. A total of 270 stool samples were analyzed by the Lutz technique, Rugai's method, Agar Plate Culture, Ritchie's method and specific staining, Ziehl-Neelsen modified technique, Kinyoun's method and the rapid safranin method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 28.88% including 3.8% of S. stercoralis, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora belli. There was a significant positive correlation between intestinal parasites and the clinical status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), smoking, CD4+ lymphocyte counts and sexual orientation. In conclusion, the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and health assistance contributed to the low prevalence of S. stercoralis and coccidiosis in patients with HIV/ AIDS who were followed up at the SAE.

  7. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  8. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  9. [Confusion about P. Schröder, W. Villinger and H. Heinze : The three chairmen of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education between 1940 and 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, K; Topp, S; Fangerau, H

    2017-03-01

    On 5 September 1940, the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH) was founded. In order to secure sustainable impact, the young professional association aimed to: (1) Increase its scientific reputation through the organization of regular conventions and publications, (2) Attain continuity in its leadership (board) and membership growth, and (3) Establish itself in national socialistic politics and society for health care policy matters. Due to the unexpected death of the first chairman, Paul Schröder, only nine months after DGKH's foundation, these objectives were seriously put into question. The search for a new chairman led to a struggle for power and direction involving rival medical and non-medical associations as well as governmental institutions. Rather contrary to current knowledge, newly discovered documents indicate that the DGKH definitely acted out and initially influenced healthcare policy both before and directly after Schroeder's death. To interpret the complexity of the succession decision process - which led to the more radical Hans Heinze being chosen over Werner Villinger - this study employs a qualitative historical network analysis approach. For the broader interpretation of results within the national socialistic healthcare context we refer to Lutz Raphael's concept of radical order theory.

  10. Examining the role of unmeasured confounding in mediation analysis with genetic and genomic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sharon M; Thwing, Annie; Schmiege, Sarah; Kroehl, Miranda; Baker, Christopher D; Starling, Anne P; Hokanson, John E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2017-07-19

    In mediation analysis if unmeasured confounding is present, the estimates for the direct and mediated effects may be over or under estimated. Most methods for the sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounding in mediation have focused on the mediator-outcome relationship. The Umediation R package enables the user to simulate unmeasured confounding of the exposure-mediator, exposure-outcome, and mediator-outcome relationships in order to see how the results of the mediation analysis would change in the presence of unmeasured confounding. We apply the Umediation package to the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) study to examine the role of unmeasured confounding due to population stratification on the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5/3/B4 locus on pulmonary function decline as mediated by cigarette smoking. Umediation is a flexible R package that examines the role of unmeasured confounding in mediation analysis allowing for normally distributed or Bernoulli distributed exposures, outcomes, mediators, measured confounders, and unmeasured confounders. Umediation also accommodates multiple measured confounders, multiple unmeasured confounders, and allows for a mediator-exposure interaction on the outcome. Umediation is available as an R package at https://github.com/SharonLutz/Umediation A tutorial on how to install and use the Umediation package is available in the Additional file 1.

  11. Ensaios de micologia contribuição para o conhecimento das Esporotricoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1956-10-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the forms found in material obtained from a human lesion localized in the mouth. The patient was a farmer and the diagnosis unknown. The author found yeast forms, some germinating, resembling those found in the mycosis of LUTZ. It was Sporotricosis and only once, in 96 cases, has the author found these fungous forms in the suspected material. The cultures in Sabouraud glucose and in many other media were positive for Sporotrichum, resembling that described by BENEDEK in 1926 (variety? principally by the reddish colour of some cultures. The author thinks there is, perhaps, a mutation influenced by the surroundings and the light in certain cultures and that the dark pigment is the dominant one. He considers that the pigment will not do for the differentiation of species and that it is, really, Sporotrichum Schencki-Beurmanni. The author calls attention to the question of diagnosis and studies separately, each of the elements in which his opinion is based, finding that only a macro and microscopic study of the cultures decides the question.

  12. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current treatment options and critical appraisal of nintedanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonella F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Bonella,1 Susanne Stowasser,2 Lutz Wollin3 1Interstitial and Rare Lung Disease Unit, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, 3Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is characterized by a poor prognosis, with an estimated 5-year survival of approximately 20%. Progressive and irreversible lung functional impairment leads to chronic respiratory insufficiency with a severely impaired quality of life. In the last 2 decades, novel treatments for IPF have been developed as a consequence of an increasing understanding of disease pathogenesis and pathobiology. In IPF, injured dysfunctional alveolar epithelial cells promote fibroblast recruitment and proliferation, resulting in scarring of the lung tissue. Recently, pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved for the treatment of IPF, having shown efficacy to slow functional decline and disease progression. This article focuses on the pharmacologic characteristics and clinical evidence supporting the use of nintedanib, a potent small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as therapy for IPF. After introducing the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, an overview of the safety and efficacy results from the most recent clinical trials of nintedanib in IPF is presented. Keywords: tyrosine kinase, disease progression, treatment outcome, usual interstitial pneumonia, therapeutics

  13. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  14. Bloodmeal Identification in Field-Collected Sand Flies From Casa Branca, Brazil, Using the Cytochrome b PCR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G M L; Rêgo, F D; Tanure, A; Silva, A C P; Dias, T A; Paz, G F; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-07-01

    PCR-based identification of vertebrate host bloodmeals has been performed on several vectors species with success. In the present study, we used a previously published PCR protocol followed by DNA sequencing based on primers designed from multiple alignments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene used to identify avian and mammalian hosts of various hematophagous vectors. The amplification of a fragment encoding a 359 bp sequence of the Cyt b gene yielded recognized amplification products in 192 female sand flies (53%), from a total of 362 females analyzed. In the study area of Casa Branca, Brazil, blood-engorged female sand flies such as Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1924), and Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) were analyzed for bloodmeal sources. The PCR-based method identified human, dog, chicken, and domestic rat blood sources. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.

  16. Automatic analysis of image quality control for Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) devices in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf

    2009-01-01

    On-board imagers mounted on a radiotherapy treatment machine are very effective devices that improve the geometric accuracy of radiation delivery. However, a precise and regular quality control program is required in order to achieve this objective. Our purpose consisted of developing software tools dedicated to an automatic image quality control of IGRT devices used in external radiotherapy: 2D-MV mode for measuring patient position during the treatment using high energy images, 2D-kV mode (low energy images) and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) MV or kV mode, used for patient positioning before treatment. Automated analysis of the Winston and Lutz test was also proposed. This test is used for the evaluation of the mechanical aspects of treatment machines on which additional constraints are carried out due to the on-board imagers additional weights. Finally, a technique of generating digital phantoms in order to assess the performance of the proposed software tools is described. Software tools dedicated to an automatic quality control of IGRT devices allow reducing by a factor of 100 the time spent by the medical physics team to analyze the results of controls while improving their accuracy by using objective and reproducible analysis and offering traceability through generating automatic monitoring reports and statistical studies. (author) [fr

  17. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fats, fixed mineral residue, total fiber content, and fatty acid composition, according to the standards established by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Food safety was assessed by microbiological analyses for Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp, and coliforms. Sensory acceptance and intention to purchase were also evaluated. The food blend showed good nutritional potential, with low atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, good macronutrient balance, and high energy value. The adoption of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP resulted in a product suitable for consumption. With respect to sensory aspects, the food blend showed satisfactory indexes of acceptability and promising marketing potential.

  18. A robust Hough transform algorithm for determining the radiation centers of circular and rectangular fields with subpixel accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Yang, James [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 94, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: wdu@mdanderson.org

    2009-02-07

    Uncertainty in localizing the radiation field center is among the major components that contribute to the overall positional error and thus must be minimized. In this study, we developed a Hough transform (HT)-based computer algorithm to localize the radiation center of a circular or rectangular field with subpixel accuracy. We found that the HT method detected the centers of the test circular fields with an absolute error of 0.037 {+-} 0.019 pixels. On a typical electronic portal imager with 0.5 mm image resolution, this mean detection error was translated to 0.02 mm, which was much finer than the image resolution. It is worth noting that the subpixel accuracy described here does not include experimental uncertainties such as linac mechanical instability or room laser inaccuracy. The HT method was more accurate and more robust to image noise and artifacts than the traditional center-of-mass method. Application of the HT method in Winston-Lutz tests was demonstrated to measure the ball-radiation center alignment with subpixel accuracy. Finally, the method was applied to quantitative evaluation of the radiation center wobble during collimator rotation.

  19. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  20. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  1. Diurnal biting periodicity of parous Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors in the onchocerciasis Amazonian focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M-E; Villamizar, N J; Cortez, J; Frontado, H L; Escalona, M; Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M-G

    2005-05-01

    We describe the hourly patterns of parous biting activity of the three main simuliid vectors of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus straddling between Venezuela and Brazil, namely, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise; S. incrustatum Lutz, and S. oyapockense s.l. Floch and Abonnenc. Time series of the hourly numbers of host-seeking parous flies caught in five Yanomami villages during dry, rainy, and their transition periods from 1995 to 2001 were investigated using harmonic analysis (assuming an underlying circadian rhythm) and periodic correlation (based on Spearman's r). Parous S guianense s.l. showed a bimodal activity pattern, with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at 16:00 h. S. incrustatum exhibited mainly unimodal activity during either early morning or midday according to locality. S. oyapockense s.l. bit humans throughout the day mainly between 10:00 and 16:00 h but also showed bimodal periodicity in some localities. Superimposed on the endogenous, species-specific daily cycles, parous activity showed variation according to locality, season, air temperature and relative humidity, with biting being promoted by warmer and drier hours during wet seasons/periods and reduced during hotter times in dry seasons or transitions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for blackfly biology and ecology as well as onchocerciasis epidemiology and control.

  2. THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN THE INTERACTIVE SPACE OF CBME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.B Ovigli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that since the 1980’s it has a paradigm change, strengtheningthe perception of Science as a human construction and not as "natural truth", newapproaches of teaching emphasizes the importance of the History of Science inthe educational process, also recommended by the Brazilian PCNs. In thiscontext, it is presented the conclusion of the elaboration and evaluation of anillustrated historical panel that is in permanent exposition in the Interactive Spaceof Biotechnology of the CBME. It presents 25 pictures, inserted in a timeline thatselects important events related to cell biology, microbiology and immunology. Thetimeline is initiated in century XVI, with the microbial theory of the illnesses;spontaneous generation and the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani alsoare commented, as well as the production of the first vaccine. Koch, in centuryXIX, is remembered with its postulates and the discovery of some illnessescausative agents. Brazilians’ researchers - Adolfo Lutz, Oswaldo Cruz, Vital Braziland Carlos Chagas – and institutes are presented too. The panel revealed itself asan important source of information, awakening the interest of the visitors for thesubject. The idea was based on presenting Science as a human knowledgeadventure, emphasizing the scientific process in the construction of theknowledge, based on procedures, needs and different interests and values.

  3. Características físico-químicas dos méis do município de São Fidélis-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEREDO Maria Aparecida Alves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a tonalidade as amostras de mel foram divididas em grupos, armazenadas em diferentes condições e analisadas segundo os métodos adotados pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Laboratório Nacional de Referência Animal e Association of Official Analytical Chemists. As amostras foram acondicionadas em recipientes de vidro e de polipropileno e armazenadas à temperatura ambiente. Um grupo de amostras foi armazenada em luminosidade ambiente enquanto o outro grupo ao abrigo da luz. As determinações de umidade, pH, acidez, cor, açúcares redutores e não-redutores, hidroximetilfurfural e índices de Lugol, Lund, Fiehe e diastase foram efetuadas por um período de um ano de armazenamento. Os resultados obtidos indicam que as amostras analisadas mantiveram suas características dentre os padrões aceitáveis e que os produtores devem ser orientados para o uso de técnicas de acondicionamento e armazenamento dos méis, para garantir a qualidade dos seus produtos.

  4. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Filho, Adalberto Alves; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2018-02-20

    Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected in peridomiciliary areas on the tourist route from September 2012 to August 2013. The captured females were subjected to molecular analyses for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Sand flies were infected with four Leishmania species: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) was found in Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho, 1939) (2.1%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (1.7%); Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Nicole, 1908) infected Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw, and Lainson, 1971) (20%), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon and Del Ponte, 1927) (4.3%), Lu. longipalpis (3.7%), and Lu. whitmani (0.8%); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Lainson & Shaw, 1972) was found in Lu. whitmani (0.58%), while Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni infected Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936) (3.4%), Lu. longipalpis (1.06%), and Lu. whitmani (0.29%). The occurrence of these parasites requires control measures to reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to contain a possible epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease.

  5. Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil. Following the first records of AVL in this country, in 1934, the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912 was incriminated as the principal vector. It is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan in the saliva of flies from different populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l., may account for the variable clinical manifestations of AVL seen in different geographic regions. Distribution of AVL has been shown to extend throughout most of South and Central America, with the domestic dog serving as the principal reservoir of infection for man. However, while one hypothesis suggests that the causative parasite is Leishmania infantum, imported from Europe with the Portuguese and Spanish colonists, the demonstration of a high rate of benign, inapparent infection in foxes in Amazonian Brazil raised an opposing suggestion that the parasite is indigenous to the Americas. Recent reports of similar infections in native marsupials, and possibly rodents, tend to support this view, particularly as Lu. longipalpis is primordially a silvatic sandfly. Although effective control measures in foci of the disease will diminish the number of canine and human infections, the presence of such an enzootic in a variety of native animals will render the total eradication of AVL unlikely.

  6. Fine structure and distribution pattern of antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Bahia-Nascimento, Ana Cristina; Pinto, Luciana Conceição; Leal, Cynthia de Sousa; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2008-11-01

    The specific aims of this work were to examine the antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) adults and to characterize their typology and topography, with special attention to olfactory sensilla. The surfaces of the antennal segments of Lu. longipalpis males and females were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lu. longipalpis used in the current study were obtained from a colony originating from Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Microtrichiae and 11 subtypes of sensilla were observed and characterized according to the following categories: five subtypes of trichoid sensilla (short, medium, long blunt-tipped, long pointed-tipped, and apical), two coeloconic sensilla (grooved and praying hands), and campaniform, chaetic, basiconic, and squamiform sensilla. SEM analyses showed few differences between males and females in the typology, topography, and quantity of antennal sensilla described. The current study is the first to identify several categories of antennal sensilla of the genus Lutzomyia and their distribution patterns. The identification of these sensillar types may be important in planning future electrophysiological studies to develop alternative measures of control and monitoring of Lu. longipalpis.

  7. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.

  9. Clean air. Measures against fine dust and nitrogen oxide; Luftreinhalteplanung. Massnahmen gegen Feinstaub und Stickstoffoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th October, 2011, in Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Air pollution burden in Bavaria - Results from actual investigations (Juergen Diemer); (2) Winter spreading services: Reduction of particulate matter by means of CMA (Wolfgang Hafner); (3) Scenarios for the development of immission loads by NO{sub 2} at traffic-orientated air quality measuring stations in Bavaria (Frank Duennebeil); (4) Photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide coatings in the reduction of the loading by nitrous oxides (Anja Baum); (5) Environmental zone Berlin (Martin Lutz); (6) Environmental zones in the Ruhr district (Cornelia Wappenschmidt); (7) Environmental zone Augsburg (Manfred Ertl); (8) Reduction of NO{sub x} by Euro 6 diesel passenger cars (Thomas Fortner); (9) (e)-Mobility leads to a new era. The next step in the evolution of the automobility (BMW Group); (10) Experience report on the FE project: 'Testing of diesel particle filters for the utilization in the inland navigation' (Torsen Mundt); (11) Reduction of the pollution burden by means of an ecological traffic control: Analysis and control of the pollution control by means of 'smart' IT solutions (Stefen Schaefer); (12) Emissions reductions at busses by means of SCRT upgrading (Detlef Plachta).

  10. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  11. Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Felippe, Isis Moreira; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2018-04-23

    We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy. The presumptive identification showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98.8, 92.5 and 97.9 %, respectively. Macroscopic analysis of MTBC isolates that would have been erroneously classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria based solely on microscopic morphology enabled us to direct them rapidly to DST, representing a substantial gain to patients. In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times.

  12. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  13. Synthetic Sex Pheromone Attracts the Leishmaniasis Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Traps in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D. P.; Bandi, K. K.; Brazil, R. P.; Oliveira, A. G.; Hamilton, J.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world’s burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly as vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of AVL, Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies, attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world’s most important neglected diseases, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. Then by formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, demonstrating the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  14. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Anthropophily of Lutzomyia wellcomei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  17. Variabilidad genética en Lutzomyia ( verrucarum evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, vector de Leishmaniosis visceral americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Porter

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, Lutzomyia longipalpis
    (Lutz y Neiva, 1912 y Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938, son los
    vectores de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, en el neotrópico. Lu. evansi ha sido incriminada como vector en zonas rurales de la Costa Caribe Colombiana, y algunas zonas de Venezuela y Nicaragua. A pesar de que esta especie reviste gran importancia en Salud Pública, no existen a la fecha estudios sobre su variabilidad genética, desconociéndose si existe o no flujo genético entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas, endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniosis visceral (LV. Con base en los genes mitocondriales Citocromo b, RNA de transferencia para Serina, subunidades uno y cuatro de la NADH deshidrogenasa, se estudió la variabilidad genética entre las distintas poblaciones de Lu. evansi en la Costa Caribe, incluyendo la población
    geográficamente aislada de Isla Fuerte, y una población de Venezuela.

     

  18. Age structure, blood-feeding behavior, and Leishmania chagasi infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is endemic. Subsamples of sand flies collected weekly from pigpens, the interior of houses, and natural outdoor resting sites were dissected to determine physiological age and Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas infection rates. Eleven female L. longipalpis had flagellates in their gut, 2 of which were successfully cultured and identified as Leishmania chagasi. The reproductive status, stage of ovarian development, and trophic history of female sand flies varied among sites, habitats, and time of collection. The percentage of parous females ranged from about one-third to two-thirds overall and varied seasonally. Of most relevance to AVL transmission was the finding that 8% of L. longipalpis females were multiparous. In addition, our data suggest that L. longipalpis rest inside houses after blood-feeding outdoors, and that this species can blood-feed more than once during a single gonotrophic cycle.

  19. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  20. [Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at a suburban focus of visceral leishmaniasis in the Chicamocha Canyon, Santander, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Mónica; Martínez, Junny Patricia; Gutiérrez, Reinaldo; Luna, Katherine Paola; Serrano, Victor Hugo; Ferro, Cristina; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2006-10-01

    Between 1998 and 2000, the occurrence of 8 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in children from a recently established human settlement in Guatiguará, in the municipality of Piedecuesta (Santander, Colombia) indicated the possible presence of Leishmania transmission in this locality. This observation motivated the current entomological investigation. To determine the relative frequency of Lutzomyia longipalpis inside houses and outdoors, and the natural infection of this vector with Leishmania spp. CDC light traps were used for sampling inside houses and outdoors, and sand flies were collected on human volunteers and domestic animals, and in resting places, during the period from May 1999 through September 2000. Natural infection was determined by PCR, in pools of female Lutzomyia longipalpis. A total of 7,391 phlebotomine sand flies were collected. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), representing 99.5% of captures. In the sand flies collected with CDC light traps, L. longipalpis was more frequently collected indoors than outdoors (p = 0.0001). The total rate of natural infection was 1.93% and a positive correlation was observed between months with higher abundance and the number of infected females entering human dwellings. The results indicate that in Guatiguará Lutzomyia longipalpis, shows marked tendency for the indoors, which has important implications for leishmaniasis transmission. Furthermore, transmission risk is increased during the months of higher abundance due to the entry of a higher number of infected females. From the standpoint of control, this behaviour permits the design of strategies to reduce indoor transmission.

  1. Impact of habitat degradation on phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) of tropical dry forests in Northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travi, Bruno L; Adler, Gregory H; Lozano, Margarita; Cadena, Horacio; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2002-05-01

    We examined changes in the phlebotomine fauna resulting from human intervention in a tropical dry forest of Northern Colombia where visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic. A natural forest reserve (Colosó) and a highly degraded area (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) were sampled monthly for 8 mo using Shannon traps, sticky traps, and resting-site collections. Overall abundances were higher in Colosó (15,988) than in SAS (2,324). and species richness of phlebotomines was greater in the forest reserve (11 species) than in the degraded habitat (seven species). Fisher alpha, a measure of diversity, reinforced this trend. Both sand fly communities were dominated by Lutzomyia evansi (Nuòez-Tovar), vector of Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas), representing 92 and 81% of all captures in Colosó and SAS, respectively. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the common vector of visceral leishmaniasis, accounted for 4-7% of the sand fly community. Lutzornyia panamensis (Shannon) and Lutzomya gomezi (Nitzulescu), putative vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna), had low abundances at both study sites. The zoophilic species Lutzomyia cayennensis (Floch & Abonneuc) and Lutzomyia trinidadensis (Newstead) were present in variable numbers according to trapping methods and site. Habitat degradation negatively affected sand fly communities, but medically important species were able to exploit modified environments, thereby contributing to Lishmania endemicity.

  2. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  3. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  4. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  5. The establishment of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S J; Leaf, D S; Moore, H P; Gerhart, J C

    1992-09-01

    Delineation of apical and basolateral membrane domains is a critical step in the epithelialization of the outer layer of cells in the embryo. We have examined the initiation of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus and show that membrane traffic is not polarized in oocytes but polarized membrane domains appear at first cleavage. The following proteins encoded by injected RNA transcripts were used as markers to monitor membrane traffic: (a) VSV G, a transmembrane glycoprotein preferentially inserted into the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells; (b) GThy-1, a fusion protein of VSV G and Thy-1 that is localized to the apical domains of polarized epithelial cells; and (c) prolactin, a peptide hormone that is not polarly secreted. In immature oocytes, there is no polarity in the expression of VSV G or GThy-1, as shown by the constitutive expression of both proteins at the surface in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. At meiotic maturation, membrane traffic to the surface is blocked; the plasma membrane no longer accepts the vesicles synthesized by the oocyte (Leaf, D. L., S. J. Roberts, J. C. Gerhart, and H.-P. Moore. 1990. Dev. Biol. 141:1-12). When RNA transcripts are injected after fertilization, VSV G is expressed only in the internal cleavage membranes (basolateral orientation) and is excluded from the outer surface (apical orientation, original oocyte membrane). In contrast, GThy-1 and prolactin, when expressed in embryos, are inserted or released at both the outer membrane derived from the oocyte and the inner cleavage membranes. Furthermore, not all of the cleavage membrane comes from an embryonic pool of vesicles--some of the cleavage membrane comes from vesicles synthesized during oogenesis. Using prolactin as a marker, we found that a subset of vesicles synthesized during oogenesis was only released after fertilization. However, while embryonic prolactin was secreted from both apical and basolateral surfaces, the secretion of oogenic prolactin

  6. Temporal remodeling of the cell cycle accompanies differentiation in the Drosophila germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Taylor D; Alvarez, Arturo A; Ables, Elizabeth T

    2017-09-01

    Development of multicellular organisms relies upon the coordinated regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation. Growing evidence suggests that some molecular regulatory pathways associated with the cell cycle machinery also dictate cell fate; however, it remains largely unclear how the cell cycle is remodeled in concert with cell differentiation. During Drosophila oogenesis, mature oocytes are created through a series of precisely controlled division and differentiation steps, originating from a single tissue-specific stem cell. Further, germline stem cells (GSCs) and their differentiating progeny remain in a predominantly linear arrangement as oogenesis proceeds. The ability to visualize the stepwise events of differentiation within the context of a single tissue make the Drosophila ovary an exceptional model for study of cell cycle remodeling. To describe how the cell cycle is remodeled in germ cells as they differentiate in situ, we used the Drosophila Fluorescence Ubiquitin-based Cell Cycle Indicator (Fly-FUCCI) system, in which degradable versions of GFP::E2f1 and RFP::CycB fluorescently label cells in each phase of the cell cycle. We found that the lengths of the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle change dramatically over the course of differentiation, and identified the 4/8-cell cyst as a key developmental transition state in which cells prepare for specialized cell cycles. Our data suggest that the transcriptional activator E2f1, which controls the transition from G1 to S phase, is a key regulator of mitotic divisions in the early germline. Our data support the model that E2f1 is necessary for proper GSC proliferation, self-renewal, and daughter cell development. In contrast, while E2f1 degradation by the Cullin 4 (Cul4)-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase (CRL4) is essential for developmental transitions in the early germline, our data do not support a role for E2f1 degradation as a mechanism to limit GSC proliferation or self-renewal. Taken

  7. Transcription and chromatin determinants of de novo DNA methylation timing in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahurova, Lenka; Tomizawa, Shin-Ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A; Stewart-Morgan, Kathleen R; Saadeh, Heba; Kim, Jeesun; Andrews, Simon R; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Gametogenesis in mammals entails profound re-patterning of the epigenome. In the female germline, DNA methylation is acquired late in oogenesis from an essentially unmethylated baseline and is established largely as a consequence of transcription events. Molecular and functional studies have shown that imprinted genes become methylated at different times during oocyte growth; however, little is known about the kinetics of methylation gain genome wide and the reasons for asynchrony in methylation at imprinted loci. Given the predominant role of transcription, we sought to investigate whether transcription timing is rate limiting for de novo methylation and determines the asynchrony of methylation events. Therefore, we generated genome-wide methylation and transcriptome maps of size-selected, growing oocytes to capture the onset and progression of methylation. We find that most sequence elements, including most classes of transposable elements, acquire methylation at similar rates overall. However, methylation of CpG islands (CGIs) is delayed compared with the genome average and there are reproducible differences amongst CGIs in onset of methylation. Although more highly transcribed genes acquire methylation earlier, the major transitions in the oocyte transcriptome occur well before the de novo methylation phase, indicating that transcription is generally not rate limiting in conferring permissiveness to DNA methylation. Instead, CGI methylation timing negatively correlates with enrichment for histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation and dependence on the H3K4 demethylases KDM1A and KDM1B, implicating chromatin remodelling as a major determinant of methylation timing. We also identified differential enrichment of transcription factor binding motifs in CGIs acquiring methylation early or late in oocyte growth. By combining these parameters into multiple regression models, we were able to account for about a fifth of the variation in methylation timing of CGIs. Finally

  8. Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, D. J; Chavdoula, E. D.; Nezis, I. P.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay '' a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells'' was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29''43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within ''safety levels'' alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17''20, 2000, pp. 169''175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545''578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of

  9. Pleiotropy of the Drosophila JAK pathway cytokine Unpaired 3 in development and aging.

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    Wang, Liqun; Sexton, Travis R; Venard, Claire; Giedt, Michelle; Guo, Qian; Chen, Qian; Harrison, Douglas A

    2014-11-15

    The Janus kinase (JAK) pathway is an essential, highly re-utilized developmental signaling cascade found in most metazoans. In vertebrates, the JAK intracellular cascade mediates signaling by dozens of cytokines and growth factors. In Drosophila, the Unpaired (Upd) family, encoded by three tandemly duplicated genes, is the only class of ligands associated with JAK stimulation. Unpaired has a central role in activation of JAK for most pathway functions, while Unpaired 2 regulates body size through insulin signaling. We show here that the third member of the family, unpaired 3 (upd3), overlaps upd in expression in some tissues and is essential for a subset of JAK-mediated developmental functions. First, consistent with the known requirements of JAK signaling in gametogenesis, we find that mutants of upd3 show an age-dependent impairment of fertility in both sexes. In oogenesis, graded JAK activity stimulated by Upd specifies the fates of the somatic follicle cells. As upd3 mutant females age, defects arise that can be attributed to perturbations of the terminal follicle cells, which require the highest levels of JAK activation. Therefore, in oogenesis, the activities of Upd and Upd3 both appear to quantitatively contribute to specification of those follicle cell fates. Furthermore, the sensitization of upd3 mutants to age-related decline in fertility can be used to investigate reproductive senescence. Second, loss of Upd3 during imaginal development results in defects of adult structures, including reduced eye size and abnormal wing and haltere posture. The outstretched wing and small eye phenotypes resemble classical alleles referred to as outstretched (os) mutations that have been previously ascribed to upd. However, we show that os alleles affect expression of both upd and upd3 and map to untranscribed regions, suggesting that they disrupt regulatory elements shared by both genes. Thus the upd region serves as a genetically tractable model for coordinate

  10. A new component of the Nasonia sex determining cascade is maternally silenced and regulates transformer expression.

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    Verhulst, Eveline C; Lynch, Jeremy A; Bopp, Daniel; Beukeboom, Leo W; van de Zande, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Although sex determination is a universal process in sexually reproducing organisms, sex determination pathways are among the most highly variable genetic systems found in nature. Nevertheless, general principles can be identified among the diversity, like the central role of transformer (tra) in insects. When a functional TRA protein is produced in early embryogenesis, the female sex determining route is activated, while prevention of TRA production leads to male development. In dipterans, male development is achieved by prevention of female-specific splicing of tra mRNA, either mediated by X-chromosome dose or masculinizing factors. In Hymenoptera, which have haplodiploid sex determination, complementary sex determination and maternal imprinting have been identified to regulate timely TRA production. In the parasitoid Nasonia, zygotic transformer (Nvtra) expression and splicing is regulated by a combination of maternal provision of Nvtra mRNA and silencing of Nvtra expression in unfertilized eggs. It is unclear, however, if this silencing is directly on the tra locus or whether it is mediated through maternal silencing of a trans-acting factor. Here we show that in Nasonia, female sex determination is dependent on zygotic activation of Nvtra expression by an as yet unknown factor. This factor, which we propose to term womanizer (wom), is maternally silenced during oogenesis to ensure male development in unfertilized eggs. This finding implicates the upstream recruitment of a novel gene in the Nasonia sex determining cascade and supports the notion that sex determining cascades can rapidly change by adding new components on top of existing regulators.

  11. Histochemical characterisation of oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius

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    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterisation of growing oocytes of the swordfish Xiphias gladius. The presence and distribution of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, vitellogenin/Vg, zona radiata protein/Zrp, metallothionein/Mt, and thyroid hormones/T3-T4 were studied during oogenesis (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk-granules, cytoplasm, follicular and radiata envelopes. During the initial vitellogenic phase, the oocytes showed cortical alveoli and oil globules containing neutral lipids exclusively. During this phase, small yolk granules appeared around the peripheral cytoplasm, and they increased through exogenous vitellogenesis. Yolk granules were composed of glycoproteins, calcium, iron, and proteins rich in lysine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, cysteine and cystine. Vg and Mt were immunohistochemically detected in yolk. The follicular envelope contained proteins rich in amino acids. Moreover, calcium and thyroid hormones (triiodotyronine and thyroxine/T3, T4 were detected in this cell envelope. Cortical alveoli, which contained carboxylated and neutral glycoconjugates, were especially rich in N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, galactose and sialic acid. Finally, the zona radiata was mainly proteinaceous in nature and was composed of calcium and neutral glycoproteins. The egg envelope or chorion and the liver showed specific immunoreactivities by using anti-salmon Zrp as the primary antiserum.

  12. Histología del ciclo reproductor de hembras del pejelagarto Atractosteus tropicus (Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae enTabasco, México Histology of reproductive cycle of tropical gar Atractosteus tropicus females (Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae in Tabasco, Mexico.

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    Otilio Méndez-Marin

    2012-12-01

    pueden funcionar como un gatillo ambiental, en el desarrollo de la ovogénesis y el desove.In Southeast Mexico, A. tropicus is a species with great ecological, economic, cultural and aquaculture value, however wild populations have diminished due to diverse anthropological causes. The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of A. tropicus, with a description of complete gonad structure and the changes in germinal and somatic elements during oogenesis, for better management and use of this species. Six sexually mature females (N=72 were captured monthly with drag nets during one year cycle (October 2003-October 2004 in wild populations of Pomposu lagoon, municipality of Jalpa de Mendez, Tabasco, Mexico. Females were sacrificed by decapitation and the ovaries were processed by standard histological methods; the diameter of 10-20 oocytes taken at random was determined in different stages of development. Gonadosmatic index (GSI, gonadal volume (gV and follicule diameter (fD were determined monthly. Among results we could determine eight oogenesis developmental stages: I: chromatin nucleolus stage, II: early perinucleolus stage, III: mid perinucleolus stage, IV: advanced perinucleolus stage, V: early vitellogenesis stage, VI: mid vitellogenesis stage, VII advanced vitellogenesis stage and VIII: final maturation stage. The reproductive cycle could be divided in four phases: I: proliferative phase, II: initial maturation phase, III: late maturation phase, IV: regressing phase. Analysis of the data obtained from the IGS, gV and fD values, oogenesis stages and reproductive phases, indicate that in December previtellogenesis phase restarts, from March through July yolk deposition (vitellogenesis occurs, and from August to November the maximum reproductive activity takes place. Contrasting this pattern with local environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation, we suggested that these may serve as an environmental activator in the development

  13. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-11-18

    In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunoglobulins in the eggs of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Ashley N; Flajnik, Martin F; Rumfelt, Lynn L; Wourms, John P

    2005-01-01

    Elasmobranchs, which include the sharks, skates, and rays, emerged over 450 million years ago and are the oldest vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. They have evolved diverse reproductive modes, with a variety of physiological adaptations that enhance reproductive success. The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an aplacental, viviparous elasmobranch in which the egg and its associated vitelline vasculature are the primary route for maternal-embryonic interactions. During gestation, nurse shark embryos hatch from their eggcases and develop free in the uterus, which is flushed regularly with seawater. Similar to higher vertebrates, embryonic and neonatal nurse sharks possess an immune system that is not fully competent. In birds and bony fishes, maternal immunoglobulins (Ig) stored in the egg during oogenesis confer protective immunity to embryos during gestation. However, early research suggested that such transfer of passive immunity does not occur in sharks. To better understand how elasmobranch embryos are protected from waterborne pathogens during this potentially vulnerable time, we have re-examined the existence of Igs in elasmobranch eggs. Using monoclonal antibodies, we establish the presence of two classes of Igs in nurse shark eggs: 7S IgM and IgNAR. The potential transfer of immunoglobulins from elasmobranch eggs is discussed.

  16. Reduction of transgenerational radiation induced genetic damages observed as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, M.; Mozdarani, H.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of parental gamma irradiation (4 Gy) of NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute) mice on the numerical chromosome abnormalities in subsequent preimplantation embryos in the presence of vitamin E (200 IU/kg), super-ovulated irradiated females were mated with irradiated males at weekly intervals in successive 6 weekly periods. About 68 h post coitus, 8-cell embryos were fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for abnormalities in chromosome number. In embryos generated by irradiated mice, the frequency of aneuploids dramatically increased compared to control unirradiated groups (p < 0.001), while no significant difference were observed within irradiated groups mated at weekly interval. Administration of vitamin E significantly decreased chromosomal aberrations in all groups (p < 0.05). Data indicate that gamma irradiation affects spermatogenesis and oogenesis and causes DNA alterations that may lead to chromosome abnormalities in subsequent embryos. Vitamin E effectively reduced the frequency of abnormalities. The way vitamin E reduces genotoxic effects of radiation might be via radical scavenging or antioxidative mechanism. (authors)

  17. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  18. Infertility and recurrent miscarriage with complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mitsushita, Junji; Johnson, Thomas E; Hartman, Phil S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with some forms of both male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient knowledge of the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. There are a number of animal models for understanding age-dependent decrease of reproductive ability and diabetic embryopathy, especially abnormal spermatogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis with mitochondrial dysfunctions. Several important processes occur in mitochondria, including ATP synthesis, calcium ion storage, induction of apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These events have different effects on the several aspects of reproductive function. Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, developed after studies with the mev-1 mutant of the nematode C. elegans, offer the ability to carefully regulate expression of doxycycline-induced mutated SDHC(V69E) levels and hence modulate endogenous oxidative stress. The mev-1 models have served to illuminate the effects of complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial ROS production, although interestingly they maintain normal mitochondrial and intracellular ATP levels. In this review, the reproductive dysfunctions are presented focusing on fertility potentials in each gamete, early embryogenesis, maternal conditions with placental function and neonatal development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Assembly and breakdown of Cajal bodies in accessory nuclei of Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2005-03-01

    In some species of insects, oocytes have vesicular organelles, termed accessory nuclei (ANs). The ANs form by budding off from the nuclear envelope of the oocyte and are filled with translucent matrix containing dense inclusions. One type of these inclusions contains coilin and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and is homologous to Cajal bodies. We describe the early events in the morphogenesis of Cajal bodies in the ANs (ANCBs) of the common wasp, Vespula germanica, and show that they contain survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. We present evidence that in the wasp, ANCBs form by the gradual accumulation of aggregates composed of SMN and small nuclear RNAs. We also show that ANCBs break down and disperse within the ANs as the ANs, which initially surround the oocyte nucleus, localize to the oocyte cortex. The components of dispersed ANCBs are retained within ANs until the end of oogenesis, which suggests that their function may be required at the onset of embryonic development. Because the morphology and behavior of ANs and their Cajal body-like inclusions are conserved in two other hymenopteran species, these features might be characteristic of all hymenopterans.

  20. Sexual reproduction in the Caribbean coral genus Isophyllia (Scleractinia: Mussidae

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    Derek Soto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000–2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I. sinuosa and from August through June in I. rigida. Oocytes began development 7–8 months prior to spermaries but both sexes matured simultaneously. Zooxanthellate planulae were observed in I. sinuosa during April and in I. rigida from June through September. Higher polyp and mesenterial fecundity were found in I. rigida compared to I. sinuosa. Larger oocyte sizes were found in I. sinuosa than in I. rigida, however larger planula sizes were found in I. rigida. Hermaphroditism is the exclusive sexual pattern within the Mussidae while brooding has been documented within the related genera Mussa, Scolymia and Mycetophyllia. This study represents the first description of the sexual characteristics of I. rigida and provides an updated description of I. sinuosa.

  1. The crucial role of the proto-oncogene c-mos in regulation of oocyte maturation

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    Irena Jałocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis arrest before fertilization is a common and unique feature of oogenesis in many animal species. On account of the unclear biological significance of meiosis arrest at various stages and for different durations in different animal species, this process and its regulation are the subject of many scientific studies. Studies on the development of ovarian teratomas proved to be helpful in defining the role of particular genes and biochemical cycles in control of the cell cycle in animals. These benign tumors are a valuable source of information on oocyte maturation. The [i]c-mos[/i] proto-oncogene, which is specifically expressed in female and male germ cells, plays a crucial role in control of meiotic cell division in mammals. Its product – Mos protein kinase – acting through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs regulates critical cellular functions required for homeostasis and decides about cell survival or apoptosis. The MAPK kinase kinase – MAPK kinase – MAPK (MKKK-MKK-MAPK phosphorelay system, in view of its role in cells, seems to be the ideal target for therapeutic intervention in cancer and other diseases. The recent research on human oocytes suggests that the basic mechanisms regulating various stages of oocyte maturation are similar to those described in animals.

  2. Meiotic and mitotic behaviour of a ring/deleted chromosome 22 in human embryos determined by preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a maternal carrier

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    Laver Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ring chromosomes are normally associated with developmental anomalies and are rarely inherited. An exception to this rule is provided by deletion/ring cases. We were provided with a unique opportunity to investigate the meiotic segregation at oogenesis in a woman who is a carrier of a deleted/ring 22 chromosome. The couple requested preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD following the birth of a son with a mosaic karyotype. The couple underwent two cycles of PGD. Studies were performed on lymphocytes, single embryonic cells removed from 3 day-old embryos and un-transferred embryos. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with specific probe sets in two rounds of hybridization. Results In total, 12 embryos were biopsied, and follow up information was obtained for 10 embryos. No embryos were completely normal or balanced for chromosome 22 by day 5. There was only one embryo diagnosed as balanced of 12 biopsied but that accumulated postzygotic errors by day 5. Three oocytes apparently had a balanced chromosome 22 complement but all had the deleted and the ring 22 and not the intact chromosome 22. After fertilisation all the embryos accumulated postzygotic errors for chromosome 22. Conclusion The study of the preimplantation embryos in this case provided a rare and significant chance to study and understand the phenomena associated with this unusual type of anomaly during meiosis and in the earliest stages of development. It is the first reported PGD attempt for a ring chromosome abnormality.

  3. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, P

    1997-12-01

    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  4. DAZ Family Proteins, Key Players for Germ Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wang, Lin-Qing; Yin, Shen; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    DAZ family proteins are found almost exclusively in germ cells in distant animal species. Deletion or mutations of their encoding genes usually severely impair either oogenesis or spermatogenesis or both. The family includes Boule (or Boll), Dazl (or Dazla) and DAZ genes. Boule and Dazl are situated on autosomes while DAZ, exclusive of higher primates, is located on the Y chromosome. Deletion of DAZ gene is the most common causes of infertility in humans. These genes, encoding for RNA binding proteins, contain a highly conserved RNA recognition motif and at least one DAZ repeat encoding for a 24 amino acids sequence able to bind other mRNA binding proteins. Basically, Daz family proteins function as adaptors for target mRNA transport and activators of their translation. In some invertebrate species, BOULE protein play a pivotal role in germline specification and a conserved regulatory role in meiosis. Depending on the species, DAZL is expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and/or pre-meiotic and meiotic germ cells of both sexes. Daz is found in fetal gonocytes, spermatogonia and spermatocytes of adult testes. Here we discuss DAZ family genes in a phylogenic perspective, focusing on the common and distinct features of these genes, and their pivotal roles during gametogenesis evolved during evolution. PMID:26327816

  5. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

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    John Reich

    Full Text Available The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary.Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed.Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  6. Stanislaw Smreczynskis legacy and the Department of Zoology of the Jagiellonian University of Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K

    2008-01-01

    This article covers the origin and development of scientific interest in insect and amphibian developmental biology at the Department of Systematic Zoology and Zoogeography of the Jagiellonian University. The greater part of this historical account is devoted to Professor Stanislaw Smreczynski (1899-1975), the founding father of the Department, and comments on his biography and research achievements in the field of animal experimental embryology. A particular emphasis is on Smreczynski's contributions to contemporary understanding of early embryonic development of amphibians and insects as well as his expertise in Pleistocene and extant weevils (Curculionidae). A concise survey of developmental phenomena studied by some of Smreczynski's co-workers and followers is also presented, including the early embryogenesis of entognathans as well as germ cell determination and gonad formation in Drosophila virilis conducted by Jura; analysis of oogenesis in Collembola carried out by Krzysztofowicz; investigations of insects and tradigrades by Weglarska, and finally research into various aspects of ovary structure in diverse insect taxa by the Bilinski group.

  7. Combined effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and parasite exposure on eicosanoid-related gene expression in an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotz, Nina; Roulin, Anne; Ebert, Dieter; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Eicosanoids derive from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and play crucial roles in immunity, development, and reproduction. However, potential links between dietary PUFA supply and eicosanoid biosynthesis are poorly understood, especially in invertebrates. Using Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa as model system, we studied the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis and of genes related to oogenesis in response to dietary arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in parasite-exposed and non-exposed animals. Gene expression related to cyclooxygenase activity was especially responsive to the dietary PUFA supply and parasite challenge, indicating a role for prostanoid eicosanoids in immunity and reproduction. Vitellogenin gene expression was induced upon parasite exposure in all food treatments, suggesting infection-related interference with the host's reproductive system. Our findings highlight the potential of dietary PUFA to modulate the expression of key enzymes involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis and reproduction and thus underpin the idea that the dietary PUFA supply can influence invertebrate immune functions and host-parasite interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole-Genome Resequencing of Experimental Populations Reveals Polygenic Basis of Egg-Size Variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Aashish R; Miles, Cecelia M; Lippert, Nodia R; Brown, Christopher D; White, Kevin P; Kreitman, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complete genome resequencing of populations holds great promise in deconstructing complex polygenic traits to elucidate molecular and developmental mechanisms of adaptation. Egg size is a classic adaptive trait in insects, birds, and other taxa, but its highly polygenic architecture has prevented high-resolution genetic analysis. We used replicated experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster and whole-genome sequencing to identify consistent signatures of polygenic egg-size adaptation. A generalized linear-mixed model revealed reproducible allele frequency differences between replicated experimental populations selected for large and small egg volumes at approximately 4,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several hundred distinct genomic regions contain clusters of these SNPs and have lower heterozygosity than the genomic background, consistent with selection acting on polymorphisms in these regions. These SNPs are also enriched among genes expressed in Drosophila ovaries and many of these genes have well-defined functions in Drosophila oogenesis. Additional genes regulating egg development, growth, and cell size show evidence of directional selection as genes regulating these biological processes are enriched for highly differentiated SNPs. Genetic crosses performed with a subset of candidate genes demonstrated that these genes influence egg size, at least in the large genetic background. These findings confirm the highly polygenic architecture of this adaptive trait, and suggest the involvement of many novel candidate genes in regulating egg size. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary

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    Sandy B. Serizier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells. Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  10. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizier, Sandy B; McCall, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  11. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Enhancing Nanos expression via the bacterial TomO protein is a conserved strategy used by the symbiont Wolbachia to fuel germ stem cell maintenance in infected Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ote, Manabu; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2018-04-27

    The toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO) protein has been identified in the wMel strain of Wolbachia that symbioses with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, as a protein that affects host reproduction. TomO protects germ stem cells (GSCs) from degeneration, which otherwise occurs in ovaries of host females that are mutant for the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). We isolated the TomO homologs from wPip, a Wolbachia strain from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. One of the homologs, TomO w Pip 1, exerted the GSC rescue activity in fly Sxl mutants when lacking its hydrophobic stretches. The GSC-rescuing action of the TomO w Pip 1 variant was ascribable to its abilities to associate with Nanos (nos) mRNA and to enhance Nos protein expression. The analysis of structure-activity relationships with TomO homologs and TomO deletion variants revealed distinct modules in the protein that are each dedicated to different functions, i.e., subcellular localization, nos mRNA binding or Nos expression enhancement. We propose that modular reshuffling is the basis for structural and functional diversification of TomO protein members. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Very small embryonic-like stem cells: implications in reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Unni, Sreepoorna; Parte, Seema; Anand, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) whereas primordial follicles (PFs) are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  14. Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells: Implications in Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive germ cells in adult mammalian testis are the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs whereas primordial follicles (PFs are considered the fundamental functional unit in ovary. However, this central dogma has recently been modified with the identification of a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs in the adult mammalian gonads. These stem cells are more primitive to SSCs and are also implicated during postnatal ovarian neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are pluripotent in nature and characterized by nuclear Oct-4A, cell surface SSEA-4, and other pluripotent markers like Nanog, Sox2, and TERT. VSELs are considered to be the descendants of epiblast stem cells and possibly the primordial germ cells that persist into adulthood and undergo asymmetric cell division to replenish the gonadal germ cells throughout life. Elucidation of their role during infertility, endometrial repair, superovulation, and pathogenesis of various reproductive diseases like PCOS, endometriosis, cancer, and so on needs to be addressed. Hence, a detailed review of current understanding of VSEL biology is pertinent, which will hopefully open up new avenues for research to better understand various reproductive processes and cancers. It will also be relevant for future regenerative medicine, translational research, and clinical applications in human reproduction.

  15. “Positive Regulation of RNA Metabolic Process” Ontology Group Highly Regulated in Porcine Oocytes Matured In Vitro: A Microarray Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Celichowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of genes involved in “oocytes RNA synthesis” in relation to in vitro maturation in pigs was investigated for the first time. The RNA was isolated from oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM. Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software. Using microarray assays, we found expression of 12258 porcine transcripts. Genes with fold change higher than 2 and with corrected p value lower than 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed. The ontology group “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” involved differential expression of AR, INHBA, WWTR1, FOS, MEF2C, VEGFA, IKZF2, IHH, RORA, MAP3K1, NFAT5, SMARCA1, EGR1, EGR2, MITF, SMAD4, APP, and NR5A1 transcripts. Since all of the presented genes were downregulated after IVM, we suggested that they might be significantly involved in regulation of RNA synthesis before reaching oocyte MII stage. Higher expression of “RNA metabolic process” related genes before IVM indicated that they might be recognized as important markers and specific “transcriptomic fingerprint” of RNA template accumulation and storage for further porcine embryos growth and development.

  16. Biomechanics and mechanical signaling in the ovary: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jaimin S; Sabouni, Reem; Cayton Vaught, Kamaria C; Owen, Carter M; Albertini, David F; Segars, James H

    2018-04-24

    Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis. We performed a systematic review to assess and summarize the effects of mechanical signaling and mechanotransduction in oocyte maturation and folliculogenesis and to explore possible clinical applications. The review identified 2568 publications of which 122 met the inclusion criteria. The integration of mechanical and cell signaling pathways in gametogenesis is complex. Follicular activation or quiescence are influenced by mechanical signaling through the Hippo and Akt pathways involving the yes-associated protein (YAP), transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) gene. There is overwhelming evidence that mechanical signaling plays a crucial role in development of the ovary, follicle, and oocyte throughout gametogenesis. Emerging data suggest the complexities of mechanotransduction and the biomechanics of oocytes and follicles are integral to understanding of primary ovarian insufficiency, ovarian aging, polycystic ovary syndrome, and applications of fertility preservation.

  17. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-03-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR.

  18. Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in sporadic cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, D J; Szabo, J K; Cameron, R; Henderson, S; Bellus, G A; Mack, M L; Kaitila, I; Loughlin, J; Munnich, A; Sykes, B; Bonaventure, J; Francomano, C A

    1998-01-01

    More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. Sporadic cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 sporadic cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms were identified in the FGFR3 gene, within close proximity to the achondroplasia mutation site. Ninety-nine families, each with a sporadic case of achondroplasia in a child, were analyzed in this study. In this population, the achondroplasia mutation occurred on the paternal chromosome in all 40 cases in which parental origin was unambiguous. This observation is consistent with the clinical observation of advanced paternal age resulting in new cases of achondroplasia and suggests that factors influencing DNA replication or repair during spermatogenesis, but not during oogenesis, may predispose to the occurrence of the G1138 FGFR3 mutations. PMID:9718331

  19. Developmental stage- and DNA damage-specific functions of C. elegans FANCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyong Yun; Yang, Insil; Park, Jung-Eun; Baek, Ok-Ryun; Chung, Kee Yang; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate the role of Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2) in developmental stage-specific DNA damage responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. A mutant C. elegans strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding the FANCD2 homolog, FCD-2, exhibited egg-laying defects, precocious oogenesis, and partial defects in fertilization. The mutant strain also had a lower hatching rate than the wild-type after γ-irradiation of embryos, but not after the irradiation of pachytene stage germ cells. This mutation sensitized pachytene stage germ cells to the genotoxic effects of photoactivated psoralen, as seen by a greatly reduced hatching rate and increased chromosomal aberrations. This mutation also enhanced physiological M-phase arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal that the C. elegans FANCD2 homolog participates in the repair of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA crosslinks, not only in proliferating cells but also in pachytene stage cells, and it may have an additional role in double-stranded DNA break repair during embryogenesis

  20. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.