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Sample records for fusarium heterosporum lipase

  1. Xylanase from Fusarium heterosporum: Properties and influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unioeste

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... influence of thiol compounds on xylanase activity. Paulo Ricardo ... and the extraction of plant oil, coffee and starch (Ahmed ... of F. heterosporum on 5 g of various carbon sources ... brewing residue under solid-state fermentation (fungal strain and .... active within the acidic pH range of 4.5 to 5.5 and.

  2. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Maria de Mascena Diniz; Morais, Marcia Maria Camargo de; Morais Jr., Marcos Antonio de; Melo, Eduardo Henrique Magalhães; Lima Filho, José Luiz de

    1999-01-01

    A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v) peptone plus 0.5% (v/v) olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v) was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v) resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5%) did n...

  3. Overexpression of Fusarium solani lipase in Pichia pastoris and its application in lipid degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium solani NAN103 lipase was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris using inducible expression system and constitutive expression system under the control of alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (pAOX1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pGAP, respectively. Lipase obtained using the constitutive promoter showed the highest activity of 18.8 U/mg in 3 days of cultivation time. Optimal lipase activity was observed at pH 7.0 and 35 °C using p-nitrophenyl laurate as the substrate. Lipase activity was enhanced by Mn2+, Ba2+, Li+, Ca2+, Ni2+, CHAPS and Triton X-100 but was inhibited by Hg2+, Ag+ and SDS. The addition of 10% v/v of octanol, p-xylene, hexane and isopropanol increased lipase activity. Cultivation of lipase-expressing P. pastoris under pGAP in synthetic wastewater containing 1% w/v palm oil resulted in degradation of 87% of the oil within 72 h. P. pastoris expressing F. solani lipase from constitutive expression system has the potential to be used as an alternative microorganism for lipid degradation.

  4. Effect of culture conditions on lipase production by Fusarium solani in batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M M; Heasley, A; Camargo de Morais, M M; Melo, E H; Morais, M A; Ledingham, W M; Lima Filho, J L

    2001-01-01

    Lipase (Glycerol ester hydrolase EC 3.1.1.3.) from a Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani FSI has been investigated. The effect of different carbon sources and trace elements added to basal medium was observed with the aim of improving enzyme production. Lipase specific activity was highest (0.45 U mg(-1)) for sesame oil. When this medium was supplemented with trace elements using olive oil, corn oil and sesame oil the lipase specific activity increased to 0.86, 1.89 and 1.64 U mg(-1), respectively, after 96 h cultivation without any considerable biomass increase. The Km of this lipase using pNPP (p-nitrophenylpalmitate) as substrate, was 1.8 mM with a Vmax of 1.7 micromol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Lipase activity increased in the presence of increasing concentrations of hexane and toluene. In contrast, incubation of this enzyme with water-soluble solvents decreased its activity after 10% concentration (v/v) of the solvent. The lipase activity was stable below 35 degrees C but above this temperature activity losses were observed.

  5. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1 Produção de lipase extracelular pelo fungo fitopatogênico Fusarium solani FS1

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia; Marcia Maria Camargo de Morais; Marcos Antonio de Morais Jr.; Eduardo Henrique Magalhães Melo; José Luiz de Lima Filho

    1999-01-01

    A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v) peptone plus 0.5% (v/v) olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v) was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v) resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5%) did n...

  6. Biological activities of a mixture of biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedenir Pereira de Quadros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1. In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05.

  7. Production of extracellular lipase by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani FS1 Produção de lipase extracelular pelo fungo fitopatogênico Fusarium solani FS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian strain of Fusarium solani was tested for extracellular lipase production in peptone-olive oil medium. The fungus produced 10,500 U.l-1 of lipase after 72 hours of cultivation at 25oC in shake-flask at 120 rpm in a medium containing 3% (w/v peptone plus 0.5% (v/v olive oil. Glucose (1% w/v was found to inhibit the inductive effect of olive oil. Peptone concentrations below 3% (w/v resulted in a reduced lipase production while increased olive oil concentration (above 0.5% did not further stimulate lipase production. The optimum lipase activity was achieved at pH 8.6 and 30oC and a good enzyme stability (80% activity retention was observed at pH ranging from 7.6 to 8.6, and the activity rapidly dropped at temperatures above 50oC. Lipase activity was stimulated by the addition of n-hexane to the culture medium supernatants, in contrast to incubation with water-soluble solvents.

  8. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Nakashima, Kazunori [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki [Ozeki Co., Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5{sup '} untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL1 and 2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time. (orig.)

  9. Immobilization Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Two Fusarium Verticillioides Lipases: Stability, Hydrolysis, Transesterification and Enantioselectivity Improvement

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    Fernanda Dell Antonio Facchini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides lipases were purified in a “cascade” method using octadecyl Sepabeads and octyl Sepharose resins, which led to the isolation of two proteins with lipolytic activities. Lip 1 was purified after octyl Sepharose adsorption presenting 30.3 kDa and, Lip 2 presented 68.0 kDa after octadecyl adsorption. These immobilization processes resulted in an increase of 3-fold in activity of each immobilized enzyme. These enzymes presented optima of pH of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively and temperature at 40 °C. They were thermostable at 40 °C and both remained more than 50% of its activity at the pH range of 5.0 to 7.0, with 180 min of incubation. The sardine oil hydrolysis showed higher EPA/DHA ratio. Concerning the ethanolysis reaction, Lip 2 showed higher conversion (5.5% and both lipases showed activity in the release of the S enantiomers from 2-O-butyryl-2-phenylacetic acid (mandelic butyrate acid and HPBE hydrolysis. Lip 2 also demonstrated capacity of transesterification. These applications made these enzymes attractive for industrial application.

  10. Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium is one of the most important mycotoxigenic fungal genera in food and feed. Nearly all species are able to produce mycotoxins of which many are under international regulation. Well-known Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and additional trichothecenes...

  11. Peptidases e lipases produzidas pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum: caracterização e microencapsulação por spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Angelo de Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Duas variações de resíduo agroindustrial foram analisadas como meio de cultura para o bioprocesso de fermentação semissólida pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum, com o objetivo de obter a melhor produção de peptidases e lipases. Essas enzimas foram microencapsuladas por spray drying, visando garantir sua estabilidade e investigar outros prováveis benefícios obtidos pela técnica. A utilização de planejamento experimental permitiu analisar os efeitos e interações entre as variáveis operacionais do pr...

  12. Characterization of alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum and the effect of different surfactants and detergents on the enzyme activity Caracterização de lipase alcalina de Fusarium oxysporum e o efeito de diferentes surfactantes e detergentes sobre a atividade enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Nicanuzia dos Prazeres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a tendency of use of low temperature in laundry cleaning for both environmental and economical reasons, which makes the use of enzymes in detergent products indispensable. Since lipases are efficient catalyst both in solution and at the water-liquid interface, they are potentially suitable for lipid stain removal applications in industrial laundry and household detergents. The effect of different commercial detergents and surfactants on enzymatic activity of lipase from Fusarium oxysporum was observed through p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP assay. The enzyme was compatible with various ionic and non-ionic surfactants as well as commercial detergents. Lipase activity was strongly inhibited by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS, but not by Triton X-100 and Triton X-114. The best assay conditions observed for this lipase were pH 8.0 and 50ºC. The enzyme was stable at alkaline pH and remained 93% of residual activity during 1 h incubation at 60ºC. The highest lipase activity was measured with triglycerides of middle and long chain fatty acids (C8-C18. This enzyme showed a variable specifity/hydrolytic activity towards various fats and oils. All these properties and its resistance towards various surfactants and tolerance to commercial detergents make this lipase a potential additive for detergent formulation.Atualmente, há uma tendência de utilizar baixas temperaturas em limpeza de lavanderia por razões ambientais e econômicas, situações estas que tornam indispensáveis o uso de enzimas em produtos detergentes. Devido às lipases serem excelentes catalisadoras em soluções e em interface água-óleo, elas são potencialmente apropriadas para aplicação na remoção de manchas de gorduras em lavanderia industrial e detergentes domésticos. O efeito de diferentes detergentes comerciais e surfactantes sobre a atividade enzimática da lipase de Fusarium oxysporum foi observado através de ensaios com p-nitrofenilpalmitato (pNPP. A

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

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    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  14. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  15. Pasinler İlçesi (Erzurum’nde Şeker Pancarı (Beta vulgaris Bitkilerinden İzole Edilen Fusarium spp. ve Patojeniteleri

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    Ömer Faruk KARYAĞDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Pasinler ilçesi (Erzurum’nde şeker pancarı (Beta vulgaris L. bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerini ve patojenitelerini belirlemek amacıyla 2009 yılında yürütülmüştür. Şeker pancarı bitkisinden yapılan izolasyon çalışmaları sonucunda 194 Fusarium izolatı elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen izolatların %37,63’ü F. equiseti, %31,44’ü F. oxysporum, %13,92’i F. acuminatum, %10,82’si F. solani, %4,12’si F. heterosporum, %1,55’i F. avenaceum ve %0,52’si F. graminearum olarak saptanmıştır. Yapılan patojenite testlerinde F. acuminatum (P2-8A1, F. equiseti (P1-6, F. heterosporum (P10-30, F. oxysporum (P8-24, P9-36 ve F. solani (P8-2 izolatları en yüksek hastalık şiddeti oluşturmuştur. F. acuminatum ve F. graminearum için şeker pancarı bitkisi, Türkiye’de yeni konukçu kaydı olarak belirlenmiştir.

  16. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  17. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase. Without this enzyme, the body cannot break down fat from digested food. Fat particles called chylomicrons build up in the blood. Risk factors include a family history of lipoprotein lipase deficiency. The condition is usually ...

  18. Bacterial lipases for biotechnological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Schneidinger, Bernd; Rosenau, Frank; Werner, Michael; Lang, Dietmar; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Schimossek, Klaus; Zonta, Albin; Reetz, Manfred T.

    1997-01-01

    Lipase genes originating from the Gram-negative bacteria Serrutiu marcescens and Pseudomonus urruginosa were cloned. S. marcescens lipase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli yielding inclusion bodies which were purified and finally refolded to give enzymatically active lipase. The lipase operon of

  19. Lipase polystyrene giant amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonia, Kelly; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2002-04-24

    A new type of giant amphiphilic molecule has been synthesized by covalently connecting a lipase enzyme headgroup to a maleimide-functionalized polystyrene tail (40 repeat units). The resulting biohybrid forms catalytic micellar rods in water.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gibberella zeae extracellular lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuna; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Ye; Liu, Zheng; Li, Xumei; Lou, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    G. zeae extracellular lipase has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Fusarium head blight, one of the most destructive crop diseases, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum (known in its sexual stage as Gibberella zeae). F. graminearum secretes various extracellular enzymes that have been hypothesized to be involved in host infection. One of the extracellular enzymes secreted by this organism is the G. zeae extracellular lipase (GZEL), which is encoded by the FGL1 gene. In order to solve the crystal structure of GZEL and to gain a better understanding of the biological functions of the protein and of possible inhibitory mechanisms of lipase inhibitors, recombinant GZEL was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. A data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 78.4, b = 91.0, c = 195.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The presence of four molecules was assumed per asymmetric unit, which gave a Matthews coefficient of 2.6 Å 3 Da −1

  1. Ecological screening of lipolytic cultures and process optimization for extracellular lipase production from fungal hyperproducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Niaz, M.; Anwer, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Saleem, M.; Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Present investigation describes the biosynthesis of extracellular lipases by various local fungal strains isolated from various lipid rich habitats of Faisalabad. The isolated cultures of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor mucedo, Alternaria alternata, Trichophyton sp., Fusarium semitectum, E (un-identified), Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus, G (un-identified), F (Mucor sp.) and H (Synnematous) were identified and screened for the extracelluler lipases production. Different environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, amount of substrate and incubation time were optimized for the selected hyper producer. It was found that maximum production of lipases by Trichophyton sp., was obtained after 48 h of batch fermentation. Similarly, the diluent pH of 7.0 and incubation temperature of 30 deg. C were found optimum for enzyme production by the microorganism. The maximum production of lipases during the course of present studies was 65.20 +- 1.13a U/g. (author)

  2. Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Adler, A.; Clasen, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and F. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with UV diode array, electron...

  3. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  4. Polyketide synthase from Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvesel, Kasper; Wimmer, Reinhard; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    described, even fewer from fungi and none from Fusarium species. Multidomain proteins can be quite challenging to work with, which is why the project intends to solve the 3D-structures of single domains of PKS’s. In this project, the plan is to clone, express and purify the Acyl-carrier protein (ACP) domain...... from PKS6 in Fusarium graminearum for structural analysis....

  5. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analyses of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase, and their binding properties with known inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyun Wang

    Full Text Available The triglyceride lipase gene subfamily plays a central role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. There are three members of this subfamily: lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase. Although these lipases are implicated in the pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, their structures have not been fully solved. In the current study, we established homology models of these three lipases, and carried out analysis of their activity sites. In addition, we investigated the kinetic characteristics for the catalytic residues using a molecular dynamics simulation strategy. To elucidate the molecular interactions and determine potential key residues involved in the binding to lipase inhibitors, we analyzed the binding pockets and binding poses of known inhibitors of the three lipases. We identified the spatial consensus catalytic triad "Ser-Asp-His", a characteristic motif in all three lipases. Furthermore, we found that the spatial characteristics of the binding pockets of the lipase molecules play a key role in ligand recognition, binding poses, and affinities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that systematically builds homology models of all the triglyceride lipase gene subfamily members. Our data provide novel insights into the molecular structures of lipases and their structure-function relationship, and thus provides groundwork for functional probe design towards lipase-based therapeutic inhibitors for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  8. Fusarium oxysporum and the Fusarium Wilt Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas R

    2017-08-04

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) comprises a multitude of strains that cause vascular wilt diseases of economically important crops throughout the world. Although sexual reproduction is unknown in the FOSC, horizontal gene transfer may contribute to the observed diversity in pathogenic strains. Development of disease in a susceptible crop requires F. oxysporum to advance through a series of transitions, beginning with spore germination and culminating with establishment of a systemic infection. In principle, each transition presents an opportunity to influence the risk of disease. This includes modifications of the microbial community in soil, which can affect the ability of pathogen propagules to survive, germinate, and infect plant roots. In addition, many host attributes, including the composition of root exudates, the structure of the root cortex, and the capacity to recognize and respond quickly to invasive growth of a pathogen, can impede development of F. oxysporum.

  9. Biodegradable products by lipase biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Y Y; Lämsä, M; Wu, X; Uosukainen, E; Seppälä, J; Linko, P

    1998-11-18

    The interest in the applications of biocatalysis in organic syntheses has rapidly increased. In this context, lipases have recently become one of the most studied groups of enzymes. We have demonstrated that lipases can be used as biocatalyst in the production of useful biodegradable compounds. A number of examples are given. 1-Butyl oleate was produced by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease the viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. Enzymic alcoholysis of vegetable oils without additional organic solvent has been little investigated. We have shown that a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters can be obtained in a good yield by enzymic transesterification from rapeseed oil fatty acids for use as a solvent. Trimethylolpropane esters were also similarly synthesized as lubricants. Finally, the discovery that lipases can also catalyze ester syntheses and transesterification reactions in organic solvent systems has opened up the possibility of enzyme catalyzed production of biodegradable polyesters. In direct polyesterification of 1,4-butanediol and sebacic acid, polyesters with a mass average molar mass of the order of 56,000 g mol-1 or higher, and a maximum molar mass of about 130,000 g mol-1 were also obtained by using lipase as biocatalyst. Finally, we have demonstrated that also aromatic polyesters can be synthesized by lipase biocatalysis, a higher than 50,000 g mol-1 mass average molar mass of poly(1,6-hexanediyl isophthalate) as an example.

  10. Dipeptide transporters in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Giese, Henriette; Søndergaard, Teis

    Fungi have evolved different transport mechanisms in order to utilize both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources because nitrogen availability often is one of the limiting factors in pathogenic processes. In this study we have characterized four di/tripeptide transporters in the necrotrophic plant...... pathogen Fusarium graminearum Fusarium that causes head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  12. Fusarium solani breast abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual manifestation of breast fusariosis was encountered in a 55-year-old female diabetic patient. Two fine needle aspirates (FNA from the abscess were done at three days interval and they showed hyaline, septate, branched, fungal hypahe in 10% potassium hydroxide mount. Fungal infection was confirmed by demonstrating the fungal hyphae in the midst of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in Leishman stained smears. Culture of both FNAs yielded a heavy and pure growth of Fusarium solani . The patient responded to oral ketoconazole 200 mg once daily for 3 weeks. The breast fusariosis reported here is presumably the first case in India.

  13. Enzymatic resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen and (R,S-ketoprofen by microbial lipases from native and commercial sources Resolução enzimática do (R,S-ibuprofeno e (R,S-cetoprofeno por lipases microbianas de fontes nativas e comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselectivity (E of native lipases from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor javanicus, Penicillium solitum and Rhizopus javanicus in the resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen and (R,S-ketoprofenenantiomers by esterification reaction with 1-propanol in isooctane was compared with known commercial Candida rugosa (Sigma and Candida antarctica (Novozym®435 lipases. In the resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen, C. rugosa lipase showed good selectivity (E = 12 while Novozym®435 (E = 6.7 and A. niger (E = 4.8 lipases had intermediate selectivities. Other enzymes were much less selective (E around 2.3 and 1.5, under tested conditions. After preliminary optimization of reaction conditions (water content, enzyme concentration and presence of additives the enantioselectivity of native A. niger lipase could be enhanced substantially (E = 15. All tested lipases showed low selectivity in the resolution of (R,S-ketoprofen because poor ester yields and low enantiomeric excess of the acid remaining were achieved.A enantioseletividade (E das lipases nativas de Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor javanicus, Penicillium solitum e Rhizopus javanicus na resolução dos enantiômeros do (R,S-ibuprofeno e (R,S-cetoprofeno na reação de esterificação com 1-propanol em isoctano foi comparada com as lipases comerciais de Candida rugosa (Sigma e Candida antarctica (Novozym®435. A lipase de C. rugosa mostrou boa enantioseletividade (E = 12 comparada com as da Novozym®435 (E = 6.7, de A. niger (E=4.8 e com as outras lipases que foram muito menos seletivas (E por volta de 2.3 e 1.5 na resolução do (R,S-ibuprofeno, dentro das condições testadas. Após uma otimização preliminar das condições da reação (conteúdo de água, concentração da enzima e presença de aditivos a enantioseletividade da lipase de A. niger pôde ser substancialmente aumentada (E = 15. Todas as lipases testadas mostraram baixa

  14. Structural studies on lipoprotein lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socorro, L.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of lipoprotein lipase is not known. The lack of information on its primary sequence has been due to the inability of preparing it in homogeneous and stable form. This research has focused on the structural characterization of lipoprotein lipase. The first approach taken was to develop a purification method using bovine milk and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The protein obtained was a heterogeneous peak with the activity shifted towards the trailing edge fractions. These fractions only presented a 55 Kdalton band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Monoclonal antibodies against this band detected an endogenous, phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride-sensitive protease responsible for the presence of lower molecular weight fragments. The second approach was to label the lipoprotein lipase with a radioactive, active site, directed probe. After incubation and affinity chromatography a complex [ 3 H]inhibitor enzyme was isolated with a stoichiometry of 1.00 +/- 0.2. The complex was digested with CNBr and the insoluble peptides at low ionic strength (>90% [ 3 H]dpm) were used for further purification. Differential extraction of the [ 3 H]-peptide, digestion with S. aureus V8 protease, and high performance liquid chromatography yielded a hexapeptide with a composition consistent with the consensus sequence of the active site peptides of many serine-esterase. This and the kinetic data imply this being the mechanism of action for lipoprotein lipase

  15. Lipase Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/lipasetest.html Lipase Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a lipase test? Lipase is a type of protein made by ...

  16. Lipase H, a new member of the triglyceride lipase family synthesized by the intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Weijun; Broedl, Uli C.; Monajemi, Houshang; Glick, Jane M.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    We report here the molecular cloning of a novel member of the triglyceride lipase family, a 2.4-kb cDNA encoding human lipase H (LIPH) and the mouse ortholog (Liph). The human LIPH cDNA encodes a 451-amino-acid protein with a lipase domain. Mouse Liph shows 85% amino acid identity and 75% nucleotide

  17. Structure and Function of Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob

    .e. the waterlipidinterface. For Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases, activation of the enzymeinvolves a rearrangement of a structural domain, called the “lid”, which covers the active site inhomogenous aqueous solution. At the water-lipid interface, the lid is displaced from the active site andmoves...... the water-lipid interface, structural movements occurring during activation have been difficult to probeexperimentally. In this work, novel variants of TlL were constructed based on rational design with amutated lid-region in order to elucidate the impact of the lid-residue composition and characteristics...... onthe activation mechanism. From characterization studies of these variants we have shown (Paper I) thatthe lid-region plays a crucial role in governing interfacial activation and enzymatic activity. Specifically,using a combination of spectroscopic and enzymatic activity-based methods we have...

  18. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  19. Lipases and whole cell biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and its ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Paulina; Serafin, Monika; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Żymańczyk-Duda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    A wide spectrum of commercially available lipases and microbial whole cells catalysts were tested for biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 1 and its butyryl ester. The best results were achieved for biocatalytic hydrolysis of ester: 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 2 performed by lipase from Candida cylindracea, what gave optically active products with 85% enantiomeric excess, 50% conversion degree and enantioselectivity 32.9 for one pair of enantiomers. Also enzymatic systems of Penicillium minioluteum and Fusarium oxysporum were able to hydrolyze tested compound with high enantiomeric excess (68-93% ee), enantioselectivity (44 for one pair of enantiomers) and conversion degree about 50-55%. Enzymatic acylation of hydroxyphosphinate was successful in case when porcine pancreas lipase was used. After 4days of biotransformation the conversion reaches 45% but the enantiomeric enrichment of the isomers mixture do not exceed 43%. Obtained chiral compounds are valuable derivatizing agents for spectroscopic (NMR) evaluation of enantiomeric excess for particular compounds (e.g. amino acids). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipase | Bapiraju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present investigation is to enhance production of biomedically important enzyme lipase by subjecting the indigenous lipase producing strain Rhizopus sp. BTS-24 to improvement by natural selection and random mutagenesis (UV and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine, NTG). The isolation of mutants ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipase deficiency develop multi-organ failure and severe malnutrition and generally do not survive past 1 year. In the later-onset form of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency , signs and symptoms vary and usually begin in mid-childhood, although they can appear anytime up to late ...

  2. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  3. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  4. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  5. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fusarium dimerum Species Complex (Fusarium penzigii) Keratitis After Corneal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Anália; Costa, Esmeralda; Marques, Marco; Quadrado, Maria João; Tomé, Rui

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a keratitis associated with a Fusarium penzigii-a Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC)-in a 81-year-old woman after a corneal trauma with a tree branch. At patient admittance, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed an exuberant chemosis, an inferior corneal ulcer with an associated inflammatory infiltrate, a central corneal abscess, bullous keratopathy and posterior synechiae. Corneal scrapes were obtained for identification of bacteria and fungi, and the patient started antibiotic treatment on empirical basis. Few days later, the situation worsened with the development of hypopyon. By that time, Fusarium was identified in cultures obtained from corneal scrapes and the patient started topical amphotericin B 0.15 %. Upon the morphological identification of the Fusarium as a FDSC, and since there was no clinical improvement, the treatment with amphotericin B was suspended and the patient started voriconazole 10 mg/ml, eye drops, hourly and voriconazole 200 mg iv, every 12 h for 1 month. The hypopyon resolved and the inflammatory infiltrate improved, but the abscess persisted at the last follow-up visit. The molecular identification revealed that the FDSC was a F. penzigii.

  7. Structural dynamics of Fusarium genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, H.C.; Rep, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Brown, D.W.; Proctor, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Fusarium have a great negative impact on the world economy, yet also hold great potential for answering many fundamental biological questions. The advance of sequencing technologies has made possible the connection between phenotypes and genetic mechanisms underlying the

  8. Host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a fungal pathogen that can cause severe wilt disease and root rot in various plant species. Every individual strain is restricted to causing disease in only one or a few plant species. In this thesis, we focused on identifying novel virulence factors (‘effectors’) secreted by

  9. Evaluation of cellulose-binding domain fused to a lipase for the lipase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangpill; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Sumin; Lee, Tai Gyu; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Kangtaek; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Jung, Joon-Ki

    2004-04-01

    A cellulose-binding domain (CBD) fragment of a cellulase gene of Trichoderma hazianum was fused to a lipase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus L1 to make a gene cluster for CBD-BSL lipase. The specific activity of CBD-BSL lipase for oil hydrolysis increased by 33% after being immobilized on Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose), whereas those of CBD-BSL lipase and BSL lipase decreased by 16% and 54%, respectively, after being immobilized on silica gel. Although the loss of activity of an enzyme immobilized by adsorption has been reported previously, the loss of activity of the CBD-BSL lipase immobilized on Avicel was less than 3% after 12 h due to the irreversible binding of CBD to Avicel.

  10. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    OpenAIRE

    Soumanou Mohamed M.; Edorh Aleodjrodo P.; Bornscheuer Uwe T.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) and Candida rugosa (CRL) was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricapryli...

  11. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis.

  12. Fusarium oxysporum protects Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings from root disease caused by Fusarium commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium root disease can be a serious problem in forest and conservation nurseries in the western United States. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Fusarium spp. within the F. oxysporum species complex have been recognized as pathogens for more than a...

  13. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and fusarium commune isolates from a conifer nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane E. Stewart; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and...

  14. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  15. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  16. Sorne aspects of Fusarium genus and the Fusarium oxysporum species Algunos aspectos de los hongos del genero Fusarium y de la especie Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez Torres Germán

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the proposal of the utilization of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of coca plants in Colombia, there is a serious discussion on different Colombian meetings about the advantages and disadvantages of its application. However in these discussions there was not enough knowledge of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This paper presents sorne biological and pathological aspects ofthe genus Fusarium and the species Fusarium oxysporum.Ante la propuesta de utilizar el hongo Fusarium oxysporum
    f.sp. erythoxyli para el control biológico de las plantas de
    coca en Colombia, se ha abierto una amplia discusión en distintos ámbitos nacionales sobre las bondades y los aspectos
    negativos de su aplicación. Sin embargo, en dicha discusión
    se ha notado un gran desconocimiento sobre el hongo
    Fusarium oxysporum. En este artículo se presentan diversos
    aspectos biológicos y patológicos del género Fusarium y de
    la especie Fusarium oxysporum.

  17. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium gerlachii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balázs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The structure of the Fusarium gerlachii mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium graminearum; it has a total length of 93,428 bp, the base composition of the genome is: A (35.3%), T (32.8%), C (14.7%) and G (17.2%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2

  18. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Geissinger, Cajetan; Hofer, Katharina; Schüler, Jan; Moghari, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Some information is available about the fate of Fusarium toxins during the brewing process, but only little is known about the single processing steps in detail. In our study we produced beer from two different barley cultivars inoculated with three different Fusarium species, namely, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium avenaceum, producing a wide range of mycotoxins such as type B trichothecenes, type A trichothecenes, and enniatins. By the use of multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution methods we were able to follow the fate of Fusarium toxins during the entire brewing process. In particular, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol showed similar behaviors. Between 35 and 52% of those toxins remained in the beer after filtration. The contents of the potentially hazardous deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and the type A trichothecenes increased during mashing, but a rapid decrease of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside content was found during the following steps of lautering and wort boiling. The concentration of enniatins greatly decreased with the discarding of spent grains or finally with the hot break. The results of our study show the retention of diverse Fusarium toxins during the brewing process and allow for assessing the food safety of beer regarding the monitored Fusarium mycotoxins.

  19. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium culmorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balázs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the Fusarium culmorum mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium spp.: it has a total length of 103,844 bp, the base composition of the genome is the following: A (35.4%), T (32.9%), C (14.6%), and G (17.1%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2

  20. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  1. Evaluating Genetic Association between Fusarium and Pythium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to Fusarium root rot (Fusarium solani f.s.p phaseoli) has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sources and is usually associated with Pythium root rot resistance. Pythium root rot (Pythium ultimum var ultimum) resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene, marked by a SCAR marker ...

  2. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi:

  3. Optimization of lipase production by Staphylococcus sp. Lp12

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... an enormous attention because of their biotechnological applications. Lipases remain ... selective transformations. The exponential increase in .... mass) lipase production and pH at regular intervals of time 24, 48 and 72 h on ...

  4. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniwati Dali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum temperature, thermal stability and reusability were carried out. The results showed that free lipase had optimum pH 8,2 and optimum temperature 35 °C while the immobilized lipase had optimum 8,2 and optimum temperature 45 °C. The thermal stability of the immobilized lipase, relative to that of the free lipase, was markedly increased. The immobilized lipase can be reused for at least six times.

  5. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Regulates Fever Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sanchez-Alavez

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as ibuprofen have been used for decades to control fever through reducing the levels of the pyrogenic lipid transmitter prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Historically, phospholipases have been considered to be the primary generator of the arachidonic acid (AA precursor pool for generating PGE2 and other eicosanoids. However, recent studies have demonstrated that monoacyglycerol lipase (MAGL, through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, provides a major source of AA for PGE2 synthesis in the mammalian brain under basal and neuroinflammatory states. We show here that either genetic or pharmacological ablation of MAGL leads to significantly reduced fever responses in both centrally or peripherally-administered lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-1β-induced fever models in mice. We also show that a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist does not attenuate these anti-pyrogenic effects of MAGL inhibitors. Thus, much like traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, MAGL inhibitors can control fever, but appear to do so through restricted control over prostaglandin production in the nervous system.

  6. Realm of Thermoalkaline Lipases in Bioprocess Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B

    2018-01-01

    For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation. Several characteristics of the thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases are discussed. Their molecular weight and resistance towards a range of temperature, pH, metal, and surfactants are compared. Their industrial applications in biodiesel, biodetergents, biodegreasing, and other types of bioconversions are also described. This review also discusses the advance of fermentation process for thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases production focusing on the process development in microorganism selection and strain improvement, culture medium optimization via several optimization techniques (i.e., one-factor-at-a-time, surface response methodology, and artificial neural network), and other fermentation parameters (i.e., inoculums size, temperature, pH, agitation rate, dissolved oxygen tension (DOT), and aeration rate). Two common fermentation techniques for thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases production which are solid-state and submerged fermentation methods are compared and discussed. Recent optimization approaches using evolutionary algorithms (i.e., Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, and Particle Swarm Optimization) are also highlighted in this article.

  7. Realm of Thermoalkaline Lipases in Bioprocess Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation. Several characteristics of the thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases are discussed. Their molecular weight and resistance towards a range of temperature, pH, metal, and surfactants are compared. Their industrial applications in biodiesel, biodetergents, biodegreasing, and other types of bioconversions are also described. This review also discusses the advance of fermentation process for thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases production focusing on the process development in microorganism selection and strain improvement, culture medium optimization via several optimization techniques (i.e., one-factor-at-a-time, surface response methodology, and artificial neural network, and other fermentation parameters (i.e., inoculums size, temperature, pH, agitation rate, dissolved oxygen tension (DOT, and aeration rate. Two common fermentation techniques for thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases production which are solid-state and submerged fermentation methods are compared and discussed. Recent optimization approaches using evolutionary algorithms (i.e., Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, and Particle Swarm Optimization are also highlighted in this article.

  8. The Effect of Tallow As Lipase Inducer on Total of Aspergillus Niger, Lipolitic Activity and Lipase Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Eirry Sawitri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research was to determined of tallow addition with different concentration as lipase Aspergillus niger inducer to total of A. niger, lipolitic activity and lipase yield. The result showed that tallow addition as inducer in the lipase A. niger production gave no significant effect on total of A. niger (5.3 x 107 – 1.7 x 108 cfu/gram in the medium. Tallow addition gave a highly significant effect on lipolytic activity and yield of lipase A. niger. Lipolytic activity ranged between 32.0354 – 53.1197 U/mg protein, while the yield of lipase was 6.6418–7.8941 µg/ml. The conclusion of this research was the addition of tallow for 8% as the lipase inducer of A. niger on lipase production was  more effective to obtain the optimal result. Keywords : Tallow, lipase, inducer, Aspergillus niger

  9. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Lipases Obtained from Acinetobacter psychrotolerans Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule SEREN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracellular lipases obtained from Acinetobacter psychrotolerans strains (Xg1 and Xg2 were characterized. The effects of varying pH values (3.0-10.0 and various temperatures (10-90 °C on lipase activities were examined. Also the effects of different metal ions, organic solvents and detergents on lipases were studied. The extracellular crude lipases were concentrated using ultrafiltration. Zymogram analysis of these lipases was performed. Lipases exhibited maximum activity at pH 8 and 30 °C.  While lipase obtained from the Xg1 strain exhibited the highest stability in the presence of various organic solvents, including hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and N,N dietil formamide, lipase obtained from the Xg2 strain was sensitive in the presence of isopropanol, acetonitrile, and butan-1-ol. The lipases of the Xg1 and Xg2 strains were inhibited in the presence of Cu2+ and Zn2+. Also, the lipase of the Xg1 strain was inhibited in the presence of Fe3+. In the presence of EDTA, the lipase activities of the Xg1 and Xg2 strains were partially inhibited. In presence of SDS, they were exactly inhibited. According to the zymogram results, the molecular weights of the lipases obtained from the Acinetobacter psychrotolerans Xg1 and Xg2 strains have been found approximately 37 and 30 kDa, respectively.

  11. Dependency of water concentration on ethanolysis of trioleoylglycerol by lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyatheerawong, W.; Iwasaki, Y; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    tested (Rhizomucor miehei lipase, Burkholderia cepacia lipase and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase) required larger amounts of free water (ca. 7-9 wt.%) for their best performance and exhibited no ethanolysis reaction at low free water concentrations. The CALB's anomalous behavior was also observed...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  13. A Quantitative Fluorescence-Based Lipase Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Lomolino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy and fast gel diffusion assay for detecting and monitoring lipase activity by quantification of fluorescein is described. By measuring the intensity of fluorescein, it is possible to obtain a calibration curve with a regression coefficient better than by using the radius of fluorescent haloes. Through the quantification of fluorescence intensity of fluorescein released after the hydrolysis of a fluorescent ester, fluorescein dibutyrate, used as substrate in agar plates, commercial and skimmed milk lipase activity were studied. Moreover, with this method, lipase activity can be monitored in reaction medium that contains compounds which are affected by turbidity or cause measurement interference for UV-spectrophotometer and fluorimeter. In this experiment, boiled skimmed milk was dispersed in the agar gel with fluorescein dibutyrate, and it was used as a reaction medium to mimic natural conditions. The development of such an assay has a potential for applications in industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to food production and monitoring.

  14. Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Passionfruit in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ho Joa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available From 2014 to 2016, Fusarium wilt disease was found on fassionfruit in Iksan and Jeju, Korea. Symptoms included wilting of foliage, drying and withering of leaves, and stunting of the plants. The infected plants eventually died during growth. Colonies on potato dextrose agar were pinkish white, and felted with cottony and aerial mycelia with 35 mm after one week. Macroconidia were falcate to almost straight, thin-walled and usually 2-3 septate. Microconidia were usually formed on monophialides of the hyphae and were hyaline, smooth, oval to ellipsoidal, aseptate or medianly 1-septate, very occasionally 2-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 3-12 x 2.5-6 μm. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of two molecular markers, internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α, the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was proved by artificial inoculation, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of F. oxysporum on fassionfruit in Korea.

  15. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infection on maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous knowledge of the infection process and pathogens behavior, for evaluating the physiological potential of maize seeds, is essential for decision making on the final destination of lots that can endanger sowing. This research was carried out in order to study the minimum period required for maize seeds contamination by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg, as well as these pathogens influence on seed germination and vigor, by using the cold test. Three maize seeds hybrids, kept in contact with the pathogens for different periods, were evaluated with and without surface disinfection. After determining the most suitable period, new samples were contaminated by F. graminearum and F. verticillioides, under different infection levels, and subjected to germination tests in sand. The cold test was conducted with healthy and contaminated seeds, at different periods, in a cold chamber. The contact of maize seeds with F. graminearum and F. verticillioides for 16 hours was enough to cause infection. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides did not affect the maize seeds germination, however, F. graminearum reduced the vigor of seeds lots.

  16. Lipase kinetics: hydrolysis of triacetin by lipase from Candida cylindracea in a hollow-fiber membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guit, R.P.M.; Kloosterman, M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Mayer, M.; Meijer, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The aptitude of a hollow-fiber membrane reactor to det. lipase kinetics was investigated using the hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by lipase from C. cylindracea as a model system. The binding of the lipase to the membrane appears not to be very specific (surface adsorption), and probably its

  17. Immunological detection of Fusarium species in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M S; Cousin, M A

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Fusarium species in foods. Antibodies to proteins extracted from the mycelia of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme (verticillioides) were produced in New Zealand white rabbits. These antibodies detected 13 Fusarium species in addition to the producer strains. Levels of Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium tricinctum strains were below the detection threshold. The specificity of the assay was tested against 70 molds and yeasts belonging to 23 genera. One strain of Monascus species and one strain of Phoma exigua were detected; however, these two molds are not common contaminants of cereal grains or foods and should not interfere with the assay. The indirect ELISA's detection limits for F. graminearum and F. moniliforme were 0.1 and 1 microg of mold mycelium per ml of a cornmeal mixture, respectively. When spores of each mold were added individually to cornmeal mixtures (at ca. 10 spores per g) and incubated at 25 degrees C, these spores were detected by the indirect ELISA when they reached levels of 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml after 24 to 36 h. The indirect ELISA developed here shows promise for the detection of Fusarium species in grains or foods.

  18. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y.Y.; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E.; Seppaelae, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M. [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  19. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y Y; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E; Seppaelae, J [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  20. Frozen Microemulsions for MAPLE Immobilization of Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida rugosa lipase (CRL was deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE in order to immobilize the enzyme with a preserved native conformation, which ensures its catalytic functionality. For this purpose, the composition of the MAPLE target was optimized by adding the oil phase pentane to a water solution of the amino acid 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-methyl-l-alanine (m-DOPA, giving a target formed by a frozen water-lipase-pentane microemulsion. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to investigate the structure of MAPLE deposited lipase films. FTIR deconvolution of amide I band indicated a reduction of unfolding and aggregation, i.e., a better preserved lipase secondary structure in the sample deposited from the frozen microemulsion target. AFM images highlighted the absence of big aggregates on the surface of the sample. The functionality of the immobilized enzyme to promote transesterification was determined by thin layer chromatography, resulting in a modified specificity.

  1. Lipase and phospholipase activities of Hymenoptera venoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    native gel), Polistes flavis venom has four major protein bands, one of which has lipase activity; with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE), the venom had eighteen bands with molecular weights ranging from a maximum of 94 kD and a minimum of ...

  2. Biotechnological applications of halophilic lipases and thioesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Steven D; Grunden, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Lipases and esterases are enzymes which hydrolyze ester bonds between a fatty acid moiety and an esterified conjugate, such as a glycerol or phosphate. These enzymes have a wide spectrum of use in industrial applications where their high activity, broad substrate specificity, and stability under harsh conditions have made them integral in biofuel production, textile processing, waste treatment, and as detergent additives. To date, these industrial applications have mainly leveraged enzymes from mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. However, increasingly, attention has turned to halophilic enzymes as catalysts in environments where high salt stability is desired. This review provides a brief overview of lipases and esterases and examines specific structural motifs and evolutionary adaptations of halophilic lipases. Finally, we examine the state of research involving these enzymes and provide an in-depth look at an exciting algal-based biofuel production system. This system uses a recombinant halophilic lipase to increase oil production efficiency by cleaving algal fatty acids from the acyl carrier protein, which eliminates feedback inhibition of fatty acid synthesis.

  3. Production and characterization of lipase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... properties of fats at high temperature and increased ..... Effect of growth medium pH on lipase activity, protein concentration and B. stearothermophilus growth. .... inactivation after 30 min of incubation in 10 mM Cu+2 ions.

  4. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  5. Enantioselective properties of induced lipases from Geotrichum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zarevúcka, Marie; Kejík, Z.; Šaman, David; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Demnerová, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2005), s. 481-486 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D30.001; GA MŠk(CZ) OC D13.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Geotrichum * lipase * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2005

  6. Clinical Features of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Barbara K.; Deegan, Patrick B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Guardamagna, Ornella; Horslen, Simon; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Lobritto, Steve J.; Malinova, Vera; McLin, Valerie A.; Raiman, Julian; Di Rocco, Maja; Santra, Saikat; Sharma, Reena; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Whitley, Chester B.; Eckert, Stephen; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Quinn, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living

  7. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  8. Morphological and molecular detection of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Fusarium has a cosmopolitan distribution, with some species able to cause diseases ... packaged potato dextrose agar (PDA), accurate micro- ..... the probability of nucleotide substitutions per site, based on the .... Processing.

  9. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  10. Biosynthesis of fusarielins in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Wagma; Søndergaard, Teis; Giese, Henriette

    Polyketide synthase 9 (PKS9) is one of the 15 identified polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Fusarium graminearum. The gene is coregulated along with five neighboring genes by a single transcription factor (TF). An overexpression of the transcription factor led to production of three novel...... by this cluster in Fusarium graminearum., deletion mutant of each gene was created in the overexpressed mutant by targeted gene replacemen...

  11. Aspects of resistance to fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium culmorum in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Fusarium head blight of wheat is predominantly caused by Fusarium culmorum . A low infection level leads to important yield losses and contaminates the grain with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol. This mycotoxin is suggested to have toxic

  12. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T; Platt, H W; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  13. FRAKSINASI ENZIM LIPASE DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA DENGAN METODE SALTING OUT (Lipase fractionation of Coconut Endosperm by Salting out Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Su'i

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research learns about fractionation of lipases activity from coconut endosperm by using ammonium sulphate of 0–15%; 15-30 %, 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % and 75–90 %. The results showed that the fractions of 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % and 60–75 % have lipase activity. Meanwhile, the highest activity was fractions of 60-75%. fractions of 15-30% and 75-90%  have no lipase enzym activity. Molecule weigh of lipase enzyme was 72 kDa. Keywords: Lipases, endosperm, coconut, fractionation, ammonium sulphate   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari fraksinasi enzim lipase dari endosperm kelapa menggunakan ammonium sulfat. fraksinasi dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi ammonium sulfat 0–15% ; 15-30%; 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % dan 75–90 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa enzim lipase terdapat pada fraksi 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % dan fraksi 60–75 % dengan aktivitas enzim tertinggi pada fraksi 60-75%. Sedangkan fraksi 15-30% dan 75-90% tidak ada enzim lipase. Berat molekul enzim lipase pada semua fraksi 72 kDa. Kata kunci: Lipase, endosperm, fraksinasi, ammonium sulfat

  14. Use of AFLPs to differentiate between Fusarium species causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Fusarium spp. and. Helmintosporium sativum) diseases are common. The aim of this study was to use the AFLP technique to determine variation and genetic relationships between Syrian Fusarium isolates; and compare them.

  15. Differential effect of combined lipase deficiency (cld/cld) on human hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, J C; Doolittle, M H; White, A L

    2001-11-01

    Combined lipase deficiency (cld) is a recessively inherited disorder in mice associated with a deficiency of LPL and hepatic lipase (HL) activity. LPL is synthesized in cld tissues but is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas mouse HL (mHL) is secreted but inactive. In this study we investigated the effect of cld on the secretion of human HL (hHL) protein mass and activity. Differentiated liver cell lines were derived from cld mice and their normal heterozygous (het) littermates by transformation of hepatocytes with SV40 large T antigen. After transient transfection with lipase expression constructs, secretion of hLPL activity from cld cells was only 12% of that from het cells. In contrast, the rate of secretion of hHL activity and protein mass per unit of expressed hHL mRNA was identical for the two cell lines. An intermediate effect was observed for mHL, with a 46% reduction in secretion of activity from cld cells. The ER glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine, decreased secretion of both hLPL and hHL from het cells by approximately 70%, but by only approximately 45% from cld cells. This is consistent with data suggesting that cld may result from a reduced concentration of the ER chaperone calnexin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a differential effect of cld on hLPL, mHL, and hHL secretion, suggesting differential requirements for activation and exit of the enzymes from the ER.

  16. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3 H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  17. Engineering Lipases: walking the fine line between activity and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasetty, Siva; Blenner, Mark A.; Sarupria, Sapna

    2017-11-01

    Lipases are enzymes that hydrolyze lipids and have several industrial applications. There is a tremendous effort in engineering the activity, specificity and stability of lipases to render them functional in a variety of environmental conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent experimental and simulation studies focused on engineering lipases. Experimentally, mutagenesis studies have demonstrated that the activity, stability, and specificity of lipases can be modulated by mutations. It has been particularly challenging however, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms through which these mutations affect the lipase properties. We summarize results from experiments and molecular simulations highlighting the emerging picture to this end. We end the review with suggestions for future research which underscores the delicate balance of various facets in the lipase that affect their activity and stability necessitating the consideration of the enzyme as a network of interactions.

  18. Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment

  19. Wheat Intercropping Enhances the Resistance of Watermelon to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Lv; Huifang Lv; Haishun Cao; Muhammad A. Nawaz; Hamza Sohail; Yuan Huang; Fei Cheng; Qiusheng Kong; Zhilong Bie

    2018-01-01

    A fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. niveum (FON) is the causal organism of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wheat intercropping on the Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Our results showed that wheat intercropping decreases the incidence of Fusarium wilt of watermelon, likely due to the secretion of coumaric acid from the roots of wheat that dramatically inhibits FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth. The secretion of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid...

  20. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Seniwati; Patong, A. B. D. Rauf; Jalaluddin, M. Noor; Pirman; Hamzah, Baharuddin

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  1. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc. materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix. Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.

  2. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-07

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  3. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have developed two taxon-selective primers for quick identification of the Fusarium genus. These primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r were designed by comparing the aligned sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of a range of Fusarium species. The primers showed good specificity for the genus Fusarium, ...

  4. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency with visceral xanthomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah; Bellah, Richard [Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Verma, Ritu [Department of Gastroenterology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce [Department of Pathology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LLD) is a rare metabolic disorder that typically presents with skin xanthomas and pancreatitis in childhood. We report a case of LLD in an infant who presented with jaundice caused by a pancreatic head mass. Abdominal imaging also incidentally revealed hyperechoic renal masses caused by renal xanthomas. This appearance of the multiple abdominal masses makes this a unique infantile presentation of LLD. (orig.)

  5. Lipoprotein lipase: genetics, lipid uptake, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Martin; Eckel, Robert H; Goldberg, Ira J

    2002-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulates the plasma levels of triglyceride and HDL. Three aspects are reviewed. 1) Clinical implications of human LPL gene variations: common mutations and their effects on plasma lipids and coronary heart disease are discussed. 2) LPL actions in the nervous system, liver, and heart: the discussion focuses on LPL and tissue lipid uptake. 3) LPL gene regulation: the LPL promoter and its regulatory elements are described.

  6. Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient utilization of xylanase and lipase producing thermophilic marine actinomycetes ( Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces hygroscopicus ) in the production of ecofriendly alternative energy from waste.

  7. Applications of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    (RSM). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase had an activity similar to that of immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) in the glycerolysis of sunflower oil, but the former had higher activity at a low reaction temperature (5degreesC). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase was found to have much lower...... catalytic activity than Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis of sunflower oil with caprylic acid. However, the activity of T. lanuginosa lipase was only slightly lower than that of Lipozyme RM IM in the ester-ester exchange between tripalmitin (PPP) and the ethyl esters of EPA and DHA (EE). For this reason...

  8. Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.

  9. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  10. Study of enzymatic reactors with microencapsulated lipase. Doctoral thesis. Estudo de reactores enzimaticos com lipase microencapsulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Franca Teixeira dos Prazeres, D.M.

    1992-10-01

    The work reports the development of a membrane reactor for the hydrolysis of triglycerides catalyzed by lipase B from Chromobacterium viscosum in AOT/isooctane reversed miceller system. In a preliminary phase the potential of the organic system was evaluated with comparative studies on the activity and stability of lipase B in aqueous media (emulsion) and in the alternative miceller media. A tubular ceramic membrane reactor with recirculation was selected for the olive oil hydrolysis in a reversed miceller system. The influence of the hydration degree, recirculation rate, AOT, olive oil and lipase concentration in the operation of the reactor were investigated in a batch mode. The hydration degree was identified as a critical parameter due to its influence in the separation process and in the kinetics of the reaction.

  11. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  12. Fusarium species as pathogen on orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y

    2018-03-01

    The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, Yasin; Demir, Cevdet; Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent

    2011-01-01

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L ® and Novozym 388 ® , were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 o C and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L ® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  14. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Flitter, S.J.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different...... shows that it is possible to obtain high productivities of heterologous fungal enzymes in A. niger. However, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that most of the produced lipase was bound to the cell wall....

  15. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Turkey. Fusarium redolens is known to cause wilt-like disease of chickpea in other countries, but has not been reported fr...

  16. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which......Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...

  17. Survival of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leplat , Johann; Friberg , Hanna; Abid , Muhammad; Steinberg , Christian

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Wheat is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide. In 2010, 20 % of wheat and durum wheat were cultivated in Europe, 17 % in China and 9 % in Russia and in North America. Wheat yield can be highly decreased by several factors. In particular Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a worldwide fungal pest impacting wheat production. F. graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, root and stem-base rot of cereals. Losses caused by Fusarium head blight in Northern a...

  18. Genomic analysis of Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D W; Butchko, R A E; Proctor, R H

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen-causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the sphingolipid sphinganine. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been associated with a number of animal diseases, including cancer in rodents, and exposure has been correlated with human oesophageal cancer in some regions of the world, and some evidence suggests that fumonisins are a risk factor for neural tube defects. A primary goal of the authors' laboratory is to eliminate fumonisin contamination of maize and maize products. Understanding how and why these toxins are made and the F. verticillioides-maize disease process will allow one to develop novel strategies to limit tissue destruction (rot) and fumonisin production. To meet this goal, genomic sequence data, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays are being used to identify F. verticillioides genes involved in the biosynthesis of toxins and plant pathogenesis. This paper describes the current status of F. verticillioides genomic resources and three approaches being used to mine microarray data from a wild-type strain cultured in liquid fumonisin production medium for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. Taken together, these approaches demonstrate the power of microarray technology to provide information on different biological processes.

  19. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  20. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim; Lee, Pat M.; Lee, Kong H.

    2008-01-01

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  1. Fusarium verwelkingsziekte in tomaat geen probleem meer dankzij resistentie: Speciale vormen Fusarium oxysporum veroorzaken ziekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel. Speciale vormen kunnen problemen veroorzaken zoals verwelkingsziekte en voet- en wortelrot in verschillende vruchtgroentegewassen, potplanten en snijbloemen en zuur in bolgewassen. Per gewas kan de schade variëren van minimaal, doordat

  2. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites.

  3. In silico modeling of lipase H | Jabeen | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAH 2 is a type of autosomal recessive hypotrichosis that affect hairs, eyebrows, scalp and eyelashes. Mutations in Lipase H gene result in LAH 2. Changes that result from mutation on physiochemical properties, post-translational modifications, functional sites, secondary structure and tertiary structure lipase H gene (LIPH) ...

  4. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production | Mazou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. ... This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of latex, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and their industrial applications. Keywords: Plant latex, lipase, Transesterification, purification, biodiesel ...

  5. Screening of thermophilic neutral lipase-producing Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From oil-contaminated soil, three lipase-producing microorganisms were selected as good lipase producers using rhodamine B-olive oil plate agar and they were identified as from Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Klebsiella genera by morphology, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ...

  6. Structural investigations of the regio- and enantioselectivity of lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, Dietmar A.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    Although lipases are widely applied for the stereospecific resolution of racemic mixtures of esters, the atomic details of the factors that are responsible for their stereospecificity are largely obscure. We determined the X-ray structures of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in complex with two

  7. Production of extracellular lipase by a new strain Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the potent isolate was identified as Staphylococcus aureus. The lipase production of the isolate was increased by improving the conditions of production medium. Maximum lipase production (8.11 U/ml) was achieved when 2% punnakka oil was ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  9. Enzymes used in detergents: Lipases | Hasan | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review describes the applications of microbial lipases in detergents. Enzymes can reduce the environmental load of detergent products as the chemicals used in conventional detergents are reduced; they are biodegradable, non-toxic and leave no harmful residues. Besides lipases, other enzymes are widely used in ...

  10. Structural basis of the chiral selectivity of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, Dietmar A.; Mannesse, Maurice L.M.; Haas, Gerard H. de; Verheij, Hubertus M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the enantioselectivity of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase, inhibition studies were performed with S(c)-and R(c)-(R(p),S(p))-1,2-dialkylcarbamoylglycero-3-O-p-nitrophenyl alkylphosphonates of different alkyl chain lengths. P. cepacia lipase was most rapidly inactivated by

  11. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... for lipase production, the production cost was $US 518.00/million Units of lipase. Key words: ... energetics, fine chemicals and pulp and paper industries. ... for enzyme production is extremely important in dictating ... fat is waste product of poultry processing industry ... Economic Research Service,” 2013).

  12. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of. 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa.

  13. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    was determined. The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African ..... Lipase by Penicillium restrictum in solid state ... sp. Rev. Microbiol. 28(2): 90-95. Martinek, G.H. (1969). Microbiology and amino acid ...

  14. Optimization of lipase production by Staphylococcus sp. Lp12

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus,. Achromobacter have been cloned and characterized. Bacterial lipases are mostly inducible enzymes and require some form of oil, fatty acid, fatty acid alcohol or fatty acid ester and surfactants for induction (Immanuel et al., 2008). Lipase biosynthesis ...

  15. Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete nutrient conditions showed ... 35°C and had a broad optimum pH of 7.5 – 8.5. Key words: Lipase .... inhibited by the ex- cess of substrate concentration or change of physio-.

  16. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin-Sepharos...

  17. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipoprotein Lipase Activity | Kotze | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baboons kept on hypovitaminotic C diets, but without clinical signs of scurvy, had significantly higher heart muscle lipoprotein lipase activity than baboons on vitamin C 34 mg/kg body mass/day. When the serum vitamin C levels were above 0,35 mg/100 ml the heart muscle lipoprotein lipase was repressed. Serum vitamin C ...

  18. Selection and optimization of extracellular lipase production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to isolate and select lipase-producing microorganisms originated from different substrates, as well as to optimize the production of microbial lipase by submerged fermentation under different nutrient conditions. Of the 40 microorganisms isolated, 39 showed a halo around the colonies and 4 were ...

  19. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  20. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumanou Mohamed M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL and Candida rugosa (CRL was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricaprylin to peanut oil found was in the range 0.7 to 0.8. Using substrate molar ratio 0.7, high amount of structured triglyceride ST (about 35% MLM, 44% LML triglyceride fractions was obtained with lipase from RML in n-hexane. The results found in solvent free system were in some cases quite similar to that obtained in organic solvent. In nine successive batch interesterification in solvent free medium using immobilized RML and CRL, no significant loss of amount of both produced triacylglycerol fractions until batch 7 was observed with RML.

  1. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L

    2009-01-01

    . The results suggest that both EL and LPL participate in the supply of nutrients and steroidogenesis in the testes, and that especially EL may be important for the supply of cholesterol for testosterone production in the Leydig cells. The partial cellular separation of the expression of the two lipases...

  2. Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2013-09-16

    Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  4. Beneficial effects of adding lipase enzyme to broiler diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarkouky, E.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance

  5. Production of lipase free of citrinin by Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M C; Melo, E H; Lima Filho, J L; Durán, N

    1996-02-01

    Lipase (Glycerol ester hydrolase E.G. 3.1.1.3) from a Brazilian strain of Penicillium citrinum free of the mycotoxin citrinin has been investigated. Citrinin production was inhibited by using culture medium containing olive oil, soybean oil and corn oil as carbon sources. Potassium concentration and pH play an important role in citrinin production. Potassium concentration lower than 30 mM and pH below 4.5 inhibited the mycotoxin production. P. citrinum produced lipase free of extraneous proteins and citrinin when cultured using, as nitrogen source, ammonium sulphate (lipase activity of 7.88 U/mg) and yeast extract (lipase activity of 4.95 U/mg) with olive oil as carbon source. This data is relevant to the larger scale production of lipases for food technology applications, from Penicillium citrinum.

  6. Altering the activation mechanism in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    It is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates......, and enhanced calcium independence. The rational design was based on the lid residue composition in Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (FAEA). Five constructs included lipase variants containing the full FAEA lid, a FAEA-like lid, an intermediate lid of FAEA and TlL character, and the entire lid region...... from Aspergillus terreus lipase (AtL). To investigate an altered activation mechanism for each variant compared to that of TlL, a combination of activity- and spectroscopic-based measurements were applied. The engineered variant with a lid from AtL displayed interfacial activation comparable...

  7. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Karl E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the

  8. Screening and identification of Lipase Producing Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-01-01

    55 samples from different regions were selected and screened by Rhodamine B flat transparent circle method to observe lipase producing effect, among which, LHY-1, identified as Serratia sp. has the characteristics of fast growth, high enzyme production and stable ability. The colony of this strain is white, the edge is smooth and tidy, the surface is moist, the cell is straight, rod-shaped, gram negative, 0.1-0.2 μm in diameter and, length 0.3-0.5 μm in length.

  9. Characterization of Cross-Linked Lipase Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-01-01

    . Precipitants were found to have a profound influence on both specific activities and total activity recovery of CLEAs, as exemplified by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). Among the CLEAs of CALB studied, those obtained using PEG600, ammonium sulfate, PEG200 and acetone as precipitants were observed to attain...... over 200% total activity recovery in comparison with acetone powder directly precipitated from the liquid solution by acetone. PEG200 precipitated CLEA gave the best specific activity (139% relative to acetone powder). The results of kinetic studies showed that V (max)/K (m) does not significantly...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  11. Purification and characterization of a new cold active lipase, EnL A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search of lipase engineering data base (LED) revealed that this protein belongs to a newly introduced super family of Candida antarctica lipase A like and to the homologous family of Aspergillus lipase like. Key words: Cold active lipase, Emericella nidulans, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, Candida antarctica ...

  12. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  13. Fusarium mycotoxins: a trans-disciplinary overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to health risks and economic losses associated with mycotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Phylogenetic studies have made tremendous progress in d...

  14. IGS-RFLP analysis and development of molecular markers for identification of Fusarium poae, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium kyushuense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinova, P.S.; Yli-Mattila, T.

    2004-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of the rDNA of several Fusarium spp. strains obtained from the collaborative researchers (Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2003)) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and an IGS¿RFLP analysis was performed. Restriction digestion with AluI, MspI and PstI

  15. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins. Among the most important mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium are the trichothecenes and the fumonisins. Fumonisins cause fatal livestock diseases and are considered potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins for humans, while trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes the main aspects of morphology, pathology, and toxigenicity of the main Fusarium species that colonize different agricultural crops and environments worldwide, and cause mycotoxin contamination of food and feed.

  16. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  17. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for

  18. Characterization and intraspecific variation of Fusarium semitectum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 79 isolates of Fusarium semitectum were characterized by morphological and IGS-RFLP analysis to assess its intraspecific variation. Based on morphological characteristics, the isolates of F. semitectum were classified into 2 distinct groups, morphotypes I and II. Morphotype I was characterized by longer ...

  19. Agricultural factors affecting Fusarium communities in wheat kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-03

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical distance and the wheat cultivar grown. We characterised the Fusarium community in harvested wheat kernels using 454 sequencing of translation elongation factor 1-α amplicons. In addition, we quantified Fusarium spp. using real-time PCR to reveal differences in biomass between fields. We identified 12 Fusarium operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a median of 4.5 OTUs per field. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant species, while F. avenaceum had the highest occurrence. The abundance of Fusarium spp. ranged two orders of magnitude between fields. Two pairs of Fusarium species co-occurred between fields: F. poae with F. tricinctum and F. culmorum with F. sporotrichoides. We could not detect any difference in Fusarium communities between the organic and conventional systems. However, agricultural intensity, measured as the number of pesticide applications and the amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied, had an

  20. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  1. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

  2. Hydrolysis of diacylglycerols by lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N H; Kuksis, A; Buchnea, D; Myher, J J

    1975-05-10

    Enantiomeric diacylglycerols were emulsified, mole for mole, with lyso(1-acyl) lecithin and were hydrolyzed with lipoprotein lipase in NH4Cl-beef serum albumin buffer at pH 8.6 after a brief incubation with delipidated rat serum. The enzyme was prepared from lyophilized and dialyzed bovine skim milk in a 4 percent solution. The course of hydrolysis for each set of enantiomers was determined by gas-liquid chromatography of the masses of the diacylglycerols remaining or monoacylglycerols released in the medium between 0 and 15 min. The majority of sets of sn-1,2- and 2,3-diacylglycerols, including an isotope-labeled true enantiomeric set which was assessed by mass spectrometry, demonstrated preference by the enzyme for lipolysis at position 1 but with less specificity than previously was shown in sn-triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The results preclude the possibility that the predominance of sn-2,3-diacylglycerol intermediates during triacylglycerol hydrolysis is due solely to a preferential breakdown of the 1,2-isomers and reinforce the conclusion that lipoprotein lipase is specific for position 1.

  3. Mycological survey of Korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by Fusarium isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, U S; Jang, H S; Tanaka, T; Toyasaki, N; Sugiura, Y; Oh, Y J; Cho, C M; Ueno, Y

    1986-01-01

    The fungal species isolated from Korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Drechslera spp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., etc. The number of Fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce Fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. Nivalenol (NIV) was produced by Fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), Fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and Fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). Of 1...

  4. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, María Soledad; Decundo, Julieta; Martinez, Mauro; Dieguez, Susana Nelly; Moreyra, Federico; Moreno, Maria Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. PMID:29439459

  5. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Nogueira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV, respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g; 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina.

  6. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  7. ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS FROM ACID OIL USING A LIPASE MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. N. R. Pedro

    Full Text Available The conventional biodiesel production process has some disadvantages. It is necessary to use refined vegetable oils with low free fatty acids (FFAs content. An alternative route is to use low-cost acid oils in an enzymatic process. The use of lipases allows simultaneous esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglycerides present in raw material forming alkyl esters. The aim of this work was to study the production of biodiesel using soybean oils with different acid contents (Acid Value of 8.5, 50, 90 and ethanol catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM. A significant decrease of acid value was observed mainly with Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. The use of a mixture of two immobilized lipases was also investigated to decrease catalyst cost and increase the amount of ester produced. The three commercial immobilized lipases were mixed in a dual system and tested for biodiesel synthesis from acid oil (AV of 8.5, 50 and 90. A positive synergistic effect occurred mainly for Lipozyme TL IM (1,3-specific lipase and Novozym 435 (non-specific lipase blend. The ester content doubled when this lipase mixture was used in ethanolysis of acid oil with AV of 90.

  8. Lipase or amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z; Bhayana, Vipin

    2017-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this review is to investigate whether serum lipase alone is a sufficient biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We have examined various studies looking at the utilization, sensitivity, specificity and cost associated savings of lipase and amylase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. When comparing different studies, serum lipase offers a higher sensitivity than serum amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Lipase also offers a larger diagnostic window than amylase since it is elevated for a longer time, thus allowing it to be a useful diagnostic biomarker in early and late stages of acute pancreatitis. Several recent evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of lipase over amylase. Nevertheless, both lipase and amylase alone lack the ability to determine the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis. The co-ordering of both tests has shown little to no increase in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Thus, unnecessary testing and laboratory expenditures can be reduced by testing lipase alone. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality.

  10. Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cai Liao

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed.

  11. Gamma-irradiation sterilization of lipases for cheese making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskij, M S; Borovkova, Yu A; Odegov, N I [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Maslodel' noj i Syrodel' noj Promyshlennosti, Uglich (USSR)

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of sterilizing the enzyme compounds of lipases from Oospora fragrans strains by gamma irradiation was studied. The enzyme compounds were exposed to gamma irradiation at the doses from 0.1 to 0.8 Mrad with the discreteness of 0.1 Mrad and at the dose of 2.0 Mrad. After the radiation treatment the lipases were investigated for bacterial invasion by the cultivation method and for the lipolytic activity by the titrometrical method. It is shown that the sterilization effect is achieved without losses of lipase activity and the radiation dose necessary for sterilization depends on initial invasion levels in the enzyme compounds.

  12. Production of Cold Active Lipase from Bacillus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin, Sara; Arabacı, Nihan; Korkmaz Güvenmez, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    A cold active lipase producing Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from sewage of oil. Bacillus sp. strain SY-7 was determined as the best lipase producing isolate. The highest enzyme production was found at 20°C and pH 8.0 on tributyrin media. Analyses of molecular mass of the partial purified lipase was carried out by SDS-PAGE which revealed a single band as 110.5 kDa. The enzyme activity and stability were determined by spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods. The enzyme was active betwe...

  13. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fen; Finnie, Christine; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D...

  14. Rat lingual lipase: partial purification, hydrolytic properties, and comparison with pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, I M; Montgomery, R K; Carey, M C

    1984-10-01

    We have partially purified lingual lipase from the serous glands of rat tongue. With a combination of Triton X-100 extraction or Triton X-114 phase-separation techniques, Bio-Bead SM-2 treatment, dialysis, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 or Sephacryl S-300, we obtained a sparingly soluble lipid-free protein demonstrating hydrolytic activity against triglycerides and negligible phospholipase or cholesteryl esterase activities. Compared with homogenate, specific activities of the enzyme were enriched 3- to 5-fold prior to gel filtration and 10-fold after gel filtration. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration under denaturing conditions (6 M guanidine X HCl or 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) revealed one major glycoprotein band with Mr approximately 50,000. Gel filtration of the active enzyme in 0.1% Triton X-100 gave an Mr approximately 270,000-300,000, suggesting extensive self-aggregation. With both tributyrin and triolein, the pH optimum of the purified enzyme was 4.0 and activity extended from pH 2.0 to 8.0. In contrast to purified human pancreatic lipase, lingual lipase hydrolyzed triglyceride emulsions and mixed micelles stabilized with both short-chain (dihexanoyl) and long-chain (egg) lecithin and were inhibited only slightly (18-25%) by micellar concentrations of two common bile salts, taurodeoxycholate and taurocholate. Our results suggest that the hydrolysis of dietary fat by lingual lipase may extend from the pharynx through the esophagus and stomach and into the upper small intestine.

  15. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  16. Maximization of Intracellular Lipase Production in a Lipase-Overproducing Mutant Derivative of Rhizopus oligosporus DGM 31: A Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation and maximization of lipase production in a mutant derivative of R. oligosporus has been investigated using different substrates, inoculum sizes, pH of the medium, temperature, and nitrogen sources in shake flask experiments and batch fermentation in a fermentor. The production of intracellular lipase was improved 3 times following medium optimization involving one-at-a-time approach and aeration in the fermentor. Interestingly, intracellular lipase was poorly induced by oils, instead its production was induced by sugars, mainly starch, lactose, sucrose, xylose, glucose and glycerol. Dependent variables studied were cell mass, lipase activity, lipase yield, lipase specific and volumetric rate of formation. It was confirmed that lipase production in the derepressed mutant is sufficiently uncoupled from catabolite repression. The results of average specific productivities at various temperatures worked out according to the Arrhenius equation revealed that mutation decreased the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy demand in the inactivation equilibrium during product formation, suggesting that mutation made the metabolic network of the organism thermally more stable. The highest magnitudes of volumetric productivity (QP=490 IU/(L·h and other product attributes of lipase formation occurring on optimized medium in the fermentor are greater than the values reported by other workers. The purified enzyme is monomeric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 °C and pH=6.0–8.0. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis at 50 °C, and magnitudes of Gibbs free energy for substrate binding, transition state stabilization and melting point indicated that this lipase is highly thermostable.

  17. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Fusarium isolates in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Priscila D; Heidrich, Daiane; Corrêa, Carolina; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Vettorato, Gerson; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Goldani, Luciano Z

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as an important human pathogen in skin disease, onychomycosis, keratitis and invasive disease. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. The infection has been increasingly described in the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Considering onychomycosis is a difficult to treat infection, and little is known about the genetic variability and susceptibility pattern of Fusarium spp., further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis and better to define the appropriate antifungal treatment for this infection. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to describe the in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents and the genetic diversity of 35 Fusarium isolated from patients with onychomycosis. Fusarium spp. were isolated predominantly from female Caucasians, and the most frequent anatomical location was the nail of the hallux. Results revealed that 25 (71.4%) of isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex, followed by 10 (28.5%) isolates from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Noteworthy, the authors report the first case of Neocosmospora rubicola isolated from a patient with onychomycosis. Amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal agent against the majority of isolates (60%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL), followed by voriconazole (34.2%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL). In general, Fusarium species presented MIC values >64 μg/mL for fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Accurate pathogen identification, characterisation and susceptibility testing provide a better understanding of pathogenesis of Fusarium in onychomycosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Hepatic lipase: a pro- or anti-atherogenic protein?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jansen (Hans); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHepatic lipase (HL) plays a role in the metabolism of pro- and anti-atherogenic lipoproteins affecting their plasma level and composition. However, there is controversy regarding whether HL accelerates or retards atherosclerosis. Its effects on different

  19. Production of extracellular lipase by a new strain Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... mesophilic and solvent tolerant lipase with industrial potential. Key words: ..... amount of enzyme production indicating the inducible nature of the .... biodiesel production, oleochemical industry, polymer syn- thesis and ...

  20. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  1. synthesis, DNA interaction and comparison of lipase inhibition propert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GÜNAY KAYA KANTAR

    diseases, such as type II diabetes, hypertension, arte- riosclerosis and ... lipase are used as therapeutic agents to treat obesity.18. Orlistat is an .... Table 1. Crystal data and structure refinement parameters for compounds 1 and 2. Crystal data.

  2. Selection and optimization of extracellular lipase production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedro

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml medium cultive solution of (g L-1 of distilled water): yeast ..... screening of alkaline lipase-production fungi from Brazil savanna soil. World J. Microb. Biot. ... rhamnosus. Int. J. Food Microbiol.

  3. Could Lipoprotein Lipase Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Blain

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent literature on the role of lipoprotein lipase in the central nervous system with a focus on its recently described role in synaptic remodeling. This novel role could have implication for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  4. Solvent free lipase catalyzed synthesis of butyl caprylate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MEERA T SOSE

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), ... study for the synthesis of butyl caprylate in presence of bio-catalyst. ..... −1 with Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.26 The relation.

  5. Stability of immobilized candida sp. 99-125 Lipase for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [Beijing Bioprocess Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Bioengineering Department, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Deng, L.; Nie, K.; Wang, F.; Tan, T. [Beijing Bioprocess Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The stability of the immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 during biodiesel production was investigated. The lipase was separately incubated in the presence of various reaction components such as soybean oil, oleic acid methyl ester, n-hexane, water, methanol, and glycerol, or the lipase was stored at 60, 80, 100 and 120 C. Thereafter the residual lipase activity was determined by methanolysis reaction. The results showed that the lipase was rather stable in the reaction media, except for methanol and glycerol. The stability study performed in a reciprocal shaker indicated that enzyme desorption from the immobilized lipase mainly contributed to the lipase inactivation in the water system. So the methanol and glycerol contents should be controlled more precisely to avoid lipase inactivation, and the immobilization method should be improved with regard to lipase desorption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A lipase with broad temperature range from an alkaliphilic gamma-proteobacterium isolated in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mariane; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Stougaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A gamma-proteobacterium related to the genera Alteromonadales and Pseudomonadales , isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland, has been shown to produce a lipase active between 5 ° C and 80 ° C, with optimal activity at 55 ° C and pH 8. PCR-based screening of genomic DNA from...... the isolated bacterium, followed by genome walking, resulted in two complete open reading frames, which were predicted to encode a lipase and its helper protein, a lipase foldase. The amino acid sequence derived for the lipase showed resemblance to lipases from Pseudomonas , Rhodoferax, Aeromonas and Vibrio...... . The two genes were cloned into different expression systems in E. coli with or without a putative secretion sequence, but despite the fact that both recombinant lipase and lipase foldase were observed on SDS–PAGE, no recombinant lipase activity was detected. Attempts to refold the recombinant lipase...

  7. Sequential Detection of Thermophilic Lipase and Protease by Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Liliana; Hernández, Zully; Contreras, Lellys M; Wilkesman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Lipase and protease present in cell-free fractions of thermophilic Bacillus sp. cultures were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel (PAG) electrophoresis. After run, the gel is electrotransferred to another PAG copolymerized with glycerol tributyrate, olive oil, and gelatin. This multi-substrate gel was incubated first for lipase detection, until bands appeared, and then stained with Coomassie for protease detection. Advantages of this sequential procedure are the detection of two different enzyme activities on a single PAG, beside time and resource saving.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa. The optimal ...

  9. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  10. Catalytic Properties of Lipase Extracts from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia M. Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of lipolytic strains using Rhodamine-B/olive oil plate technique allowed the selection of Aspergillus niger MYA 135. Lipase production in submerged culture containing 2 % olive oil was enhanced by more than 50 % compared to basal cultural conditions. Optimal catalytic conditions for olive oil-induced lipase were pH=6.5 and 30–35 °C. These values were shifted to the acid region (4.0–6.5 and 35–37 °C when lipase extract was produced under basal conditions. Slight changes of the residual lipase activity against the pH were found. However, preincubation at either 37 or 40 °C caused an increase in the olive oil-inducible lipolytic activity. On the contrary, lipase residual activity decreases in the 30–55 °C range when it was produced in basal medium. Lipolytic extracts were almost not deactivated in presence of 50 % water-miscible organic solvents. However, water-immiscible aliphatic solvents reduced the lipase activity between 20 and 80 %.

  11. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  12. OPTIMASI ISOLASI LIPASE INDIGENOUS BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. The Optimizing of Isolation of Cocoa Bean Indogenous Lipase (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. G. Mayun Permana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to optimize the isolation method of cocoa bean lipase. The research is held by determining the position of lipase on cocoa bean, varying extraction medium and isolation process. The result shows that the lipase of cocoa bean is   cytosolic enzyme. The defatting process do not increase the lipase activity. Polyphenols inhibit the lipase activity, so that removal of the polyphenol will increase the activity. Blocking the polyphenol with polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP will also increase the activity.The optimum consentration of PVPP is 8 %. The lipase activity will reach the highest when homogenized for 10 menit at 10,000 rpm. The best medium extraction for lipase isolation is 0.15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing sucrose 0.6 M and CaCl  1.0 mM.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi isolasi lipase indigenous biji kakao. Optimasi diawali dengan menentukan keberadaan lipase kemudian optimasi medium ekstraksi dan proses ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lipase berada dalam sitosol. Penghilangan lemak tidak meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Senyawa polifenol menghambat aktivitas lipase dan penghilangan polifenol dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP dapat menghambat polifenol sehingga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Konsentrasi PVPP optimum adalah 8 % dari berat biji kakao. Proses homogenisasi optimum diperoleh dalam waktu 10 menit pada kecepatan 10.000 rpm. Medium ekstraksi untuk isolasi lipase biji kakao terbaik adalah bufer fosfat 0,15 M  dan pH 7,5 yang mengandung sukrosa 0,6 M dan 1,0 mM CaCl .

  13. Inhibition of lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae by tetrahydrolipstatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, A P; Haalck, L; Spener, F

    1998-01-15

    Tetrahydrolipstatin is known as an inhibitor for pancreatic lipase but not for microbial lipases. In this paper we demonstrate that in the presence of water-insoluble substrates like tributyrin or olive oil, tetrahydrolipstatin inhibits the lipases of Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae, although with different potency. In contrast to porcine pancreatic lipase, which forms an irreversible and covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex with tetrahydrolipstatin, the inhibition of the microbial lipases is reversible as the inhibitor can be removed from the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solvent extraction. Moreover, after inhibition of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase tetrahydrolipstatin remains chemically unchanged.

  14. Emulsifying triglycerides with dairy phospholipids instead of soy lecithin modulates gut lipase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Jakob Hovalt; Nejrup, Rikke Guldhammer; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    in particular to limit fatty acid absorption in babies given infant formulas. Since interaction between the lipid droplet and the gastric and duodenal lipases occur through the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, the composition of the emulsifier may be crucial for efficient hydrolysis. We therefore determined...... hydrolytic rate of gastric lipase and pancreatic lipase, on their own or pancreatic lipase after gastric lipase on TAG droplets of similar size emulsified in either soy lecithin (SL) or in bovine milk phospholipids (MPL), more similar to human milk globule membrane lipids than soy lecithin. Gastric lipase...... for formulas for term-born infants....

  15. Potencial de biocatálise enantiosseletiva de lipases microbianas Potential of enantioselective biocatalysis by microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de O. Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipases have a great potential for commercial applications due to their stability, selectivity and broad substrate specificity because many non-natural acids, alcohols or amines can be used as the substrate. Three microbial lipases isolated from Brazilian soil samples (Aspergillus niger; Geotrichum candidum; Penicillium solitum were compared in terms of their stability and as biocatalysts in the enantioselective esterification using racemic substrates in organic medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger showed the highest activity (18.2 U/mL and was highly thermostable, retaining 90% and 60% activity at 50 ºC and 60 ºC after 1 hour, respectively. In organic medium, this lipase provided the best results in terms of enantiomeric excess of the (S-active acid (ee = 6.1% and conversion value (c = 20% in the esterification of (R,S-ibuprofen with 1-propanol in isooctane. The esterification reaction of the racemic mixture of (R,S-2-octanol with decanoic acid proceeded with high enantioselectivity when lipase from Aspergillus niger (E = 13.2 and commercial lipase from Candida antarctica (E = 20 were employed.

  16. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  17. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  18. Harnessing the microbiome to reduce Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB), reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are deleterious to plant, human and animal health. In this presentation, we will discuss two different research projects tha...

  19. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal ...

  20. Distribution of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in 200 Fusarium genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus of fungi that causes disease on most crop plants and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To determine the potential SM diversity within Fusarium as well as the distribution and ev...

  1. Improvement of resistance to Fusarium root rot through gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. , is one of the most serious root rot diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Yield losses of up to 84% have been attributed to the disease. Development and deployment of resistant materials is the most feasible approach to managing ...

  2. Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium species by AFLP fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships within and between natural populations of five Fusarium spp. AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of Fusarium DNA with EcoRI and MseI restriction endonucleases and ...

  4. The fungal myosin I is essential for Fusarium toxisome formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium spp. To date, relatively few studies have addressed how mycotoxin biosynthesis occurs in fungal cells. Here we found that myosin I governs translation of DON bi...

  5. Screening fusarium resistant rootstocks for plant parasitic nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase out of methyl bromide has directed research toward alternative methods of managing soil-borne pathogens. A limiting factor in many watermelon producing regions is Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON). There is no varietal resistance to FON depl...

  6. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Key words: Integrated management, Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), antagonists, botanicals, fungicides. INTRODUCTION. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a vital source of plant- derived edible protein in many countries. Chickpea also has advantages in the ...

  8. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly p...

  9. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  10. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Lockwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes.

  11. Study the effect of F17S mutation on the chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Khaleghinejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3 are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have potential applications in biotechnology for detergents, food, pharmaceuticals, leather, textiles, cosmetics, and paper industries; and are currently receiving considerable attention because of their potential applications in biotechnology. Bacillus thermocatenulatus Lipase 2 (BTL2 is one of the most important research targets, because of its potential industrial applications. In this study, the effect of substitution Phe17 with Ser in mutated BTL2 lipase, which conserved pentapeptide (112Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly116 was replaced with similar sequences (207Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly211 of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR at the nucleophilic elbow region. Docking results confirmed the mutated lipase to be better than the chimeric lipase. So, cloning was conducted, and the mutated and chimeric btl2 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the enzymes were purified by anion exchange chromatography. The mutation increased lipase lipolytic activity against most of the applied substrates, with the exception of tributyrin when compared with chimeric lipase. Further, the mutated lipase exhibited higher activity than the chimeric lipase at all temperatures. Optimum pH of the mutated lipase was obtained at pH 9.5, which was more than the chimeric one. Enzyme activity of the mutated lipase in the presence of organic solvents, detergents, and metal ions was also improved than the chimeric lipase.

  12. A simple culture method inducing sexual reproduction by Fusarium graminearum, the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. The fungus undergoes both asexual and sexual stages in its life cycle. The asexual stage produces conidiospores, whereas the sexual s...

  13. Kinetic model of biodiesel production using immobilized lipase Candida antarctica lipase B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Brask, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders K.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a kinetic model of biodiesel production using Novozym 435 (Nz435) with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a catalyst. The scheme assumed reversibility of all reaction steps and imitated phase effects by introducing various molecular species of water and methanol....... Residual enzymatic activity in biodiesel of standard quality causes increase of D above its specification level because of the reaction 2M↔D+G. Filtration or alkaline treatment of the product prior to storage resolves this problem. The optimal field of Nz435 application appears to be decrease of F, M, D...

  14. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  15. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  16. Lipase production from a wild (LPF-5) and a mutant (HN1) strain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase production from a wild (LPF-5) and a mutant (HN1) strain of Aspergillus niger. ... Several physical parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, ... for the development of industrial biotechnology for production of extracellular lipase.

  17. Purification and characterization of a new cold active lipase, EnL A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SONU

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... palm oil mill effluent dump sites, Pedavegi, West Godavari Dist, A.P. India and was ... carried out with the lipase production medium optimized using ..... Non edible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius.

  18. Enzymatic Cellulose Palmitate Synthesis Using Immobilized Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose can be modified by esterification using palmitic acid and Mucor miehei  lipase  as catalyst. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid . The esterification reaction was carried out at the time variation  of  6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid (1: 11: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 1: 5,1:6 at 50 °C. The   cellulose palmitate  was examined  its  physical and chemical properties by using FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, bubble point test and saponification  apparatus. The results showed that the optimum reaction time of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid occurred within 24 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid was 1: 3 resulting in DS of  0.376 with  swelling index of 187 %, crystallinity index of 61.95%,  and Φ porous of 2.40 μm. Identification of functional groups using FTIR spectrophotometer showed that C=O ester group  was observed at 1737.74 cm-1 and strengthened  by  the appearance of C-O ester peak at 1280 cm-1. The conclusion of this study is reaction time and reactant ratio influence significantly the DS of cellulose ester.

  19. Estolides Synthesis Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C. G. Aguieiras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are vegetable-oil-based lubricants obtained from oleic acid or any source of hydroxy fatty acids. In this work, the estolides synthesis from oleic acid and methyl ricinoleate (biodiesel from castor oil, using immobilized commercial lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM in a solvent-free medium was investigated. Acid value was used to monitor the reaction progress by determining the consumption of acid present in the medium. Novozym 435 showed the best performance. Water removal improved the conversion. Novozym 435 was more active at atmospheric pressure. Novozym 435 was reused four times with conversion reaching 15% after the fourth reaction at 80°C. Estolides produced under the reaction conditions used in this work presented good properties, such as, low temperature properties as pour point (−24°C, viscosity (23.9 cSt at 40°C and 5.2 cSt at 100°C, and viscosity index (153.

  20. Transport of lipoprotein lipase across endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Klein, M.G.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1991-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), synthesized in muscle and fat, hydrolyzes plasma triglycerides primarily while bound to luminal endothelial cell surfaces. To obtain information about the movement of LPL from the basal to the luminal endothelial cell surface, the authors studied the transport of purified bovine milk LPL across bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers. 125 I-labeled LPL ( 125 I-LPL) added to the basal surface of the monolayers was detected on the apical side of the cells in two compartments: (1) in the medium of the upper chamber, and (2) bound to the apical cell surface. The amount of 125 I-LPL on the cell surface, but not in the medium, reached saturation with time and LPL dose. Catalytically active LPL was transported to the apical surface but very little LPL activity appeared in the medium. Heparinase treatment of the basal cell surface and addition of dextran sulfate to the lower chamber decreased the amount of 125 I-LPL appearing on the apical surface. Similarly, the presence of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid/bovine serum albumin at the basal surface decreased the transport of active LPL across the monolayer. Thus, a saturable transport system, which requires haparan sulfate proteoglycans and is inhibited by high concentrations of free fatty acids on the basal side of the cells, appears to exist for passage of enzymatically active LPL across endothelial cells. They postulate that regulation of LPL transport to the endothelial luminal surface modulates the physiologically active pool of LPL in vivo

  1. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater. Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1 were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a positive effect on organic matter removal (Chemical Oxygen Demand-COD and formation of methane. The best results were obtained when hydrolysis and biodegradation were performed simultaneously, attaining high COD and color removal independent of the lipase concentration. The enzymatic treatment considerably improved the anaerobic operational conditions and the effluent quality (lower content of suspended solids and less turbidity. Thus, the use of enzymes such as lipase seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating the wastewaters having high fat and grease contents, such as those from the dairy industry.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o pré-tratamento de efluente da indústria de laticínios na hidrólise de lipídeos, empregando lipase de fonte de células animais de baixo custo disponível comercialmente (pâncreas de porco na formação de gás metano por biodegradabilidade anaeróbia empregando diferentes concentrações de lipase (0,05 e 0,5 % w.v-1. A utilização de lipase no pré-tratamento do efluente acelerou a hidrólise de lipídeos e, conseqüentemente, auxiliou o tratamento biológico resultando na redução da matéria orgânica em termos de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, cor e sólidos em suspensão como lipídeos. Os melhores resultados em termos de remoção de DQO e cor foram obtidos quando a hidrólise e biodigestão foram realizadas simultaneamente, independente da concentração de lipase empregada. Estes resultados

  2. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  3. Lipase from a Brazilian strain of Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M C; Krieger, N; Coelho, L C; Fontana, J O; Melo, E H; Ledingham, W M; Lima Filho, J L

    1994-10-01

    A lipases (glycerol ester hydrolases E. C. 3.1.1.3) from a brazilian strain of Penicillium citrinum has been investigated. When the microorganism was cultured in the simple medium (1.0% olive oil and 0.5% yeast extract), using olive oil in as carbon source in the inocula, the enzyme extracted showed maximum activity (409 IU/mL). In addition, decrease of yeast extract concentration also reduces the lipase activity. Nevertheless, when yeast extract was replaced by ammonium sulfate, no activity was detected. Purification by precipitation with ammonium sulfate showed best activity in the 40-60% fraction. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was found in the range of 34-37 degrees C. However, after 30 min at 60 degrees C, the enzyme was completely inactivated. The enzyme showed optimum at pH 8.0. The dried concentrated fraction (after dialysis and lyophilization) maintained its lipase activity at room temperature (28 degrees C) for 8 mo. This result in lipase stability suggests an application of lipases from P. citrinum in detergents and other products that require a high stability at room temperature.

  4. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  5. New lipases by mining of Pleurotus ostreatus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piscitelli

    Full Text Available The analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus genome reveals the presence of automatically annotated 53 lipase and 34 carboxylesterase putative coding-genes. Since no biochemical or physiological data are available so far, a functional approach was applied to identify lipases from P. ostreatus. In the tested growth conditions, four lipases were found expressed, with different patterns depending on the used C source. Two of the four identified proteins (PleoLip241 and PleoLip369, expressed in both analysed conditions, were chosen for further studies, such as an in silico analysis and their molecular characterization. To overcome limits linked to native production, a recombinant expression approach in the yeast Pichia pastoris was applied. Different expression levels were obtained: PleoLip241 reached a maximum activity of 4000 U/L, whereas PleoLip369 reached a maximum activity of 700 U/L. Despite their sequence similarity, these enzymes exhibited different substrate specificity and diverse stability at pH, temperature, and presence of metals, detergents and organic solvents. The obtained data allowed classifying PleoLip241 as belonging to the "true lipase" family. Indeed, by phylogenetic analysis the two proteins fall in different clusters. PleoLip241 was used to remove the hydrophobic layer from wool surface in order to improve its dyeability. The encouraging results obtained with lipase treated wool led to forecast PleoLip241 applicability in this field.

  6. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, Grazia M.; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile bioc...

  7. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  8. Influence of cosolvents on the hydrophobic surface immobilization topography of Candida antarctica lipase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of cosolvents and co-solutes during the immobilization of lipases on hydrophobic supports may influence the extent of lipase immobilization and the long-term catalytic stability of the biocatalyst. Candida antarctica B lipase immobilization was examined on a hydrophobic surface, i.e., ...

  9. Rat liver contains a limited number of binding sites for hepatic lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Schoonderwoerd (Kees); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe binding of hepatic lipase to rat liver was studied in an ex vivo perfusion model. The livers were perfused with media containing partially purified rat hepatic lipase or bovine milk lipoprotein lipase. The activity of the enzymes was determined in the

  10. 21 CFR 173.140 - Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. 173.140... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.140 Esterase-lipase derived from Mucor miehei. Esterase-lipase enzyme, consisting of enzyme derived from Mucor miehei var. Cooney et Emerson by...

  11. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kinkel, Linda; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in plants as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary with plant species, changes in the diversity of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical characteristics. Fusarium communities in soil associated with the roots of two perennial prairie plant species maintained as monocultures or growing within polyculture plant communities were characterized using targeted metagenomics. Amplicon libraries targeting the RPB2 locus were generated from rhizosphere soil DNAs and sequenced using pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and assigned a taxonomy using the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm. Fusarium community composition was differentiated between monoculture and polyculture plant communities, and by plant species in monoculture, but not in polyculture. Taxonomic classification of the Fusarium OTUs showed a predominance of F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum as well of the presence of a clade previously only found in the Southern Hemisphere. Total Fusarium richness was not affected by changes in plant community richness or correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics. However, OTU richness within two predominant phylogenetic lineages within the genus was positively or negatively correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics among samples within each lineage. This work shows that plant species, plant community richness, and soil physiochemical characteristics may all influence the composition and richness of Fusarium communities in soil.

  12. Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

  13. Enhancement of lipase catalyzed-fatty acid methyl esters production from waste activated bleaching earth by nullification of lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiarti, Lies; Ali, Ehsan; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to identify inhibitory factors of lipase catalyzed-fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (wABE). During the vegetable oil refinery process, activated bleaching earth (ABE) is used for removing the impure compounds, but adsorbs vegetable oil up to 35-40% as on a weight basis, and then the wABE is discarded as waste material. The impurities were extracted from the wABE with methanol and evaluated by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, which revealed that some were chlorophyll-plant pigments. The chlorophylls inhibited the lipase during FAME conversion from wABE. The inhibition by a mixture of chlorophyll a and b was found to be competitive. The inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil contained in wABE by chlorophyll a alone was competitive, while the inhibition by chlorophyll b alone was non-competitive. Furthermore, the addition of a small amount of alkali nullified this inhibitory effect and accelerated the FAME production rate. When 0.9% KOH (w/w wABE) was added to the transesterification reaction with only 0.05% lipase (w/w wABE), the maximum FAME production rate improved 120-fold, as compared to that without the addition of KOH. The alkali-combined lipase significantly enhanced the FAME production rate from wABE, in spite of the presence of the plant pigments, and even when a lower amount of lipase was used as a catalyst.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis with different acyl acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The aim of the present work was to investigate novel acyl acceptors for biodiesel production. 2-Propanol and n-butanol have a less negative effect on lipase stability, and they also improve low temperature properties of the fuel. However, excess alcohol leads to inactivation of the enzyme, and glycerol, a major byproduct, can block the immobilized enzyme, resulting in low enzymatic activity. This problem was solved by using methyl acetate as acyl acceptor. Triacetylglycerol is produced instead of glycerol, and it has no negative effect on the activity of the lipase.

  15. Screening of supports for immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robison Scherer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the performance of different supports for the immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase. The immobilization tests were carried out in several types of Accurel, activated alumina, kaolin, montmorillonite, ion exchange resins and zeolites. The characterization of the supports showed differences in terms of specific area and morphology. The characteristics of the supports influenced the amount of enzyme adsorbed, yield of immobilization and esterification activity of the resulting immobilized catalyst. The clays KSF and natural and pillared montmorillonites presented potential for use as support for lipase immobilization in terms of yield and esterification activity. Yields of immobilization of 76.32 and 52.01% were achieved for clays KSF and natural montmorillonite, respectively. Esterification activities of 754.03, 595.51, 591.88 and 515.71 U.g-1 were obtained for lipases immobilized in Accurel MP-100, Amberlite XAD-2, mordenite and pillared montmorillonite, respectively.

  16. Dependence of PERT endpoint on endogenous lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yi; Mulberg, Andrew E

    2014-11-01

    To clarify and to understand the potential for misinterpretation of change in fecal fat quantitation during pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) trials for treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Analysis of clinical trials submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of PERT that enrolled 123 cystic fibrosis adult and pediatric patients treated with Creon, Pertzye, Ultresa, and Zenpep. The CFA% defines lipase activity as a percentage of converting substrate of "Total Daily Dietary Fat Intake." PERT trials performed to date have modified the definition to converting the "Shared Daily Fat Intake," generating "Partial CFA" for the exogenous lipase: the higher the activity of coexisting endogenous lipase, the lower the "Partial CFA" of exogenous measured. This review shows that "Partial CFA" is not CFA. Enrollment of patients with low HPLA during treatment may improve the interpretability of "Partial CFA" measured by PERT trials.

  17. Identification and diversity of Fusarium species isolated from tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Nur Baiti Abd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot of tomato is a serious disease caused by Fusarium species. Sampling was conducted throughout Selangor, Malaysia and fungal species identification was conducted based on morphological and gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α sequence analysis. Five species of Fusarium were discovered namely F. oxysporum (including F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Our results provide additional information regarding the diversity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease of tomato.

  18. Comparison of immunoreactive serum trypsinogen and lipase in Cystic Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd-Still, J.D.; Weiss, S.; Wessel, H.; Fong, L.; Conway, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is 1 in 2,000. Early detection and treatment of CF may necessitate newborn screening with a reliable and cost-effective test. Serum immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) an enzyme produced by the pancreas, is detectable by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. Recently, it has been shown that IRT is elevated in CF infants for the first few months of life and levels become subnormal as pancreatic insufficiency progresses. Other enzymes produced by the pancreas, such as lipase, are also elevated during this time. The author's earlier work confirmed previous reports of elevated IRT levels in CF infants. The development of a new RIA for lipase (nuclipase) has enabled comparison of these 2 pancreatic enzymes in C.F. Serum IRT and lipase determinations were performed on 2 groups of CF patients; infants under 1 year of age, and children between 1 and 18 years of age. Control populations of the same age groups were included. The results showed that both trypsin (161 +- 92 ng/ml, range 20 to 400) and lipase (167 +- 151 ng/ml, range 29 to 500) are elevated in CF in the majority of infants. Control infants had values of IRT ranging from 20 to 29.5 ng/ml and lipase values ranging from 23 to 34 ng/ml. IRT becomes subnormal in most CF patients by 8 years of age as pancreatic function insufficiency increases. Lipase levels and IRT levels correlate well in infancy, but IRT is a more sensitive indicator of pancreatic insufficiency in older patients with CF

  19. Adjunctive Oral Voriconazole Treatment of Fusarium Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Shah, Ranjeet; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Devi, Lumbini; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J.; O'Brien, Kieran S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Zegans, Michael E.; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. Objective To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. Design, Setting, and Participants In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months. Results Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P = .01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, −2.69 to −1.09 mm; P < .001) and a 0

  20. The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

  1. Lipases: particularly effective biocatalysts for cosmetic active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvergnaux Florent

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are the tools of choice in the on-going quest for non-pollutant processes to discover molecules for use in skin products. Amongst these biocatalysts, lipases offer considerable potential in terms of ingredient development and are of interest in skin dermocosmetic formulations possessing sensory or biological activities. Lipases have been studied for around thirty years and, in most cases, these enzymes function under what are deemed to be mild conditions, displaying remarkable efficacy particularly in terms of selectivity. This particularly effective strategy will be illustrated through typical synthesis, demonstrating how ester or amide active ingredients are obtained.

  2. Enzymatic Production of FAME Biodiesel with Soluble Lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Heltborg, Carsten Kirstejn; Yang, V

    Biodiesel is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, and biocatalysis is gaining interest as a greener process. We focus on converting oils to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) using soluble lipases, which offer an advantage compared to immobilized enzymes by cost efficiency and ease of implementation...... the defined operating space concerning: temperature, water content, initial methanol concentration and enzyme content. The identified optimum range was experimentally evaluated, and model findings were confirmed. Another barrier in lipase use in biodiesel production is the higher melting point (m...

  3. Diagnostic value of post-heparin lipase testing in detecting common genetic variants in the LPL and LIPC genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, Mandy; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Post-heparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase activities are used to identify primary disorders of triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol metabolism. Their ability to identify common variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) genes is unclear. To investigate the ability of

  4. Liver lipase and high-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein changes after incubation of human serum with rat liver lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, P H; Scheek, L M; Jansen, H

    1983-05-16

    Human sera were incubated with rat liver lipase after inactivation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and the changes in serum lipoprotein composition were measured. In the presence of liver lipase serum triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed. The main changes in the concentrations of these lipids were found in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Subfractionation of high-density lipoprotein by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation showed a prominent decrease in all constituents of high-density lipoprotein2, a smaller decrease in the 'light' high-density lipoprotein3 and an increase in the 'heavy' high-density lipoprotein3. These data support a concept in which liver lipase is involved in high-density lipoprotein2 phospholipid and triacylglycerol catabolism and suggest that as a result of this action high-density lipoprotein2 is converted into high-density lipoprotein3.

  5. Enzymatic production of alkyl esters through alcoholysis: A critical evaluation of lipases and alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Deng; Xu, Xuebing; Gudmundur G, Haraldsson

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on a detailed evaluation of commercially available immobilized lipases and simple monohydric alcohols for the production of alkyl esters from sunflower oil by enzymatic alcoholysis. Six lipases were tested with seven alcohols, including straight and branched-chain primary...... in an increased degree of conversion for all lipases except Novozym 435. The secondary alcohol 2-propanol significantly reduced the alcoholysis reaction with all lipases; however, the branch-chain isobutanol was more advantageous than linear 1-butanol for Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipase PS-C. Many...

  6. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  7. Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in Fusarium graminearum by comparing four Fusarium genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler Corby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum (Fg, a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study. Results Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium genomes. Using this method, we discovered 73 candidate regulatory motifs in the promoter regions. Nearly 30% of these motifs are highly enriched in promoter regions of Fg genes that are associated with a specific functional category. Through comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp, we observed conservation of transcription factors (TFs, their binding sites and the target genes regulated by these TFs related to pathways known to respond to stress conditions or phosphate metabolism. In addition, this study revealed 69 and 39 conserved motifs in the downstream regions and the intronic regions, respectively, of Fg genes. The top intronic motif is the splice donor site. For the downstream regions, we noticed an intriguing absence of the mammalian and Sc poly-adenylation signals among the list of conserved motifs. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive list of candidate regulatory motifs in Fg, and underscores the power of comparative genomics in revealing functional elements among related genomes. The conservation of regulatory pathways among the Fusarium genomes and the two yeast species reveals their functional significance, and provides new insights in their

  8. Avaliação da produção de lipases por diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados em efluentes de laticínios por fermentação submersa Evaluation of lipase production using different strains of microorganisms isolated from dairy effluent through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Roveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção enzimática é um dos campos mais promissores dentro das tecnologias para a síntese de compostos de alto valor agregado, estando em constante crescimento pela grande capacidade dos microrganismos de realizarem transformações químicas. As enzimas produzidas por processos fermentativos têm sido utilizadas para o controle ambiental. Muitas destas enzimas podem ser produzidas a partir de resíduos industriais, diminuindo os custos de produção. As lipases são enzimas que catalisam a hidrólise de triglicerídeos em glicerídeos e ácidos graxos. As lipases vêm sendo utilizadas na redução da concentração dos lipídios contidos nos efluentes, promovendo a hidrólise dos óleos e gorduras presentes. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de lipases por fungos isolados a partir de efluentes de laticínios. Foram isolados 21 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma e Fusarium. Na etapa de seleção, 9 fungos foram selecionados devido à capacidade de crescimento em meio contendo azeite de oliva como substrato. Na fermentação submersa, os fungos E9 (Aspergillus, E21 (Aspergillus e E20 (Penicillium foram os que apresentaram as maiores atividades enzimáticas, de 1,250 a 2,250 U, utilizando-se como meio de cultivo o efluente coletado na saída do equalizador do sistema de tratamento de efluente.Enzymatic production is one of the most promising fields within technologies for the synthesis of high added value compounds, given their constant growth due to the great capacity of microorganisms to carry out chemical transformations. The enzymes produced from fermentation processes have been used for environmental control. Many of these enzymes can be produced from industrial residues, reducing the production cost. Lipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerides and fatty acids. Lipases have been used to reduce the concentration of lipids contained in effluent, promoting

  9. Process Technology for Immobilized LipaseProcess Technology for Immobilized Lipase-catalyzed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan

    Biocatalysis has attracted significant attention recently, mainly due to its high selectivity and potential benefits for sustainability. Applications can be found in biorefineries, turning biomass into energy and chemicals, and also for products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However......, most applications remain in the production of high-value fine chemicals, primarily because of the expense of introducing new technology. In particular lipasecatalyzed synthesis has already achieved efficient operations for high-value products and more interesting now is to establish opportunities......-down experimental work is described in this thesis. The methodology uses economic targets to test options characterized via a set of tools. In order to validate the methodology, two processes based on immobilized lipase-catalysis have been studied: transesterification and esterification of vegetable oils...

  10. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C 16 acid and trihydroxy-C 18 acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a [ 32 P]-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested

  11. MICOTOXINAS DO FUSARIUM spp NA AVICULTURA COMERCIAL MYCOTOXIN OF FUSARIUM spp IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santin

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas por essas micotoxinas, dificilmente ocorrerão devido a uma substância isolada, de forma que se faz necessário obter maiores informações sobre o efeito interativo dessas toxinas.Mycotoxins are fungi toxic metabolites, heterogeneous in their nature and with varied pharmacological actions. They can cause injuries to animals, resulting in decreased performance and serious pathologic lesion. In the last years, the mycotoxicosis has received special attention worldwide due to losses in poultry industry. Fusarium fungi are reported as producers of diverse mycotoxin. Therefore, intoxication caused by Fusarium mycotoxins will hardly be due to one separate substance and more information is needed about the interaction effect of these.

  12. Mode of action of Fusarium moniliforme endopolygalacturonase towards acetylated pectin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnin, E.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Thibault, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme was used to degrade acetylated homogalacturonan previously prepared from sugar beet pulp. The initial velocity and the final percentage of hydrolysis decreased-very rapidly with increasing degree of acetylation, showing that acetyl substitution

  13. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  14. Management of Fusarium Wilt using mycolytic enzymes produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    Trichoderma strain to manage the Fusarium wilt disease of Cicer aritenum under in vitro conditions. We also studied ... antibiosis, competition, parasitism and cell lysis can ideally be ... hydrolytic enzymes associated with fungal cell wall lysis,.

  15. Analysis of Iranian isolates of Fusarium solani using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... showed that the isolates showed a high genetic diversity. Ten clusters were ..... pathogenicity towards pea (Kistler et al., 1996;. Wasmann and .... Fusarium eumartii and its action on pathogenesis related proteins. Eur. J. Plant ...

  16. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  17. Cloning of phenazine carboxylic acid genes of Fusarium ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... Bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi is an important diseases on rice. ... Rice bakanae disease was collected from infected farming in different areas as ..... The prevalence of Candida albicans in candidiasis has.

  18. Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania O. Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.

  19. Pentamidine is active in vitro against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S; Lewis, Russell E; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2003-10-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye staining. PNT had significant activities against all 10 Fusarium isolates. Non-F. solani isolates were more susceptible than F. solani isolates (P Fusarium isolates was confirmed microscopically after staining of PNT-treated Fusarium oxysporum hyphae with the fluorescent viability dyes 5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC). The MICs at which 50% of the isolates were inhibited (2 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates and 4 micro g/ml for F. solani isolates) and the minimum fungicidal concentration at which 50% of the isolates were killed (8 micro g/ml for non-F. solani isolates) were much lower than the PNT tissue concentrations previously reported in humans using conventional daily intravenous PNT dosing. Finally, PNT was more active against Fusarium isolates in a hypoxic environment of in vitro growth (P Fusarium, an angiotropic mold, causes tissue infarcts with resultant low tissue perfusion. Our findings suggest that PNT may have a role in the management of Fusarium infections. Future in vivo studies are needed to verify these in vitro findings.

  20. Pentamidine Is Active In Vitro against Fusarium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Lewis, Russell E.; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2003-01-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (PNT) against 10 clinical isolates of Fusarium species (five Fusarium solani isolates and five non-F. solani isolates) by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microdilution method in three different media (RPMI, RPMI-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye s...

  1. Lipase genes in Mucor circinelloides: identification, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling during growth and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2016-10-01

    Lipases or triacylglycerol hydrolases are widely spread in nature and are particularly common in the microbial world. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a potential lipase producer, as it grows well in triacylglycerol-contained culture media. So far only one lipase from M. circinelloides has been characterized, while the majority of lipases remain unknown in this fungus. In the present study, 47 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides WJ11 and 30 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 were identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. An overview of these lipases is presented, including several characteristics, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the lipase genes during growth and lipid accumulation. All of these proteins contained the consensus sequence for a classical lipase (GXSXG motif) and were divided into four types including α/β-hydrolase_1, α/β-hydrolase_3, class_3 and GDSL lipase (GDSL) based on gene annotations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that class_3 family and α/β-hydrolase_3 family were the conserved lipase family in M. circinelloides. Additionally, some lipases also contained a typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4-D, and these lipases may play a dual role in lipid metabolism, catalyzing both lipid hydrolysis and transacylation reactions. The differential expression of all lipase genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression profiling were analyzed to predict the possible biological roles of these lipase genes in lipid metabolism in M. circinelloides. We preliminarily hypothesized that lipases may be involved in triacylglycerol degradation, phospholipid synthesis and beta-oxidation. Moreover, the results of sub-cellular localization, the presence of signal peptide and transcriptional analyses of lipase genes indicated that four lipase in WJ11 most likely belong to extracellular lipases with a signal peptide. These findings provide a platform

  2. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Judith Louise; Khandekar, Neeta; Zhu, Hua; Watanabe, Keizo; Markoulli, Maria; Flanagan, John Terence; Papas, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking. Bacterial suspensions were centrifuged, bacterial cell density was determined, and production of bacterial lipase was quantified using a commercial lipase assay kit. Staphylococcus spp. produced high levels of lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. GML inhibited lipase production by Staphylococcal spp. in a dose-dependent manner, with S. epidermidis lipase production consistently more sensitive to GML than S. aureus. Glycerol monolaurate showed significant (P < 0.05) lipase inhibition above concentrations of 15 μg/mL in S. aureus and was not cytotoxic up to 25 μg/mL. For S. epidermidis, GML showed significant (P < 0.05) lipase inhibition above 7.5 μg/mL. Lipase activity varied between species and between strains. Staphylococcal spp. produced higher lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. Glycerol monolaurate inhibited lipase production by S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations that did not adversely affect bacterial cell growth. GML can be used to inhibit ocular bacterial lipase production without proving detrimental to commensal bacteria viability.

  3. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence

  4. Structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shengjian; Wong, D.M.; Chen, Sanhwan; Chan, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene was determined from multiple cosmid clones. All the exons, exon-intron junctions, and 845 bp of the 5' and 254 bp of the 3' flanking DNA were sequenced. Comparison of the exon sequences to three previously published cDNA sequences revealed differences in the sequence of the codons for residue 133, 193, 202, and 234 that may represent sequence polymorphisms. By primer extension, hepatic lipase mRNA initiates at an adenine 77 bases upstream of the translation initiation site. The hepatic lipase gene spans over 60 kb containing 9 exons and 8 introns, the latter being all located within the region encoding the mature protein. The exons are all of average size (118-234 bp). Exon 1 encodes the signal peptide, exon 4, a region that binds to the lipoprotein substrate, and exon 5, an evolutionarily highly conserved region of potential catalytic function, and exons 6 and 9 encode sequences rich in basic amino acids thought to be important in anchoring the enzyme to the endothelial surface by interacting with acidic domains of the surface glycosaminoglycans. The human lipoprotein lipase gene has been recently reported to have an identical exon-intron organization containing the analogous structural domains. The observations strongly support the common evolutionary origin of these two lipolytic enzymes

  5. Lipase inhibition and antiobesity effect of Atractylodes lancea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ping; Tseng-Crank, Julie; Corneliusen, Brandon; Yimam, Mesfin; Hodges, Mandee; Hong, Mei; Maurseth, Catherine; Oh, Misun; Kim, Hyunjin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2014-05-01

    The ethanol extract of Atractylodes lancea rhizome displayed significant lipase inhibition with an IC50 value of 9.06 µg/mL in a human pancreatic lipase assay from high-throughput screening. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of one new polyacetylene, syn-(5E,11E)-3-acetoxy-4-O-(3-methylbutanoyl)-1,5,11-tridecatriene-7,9-diyne-3,4-diol (7), along with six known compounds (1-6). The structure of compound 7 was determined based on the analysis of NMR and MS data. Among these seven lipase inhibitors, the major compound atractylodin (1) showed the highest lipase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 39.12 µM). The antiobesity effect of the ethanol extract of Atractylodes lancea rhizome was evaluated in a high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model at daily dosages of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, and treatment with this extract demonstrated a moderate efficacy at the 500 mg/kg dose level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Comparison of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cyclopentadecanolide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methyl 15-hydroxy-pentadecanate, which is made from Malana oleifera chum oil, is an ideal material to synthesize cyclopentadecanolide, an important macrocycle musk, with wide applications in the fields of perfume, cosmetic, food and medicine, etc. One kind of screened lipase from Candida sp.GXU08 strain was used to ...

  7. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap ...

  8. High regioselective acetylation of vitamin A precursors using lipase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... High regioselective acetylation of vitamin A precursors using lipase B from Candida antarctica in organic media. Jingpeng Sun, Keju Jing* and Yinghua Lu. Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen. University, Xiamen 361005, P. R. ...

  9. Fatty Acid Signaling: The New Function of Intracellular Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Papackova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG stored in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets have been considered to be only passive “energy conserves”. Nevertheless, degradation of TAG gives rise to a pleiotropic spectrum of bioactive intermediates, which may function as potent co-factors of transcription factors or enzymes and contribute to the regulation of numerous cellular processes. From this point of view, the process of lipolysis not only provides energy-rich equivalents but also acquires a new regulatory function. In this review, we will concentrate on the role that fatty acids liberated from intracellular TAG stores play as signaling molecules. The first part provides an overview of the transcription factors, which are regulated by fatty acids derived from intracellular stores. The second part is devoted to the role of fatty acid signaling in different organs/tissues. The specific contribution of free fatty acids released by particular lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase and lysosomal lipase will also be discussed.

  10. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry means the current global ... be the most convenient biosystem for industrial applications ... Fungi are capable of producing several enzymes for ... strains, and the process results in losses to the isolation ..... technical and economic burdens of lipase production.

  11. High regioselective acetylation of vitamin A precursors using lipase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different reaction parameters was explored on the acylation of primary hydroxyl group of 1,6-diol by lipase B from Candida antarctica catalysis in organic solvent. First, the effect of the organic solvents was investigated, and the highest conversion rate was obtained in n-hexane. Then, the effect of the acyl donor ...

  12. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  13. Improvement of lipase production from Geotrichum sp. in shaken flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonadoa Resende Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the study of different variables on inoculum build-up aiming to improve the lipase production by Geotrichum sp. by means a sequential strategy of experimental design. The effects of inoculum size, corn steep liquor concentration, volume of inoculum, pH of medium, age of inoculum and soybean oil concentration on lipase activity were assessed by means of two factorial experimental designs. A maximum lipase activity of 35.20±0.8 U/mL was obtained with a inoculum composed of one circular area of 0.78cm2 containing spores, 50 mL of inoculum volume medium, 12 hours of inoculum age, 15% w/v of corn steep liquor concentration, 1.0%w/v of soybean oil concentration and initial pH 5.0 at 30°C and 150 rpm in flasks. This work showed that an enhancement of lipase activity can be obtained using a sequential statistical factorial approach to define the variables for inoculum build-up.

  14. Metabolic fate of rat heart endothelial lipoprotein lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajek-Shaul, T.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.; Peterson, J.; Olivecrona, T.

    1988-01-01

    When isolated rat hearts were perfused with medium containing 125I-labeled bovine lipoprotein lipase (LPL), they bound both lipase activity and radioactivity. More than 80% of the bound lipase could be rapidly released by heparin. Low concentrations of bovine LPL displaced 50-60% of the endogeneous, endothelial-bound LPL. Higher concentrations caused additional binding. Both binding and exchange were rapid processes. The hearts continuously released endogenous LPL into the medium. An antiserum that inhibited bovine but not rat LPL was used to differentiate endogeneous and exogeneous LPL activity. When the pool of endothelial LPL was labeled with bovine 125I-labeled LPL and then chased with unlabeled bovine LPL, approximately 50% of the labeled lipase was rapidly displaced. During chase perfusion with medium only, catalytically active bovine LPL appeared in the perfusate. The rate of release was similar to that observed for endogeneous LPL activity and amounted to 10-13% of the heparin-releasable fraction in the first 5 min of perfusion. There was little or no degradation of bovine 125I-labeled LPL to fragments or acid-soluble products. These results indicate that endothelial LPL is accessible for exchange with exogeneous LPL and that detachment rather than degradation may be the pathway for catabolism of endothelial LPL

  15. Isolation and Screening of Lipase Producing Microorganisms from Natural Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M. G.; Chandraveer, C.; Tripathi, Abishek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-23 ISSN 0304-5250 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lipase assay * natural sources * screening * submerged fermentation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  16. Dual bioimprinting of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase for synthesis of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Mukherjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel as an alternative to non-renewable sources of energy has become an attractive option in recent years. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of fats/oils with an alcohol is a much more sustainable route than the chemical method. However, cost effectiveness of the enzymatic route is a major barrier in its commercialization. In this work, a high activity biocatalyst design of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase is made by dually bioimprinting it with substrate and a surfactant (which is believed to open up the lid covering the active site of the lipase during precipitation of the lipase in organic solvent. When the lipase was bioimprinted with only the surfactants, 28 U of the enzyme/g of oil could yield 99% biodiesel from soybean oil in about 4 h. However, when dually bioimprinted even very low enzyme load 1.4 U/g of oil, yielded 99% biodiesel within 48 h.

  17. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Bloisi, Francesco, E-mail: bloisi@na.infn.it [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Federici, Stefania [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  18. Lipoprotein Lipase Maintains Microglial Innate Immunity in Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Vidal-Itriago, Andrés; Kalsbeek, Martin J; Layritz, Clarita; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Tom, Robby Zachariah; Eichmann, Thomas O; Vaz, Frédéric M; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; van der Wel, Nicole; Verhoeven, Arthur J; Yan, Jie; Kalsbeek, A.; Eckel, Robert H; Hofmann, Susanna M; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of a hypercaloric diet upregulates microglial innate immune reactivity along with a higher expression of lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) within the reactive microglia in the mouse brain. Here, we show that knockdown of the Lpl gene specifically in microglia resulted in deficient microglial

  19. Regioselective alcoholysis of silychristin acetates catalyzed by lipases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, P.; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, S.; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2015), s. 11983-11995 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14096; GA MŠk LH13097 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : acetylation * alcoholysis * lipase Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2015

  20. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... many industrial processes leading to the development of ... streaked on tributyrin (Hi media 071) agar plates and the formation .... 3d. At pH 7.0. 3e. At pH 8.0. 3f. At pH 9.0. Figure 3. Effect of olive oil on lipase activity of Bacillus ...

  2. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  3. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  4. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  5. Different Covalent Immobilizations Modulate Lipase Activities of Hypocrea pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita G. Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme immobilization can promote several advantages for their industrial application. In this work, a lipase from Hypocrea pseudokoningii was efficiently linked to four chemical supports: agarose activated with cyanogen bromide (CNBr, glyoxyl-agarose (GX, MANAE-agarose activated with glutaraldehyde (GA and GA-crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Results showed a more stable lipase with both the GA-crosslinked and GA derivatives, compared to the control (CNBr, at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. Moreover, all derivatives were stabilized when incubated with organic solvents at 50%, such as ethanol, methanol, n-propanol and cyclohexane. Furthermore, lipase was highly activated (4-fold in the presence of cyclohexane. GA-crosslinked and GA derivatives were more stable than the CNBr one in the presence of organic solvents. All derivatives were able to hydrolyze sardine, açaí (Euterpe oleracea, cotton seed and grape seed oils. However, during the hydrolysis of sardine oil, GX derivative showed to be 2.3-fold more selectivity (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA ratio than the control. Additionally, the types of immobilization interfered with the lipase enantiomeric preference. Unlike the control, the other three derivatives preferably hydrolyzed the R-isomer of 2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoic acid ethyl ester and the S-isomer of 1-phenylethanol acetate racemic mixtures. On the other hand, GX and CNBr derivatives preferably hydrolyzed the S-isomer of butyryl-2-phenylacetic acid racemic mixture while the GA and GA-crosslink derivatives preferably hydrolyzed the R-isomer. However, all derivatives, including the control, preferably hydrolyzed the methyl mandelate S-isomer. Moreover, the derivatives could be used for eight consecutive cycles retaining more than 50% of their residual activity. This work shows the importance of immobilization as a tool to increase the lipase stability to temperature and organic solvents, thus enabling the possibility of

  6. GDSL lipases modulate immunity through lipid homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjun; Yin, Xin; Yang, Weibing; Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiyun; Wang, Xin; Li, Qun; Shui, Guanghou; He, Zuhua

    2017-11-01

    Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. OsGLIP1 was mainly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, while OsGLIP2 showed high expression in elongating internodes. Biochemical assay demonstrated that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 are functional lipases that could hydrolyze lipid substrates. Simultaneous down-regulation of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 increased plant resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas disease resistance in OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 overexpression plants was significantly compromised, suggesting that both genes act as negative regulators of disease resistance. OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 proteins mainly localize to lipid droplets and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The proper cellular localization of OsGLIP proteins is indispensable for their functions in immunity. Comprehensive lipid profiling analysis indicated that the alteration of OsGLIP gene expression was associated with substantial changes of the levels of lipid species including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). We show that MGDG and DGDG feeding could attenuate disease resistance. Taken together, our study indicates that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 negatively regulate rice defense by modulating lipid metabolism, thus providing new insights into the function of lipids in plant immunity.

  7. Serum amylase and lipase activities after exploratory laparotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, J R; Bell, G

    1989-09-01

    Serum amylase and lipase activities and creatinine concentration were determined before surgery, and at 1 and 2 days after exploratory laparotomy in 24 dogs. Examination of all viscera was done during each laparotomy, but a surgical procedure was not performed. The mean serum activities for lipase were: before surgery, 0.71 (0.0 to 2.0) Cherry Crandall units (CCU)/L; 1 day after surgery, 2.1 (0.0 to 4.5) CCU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1.19 (0.0 to 3.9) CCU/L. The mean serum activities for amylase were: before surgery, 1,958 (1,027 to 3,426) IU/L; 1 day after surgery, 1,538 (937 to 2,659) IU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1,663 (1,066 to 2,274) IU/L. Serum creatinine concentrations before surgery, 1 day after surgery, and 2 days after surgery were 0.88 (0.2 to 1.7) mg/dl, 0.78 (0.4 to 1.3) mg/dl, and 0.78 (0.3 to 1.3) mg/dl, respectively. Mean preoperative, day-1, and day-2 serum amylase activities and serum creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from each other. Mean preoperative and day-2 serum lipase activities did not differ significantly; however, mean serum lipase activity was significantly greater when day 1 activities were compared with preoperative activities (P = 0.0002). Post-mortem examinations revealed no gross or histologic evidence of pancreatitis in any dog. The results of this study show that a 3 or more fold increase in serum lipase activity may occur after routine exploratory laparotomy in dogs without clinical signs or gross evidence of pancreatitis. Histologic evidence of pancreatitis was not found in the right pancreatic lobes in any dog.

  8. Lipase activity in vesiclular systems: characterization of candida cylindracea lipase and its activity in polymerizable dialkylammonium surfactant vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosmuller, E.W.J.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Lipase from Candida cylindracea (CCL) was incorporated into polymerizable positively charged dialkylammonium bromide surfactant vesicles. The enzyme was incorporated by the use of the dehydration-rehydration method or by incubation. In the latter case, trapping efficiencies of up to 100% could be

  9. Fusarium ründab igast asendist / Elina Akk, Heino Lõiveke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Akk, Elina, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Seeneperekond Fusarium spp. toodab toksilisi mükotoksiine ja põhjustab üle maailma suuri saagikadusid. Uute ning ohtlikumate Fusarium'i liikide levik teraviljakasvatuses üha laieneb, ka Põhja- ja Baltimaades

  10. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT-SIFAT BIOKIMIA EKSTRAK KASAR LIPASE EKSTRASELULER BAKTERI Azospirillum sp.PRD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Nur Handayani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzim lipase mempunyai peranan penting dalam katalis berbagai reaksi industri satu diantaranya pembuatan flavor melalui reaksi esterifikasi. Lipase adalah biokatalis yang berperan besar dalam aplikasi bioteknologi, seperti dalam sintesis biopolimer, biodiesel, produksi obat, dan produksi flavor. Peningkatan penggunaan lipase untuk industri mendorong dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sumber-sumber lipase baru. Sumber lipase yang potensial salah satunya adalah bakteri Azospirillum sp.PRD1 dari isolat lokal Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Biologi Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kasar lipase dan menentukan karakteristik sifat-sifat biokimiawinya. Metode yang digunakan antara lain peremajaan bakteri Azospirillum sp.PRD1, dan produksi inokulum, penentuan waktu produksi optimum dan fase pertumbuhan bakteri, ekstraksi dan produksi ekstrak kasar lipase dan penentuan karakteristik sifat-sifat biokimiawinya. Hasil penelitian diperoleh ekstrak kasar lipase dari inokulum berumur 7 jam dan medium produksi dengan induser minyak zaitun yang diinkubasi selama 3 jam memiliki aktivitas spesifik 7,0547 Unit/mg. Lipase ekstrak kasar optimum pada pH 7, suhu 40 oC dan waktu inkubasi selama 25 menit. Lipase merupakan metaloenzim dengan kofaktor Zn2+ , Mn2+, Hg2+, Ca2+, Co2+ and Mg2+.

  11. Structure of product-bound SMG1 lipase: active site gating implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaohua; Xu, Jinxin; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Lan, Dongming; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-12-01

    Monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases are industrially interesting enzymes, due to the health benefits that arise from the consumption of diglycerides compared to the traditional triglyceride oils. Most lipases possess an α-helix (lid) directly over the catalytic pocket which regulates the activity of the enzyme. Generally, lipases exist in active and inactive conformations, depending on the positioning of this lid subdomain. However, lipase SMG1, a monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol specific lipase, has an atypical activation mechanism. In the present study we were able to prove by crystallography, in silico analysis and activity tests that only two positions, residues 102 and 278, are responsible for a gating mechanism that regulates the active and inactive states of the lipase, and that no significant structural changes take place during activation except for oxyanion hole formation. The elucidation of the gating effect provided data enabling the rational design of improved lipases with 6-fold increase in the hydrolytic activity toward diacylglycerols, just by providing additional substrate stabilization with a single mutation (F278N or F278T). Due to the conservation of F278 among the monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in the Rhizomucor miehei lipase-like family, the gating mechanism described herein might represent a general mechanism applicable to other monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases as well. Database: Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 4ZRE (F278D mutant) and 4ZRD (F278N mutant). © 2015 FEBS.

  12. Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2013-03-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.

  13. Evolution and Diversity of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Hoogendoorn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi in the Fusarium genus cause severe damage to crops, resulting in great financial losses and health hazards. Specialized metabolites synthesized by these fungi are known to play key roles in the infection process, and to provide survival advantages inside and outside the host. However, systematic studies of the evolution of specialized metabolite-coding potential across Fusarium have been scarce. Here, we apply a combination of bioinformatic approaches to identify biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs across publicly available genomes from Fusarium, to group them into annotated families and to study gain/loss events of BGC families throughout the history of the genus. Comparison with MIBiG reference BGCs allowed assignment of 29 gene cluster families (GCFs to pathways responsible for the production of known compounds, while for 57 GCFs, the molecular products remain unknown. Comparative analysis of BGC repertoires using ancestral state reconstruction raised several new hypotheses on how BGCs contribute to Fusarium pathogenicity or host specificity, sometimes surprisingly so: for example, a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of hexadehydro-astechrome was identified in the genome of the biocontrol strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47, while being absent in that of the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Several BGCs were also identified on supernumerary chromosomes; heterologous expression of genes for three terpene synthases encoded on the Fusarium poae supernumerary chromosome and subsequent GC/MS analysis showed that these genes are functional and encode enzymes that each are able to synthesize koraiol; this observed functional redundancy supports the hypothesis that localization of copies of BGCs on supernumerary chromosomes provides freedom for evolutionary innovations to occur, while the original function remains conserved. Altogether, this systematic overview of biosynthetic diversity in Fusarium paves the way for

  14. Bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient.......Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient....

  15. The G-250A polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter is associated with changes in hepatic lipase activity and LDL cholesterol: The KANWU Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindi, Virpi; Schwab, Ursula; Louheranta, Anne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic lipase (HL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids from lipoproteins, and promotes the hepatic uptake of lipoproteins. A common G-250A polymorphism in the promoter of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been described. The aim was to study...

  16. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  17. Lipase catalyzed ester synthesis for food processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravindan Rajendran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are one of the most important industrial biocatalyst which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. It can also reverse the reaction at minimum water activity. Because of this pliable nature, it is widely exploited to catalyze the diverse bioconversion reactions, such as hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis and aminolysis. The property to synthesize the esters from the fatty acids and glycerol promotes its use in various ester synthesis. The esters synthesized by lipase finds applications in numerous fields such as biodiesel production, resolution of the recemic drugs, fat and lipid modification, flavour synthesis, synthesis of enantiopure pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. It plays a crucial role in the food processing industries since the process is unaffected by the unwanted side products. Lipase modifications such as the surfactant coating, molecular imprinting to suit for the non-aqueous ester synthesis have also been reported. This review deals with lipase catalyzed ester synthesis, esterification strategies, optimum conditions and their applications in food processing industries.Lipases são catalizadores industriais dos mais importantes, os quais catalizam a hidrólise de lipídeos. Também podem reverter a reação a um mínimo de atividade de água. Devido sua natureza flexível, é amplamente explorada para catalizar uma diversidade de reações de bioconversão como hidrólise, esterificação, interesterificação, alcoólise, acidólise e aminólise. A propriedade de síntese de esteres a partir de ácidos graxos e glicerol promoveu seu uso em várias sínteses de esteres. Os esteres sintetizados por lipases encontram aplicação em numerosos campos como a produção de biodiesel, resolução de drogas racêmicas, modificação de gorduras e lipídios, sintese de aromas, síntese de produtos farmacêuticos enantiopuro e nutracêuticos. As lipases possuem um papel crucial nas indústrias de

  18. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Masomian

    Full Text Available Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.

  19. MICOTOXINAS DO FUSARIUM spp NA AVICULTURA COMERCIAL MYCOTOXIN OF FUSARIUM spp IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Santin; Alex Maiorka; Irineo Zanella; Leandro Magon

    2001-01-01

    Micotoxinas são metabólitos tóxicos produzidos por fungos, de natureza heterogênea e com variados princípios farmacológicos, que podem atuar sobre o organismo animal prejudicando o seu desempenho e desenvolvendo alterações patológicas graves. Nos últimos anos, as micotoxicoses têm recebido especial atenção devido às enormes perdas que vem causando na avicultura mundial. Fungos do gênero Fusarium são descritos como produtores de diversos tipos de toxinas. Assim sendo, as intoxicações causadas ...

  20. Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. commune to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; Z. Abdo; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause damping-off and root rot of young conifer seedlings, resulting in severe crop and economic losses in forest nurseries. Disease control within tree nurseries is difficult because of the inability to characterize and quantify Fusarium spp. populations with regard to disease potential because of high variability in isolate virulence. Fusarium...

  1. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  2. Identification of the infection route of a Fusarium seed pathogen into nondormant Bromus tectorum seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanaLynn Franke; Brad Geary; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium has a wide host range and causes many different forms of plant disease. These include seed rot and seedling blight diseases of cultivated plants. The diseases caused by Fusarium on wild plants are less well-known. In this study, we examined disease development caused by Fusarium sp. n on nondormant seeds of the important rangeland weed Bromus...

  3. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  4. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  5. Combining fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains to enhance suppression of fusarium wilt of radish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Marjan de; Sluis, Ientse van der; Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by

  6. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  7. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  8. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  9. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  10. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin and coconut oil by a dual lipase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2008-01-01

    greater than 100% over the theoretical value when the reaction proceeds for 2 h. The co-immobilization action of the carrier of the immobilized lipases towards the free lipase was proposed as being one of the reasons leading to the synergistic effect and this has been experimentally verified by a reaction......Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with coconut oil was conducted by applying a dual lipase system in comparison with individual lipase-catalyzed reactions. The results indicated that a synergistic effect occurred for many lipase combinations, but largely depending on the lipase species...... mixed and their ratios. The combination of Lipozyme TL IM and RM IM was found to generate a positive synergistic action at all test mixing ratios. Only equivalent amount mixtures of Lipozyme TL IM with Novozym 435 or Lipozyme RM IM with Novozym 435 produced a significant synergistic effect as well...

  11. Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates for improving the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were fabricated by immobilizing the cross-linked lipase aggregates onto magnetic particles with a high number of -NH2 terminal groups using p-benzoquinone as the cross-linking agent. At the optimal fabrication conditions, 100% of immobilization efficiency and 139% of activity recovery of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were achieved. The magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were able to efficiently resolve (R, S)-2-octanol, and retained 100% activity and 100% enantioselectivity after 10 cycles of reuse, whereas the cross-linked lipase aggregates only retained about 50% activity and 70% enantioselectivity due to insufficient cross-linking. These results provide a great potential for industrial applications of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Covalent immobilization of lipases on monodisperse magnetic microspheres modified with PAMAM-dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Weiwei [Lanzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology (China); Zhang, Yimei [Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University (China); Hou, Chen; Pan, Duo; He, Jianjun; Zhu, Hao, E-mail: zhuhao07@lzu.edu.cn [Lanzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    This paper reported an immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto PAMAM-dendrimer-grafted magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a modified solvothermal reduction method. The dendritic magnetic nanoparticles were amply characterized by several instrumental measurements, and the CRL was covalently anchored on the three generation supports with glutaraldehyde as coupling reagent. The amount of immobilized enzyme was up to 150 mg/g support and the factors related with the enzyme activity were investigated. The immobilization of lipase improved their performance in wider ranges of pH and temperature. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with free enzyme and can be reused 10 cycles with the enzymatic activity remained above 90 %. The properties of lipase improved obviously after being immobilized on the dendritic supports. The inactive immobilized lipase could be regenerated with glutaraldehyde and Cu{sup 2+}, respectively. This synthetic strategy was facile and eco-friendly for applications in lipase immobilization.

  13. Influence of dietary recombinant microbial lipase on performance and quality characteristics of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Troels; Isaksen, Mai; McLean, Ewen

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess whether supplementary lipase affected growth and body composition of trout, four diets were produced, consisting of (A) feed containing high (2083 mg kg(-1)), (B) low (208.3 mg kg(-1)) concentrations of lipase, (C) heat-treated (inactivated) lipase (2083 mg kg(-1)), and (D......) a basal control diet. Rainbow trout (n = 40/tank; initial wt. 23.22 +/- 4.81 g; length 124.7 +/- 6.35 mm) were fed, according to commercial feed tables, 6 days/week for 202 days. Retained activity of supplemental lipase was verified by monitoring free fatty acid appearance (FAA), which was significantly...... higher(P Lipase addition had no effect(P > 0.05) on growth, fillet proximate composition, hepatosomatic, cardiac, or gut indices, and carcass percentage. However, lipase supplementation influenced the mono-unsaturated fatty acid profiles of the fillet (P

  14. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression and regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, J; Ploug, T; Ihlemann, J

    1998-01-01

    Because the enzymatic regulation of muscle triglyceride metabolism is poorly understood we explored the character and activation of neutral lipase in muscle. Western blotting of isolated rat muscle fibers demonstrated expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In incubated soleus muscle...... epinephrine increased neutral lipase activity by beta-adrenergic mechanisms involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The increase was paralleled by an increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity and could be abolished by antiserum against HSL. Electrical stimulation caused a transient increase...... in activity of both neutral lipase and glycogen phosphorylase. The increase in lipase activity during contractions was not influenced by sympathectomy or propranolol. Training diminished the epinephrine induced lipase activation in muscle but enhanced the activation as well as the overall concentration...

  15. Streptomyces rimosus GDS(L Lipase: Production, Heterologous Overexpression and Structure-Stability Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Abramić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces rimosus lipase gene has been overexpressed in a heterologous host, S. lividans TK23. The maximal lipase activity was determined in the culture filtrates of the late stationary phase. Time course of lipase production was monitored by a modified plate assay. S. rimosus lipase gene has been located on the AseI B fragment approximately 2 Mb far from the left end of the S. rimosus linear chromosome. Out of eight examined streptomycetes, the presence of this rare type of bacterial lipase gene was detected in two belonging to the S. rimosus taxonomic cluster, and in one non-related species. Comparison of protein sequences of the Streptomyces lipolytic enzymes was performed. The result indicated the best structural stability of the putative S. coelicolor lipase-2.

  16. Secoiridoids from the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla with pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Shin, Eunjin; Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase digests dietary fats by hydrolysis, which is a key enzyme for lipid absorption. Therefore, reduction of fat absorption by the inhibition of pancreatic lipase is suggested to be a therapeutic strategy for obesity. From the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla (Oleaceae), four secoiridoids such as ligstroside (1), oleuropein (2), 2"-hydroxyoleuropein (3) and hydroxyframoside B (4) were isolated. The inhibitory activity of these compounds on pancreatic lipase was assessed using porcine pancreatic lipase as an in vitro assay system. Compound 4 showed the strongest inhibition on pancreatic lipase, which followed by compounds 1-3. In addition, compound 4 exerted inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in a mixed mechanism of competitive and noncompetitive manner. Taken together, F. rhynchophylla and its constituents might be beneficial to obesity.

  17. Fusarium Wilt Affecting Chickpea Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Jendoubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 18% of the global production of grain legume and serves as an important source of dietary protein. An important decrease in cropping area and production has been recorded during the last two decades. Several biotic and abiotic constraints underlie this decrease. Despite the efforts deployed in breeding and selection of several chickpea varieties with high yield potential that are tolerant to diseases, the situation has remained the same for the last decade. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc is the major soilborne fungus affecting chickpeas globally. Fusarium wilt epidemics can devastate crops and cause up to 100% loss in highly infested fields and under favorable conditions. To date, eight pathogenic races of Foc (races 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been reported worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars is the most effective method to manage this disease and to contribute to stabilizing chickpea yields. Development of resistant varieties to fusarium wilt in different breeding programs is mainly based on conventional selection. This method is time‐consuming and depends on inoculum load and specific environmental factors that influence disease development. The use of molecular tools offers great potential for chickpea improvement, specifically by identifying molecular markers closely linked to genes/QTLs controlling fusarium wilt.

  18. Photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers kills both ungerminated and germinated microconidia of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique Dantas; Tonani, Ludmilla; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Úbida Leite; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina

    2016-11-01

    The search for alternatives to control microorganisms is necessary both in clinical and agricultural areas. Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light-based approach that can be used to control both human and plant pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of photodynamic treatment with red light and four phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PS): methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the phenothiazinium derivative S137 on ungerminated and germinated microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, and F. solani. APDT with each PS killed efficiently both the quiescent ungerminated microconidia and metabolically active germinated microconidia of the three Fusarium species. Washing away the unbound PS from the microconidia (both ungerminated and germinated) before red light exposure reduced but did not prevent the effect of APDT. Subcelullar localization of PS in ungerminated and germinated microconidia and the effects of photodynamic treatment on cell membranes were also evaluated in the three Fusarium species. APDT with MB, TBO, NMBN or S137 increased the membrane permeability in microconidia and APDT with NMBN or S137 increased the lipids peroxidation in microconidia of the three Fusarium species. These findings expand the understanding of photodynamic inactivation of filamentous fungi with phenothiazinium PS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of alkaline thermo-stable lipase(s) enzyme produced from irradiated microbial isolate in the field of detergent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, O.E.A.M.S

    2010-01-01

    Due to continuous demand for manufacture of high quality, low coast industrial detergents containing lipolytic enzymes and due to continuous accumulation of enviro-agro-industrial wastes which are good and suitable conditions for growth and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, our study aims at isolating thermoalkalophilic lipase producer microorganisms from enviro-agro-industrial wastes and selection of the most potent isolate for studying physiological conditions controlling enzyme formation also purification characterization and some applications on purified and crude enzyme as bio-detergent. Some environmental and industrial wastes were collected from different places. The industrial wastes include, cotton seed, soyabean, sun flower, lin seed and olive oil wastes. Environmental wastes include poultry and fish wastes, all these wastes were dried at 70 degree C, grounded and used for isolation of microorganisms and lipase(s) production.Nine thermoalkalophilic bacterial isolates were isolated from enviro-agro-industrial wastes at ph 11.5 and 70 degree C. They were purified and screening for their ability of thermoalkalo-stable lipase(s) formation, this is followed by examining the effect of different nutritional media and exposure of bacterial isolates to different doses of gamma irradiation and the influence of these radiation on lipase(s) productivity by these isolates. From the results it was found that.1- The most potent lipase(s) forming bacterial isolates were isolates number B 2 and B 3 which cultivated on medium A amended with fish-wastes as being the best nutritional medium for enzyme formation. 2-Bacterial isolate B 2 finally was selected as being the most potent lipase(s) forming bacterial isolate cultivated on fish-wastes and yeast extract (in tap water) and identified according to key's of Bergey Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (1984) as being Bacillus brevis B 2 .The optimum culture conditions for maximum biosynthesis of extracellular lipase(s

  20. New member of the hormone-sensitive lipase family from the permafrost microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, Lada E; Novototskaya-Vlasova, Ksenia A; Gapizov, Sultan Sh; Spirina, Elena V; Durdenko, Ekaterina V; Rivkina, Elizaveta M

    2017-07-04

    Siberian permafrost is a unique environment inhabited with diverse groups of microorganisms. Among them, there are numerous producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes including lipases and esterases. Recently, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a permafrost sample and identified in it several genes coding for potential lipolytic enzymes. In the current work, properties of the recombinant esterases obtained from this library are compared with the previously characterized lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis and other representatives of the hormone-sensitive lipase family.

  1. Production of Thermoalkaliphilic Lipase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans DA2 and Application in Leather Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abol Fotouh, Deyaa M.; Bayoumi, Reda A.; Hassan, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic and alkaliphilic lipases are meeting a growing global attention as their increased importance in several industrial fields. Over 23 bacterial strains, novel strain with high lipolytic activity was isolated from Southern Sinai, Egypt, and it was identified as Geobacillus thermoleovorans DA2 using 16S rRNA as well as morphological and biochemical features. The lipase was produced in presence of fatty restaurant wastes as an inducing substrate. The optimized conditions for lipase pr...

  2. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    OpenAIRE

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributy...

  3. Isolation and analysis of lipase-overproducing mutants of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E; Akatsuka, H; Sakurai, N; Idei, A; Matsumae, H; Shibatani, T; Komatsubara, S; Omori, K

    2001-01-01

    We have isolated a lipase-overproducing mutant, GE14, from Serratia marcescens 8000 after three rounds of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutant GE14 produced 95 kU/ml of extracellular lipase in the lipase medium, which was about threefold higher than that of produced by the original strain 8000. Enzymatic characteristics including specific activity of purified lipases from culture supernatants of GE14 and 8000 were almost same. The lipase gene (lipA) of GE14 contained two base substitutions; one in the promoter region and another in the N-terminal region of the lipA gene without an amino acid substitution. Promoter analysis using lipA-lacZ fusion plasmids revealed that these substitutions were responsible for the increase in the lipA expression level, independently. In contrast, no base substitution was found in the genes encoding the lipase secretion device, the Lip system. In addition, the genes coding for metalloprotease and the cell surface layer protein which are both secreted through the Lip system and associated with extracellular lipase production, also contained no base substitution. The strain GE14 carrying a high-copy-number lipA plasmid produced a larger amount of the extracellular lipase than the recombinant strains of 8000 and other mutants also did, indicating that GE14 was not only a lipase-overproducing strain, but also an advantageous host strain for overproducing the lipase by a recombinant DNA technique. These results suggest that the lipase-overproducing mutant GE14 and its recombinant strains are promising candidates for the industrial production of the S. marcescens lipase.

  4. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  5. Ultrasound assisted lipase catalyzed synthesis of poly-6-hydroxyhexanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumel, A M; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y; Heidelberg, T

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation greatly improved the Candida antarctica lipase B mediated ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone to poly-6-hydroxyhexanoate in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetraflouroborate. Compared to the conventional nonsonicated reaction, sonication improved the monomer conversion by 63% and afforded a polymer product of a narrower molecular weight distribution and a higher degree of crystallinity. Under sonication, the polydispersity index of the product was ~1.44 compared to a value of ~2.55 for the product of the conventional reaction. With sonication, nearly 75% of the monomer was converted to product, but the conversion was only ~16% for the reaction carried out conventionally. Compared to conventional operation, sonication enhanced the rate of polymer propagation by >2-fold and the turnover number of the lipase by >3-fold. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Triglyceride selectivity of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Pedersen, Lars S.; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    from tri-C4:0 to tri-C20:0, except for tri-C6:0, and in a series of unsaturated FA from tri-C18:1 to tri-C18:3. The quantification was performed by HPLC, and different methods of selectivity evaluation were used. None of the methods used showed any significant differences between the performances......The triglyceride (fatty acid) selectivity of an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme TL IM) was investigated in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions between two mono-acid TG in n-hexane. Tristearin (tri-C18:0) was used as a reference in a series of TG with saturated FA...

  7. Radiochemical methods for studying lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reactions involving lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids, which are of commendable interest in biotechnology, have been monitored and assayed by radiochemical methods using 14 C-labeled substrates. Medium chain (C 12 plus C 14 ) triacylglycerols were reacted in the presence of an immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei and hexane at 45 0 C with methyl [1- 14 C]oleate, [1- 14 C]oleic acid, [carboxyl- 14 C]trioleoylglycerol, [1- 14 C]octadecenyl alcohol, and [U- 14 C]glycerol, each of known specific activity. The reactions were monitored and the rate of interesterification determined by radio thin layer chromatography from the incorporation of radioactivity into acyl moieties of triacylglycerols (from methyl oleate, oleic acid, and trioleoylglycerol), alkyl moieties of wax esters (from octadecenyl alcohol), and into glycerol backbone of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols (from glycerol). (orig.)

  8. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  9. Comparison of lipases for in vitro models of gastric digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, P J; Fanø, M; Mu, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipase (ROL), Rabbit Gastric Lipase (RGL) and recombinant HGL (rHGL), were used to catalyze the in vitro digestion of two infant formulas (a medium-chain triacylglyceride enriched formula (MC-IF) and a predominantly long-chain triacylglyceride formula (LC-IF)). Digesta were withdrawn after 0, 5, 15, 30......, 60 min of gastric digestion and after 90 or 180 min of intestinal digestion with or without the presence of pancreatic enzymes, respectively. The digesta were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography to quantify the release of fatty acids (FAs). Digestions of both formulas......, catalyzed by ROL, showed that the extent of gastric digestion was higher than expected from previously published in vivo data. ROL was furthermore insensitive to FA chain length and all FAs were released at the same pace. RGL and rHGL favoured the release of MC-FAs in both formulas, but rHGL did also...

  10. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  11. The antibiotic polymyxin B exhibits novel antifungal activity against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Hang; Wang, Hsuan-Fu; Sun, Pei-Lun; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Lien

    2017-06-01

    The genus Fusarium comprises many species, including Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, and causes severe infections in plants and humans. In clinical settings, Fusarium is the third most frequent mould to cause invasive fungal infections after Aspergillus and the Mucorales. F. solani and F. oxysporum are the most prevalent Fusarium spp. causing clinical disease. However, few effective antifungal drugs are available to treat human and plant Fusarium infections. The cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) exhibits antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, but its efficacy against Fusarium spp. is unknown. In this study, the antifungal activity of PMB was tested against 12 Fusarium strains that infect humans and plants (banana, tomato, melon, pea, wheat and maize). PMB was fungicidal against all 12 Fusarium strains, with minimum fungicidal concentrations of 32 µg/mL or 64 µg/mL for most strains tested, as evidenced by broth dilution, methylene blue staining and XTT reduction assays. PMB can reduce the germination rates of conidia, but not chlamydospores, and can cause defects in cell membrane integrity in Fusarium strains. PMB exhibits synergistic activity with posaconazole and can potentiate the effect of fluconazole, voriconazole or amphotericin B against Fusarium spp. However, PMB does not show synergistic effects with fluconazole against Fusarium spp. as it does against Candida glabrata and C. neoformans, indicating evolutionary divergence of mechanisms between yeast pathogens and the filamentous fungus Fusarium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-09

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications.

  13. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Adriaan; De Boevre, Marthe; Moretti, Antonio; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Munaut, Françoise; De Saeger, Sarah; Bekaert, Boris; Haesaert, Geert; Waalwijk, Cees; van der Lee, Theo; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-08-23

    Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6 . To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role of trichothecenes in virulence, spread and survival of F. poae .

  14. Antifungal Screening of Bioprotective Isolates against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Fusarium moniliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Senna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but fungicide use has led to an increase in resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. Hence, more environmentally sustainable solutions such as biological control methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to screen 22 bacterial isolates for inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens. To evaluate antifungal activity, the bacterial isolates were individually spot-inoculated onto Tryptic Soy Agar or de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar, and then a plug of fungal-colonized agar was placed onto the center of the isolate-inoculated plate. Plates were incubated at 24 °C for 10 days and fungal growth was evaluated. Nine of the 22 isolates screened inhibited all three fungi; inhibition by these isolates ranged from 51–62%, 60–68%, and 40–61% for B. cinerea, F. pallidoroseum, and F. moniliforme, respectively. Isolates were also screened for biosurfactant activity using the drop-collapse test. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus thuringiensis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolates demonstrated strong biosurfactant activity and suppression of all three fungi, and therefore are recommended for further study.

  15. Screening for lipase-producing Enterobacter agglomerans for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil, sesame oil and tea oil as raw materials can be catalyzed to biodiesel by the lipase of this strain at 30°C and 180 rpm. And the yield reached 54.51% with sesame oil as raw material, even when they contained 92.4% (w/v) water in the starting materials. This strain will potentially serve as a promising alternative ...

  16. Lipase Activity Enhancement by SC-CO2 Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavsová, K.; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Xanthakis, E.; Bernášek, Prokop; Sovová, Helena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    63b, č. 6 (2008), s. 779-784 ISSN 0932-0776 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D30.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lipase activity * supercritical carbon dioxide * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.852, year: 2008 www.znaturforsch.com/ab/v63b/63b0779.pdf

  17. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  18. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage.

  19. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Karla A. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Lopes, Flavio Marques [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Unidade Universitária de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Yamashita, Fabio [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos e Medicamentos, Laboratório de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Fernandes, Kátia Flávia, E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Química de Proteínas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film.

  20. Immobilization of lipases in PSS/PEO blends and applications in esters synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, Roberto D.; Nascimento, Maria G.; Soldi, Valdir

    2001-01-01

    Various lipases were immobilized in PSS/PEO blends and used as bio catalysts in the esterification reaction of lauric acid with n-pentanol, in hexane as a solvent for 24 h at 35 deg C. The best results in the ester conversion, were obtained by using lipase from Rhryzopus oryzae immobilized in PSS/PEO 80:20 blend. The data are in agreement with DSC and TGA values, which showed that these systems (blend/lipase) were very stable with low mass loss. No product was obtained by using lipase FAP-15 immobilized in PSS film , showing the strong influence of the polymer on enzyme activity. (author)

  1. Zymography Detection of a Bacterial Extracellular Thermoalkaline Esterase/Lipase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapizquent, María; Fernández, Marleny; Barreto, Georgina; Hernández, Zully; Contreras, Lellys M; Kurz, Liliana; Wilkesman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Lipases are esterases that occur widely in nature, yet those with commercial relevance are exclusively from microbial origin. Glycerol and long-chain fatty acids are the products after hydrolysis of esters bonds in saponifiable lipids catalyzed by lipases. In this work, we describe lipase/esterase activity contained in cell-free fractions from thermophilic bacteria, cultured in medium containing olive oil. Analysis of the cell-free fractions by electrotransference zymography, using tributyrin as substrate, revealed bands corresponding to lipase activity. The method is simple, fast, and inexpensive.

  2. Lipase and esterase: to what extent can this classification be applied accurately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Branta Lopes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme technology is an ever-growing field of knowledge and, in recent years, this technology has raised renewed interest, due to the search for new paradigms in several productive processes. Lipases, esterases and cutinases are enzymes used in a wide range of processes involving synthesis and hydrolysis reactions. The objective of this work was to investigate and compare the specific lipase and esterase activities of five enzymes - four already classified as lipases and one classified as cutinase - in the presence of natural and synthetic substrates. All tested enzymes presented both esterase and lipase specific activities. The highest specific esterase activity was observed for Aspergillus 1068 lipase in natural substrate and for F. oxysporum cutinase in synthetic substrate, while the highest specific lipase activity was observed for Geotrichum sp. lipase in natural substrate and for F. oxysporum cutinase in synthetic substrate. These results display some interface-independent lipolytic activity for all lipases tested. This is in accordance with the rationale that a new and broader definition of lipases may be necessary.

  3. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Karla A.; Lopes, Flavio Marques; Yamashita, Fabio; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 μm to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. - Highlights: ► Development and characterization of PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film ► Lipase immobilization onto PVA/Chitosan film ► PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film for reactor coating ► Olive oil hydrolysis using PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film

  4. Lipase assay in soils by copper soap colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisuburamaniyan, N; Krithika, L; Dileena, K P; Sivasubramanian, S; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2004-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the estimation of lipase activity in soils is reported. In this method, 50mg of soil is incubated with emulsified substrate, the fatty acids liberated are treated with cupric acetate-pyridine reagent, and the color developed is measured at 715 nm. Use of olive oil in this protocol leads to an estimation of true lipase activity in soils. The problem of released fatty acids getting adsorbed onto the soil colloids is obviated by the use of isooctane, and separate standards for different soils need not be developed. Among the various surfactants used for emulsification, polyvinyl alcohol is found to be the most effective. Incubation time of 20 min, soil concentration of 50 mg, pH 6.5, and incubation temperature of 37 degrees C were found to be the most suitable conditions for this assay. During the process of enrichment of the soils with oil, interference by the added oil is avoided by the maintenance of a suitable control, wherein 50 mg of soil is added after stopping the reaction. This assay is sensitive and it could be adopted to screen for lipase producers from enriched soils and oil-contaminated soils before resorting to isolation of the microbes by classical screening methods.

  5. Direct solid phase radioimmunoassay for chicken lipoprotein lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.H.; Bensadoun, A.; Cheng, C.

    1979-01-01

    A direct, noncompetitive immunoassay for chicken lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was developed. Antibodies to LPL were purified by immunoadsorption chromatography of goat antisera on an LPL-Sepharose column. Purified anti-LPL immunoglobulins were coupled covalently to hydrophilic polyacrylamide beads by a carbodiimide reagent. An excess amount of these beads was incubated with the sample on the standard to be assayed. The amount of LPL immobilized by the heads was then detected by an excess amount of 125 I-labeled anti-LPL immunoglobulin. A linear relationship was obtained between the radioactivity bound and the amount of highly purified LPL used as a standard. The range of the assay was from 0.1 to 1.1 ng PLP. The assay was specific for chicken LPL and showed no cross-reactivity with liver lipase. It does not distinguish heat-inactivated from catalytically active enzyme species. This assay should be useful in studies of lipoprotein lipase where both catalytic activity and enzyme mass need to be quantitated

  6. Synthesis of naringin 6"-ricinoleate using immobilized lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Verônica M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naringin is an important flavanone with several biological activities, including antioxidant action. However, this compound shows low solubility in lipophilic preparations, such as is used in the cosmetic and food industries. One way to solve this problem is to add fatty acids to the flavonoid sugar unit using immobilized lipase. However, there is limited research regarding hydroxylation of unsaturated fatty acids as an answer to the low solubility challenge. In this work, we describe the reaction of naringin with castor oil containing ricinoleic acid, castor oil's major fatty acid component, using immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the 1H and 13 C NMR (1D and 2D spectra and literature comparison were used to characterise the obtained acyl derivative. Results After allowing the reaction to continue for 120 hours (in acetone media, 50°C, the major product obtained was naringin 6″-ricinoleate. In this reaction, either castor oil or pure ricinoleic acid was used as the acylating agent, providing a 33% or 24% yield, respectively. The chemical structure of naringin 6″-ricinoleate was determined using NMR analysis, including bidimensional (2D experiments. Conclusion Using immobilized lipase from C. antarctica, the best conversion reaction was observed using castor oil containing ricinoleic acid as the acylating agent rather than an isolated fatty acid. Graphical abstract

  7. Purification and substrate specificity of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, M G; Deveer, A M; Dijkman, R; Tjeenk, M L; Verheij, H M; de Haas, G H; Wenzig, E; Götz, F

    1989-11-28

    The Staphylococcus hyicus lipase gene has been cloned and expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus. From the latter organism the enzyme was secreted into the medium as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 86 kDa. This protein was purified, and the amino-terminal sequence showed that the primary gene product was indeed cleaved at the proposed signal peptide cleavage site. The protein was purified from large-scale preparations after tryptic digestion. This limited proteolysis reduced the molecular mass to 46 kDa and increased the specific activity about 3-fold. Although the enzyme had a low specific activity in the absence of divalent cations, the activity increased about 40-fold in the presence of Sr2+ or Ca2+ ions. The purified lipase has a broad substrate specificity. The acyl chains were removed from the primary and secondary positions of natural neutral glycerides and from a variety of synthetic glyceride analogues. Thus triglycerides were fully hydrolyzed to free fatty acid and glycerol. The enzyme hydrolyzed naturally occurring phosphatidylcholines, their synthetic short-chain analogues, and lysophospholipids to free fatty acids and water-soluble products. The enzyme had a 2-fold higher activity on micelles of short-chain D-lecithins than on micelles composed of the L-isomers. Thus the enzyme from S. hyicus has lipase activity and also high phospholipase A and lysophospholipase activity.

  8. Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, S. Chandra; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Udayashankar, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    focuses of various molecular-based techniques employed to study the diversity of Fusarium species causing diseases in major food crops. An introduction of fusarial diseases and their mycotoxins and molecular-marker-based methods for detection introduce the concept of marker application. Various well...... for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole......-known molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplification fragment length polymorphism, etc. to more modern ones such as DNA microarrays, DNA barcoding, and pyrosequencing and their application form the core of the review. Target regions in the genome which can be potential candidates...

  9. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    in plants under low N and iv) proteomes of uninfected plants were similar under two N levels. Correlation of level of proteolysis induced by the fungus with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels indicated that FHB was more severe in barley with low N. In Chapter 3......, the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  11. Iodine-125-labeled lipoprotein lipase as a tool to detect and study spontaneous lipolysis in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of lipoprotein lipase among cream, casein, and milk serum can be evaluated by addition of a trace amount of 125 I-labeled lipoprotein lipase to milk. Radioactive lipase was distributed in parallel to endogenous lipase under several conditions. In some milk samples, binding of lipase to cream increased when the milk was cooled. Correlation was good between bound labeled lipase and degree of cold-induced lipolysis in corresponding milk samples. Binding of lipase to cream or to casein was not saturable by addition of two-to threefold more lipase than is normally present in milk. In milk with a relatively high fraction of lipase bound to cream, a correspondingly lower fraction was associated with casein, whereas the fraction of lipase in milk serum was similar in all milk samples. Cold-induced binding of lipoprotein lipase to cream was not fully reversed when the milk was warmed again. Heparin released lipase from casein and increased the amount of lipase bound to cream after cooling

  12. Controlled lid-opening in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase- An engineered switch for studying lipase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Moroz, Olga V.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a lipase mutant containing a biochemical switch allowing a controlled opening and closing of the lid independent of the environment. The closed form of the TlL mutant shows low binding to hydrophobic surfaces compared to the binding observed after activating the controlled switch...... inducing lid-opening. We directly show that lipid binding of this mutant is connected to an open lid conformation demonstrating the impact of the exposed amino acid residues and their participation in binding at the water-lipid interface. The switch was created by introducing two cysteine residues......-D measurements revealed a seven-fold increase in binding rate for the unlocked lipase. The TlL_locked mutant shows structural changes across the protein important for understanding the mechanism of lid-opening and closing. Our experimental results reveal sites of interest for future mutagenesis studies aimed...

  13. Uji Antagonis Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Fusarium spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum) Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mukarlina; Khotimah, Siti; Rianti, Reny

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium spp., the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease, infect sweet pepper inflicting damages on the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Infection of Fusarium spp. on some crops can be controlled by using Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the species of Fusarium infecting sweet pepper; and 2) the in vitro antagonistic potential of T. harzianum in controlling Fusarium spp. in vitro. The study was conducted fr...

  14. Nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S R; Dalal, B D; Modak, M S

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. We report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from Buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). Bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. The case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of 250 mg daily for 3 weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Desempenho de diferentes lipases imobilizadas na síntese de biodiesel de óleo de palma = Performance of different immobilized lipases in palm oil biodiesel synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle dos Santos Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as condicoes otimizadas da sintese enzimatica de biodiesel, a partir do oleo de palma e etanol, empregando diferentes lipases imobilizadas (lipase de Pseudomonas fluorescens imobilizada em SiO2-PVA e lipase de Candida antartica imobilizada em resina acrilica - Novozym„µ 435 em meio isento de solvente. Uma matriz de planejamento fatorial foi utilizada para avaliar a influencia da temperatura (42 ¡V 58„aC e a razao molar entre etanol e oleo de palma (6:1 ¡V 18:1 no rendimento detransesterificacao alcancado para cada preparacao de lipase. Os efeitos principais foram ajustados por analise de regressao multipla a modelos lineares e o rendimento maximo foi obtido quando o sistema operacional foi operado a 42„aC com substratos contendo etanol eoleo de palma na razao molar de 18:1. Os modelos matematicos que representam o rendimento global da reacao para cada lipase imobilizada foram considerados adequados para descrever os resultados experimentais.Optimized conditions for palm oil and ethanol enzymatic biodiesel synthesis were determined with different immobilized lipases SiO2-PVA-immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and acrylic resin-immobilized lipase, NovozymR435, from Candida antartica, in solvent-free medium. A full factorial design assessed the influence oftemperature (42 ¡V 58¢XC and ethanol: palm oil (6:1 ¡V 18:1 molar ratio on the transesterification yield. Main effects were adjusted by multiple regression analysis to linear models and the maximum transesterification yield was obtained at 42¢XC and 18:1 ethanol:palm oil molar ratio. Mathematical models featuring total yield for each immobilized lipase were suitable to describe the experimental results.

  16. Hydrolysis products generated by lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase differentially impact THP-1 macrophage cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaji, Yasmin; Yang, Yanbo; Albert, Carolyn J; Ford, David A; Brown, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Macrophages express lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL) within atherosclerotic plaques; however, little is known about how lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by these lipases might affect macrophage cell signalling pathways. We hypothesized that hydrolysis products affect macrophage cell signalling pathways associated with atherosclerosis. To test our hypothesis, we incubated differentiated THP-1 macrophages with products from total lipoprotein hydrolysis by recombinant LPL or EL. Using antibody arrays, we found that the phosphorylation of six receptor tyrosine kinases and three signalling nodes--most associated with atherosclerotic processes--was increased by LPL derived hydrolysis products. EL derived hydrolysis products only increased the phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase A, which is also implicated in playing a role in atherosclerosis. Using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, we identified the species of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines that were hydrolyzed by LPL and EL, and we identified the fatty acids liberated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To determine if the total liberated fatty acids influenced signalling pathways, we incubated differentiated THP-1 macrophages with a mixture of the fatty acids that matched the concentrations of liberated fatty acids from total lipoproteins by LPL, and we subjected cell lysates to antibody array analyses. The analyses showed that only the phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased in response to fatty acid treatment. Overall, our study shows that macrophages display potentially pro-atherogenic signalling responses following acute treatments with LPL and EL lipoprotein hydrolysis products.

  17. Fat digestion by lingual lipase: mechanism of lipolysis in the stomach and upper small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, T H; Hamosh, P; Hamosh, M

    1984-05-01

    Ten to 30% of dietary fat is hydrolyzed in the stomach by lingual lipase, an enzyme secreted from lingual serous glands. We investigated the substrate specificity of this enzyme as well as the potential of lingual lipase to act in the upper small intestine i.e., in the presence of bile salts and lecithin. The data presented show that partially purified preparations of rat lingual lipase and the lipase in gastric aspirates of newborn infants have identical substrate specificity: medium-chain triglycerides were hydrolyzed at rates 5-8-fold higher than long-chain triglycerides; the rat and human enzymes do not hydrolyze the ester bond of lecithin or cholesteryl-ester. In contrast to pancreatic lipase, the hydrolysis of triglycerides by lingual lipase is not inhibited by lecithin. But, similar to pancreatic lipase the activity of lingual lipase is inhibited by bile salts, the extent of inhibition varying with its nature and concentration. This inactivation is not prevented by colipase but is partially averted by lipids and protein, suggesting that lingual lipase can remain active in the duodenum. The pH optimum of the enzyme (2.2-6.5 in the rat and 3.5-6.0 in human gastric aspirates) is compatible with continued activity in the upper small intestine, especially during the neonatal period, when the luminal pH is under 6.5. The marked variation in lipase activity levels in gastric aspirates of newborn infants is probably due to individual variations in enzyme amounts. The characteristics of the lipase are however identical in infants with low, intermediate or high activity levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN Trichoderma sp UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM (Fusarium oxysporium DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT TANAMAN PISANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Bukhari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available             Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pante Cermin  Kecamatan Padang Tiji Kabupaten Pidie.  pada bulan Maret  sampai dengan bulan Agustus 2015, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penggunaan Trichoderma sp terhadap pertumbuhan beberapa jenis bibit Pisang (Musa Paracica L.  Penelitian ini mengunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK pola faktorial dengan faktor yang diteliti  adalah Jenis pisang  dan dosis trichoderma.  Kedua faktor terdiri dari 4 taraf yaitu: Pisang Barangan (J1,pisang Ambon (J2, pisang Raja (G3 dan pisang Geupok (J4.  Sedangkan dosis  Tricoderma sp  yaitu :TO = 0 g/ bibit T1 = 15 g/ bibit  T2 = 30 g/ bibit  dan T3 = 45 g/ bibit.  Sehingga terdapat 16 kombinasi perlakuan dan diulang 3 kali,  yang menghasilkan 48 satuan percobaan.            Untuk mengetahui pengaruh masing-masing perlakuan serta interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang, dilakukan analisis ragam (Uji F dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ pada taraf 5%.            Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara fisul pertumbuhan bibit pisang yang baik diantara 4 jenis yang diteliti ditunjukkkan oleh pisang Barangan namun secara statistika tidak berbeda dengan pisang 3 jenis pisang lainnya.  Namun pemberian trichoderma sampai umur 4 bulan belum memeperlihatkan pertumbuhan dan intensitas serangan yang berbeda nyata, sehingga harus diperpanjang masa penelitian menjadi 6 Bulan.   Setelah 6 bulan  penelitian ternyata telah ada perbedaan pertumbuhan dan    intensitas serangan,  dimana intensitas serangan yang paling besar diperlihatkan oleh T0 (tanpa pemberian trichoderma . Sedang intensitas serangan terkecil diperlihatkan oleh T3 (Dosis trichoderma sp 45 gr/bibit pisang. Jenis pisang tidak berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan Intensitas serangan layu fusarium. serta  interaksi   kedua faktor tersebut berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang dan intensitas serangan penyakit layu

  19. Microbial lipase mediated by health beneficial modification of cholesterol and flavors in food products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Sharma, Nivedita

    2017-06-14

    The tremendous need of lipase in varied applications in biotechnological increases its economical value in food and allied industries. Lipase has an impressive number of applications viz. enhancements of flavor in food products (Cheese, butter, alcoholic beverages, milk chocolate and diet control food stuffs), detergent industry in removing oil, grease stain, organic chemical processing, textile industry, oleochemical industry, cosmetic industry and also as therapeutic agents in pharmaceutical industries. This communication extends the frontier of lipase catalyzed benefits to human body by lowering serum cholesterol and enhancement of flavor in different food products. Among all, multiple innovations going on in the field of lipase applications are widening its scope in food industries consistently. Therefore in the present work an effort has been made to explore the utilization of lipase in the field of food product enhancement. Supplementation of food products with lipase results in modification of its physical, chemical and biochemical properties by enhancing its therapeutic activity. Lipases are the most important enzymes used in food industries. They are utilized as industrial catalysts for lipid hydrolysis. Because of lipases hydrolysis nature it is widely exploited to catalyze lipids or fats in different food products and enhancement of food flavors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  1. Characterization of neutral lipase BT-1 isolated from the labial gland of Bombus terrestris males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Brabcová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their general role in the hydrolysis of storage lipids, bumblebee lipases can participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids that serve as precursors of pheromones used for sexual communication. RESULTS: We studied the temporal dynamics of lipolytic activity in crude extracts from the cephalic part of Bombus terrestris labial glands. Extracts from 3-day-old males displayed the highest lipolytic activity. The highest lipase gene expression level was observed in freshly emerged bumblebees, and both gene expression and lipase activity were lower in bumblebees older than 3 days. Lipase was purified from labial glands, further characterized and named as BT-1. The B. terrestris orthologue shares 88% sequence identity with B. impatiens lipase HA. The molecular weight of B. terrestris lipase BT-1 was approximately 30 kDa, the pH optimum was 8.3, and the temperature optimum was 50°C. Lipase BT-1 showed a notable preference for C8-C10 p-nitrophenyl esters, with the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8. The Michaelis constant (Km and maximum reaction rate (Vmax for p-nitrophenyl laurate hydrolysis were Km = 0.0011 mM and Vmax = 0.15 U/mg. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing neutral lipase from the labial gland of B. terrestris. Our findings help increase understanding of its possible function in the labial gland.

  2. Classification of EC 3.1.1.3 bacterial true lipases using phylogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To obtain an overview of this industrially and very important class of enzymes and their characteristics, we collected and classified bacterial lipases sequences available from protein databases. Here we proposed an updated and revised classification of family I bacterial "true" lipases based mainly on a comparison of their ...

  3. Development of a lipase fermentation process that uses a recombinant Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, G; Hommes, R.W J; Quax, Wim

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes M-l secretes an alkaline lipase, which has excellent characteristics for the removal of fatty stains under modern washing conditions. A fed-batch fermentation process based on the secretion of the alkaline lipase from P. alcaligenes was developed. Due to the inability of P.

  4. Active-site titration analysis of surface influence on immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix morphology and surface polarity effects were investigated for Candida antarctica lipase B immobilization. Measurements of the amount of lipase immobilized (bicinchoninic acid method) and the catalyst’s tributyrin hydrolysis activity, coupled with a determination of the lipase’s functional fr...

  5. Activity and Spatial Distribution of Candida antarctica Lipase B Immobilized on Macroporous Organic Polymeric Adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Andric, Pavle; Munk Nielsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the influence of carrier particle size (500 − 850 μ m) and enzyme load (26 200 − 66 100 lipase activity units (LU)/g dry carrier) on the content and activity of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilized by adsorption onto macroporous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMM...

  6. Characterization of the promoter and upstream activating sequence from the Pseudomonas alcaligenes lipase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, M; Gerritse, G; Dankmeyer, L; Quax, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes secretes a lipase with a high pH optimum, which has interesting properties for application in detergents. The expression of the lipase is strongly dependent on the presence of lipids in the growth medium such as soybean oil. The promoter of the gene was characterized and

  7. Lipase expression in Pseudomonas alcaligenes is under the control of a two-component regulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeslak, Joanna; Gerritse, Gijs; van Merkerk, Ronald; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    Preliminary observations in a large-scale fermentation process suggested that the lipase expression of Pseudomonas alcaligenes can be switched on by the addition of certain medium components, such as soybean oil. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of induction of lipase expression, we have set

  8. Improved Performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase by covalent immobilization onto Amberzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslan, Yakup; Handayani, Nurrahmi; Stavila, Erythrina; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the conditions of covalent immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase onto an oxirane-activated support (Amberzyme) were optimized to obtain a high activity yield. Furthermore, the operational and storage stabilities of immobilized lipase were tested. Methods: Optimum

  9. Properties Of Lipase (Ec 3.1.1.3) From Different Varieties Of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This highactivity was correlated with high speciicity of corn lipase on linoleic acid. Thermal inactivation studies showed that the enzyme was stable up to 50oC and showed rapid inactivation above this temperature. Its optimum temperature was 50oC and the optimum pH, 8. Keywords: Lipase, Enzymes, Maize, Thermal ...

  10. Polyethyleneimine-modified superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for lipase immobilization: Characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoobi, Mehdi; Motevalizadeh, Seyed Farshad; Asadgol, Zahra; Forootanfar, Hamid; Shafiee, Abbas; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically separable nanospheres consisting of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and succinated PEI grafted on silica coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were prepared and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were then applied for physical adsorption or covalent attachment of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TLL) via glutaraldehyde or hexamethylene diisocyanate. The reusability, storage, pH and thermal stabilities of the immobilized enzymes compared to that of free lipase were examined. The obtained results showed that the immobilized lipase on MNPs@PEI-GLU was the best biocatalyst which retained 80% of its initial activity after 12 cycles of application. The immobilized lipase on the selected support (MNPs@PEI-GLU) was also applied for the synthesis of ethyl valerate. Following 24 h incubation of the immobilized lipase on the selected support in n-hexane and solvent free media, the esterification percentages were 72.9% and 28.9%, respectively. - Graphical abstract: A schematic of the preparation of PEI- and succinated PEI-grafted Fe 3 O 4 MNPs (MNPs@PEI) and the immobilization of lipase by covalent bonding and adsorption. - Highlights: • Functionalized polyethylenimine-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized. • The prepared supports were fully characterized by various analysis methods. • Lipase was immobilized on the nanostructures by adsorption and covalent attachment. • Immobilized lipase produced ethyl valerate in solvent free medium

  11. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical DNA sandwich assay with a lipase label for attomole detection of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena; Hansen, Majken Nørgaard; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2010-01-01

    A fast and sensitive electrochemical lipase-based sandwich hybridization assay for detection of attomole levels of DNA has been developed. A combination of magnetic beads, used for pre-concentration and bioseparation of the analyte with a lipase catalyst label allowed detection of DNA with a limi...

  13. Production of structured lipids in a packed-bed reactor with Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Porsgaard, Trine; Zhang, Hong

    2002-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification between fish oil and medium-chain TAG has been investigated in a packed-bed reactor with a commercially immobilized enzyme. The enzyme, a Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase immobilized on silica by granulation (Lipozyme TL IM; Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), ha...

  14. Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase is processed and secreted from transformed Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge-Jensen, B; Andreasen, F; Christensen, T; Christensen, M; Thim, L; Boel, E

    1989-09-01

    The cDNA encoding the precursor of the Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase was inserted in an Aspergillus oryzae expression vector. In this vector the expression of the lipase cDNA is under control of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase gene terminator. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Aspergillus oryzae, and transformed colonies were selected and screened for lipase expression. Lipase-positive transformants were grown in a small fermentor, and recombinant triglyceride lipase was purified from the culture broth. The purified enzymatically active recombinant lipase (rRML) secreted from A. oryzae was shown to have the same characteristics with respect to mobility on reducing SDS-gels and amino acid composition as the native enzyme. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that approximately 70% of the secreted rRML had the same N-terminal sequence as the native Rhizomucor miehei enzyme, whereas 30% of the secreted rRML was one amino acid residue shorter in the N-terminal. The recombinant lipase precursor, which has a 70 amino acid propeptide, is thus processed in and secreted from Aspergillus oryzae. We have hereby demonstrated the utility of this organism as a host for the production of recombinant triglyceride lipases.

  15. The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight, abdominal fat weight and serum biochemical levels were determined from lean and fat chicken breeds at 12 weeks of age. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase genes was screened by PCR-SSCP and detected by direct sequencing. Lipoprotein lipase gene frequency ...

  16. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, Gilma S; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frans M; Abee, Tjakko; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  17. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  18. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  19. The depudecin cluster – a genetic curiosity in Fusarium langsethiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium langsethiae is a consistent fungal contaminant on oat cereals in the Nordic region, the UK, as well as other parts of Europe. Leaving few symptoms of disease on the plant, the fungus is, however, the main producer of T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins which can be found contaminating food and feed der...

  20. Studies on the Fusarium-lily interaction : a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp . lilii Imle causes bulb and scale rot of lilies ( Lilium L.) , annually resulting in a considerable economical damage in bulb and flower cultivation. Presently,

  1. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  2. Cytotoxicity assays for mycotoxins produced by Fusarium strains: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Morrison, E.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food and feed. Several of these mycotoxins have been associated with human and animal diseases. Fusarium species, found worldwide in cereals and other food types for human and animal consumption, are the

  3. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  4. Effect of endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on paralysis and mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three bioassays were conducted to investigate the antagonistic effect of secondary metabolites produced by 5 endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates from banana (Musa spp.) plants in Kenya, against Pratylenchus goodeyi. Percentage paralyses were recorded 3, 6 and 24 h after exposure to culture filtrates. Percentage ...

  5. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  6. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  7. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...

  8. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  9. Teeltomstandigheden en Fusarium als oorzaak van uitval bij komkommer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, Pim; Janse, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium in komkommer is al vele jaren een probleem in de glastuinbouw. In 2006 was de aantasting op sommige bedrijven binnen een aantal maanden na het planten al zeer ernstig. Het leek er op dat de belangrijkste oorzaak gezocht moest worden in een mindere plantconditie als gevolg van minder

  10. Redirection of pigment biosynthesis to isocoumarins in Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of Fusarium species often appear red due to production of pigments, such as aurofusarin or bikaverin. The primary compounds in these biosynthetic pathways are YWA1 and pre-bikaverin, respectively, catalyzed by two multidomain polyketide synthases (PKSs), which both have a claisen...

  11. Anaerobic soil disinfestation for controlling Fusarium wilt in strawberies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strategy to apply a high rate of carbon resource in the conduct of a fall bed anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) treatment did not provide effective control of Fusarium wilt in California strawberries. The lack of disease control efficacy resulted from an increase in soil populations of the caus...

  12. Development of specific primers for genus Fusarium and F. solani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... reproductive parts of plants. They are ... plant species in most parts of the world. .... 20 µl 2.5X master mix (Eppendorf) and 1 µl of each forward and ... List of primers developed for rapid detection of Fusarium sp. and F. solani.

  13. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  14. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides , its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which ...

  15. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  16. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... from the seeds samples were Aspergillus spp. (41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which was made up of.

  17. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  18. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.; Rep, M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to

  19. Biological control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca using Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghannam

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.

  20. Detection of Fusarium in single wheat kernels using spectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Waalwijk, C.; Young, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral

  1. In vitro production of trichothecenes and zearalenone by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the spent grain from the brewing industry is used as feed and presence of mycotoxins can lead to harmful effects on domestic animals and also find a way into the human food chain. Studies carried out in Kenya have revealed presence of various Fusarium species with ability to produce mycotoxins and presence ...

  2. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of an integrated management strategy for Fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the use of microbial antagonist, botanical extract and fungicide. Before setting the experiment in field micro plots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a ...

  3. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  4. Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis as host for expression of the bacterial lipase: cloning and adaptation of the new lipase gene from Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiekštelė, Rimantas; Veteikytė, Aušra; Tvaska, Bronius; Matijošytė, Inga

    2015-10-01

    Many microbial lipases have been successfully expressed in yeasts, but not in industrially attractive Kluyveromyces lactis, which among other benefits can be cultivated on a medium supplemented with whey--cheap and easily available industrial waste. A new bacterial lipase from Serratia sp. was isolated and for the first time expressed into the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis by heterologous protein expression system based on a strong promoter of Kluyveromyces marxianus triosephosphate isomerase gene and signal peptide of Kluyveromyces marxianus endopolygalacturonase gene. In addition, the bacterial lipase gene was synthesized de novo by taking into account a codon usage bias optimal for K. lactis and was expressed into the yeast K. lactis also. Both resulting strains were characterized by high output level of the target protein secreted extracellularly. Secreted lipases were characterized for activity and stability.

  5. AKTIVITAS HIDROLISIS ENZIM LIPASE DARI KENTOS KELAPA TERHADAP MINYAK KELAPA Hidrolysis Activity of Lipase Enzyme from Coconut Houstorium for Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Su’i

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study hydrolysis conditions of houstorium lipases enzyme using coconut oil as substrate. Hydrolysis conditions studied were substrate (coconut oil concentration, enzyme substrate ratio, duration of hydro- lysis and effect of stirring to hydrolysis. The results show  that lipase of coconut houstorium may be optimally used at a coconut oil concentration of 10 %, enzyme to substrate ratio of 3 : 10 (v/v and hydrolysis for 60 minutes with stirring. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari kondisi hidrolisis minyak kelapa yang optimum menggunakan enzim lipase dari kentos kelapa. Kondisi hidrolisis yang dipelajari meliputi konsentrasi substrat optium, perbandingan enzim : substrat dan lama hidrolisis yang optimum serta pengaruh pengadukan selama hidrolisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, hidrolisis minyak kelapa menggunakan enzim lipase kentos kelapa menghasilkan asam lemak bebas paling banyak pada kon- sentrasi substrat (minyak kelapa 10 %, perbandingan enzim : substrat yaitu 3 : 10 (v/v, lama hidroloisa 60 menit dan dilakukan pengadukan selama hidrolisis.

  6. Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Fungicides in Clinically Relevant Members of the Fungal Genus Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant members of the fungal genus, Fusarium, exhibit an extraordinary genetic diversity and cause a wide spectrum of infections in both healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients. Generally, Fusarium species are intrinsically resistant to all systemic antifungals. We investigated whether the presence or absence of the ability to produce biofilms across and within Fusarium species complexes is linked to higher resistance against antifungals. A collection of 41 Fusarium strains, obtained from 38 patients with superficial and systemic infections, and three infected crops, were tested, including 25 species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex, 14 from the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC, one Fusarium dimerum species complex, and one Fusarium oxysporum species complex isolate. Of all isolates tested, only seven strains from two species of FSSC, five F. petroliphilum and two F. keratoplasticum strains, recovered from blood, nail scrapings, and nasal biopsy samples, could produce biofilms under the tested conditions. In the liquid culture tested, sessile biofilm-forming Fusarium strains exhibited elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole, compared to their planktonic counterparts, indicating that the ability to form biofilm may significantly increase resistance. Collectively, this suggests that once a surface adherent biofilm has been established, therapies designed to kill planktonic cells of Fusarium are ineffective.

  7. Les lipases sont des hydrolases atypiques : principales caractéristiques et applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fickers P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ipases are atypical hydrolases: principal characteristics and applications. Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous solution or as biocatalysts in organic synthesis. As hydrolases, they are responsible of the triglycerids catabolism into fatty acids and glycerol. In many organisms, this reaction plays a major role in the fat and lipid metabolism. In addition, lipases are also able to hydrolyse phospholipids and cholesterol esters. In organic solvent, lipases could catalyse reactions such as esterifications, acidolysis or alcoolysis with enantio-, regio- and chimioselectivity. Lipases form a mixed class of enzyme due to their animal, vegetal or microbial origins. All those properties led to the development of many applications in the food and chemical industries but also in the medical and therapeutic field.

  8. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  9. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  10. Coconut oil induced production of a surfactant-compatible lipase from Aspergillus tamarii under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Shivakumar, Srividya; Shakya, Sujina; Sogane, Swathi Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Filamentous fungi are efficient producers of lipases. The present study focuses on identification of a potent lipolytic fungus and enhancement of lipase production through optimization of nutritional and cultural conditions under submerged fermentation. Molecular characterization of the fungus by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed its identity as Aspergillus tamarii with 98% homology. Maximum lipase production was noted in mineral salts medium supplemented with coconut oil (2.5%, v/v). A combination of ammonium chloride (2%, w/v) and tryptone (2%, w/v) facilitated maximum lipase production at pH 5 of the production medium. A carbon: nitrogen ratio of 1:4 led to significant (p oil stain removal activity of a commercially available detergent by 2.2-fold. The current findings suggest the potentiality of this fungal lipase to be used in detergent formulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  12. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL THERMOSTABLE LIPASE FROM SHEWANELLA PUTREFACIENS AND USING ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Akbas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermostable lipase from Shewanella putrefaciens was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, characterized and used in biodiesel production. Enzyme characterization was carried out by enzyme assay, SDS-PAGE and other biochemical reactions. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 29 kDa and exhibited lipase activity when Tween 80 was used as the substrate. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 80°C. The recombinant lipase was used for the transesterification of canola oil and waste oil. The enzyme retains 50% of its activity at 90°C for 30 minutes. It is also able to retain 20% of its activity even at 100 °C for 20 minutes. These properties of the obtained new recombinant thermostable lipase make it promising as a biocatalyst for industrial processes.

  13. Statistical optimization for lipase production from solid waste of vegetable oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Mohit; Mohanty, Swati; Sawyer, Matthew; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Sukla, Lala Behari; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2018-04-21

    The production of biofuel using thermostable bacterial lipase from hot spring bacteria out of low-cost agricultural residue olive oil cake is reported in the present paper. Using a lipase enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis, a 66.5% yield of methyl esters was obtained. Optimum parameters were determined, with maximum production of lipase at a pH of 8.2, temperature 50.8°C, moisture content of 55.7%, and biosurfactant content of 1.693 mg. The contour plots and 3D surface responses depict the significant interaction of pH and moisture content with biosurfactant during lipase production. Chromatographic analysis of the lipase transesterification product was methyl esters, from kitchen waste oil under optimized conditions, generated methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate.

  14. Lipases de látex vegetais: propriedades e aplicações industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paques Fernanda Wiermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysts have innumerous advantages with respect to classical chemical processes, such as high specificity. Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 are biocatalysts with large application in synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of triacylglycerols. The search for new sources of lipases has been intensified in the last years due to the high cost of microbial and animal lipases, wich restricts their use on an industrial scale. Lipases obtained from the latex of Carica papaya, Carica pentagona, Euphorbia characias, E. wulfenii, known for their proteolytic properties, are a good alternative source. In this review, we describe the well-known sources of vegetal lipases extracted from the latex and present some of their industrial applications.

  15. MALDI imaging of enzymatic degradation of glycerides by lipase on textile surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Jonatan; Kaasgaard, Svend G; Janfelt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Most modern laundry detergents contain enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and lipases for more efficient removal of stains containing proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids during wash at low temperature. The function of the lipases is to hydrolyse the hydrophobic triglycerides from fats and oils...... stain and simulating washing cycles using well-defined detergents with lipase concentrations ranging between 0 and 0.5ppm. After washing, the textile swatches as well as cryo-sections of the swatches were imaged using MALDI imaging in positive ion mode at pixel sizes of 15-75μm. Similar samples were...... an inhomogeneous presence of diglycerides after lipase treatment both in planar images of the textile surface as well as in cross-sections suggesting a non-uniform enzyme effect or extraction of the lipase reaction products from the textile....

  16. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.

  18. Sempervivum davisii: phytochemical composition, antioxidant and lipase-inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Yusuf; Dalar, Abdullah; Konczak, Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Sempervivum davisii Muirhead (Crassulaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb from Eastern Anatolia. To date the composition of phytochemicals and physiological properties of this herb were not subjected to any research. This study identifies compounds in S. davisii hydrophilic extracts and evaluates their potential biological properties. Ethanol-based lyophilized extracts were obtained from aerial parts of plant (10 g of ground dry plant material in 200 mL of acidified aqueous ethanol, shaken for 2 h at 22 °C with supernatant collected and freeze-dried under vacuum). Phytochemical composition was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, phenolics) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, volatiles). Phenolic compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Subsequently, antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] and enzyme inhibitory properties (isolated porcine pancreatic lipase) of the extracts were determined. Polyphenolic compounds were the main constituents of lyophilized extracts, among which kaempferol glycosides and quercetin hexoside dominated. The extracts exhibited potent antioxidant (FRAP values of 1925.2-5973.3 μM Fe 2+ /g DW; ORAC values of 1858.5-4208.7 μM Trolox Eq./g DW) and moderate lipase inhibitory (IC 50 : 11.6-2.96 mg/mL) activities. Volatile compounds (nonanal, dehydroxylinalool oxide isomers, 2-decenal, 2-undecenal, 2,6-di-tetr-butylphenol) were also found. Phenolic compounds with the dominating kaempferol and quercetin derivatives are the sources of potent antioxidant properties of S. davisii hydrophilic extracts. The extracts exhibit moderate inhibitory properties towards isolated pancreatic lipase.

  19. Síntese do butirato de n-butila empregando lipase microbiana imobilizada em copolímero de estireno-divinilbenzeno Synthesis of butyl butyrate by microbial lipase immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos de Oliveira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the reaction parameters of an immobilized lipase in the esterification reaction of n-butanol and butyric acid. Microbial lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (STY-DVB and subsequently introduced in an organic medium containing substrates in appropriate concentrations. Heptane was selected as solvent on the basis of its compatibility with the resin and the enzyme. The influence of molar ratio of acid to alcohol, amount of immobilized lipase and temperature on the butyl butyrate formation was determined. The results were compared with those achieved with free lipase and Lipozyme (commercially immobilized lipase under the same operational conditions.

  20. Comparative performance of microbial lipases immobilized on magnetic polysiloxane polyvinyl alcohol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipase from Mucor miehei and Candida rugosa were immobilized by covalent binding onto magnetized polysiloxane polyvinyl alcohol particles (POS-PVA. The resulting immobilized derivatives were evaluated in aqueous solution (olive oil hydrolysis and organic solvent (butyl butyrate synthesis. Higher catalytic activities were found when the coupling procedure was made with M. miehei lipase. Immobilized M. miehei lipase also showed a better operational stability and a higher half-life than C. rugosa lipase after the successive batches of esterification. The performance of C. rugosa immobilized derivative was constrained by the low lipase loading used in the immobilizing step. Further information regarding the both immobilized derivatives was also obtained through chemical composition (FTIR.Lipases microbianas de Mucor miehei e Candida rugosa foram imobilizadas por ligação covalente em partículas magnetizadas de polisiloxano-álcool polivinílico (POS-PVA. Os derivados imobilizados resultantes foram avaliados em solução aquosa (hidrólise de azeite de oliva e em solvente orgânico (síntese de butirato de butila. As maiores atividades catalíticas foram encontradas quando o procedimento de ligação foi realizado com lipase de M. miehei. O derivado imobilizado de lipase de M. miehei também apresentou melhores resultados de estabilidade operacional e tempo de meia-vida do que o de lipase de C. rugosa, após sucessivas bateladas de esterificação. O desempenho do derivado imobilizado de C. rugosa foi restringido pelo baixo carregamento de lipase usado na etapa de imobilização. Informações adicionais a respeito de ambos derivados imobilizados também foram obtidas através da composição química (FTIR.

  1. Characterization of an extracellular lipase by Pseudomonas koreensis BK-L07 isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    Screening using spirit blue agar revealed that strain BK-L07 had the highest lipase activity. Furthermore, the isolated strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BK-L07 shared a high similarity with that of Pseudomonas koreensis (99%). The nutritional conditions and physicochemical properties were influenced by P. koreensis BK-L07. The maximum lipase production was obtained in tryptic soy broth medium at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 25°C after 36 hr of incubation. In addition, the lipase activity was determined using different carbon sources and lipase inducers. The lipase production was greatest when 1% maltose was used as the carbon source and olive oil was used as the lipase inducer. The lipase production was significantly increased approximately threefold in the optimized medium when compared with the original medium. Further, the lipase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with a purification yield of 10.8%. The molecular mass of lipase was 45 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 40°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable up to 50°C and at pH from 7 to 9. In addition, the enzyme activity was stimulated by MgSO4 and completely inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), indicating the metalloenzyme type. The lipase activity was toward medium to long chain length of fatty acids (C10 to C18). Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  2. Growth characteristics and enzyme production optimization of lipase Producing Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-01-01

    55 samples from different regions were selected and screened by Rhodamine B flat transparent circle method to observe lipase producing effect, among which, LHY-1, identified as Serratia sp. has the characteristics of fast growth, high enzyme production and stable ability. The colony of this strain is white, the edge is smooth and tidy, the surface is moist, the cell is straight, rod-shaped, gram negative, 0.1-0.2 μm in diameter and, length 0.3-0.5 μm in length.

  3. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, using formulated antagonists under field conditions in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzini, Juan M.; Alberione, Enrique; Torres, Adriana; Donat, Christina; Kohl, Jurgen; Chulze, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat in humid and semi-humid regions of the world. The biocontrol effect of two bacterial strains on FHB incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol (DON)

  4. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N H; Shahin, A A.M.; Mahrous, S R [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Far, F M [Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10{sup 4} cfu/g, 6.3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10{sup 3} cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 {mu}g/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize.

  5. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; El-Far, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10 4 cfu/g, 6.3 x 10 6 cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10 3 cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 μg/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize

  6. Verspreiding van aantasting van Fusarium foetens in recirculerende teeltsystemen van begonia : onderzoek naar ontwikkeling en bestrijding/beheersing van Fusarium foetens in Begonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Bosker, A.I.; Lanser, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sinds twee jaar wordt in de begoniateelt uitval gevonden veroorzaakt door een nieuwe Fusarium vaatschimmel welke recentelijk de naam Fusarium foetens gekregen heeft. Uitval op verschillende bedrijven is aanzienlijk en aantasting is moeilijk te beheersen en te bestrijden. In dit korte verslag worden

  7. Effect van temperatuur op groei en sporulatie van Fusarium foetens : onderzoek naar ontwikkeling en bestrijding/beheersing Fusarium foetens in Begonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Bosker, I.; Lanser, C.

    2002-01-01

    Sinds twee jaar wordt in de begoniateelt uitval gevonden veroorzaakt door een nieuwe Fusarium vaatschimmel welke recentelijk de naam Fusarium foetens gekregen heeft. Uitval op verschillende bedrijven is aanzienlijk en aantasting is moeilijk te beheersen en te bestrijden. In dit verslag worden de

  8. Comparative studies with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen ratio on sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M

    1979-01-01

    Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a factor for sporulation, expressed in terms of magnitude of population variation of macroconidia and microconidia in the cultures of Eusarium oxysporum Schlecht ex. Fr., Fusarium moniliforme v. subglutinans Wr. and Rg., and of chlamydospores (only in Fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. It has been found that the amount of carbon source shapes the course of macro- and micro. conidial production in a linear fashion, being enhanced parallel to the increase in its amount-Nitrogen level, limiting proliferation and effectively diminishing the macro- and micro-conidial population, varies for the two species, namely Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme v-subglutinans. For chlamydomspore production, higher carbon and still higher nitrogen concentration favours profuse proliferation in case of Fusarium oxysporum.

  9. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjuan Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1 from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1, Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL, and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL. Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  10. Screening for resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Dr. Olga E.; Steenhuis-Broers, Greet; Osman, Aart; Bremer, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi cause Fusarium head blight in wheat. This disease is a problem that occurs both in organic and conventional farming systems. As Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins in wheat kernels they are a threat to human and animal health. Breeding for disease resistance is the only way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease. The aim of the current research project is to identify different mechanisms of resistance in cultivars and breeding lines to be used in further breeding pro...

  11. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  12. Novel Lipases: Expression and Improvement for Applied Biocatalysis = Nuevas lipasas: expresión y mejoras para biocatálisis aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Infanzón Ramos, Belén

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is focused in the identification and improvement of lipases for biotechnological application. The importance of lipases is increasing in several industries. However, the commercial use of lipases is still a drawback in the economics of the lipase-based industrial applications. There are many tools for improving and adapting the enzyme properties to the desired requirements of a process that could lead lipase catalysis through a cost-effective process. In this context, the main obj...

  13. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  14. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Slim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature.... Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1 were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  15. IDENTIFIKASI POTENSI ENZIM LIPASE DAN SELULASE PADA SAMPAH KULIT BUAH HASIL FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Sumarlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of bioconversion to produce profitable anaerobic microbes and to produce various enzymes. Lipases and cellulases are widely used enzymes so far. Cellulases play an important role in bioconversion of organic waste cellulosic materials to glucose, single cell proteins, animal feed, and ethanol. Lipases can also degrade fatty ester bond. Therefore, both enzymes are potential to be used in industry as well as in households. Fermentation of fruit peel waste is an attempt to produce cellulase and lipase that can be carried out in a simple way. Cellulase as says was performed using DNS (3.5-dinitrosalicylic acid and acid-base titration for analysis of lipase using cooking oil as the substrate. The results showed that the highest cellulase activity was obtained from watermelon rind mixed with citrus fruit peel of 0.036 U/mL, and mixed of banana peel and citrus fruit, which was 0.035 U/mL. The optimum lipase activity was at 30 oC, pH 7, and reaction time of 60 minutes. The highest lipase activity (1.36 U/mL was obtained from mixture of watermelon and orange rind. Thus, the fruit peel waste is potential to produce cellulase and lipase by fermentation .

  16. Factors influencing production of lipase under metal supplementation by bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilis BDG-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhevahi, B; Gurusamy, R

    2014-11-01

    Lipases are biocatalyst having wide applications in industries due to their versatile properties. In the present study, a lipolytic bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilis BDG-8 was isolated from an oil based industrial soil. The effect of selenium and nickel as a media supplement on enhancement of lipase production, was studied individually with the isolated strain by varying the concentration of selected metal. 60 μg l(-1) selenium enhanced lipase production to an enzyme activity measuring 7.8 U ml(-1) while 40 μgI(-1) nickel gave the maximum enzyme activity equivalent to 7.5 U ml(-1). However, nickel and selenium together at a range of concentration with an equal w/v ratio, at 60 μg l(-1) each, showed the maximum lipase activity of 8.5 U ml(-1). The effect of pH and temperature on lipase production showed maximum enzyme activity in the presence of each of the metals at pH 7 and 35°C among the other tested ranges. After optimisation of the parameters such as metal concentration, pH and temperature lipase production by Bacillus subtilis BDG-8 had increased several folds. This preliminary investigation may consequently lead as to various industrial applications such as treatment of wastewater contaminated with metal or oil with simultaneous lipase production.

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was purified and characterized. The production of thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was carried out in a shake-flask system at 65°C in cultivation medium containing; glucose 1.0% (w/v; yeast extract 1.25% (w/v; NaCl 0.45% (w/v olive oil 0.1% (v/v with agitation of 200 rpm for 24 hours. The extracted extracellular crude thermostable lipase was purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration, Heparin-affinity chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration chromatography by 34 times with a final yield of 9%. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 30 kDa after SDS-PAGE analysis. The optimal temperature for thermostable lipase was 65°C and it retained its initial activity for 3 hours. Thermostable lipase activity was highest at pH 7.0 and stable for 16 hours at this pH at 65°C. Thermostable lipase showed elevated activity when pretreated with BaCl2, CaCl2, and KCl with 112%, 108%, and 106%, respectively. Lipase hydrolyzed tripalmitin (C16 and olive oil with optimal activity (100% compared to other substrates.

  18. Stereoselectivity of Mucorales lipases toward triradylglycerols--a simple solution to a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, H.; Pleiss, J.; Kovac, A.; Paltauf, F.; Schmid, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    The lipases from Rhizopus and Rhizomucor are members of the family of Mucorales lipases. Although they display high sequence homology, their stereoselectivity toward triradylglycerols (sn-2 substituted triacylglycerols) varies. Four different triradylglycerols were investigated, which were classified into two groups: flexible substrates with rotatable O'-C1' ether or ester bonds adjacent to C2 of glycerol and rigid substrates with a rigid N'-C1' amide bond or a phenyl ring in sn-2. Although Rhizopus lipase shows opposite stereopreference for flexible and rigid substrates (hydrolysis in sn-1 and sn-3, respectively), Rhizomucor lipase hydrolyzes both groups of triradylglycerols preferably in sn-1. To explain these experimental observations, computer-aided molecular modeling was applied to study the molecular basis of stereoselectivity. A generalized model for both lipases of the Mucorales family highlights the residues mediating stereoselectivity: (1) L258, the C-terminal neighbor of the catalytic histidine, and (2) G266, which is located in a loop contacting the glycerol backbone of a bound substrate. Interactions with triradylglycerol substrates are dominated by van der Waals contacts. Stereoselectivity can be predicted by analyzing the value of a single substrate torsion angle that discriminates between sn-1 and sn-3 stereopreference for all substrates and lipases investigated here. This simple model can be easily applied in enzyme and substrate engineering to predict Mucorales lipase variants and synthetic substrates with desired stereoselectivity. PMID:10210199

  19. Production and application of a thermostable lipase from Serratia marcescens in detergent formulation and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Silvera, Edgar Edurman; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Bertrand, Brandt; Morales-Guzmán, Daniel; Rosas-Galván, Nashbly Sarela; León-Rodríguez, Renato; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2018-03-01

    In this study, extracellular lipase was produced by Serratia marcescens wild type and three mutant strains. The maximum lipase activity (80 U/mL) was obtained with the SMRG4 mutant strain using soybean oil. Using a 2 2 factorial design, the lipase production increased 1.55-fold (124 U/mL) with 4% and 0.05% of soybean oil and Triton X-100, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase activity were 50 °C and pH 8. However, the enzyme was active in a broad range of pH (6-10) and temperatures (5-55 °C). This lipase was stable in organic solvents and in the presence of oxidizing agents. The enzyme also proved to be efficient for the removal of triacylglycerol from olive oil in cotton cloth. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the interactions between total lipase activity, buffer pH, and wash temperatures on oil removal. The model obtained suggested that all selected factors had a significant impact on oil removal, with optimum conditions of 550 U lipase, 45 °C, pH 9.5, with 79.45% removal. Biotransformation of waste frying oil using the enzyme and in presence of methanol resulted in the synthesis of methyl esters such as methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, and methyl stearate. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-11-11

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of human pathogenic Fusarium and emergence of uncommon virulent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Theelen, Bart; Abukamar, Mohammed; Hashim, Samar; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Lass-Florl, Cornelia; Boekhout, Teun; Almaslamani, Muna; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections. However, little is known about the etiological agents to the species level. We identified Fusarium species isolated from clinical specimens including those of high risk patients to better understand the species involved in the pathogenesis. A set of 44 Fusarium isolates were identified by two-locus sequence typing using partial sequences of the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF-1α). The identified species belonged to four species complexes (SC); the most common SC was Fusarium solani (FSSC) (75%), followed by Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) (4.5%), Fusarium fujikuroi (FFSC) (13.6%), and Fusarium dimerum (FDSC) (6.8%). Sites of infections were nails (n = 19, 43.2%), skin (n = 7, 15.9%), cornea (n = 6, 13.6%), blood (n = 3, 9%), wound (n = 4, 6.8%), burn (n = 2, 4.5%), tissue (n = 2, 4.5%), and urine (n = 1, 2.27%). Fusarium acutatum was rare and seem restricted to the Middle East. Comorbidities associated with invasive infections were hematological malignancy and autoimmune disorders. Members of the FSSC predominantly caused cornea, nail and bloodstream infections. Less frequently encountered were the FOSC, FFSC and FDSC. More accurate molecular identification of Fusarium species is important to predict therapeutic outcome and the emergence of these species. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-04

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible.

  4. Penicillium sp. mitigates Fusarium-induced biotic stress in sesame plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Pae, Suk-Bok; Shim, Kang-Bo; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-07-01

    Fusarium-infected sesame plants have significantly higher contents of amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Asn, Glu, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Try, Arg, and Pro), compared with their respective levels in the healthy control. These higher levels of amino acids induced by Fusarium infection were decreased when Penicillium was co-inoculated with Fusarium. Compared with the control, Fusarium-infected plants showed higher contents of palmitic (8%), stearic (8%), oleic (7%), and linolenic acids (4%), and lower contents of oil (4%) and linoleic acid (11%). Co-inoculation with Penicillium mitigated the Fusarium-induced changes in fatty acids. The total chlorophyll content was lower in Fusarium- and Penicillium-infected plants than in the healthy control. The accumulation of carotenoids and γ-amino butyric acid in Fusarium-infected plants was slightly decreased by co-inoculation with Penicillium. Sesamin and sesamolin contents were higher in Penicillium- and Fusarium- infected plants than in the control. To clarify the mechanism of the biocontrol effect of Penicillium against Fusarium by evaluating changes in primary and secondary metabolite contents in sesame plants.

  5. TOR signaling downregulation increases resistance to the cereal killer Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Néstor R; Consolo, V Fabiana; Salerno, Graciela L; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M A

    2018-02-01

    TOR is the master regulator of growth and development that senses energy availability. Biotic stress perturbs metabolic and energy homeostasis, making TOR a good candidate to participate in the plant response. Fusarium graminearum (Fusarium) produces important losses in many crops all over the world. To date, the role of TOR in Fusarium infection has remained unexplored. Here, we show that the resistance to the pathogen increases in different Arabidopsis mutants impaired in TOR complex or in wild-type plants treated with a TOR inhibitor. We conclude that TOR signaling is involved in plant defense against Fusarium.

  6. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  7. Fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Mounier, Arnaud; Steinberg, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. They cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. Surveys of Fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. In the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze Fusarium diversity directly from soil DNA. We designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward Fusarium using a large collection of fungi. We used the specific primers to construct a clone library from three contrasting soils. Sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of the assay, with 750 clones identified as Fusarium and distributed among eight species or species complexes. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) was the most abundant one in the three soils, followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). We then compared our molecular approach results with those obtained by isolating Fusarium colonies on two culture media and identifying species by sequencing part of the EF-1α gene. The 750 isolates were distributed into eight species or species complexes, with the same dominant species as with the cloning method. Sequence diversity was much higher in the clone library than in the isolate collection. The molecular approach proved to be a valuable tool to assess Fusarium diversity in environmental samples. Combined with high throughput sequencing, it will allow for in-depth analysis of large numbers of samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50 °C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60 °C for 1 h, and the optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time was 30 min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30 °C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn2+, followed by Mg2+ and Fe2+. Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1 mM and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation.

  9. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Koc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg. The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques.

  10. Serum Lipase as Clinical Laboratory Index for Chronic Renal Failure Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Dong, Jing; Wang, Ping; Huang, Huifang; Jin, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jingou; Shi, Jingfang; Gu, Guohao; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jun; Song, Yanhui

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the level of serum lipase has been used for the clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Reports showed that the serum lipase level increased in patients of clinical renal failure. In this study, we aimed to measure the change of serum lipase levels in chronic kidney diseases and determine whether it could serve as a clinical laboratory index for clinical renal failure diagnosis. Materials: The OLYMPUS AU5400 automatic biochemical analyzer was used to determine the serum levels of lipase and creatinine. The study included 120 cases in the clinical renal failure group, 76 cases in the nephrotic syndrome group, 81 cases in the chronic nephritis group, and 80 healthy controls from our hospital volunteers in the same period. We then compared the lipase levels and conducted statistical analyses among these groups. The serum lipase levels were 15.3 U/L, 79.8 U/L, 45.1 U/L, and 51.0 U/L in the normal control, clinical renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and chronic nephritis groups, respectively. The lipase levels in the groups with diseases were significantly different compared with that of the normal control group (p renal failure group was significantly higher than that of the nephrotic syndrome group and chronic nephritis group (p chronic nephritis group (p > 0.05) was observed. Moreover, an association of the serum lipase with disease progression was observed in the study. Serum lipase is an effective serological index which can reflect the clinical changes in the clinical renal failure and tends to increase through the progression of renal dysfunction.

  11. Adrenal and liver in normal and cld/cld mice synthesize and secrete hepatic lipase, but the lipase is inactive in cld/cld mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C J; Blanchette-Mackie, E J; Scow, R O

    2000-02-01

    Combined lipase deficiency (cld) is a recessive mutation in mice that causes a severe lack of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, hyperlipemia, and death within 3 days after birth. Earlier studies showed that inactive LPL and HL were synthesized by cld/cld tissues and that LPL synthesized by cld/cld brown adipocytes was retained in their ER. We report here a study of HL in liver, adrenal, and plasma of normal newborn and cld/cld mice. Immunofluorescence studies showed HL was present in extracellular space, but not in cells, in liver and adrenal of both normal and cld/cld mice. When protein secretion was blocked with monensin, HL was retained intracellularly in liver cell cultures and in incubated adrenal tissues of both groups of mice. These findings demonstrated that HL was synthesized and secreted by liver and adrenal cells in normal newborn and cld/cld mice. HL activities in liver, adrenal, and plasma in cld/cld mice were very low, cld/cld cells was inactive. Livers of both normal newborn and cld/cld mice synthesized LPL, but the level of LPL activity in cld/cld liver was very low, cld/cld mice, indicating that LPL was synthesized but not secreted by cld/cld liver cells. Immunofluorescent LPL was not found in normal newborn liver cells unless the cells were treated with monensin, thus demonstrating that normal liver cells synthesized and secreted LPL. Livers of both groups of mice contained an unidentified alkaline lipase activity which accounted for 34-54% of alkaline lipase activity in normal and 65% of that in cld/cld livers. Our findings indicate that liver and adrenal cells synthesized and secreted HL in both normal newborn and cld/cld mice, but the lipase was inactive in cld/cld mice. That cld/cld liver cells secreted inactive HL while retaining inactive LPL indicates that these closely related lipases were processed differently.

  12. Fasting and post-prandial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, G; Annuzzi, G; Di Marino, L; De Natale, C; Giacco, R; Bozzetto, L; Cipriano, P; Santangelo, C; Masella, R; Rivellese, A A

    2011-05-01

    Fasting and post-prandial abnormalities of adipose tissue (AT) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone- sensitive lipase (HSL) activities may have pathophysiological relevance in insulin-resistant conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate activity and gene expression of AT LPL and HSL at fasting and 6 h after meal in two insulin-resistant groups - obese with Type 2 diabetes and obese without diabetes - and in non-diabetic normal-weight controls. Nine obese subjects with diabetes, 10 with obesity alone, and 9 controls underwent measurements of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides before and after a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and post-prandial (6 h) LPL and HSL activities and gene expressions were determined in abdominal subcutaneous AT needle biopsies. The diabetic obese subjects had significantly lower fasting and post-prandial AT heparin-releasable LPL activity than only obese and control subjects (pobese subjects compared to controls in both fasting condition and 6 h after the meal (pfasting and 6 h after meal measurements in either LPL or HSL activities and gene expressions. Lipolytic activities in AT are differently altered in obesity and Type 2 diabetes being HSL alteration associated with both insulin-resistant conditions and LPL with diabetes per se. These abnormalities are similarly observed in the fasting condition and after a fat-rich meal.

  13. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SCHW. AND FUSARIUM CULMORUM (W.G. SMITH SACC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species from section Discolor are widespread and well-known and play an important role in disease etiology of wheat, barley and maize. F. graminearum and F. culmorum were isolated during a four-year period at several locations in Eastern Croatia and from different hosts. The mycelium development of 236isolates of F. graminearum and 2 isolates of F. culmorum was cultered during an eight day period on water agar, PDA, Bilai, Czapek's and CLA agar at temperatures 5°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30°C and a 12 hour dark/light regime. The results show that agar medium does not influence colony diameter significantly. The agar medium influences the richness and density of the aerial mycelium significantly, although the shape and compactness of the mycelium is not only the result of the medium on which the fungus is developed, but also of the characteristics of the species itself. The sporulation of F. culmorum was abundant on all investigated medium, whereas the sporulation of F. graminearum was very weak on PDA and Bilai agar and it was medium on CLA.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  15. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: pcj@furb.rct-sc.br

    2003-06-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  16. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-02-21

    Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw material and a chimeric lipase

  17. A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity based on enzyme-controlled gold nanoparticles growth in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei; Tian, Danbi

    2015-03-01

    A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response ranging from 0.025 to 4 mg mL-1 and a detection limit of the lipase as low as 3.47 μg mL-1 were achieved. This strategy circumvents the problems encountered by general enzyme assays that require sophisticated instruments and complicated assembling steps. The methodology can benefit the assays of heterogeneous-catalyzed enzymes.A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response

  18. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jane E. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25ºC in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester.

  19. Active serine involved in the stabilization of the active site loop in the Humicola lanuginosa lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Svendsen, A.; Langberg, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the binding properties of and dynamics in Humicola lanuginosa lipase (HII) and the inactive mutant S146A (active Ser146 substituted with Ala) using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, respectively. Hll and S146A show significantly different binding......, whereas only small changes are observed for I-Ill suggesting that the active site Lid in the latter opens more easily and hence more lipase molecules are bound to the liposomes. These observations are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and subsequent essential dynamics analyses. The results...... to substantial conformational alterations in the H. lanuginosa Lipase and different binding affinities....

  20. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  1. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  2. Pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity induced by overexpression of hormone-sensitive lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Svensson, Håkan; Enerbäck, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Lipid perturbations associated with triglyceride overstorage in beta-cells impair insulin secretion, a process termed lipotoxicity. To assess the role of hormone-sensitive lipase, which is expressed and enzymatically active in beta-cells, in the development of lipotoxicity, we generated transgenic...... mice overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase specifically in beta-cells. Transgenic mice developed glucose intolerance and severely blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when challenged with a high-fat diet. As expected, both lipase activity and forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was increased...

  3. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  4. The impact of atmospheric cold plasma treatment on inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase of wheat germs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Ghomi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Wheat germ is a by-product of milling process which contains large amount of nutrients. The shelf life of wheat germ could improve by inactivation of destructive endogenous enzymes especially lipase and lipoxygenase. In this work, the impact of atmospheric cold plasma treatment on the inactivation...... of lipase and lipoxygenase enzymes of wheat germ was studied. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was utilized to treat wheat germs. The impact of treatment time and voltage of plasma on the inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase were investigated as well. The higher voltage and treatment time led...

  5. Usage of immobilized porcine pancreas lipase in the hydrolysis of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chau Tran Diem; Linh, Vo Thi Hong; Yen, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi; Hoa, Phan Ngoc

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on the comparison among the usage of immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) on different hydrotalcite carriers (uncalcined and calcined hydrotalcite - like compound Mg /Al) and free lipase as the catalysts to hydrolyze of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed oil. The reaction conditions were investigated including the ratio of oil to buffer, ratio of enzyme to substrate, the temperature of the hydrolysis, pH. The calcined hydrotalcite showed a higher lipase immobilization yield and a better reusability than the uncalcined hydrotalcite (87.15% and 86.78%, respectively).

  6. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  7. Fusarium-induced diseases of tropical, perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT The world's oldest ecosystems are found in the tropics. They are diverse, highly evolved, but barely understood. This and subsequent papers describe diseases of tropical, perennial plants that are caused by Fusarium spp. Many of these are economically significant, difficult to manage, and of scientific interest. Some represent coevolved patho-systems (e.g., Panama disease, tracheomycosis of coffee, fusariosis of pineapple, and Fusarium wilt of oil palm), whereas others may be new-encounter diseases or are caused by generalist pathogens (cushion gall of cacao). New vector relationships are evident in other pathosystems (e.g., mango malformation), and two or more pathogens have been shown to cause some of the diseases (Panama disease and tracheomycosis of coffee). More work on these pathosystems is warranted as they could reveal much about the evolution of plant pathogens and the important diseases they cause.

  8. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  9. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, Frank; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt disease. Over the last 6 years, new insights into the molecular basis of these gene-for-gene interactions have been obtained. Highlights are the identification of three avirulence genes in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the development of a molecular switch model for I-2, a nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat-type resistance protein which mediates the recognition of the Avr2 protein. We summarize these findings here and present possible scenarios for the ongoing molecular arms race between tomato and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both nature and agriculture.

  10. [Invasive fungal disease due to Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The number of emerging organisms causing invasive fungal infections has increased in the last decades. These etiological agents include Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales. All of them can cause disseminated, virulent, and difficult-to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients, the most affected, due to their resistance to most available antifungal agents. Current trends in transplantation including the use of new immunosuppressive treatments, the common prescription of antifungal agents for prophylaxis, and new ecological niches could explain the emergence of these fungal pathogens. These pathogens can also affect immunocompetent individuals, especially after natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, tsunamis), combat wounds or near drowning. All the invasive infections caused by Scedosporium, Fusarium, and mucorales are potentially lethal and a favourable outcome is associated with rapid diagnosis by direct microscopic examination of the involved tissue, wide debridement of infected material, early use of antifungal agents including combination therapy, and an improvement in host defenses, especially neutropenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  11. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  12. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C.; Souza Filho, Jose Dias

    2005-01-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11β,13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  13. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  14. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and characterization of nitrilase from Fusarium solani IMI196840

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kubáč, David; Davidová, A.; Kaplan, Ondřej; Šulc, Miroslav; Šveda, Ondřej; Chaloupková, R.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2010), s. 1115-1120 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200708; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC09046; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MPO FT-TA5/043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani * nitrilase * purification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2010

  16. Mild hydrolysis of nitriles by Fusarium solani strain O1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Ondřej; Klozová, Jana; Masák, J.; Čejková, A.; Jirků, V.; Stloukal, R.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 251-256 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020213; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fusarium solani Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  17. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  18. Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Laurids Sørensen; Henriette Giese

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in...

  19. Fungemia Due to Fusarium sacchari in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa; Barreiro, M. Da Gloria C.; Gonçalves, Renato T.

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium sacchari was isolated repeatedly from the blood of an immunosuppressed host. The infection was treated successfully with a small dose of amphotericin B. The strain was resistant to this antifungal in vitro. MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations of six antifungals for the clinical isolate are provided. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving this fungus in a case of fungemia. PMID:10618130

  20. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta

    2015-12-11

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β–carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lack of CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  1. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development

    KAUST Repository

    Dí az-Sá nchez, Violeta; Carmen Limó n, M.; Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β–carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lack of CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  2. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SURYANTO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of plant disease using antagonistic microorganism has been obtaining much attention and implemented for decades. One of the potential microorganisms used in this strategy is chitinolytic bacteria. Utilization of this bacteria ranges from cell life, enzymes, genes, or other metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to suppress the disease was evaluated by soaking red chili seeds in the bacterial isolates solution for 30 minutes prior seedling. Percentage of seedling of treated chili seed at end of study (4-weeks ranging from 46 to 82.14%. Relative reduction of the seedling damping-off was observed in all bacterial treatment ranged from 28.57 to 60.71%. Furthermore, manifestation of bacterial suppression to Fusarium wilt was also exhibited by increasing of seedling height (ranged from 7.33 to 7.87 cm compared to 6.88 cm and dry-weight (ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 mg compared to 2.3 mg. However, no significant effect was observed in leaf number. Then, from all chitinolytic isolates tested, BK08 was the most potential candidate for biological control agent of Fusarium wilt in chili seedling.

  3. Liquid lipases for enzymatic concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via ethanolysis: Catalytic specificity and parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Balle, Thomas; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This work examined catalytic specificity and fatty acid selectivity of five liquid lipases C. antarctica lipase A and B (CAL-A/B), and lipase TL (T. lanuginosus), Eversa Transfrom and NS in ethanolysis of fish oil with the aim to concentrate n-3 PUFAs into monoacylglycerols (MAGs) products. Lipase TL, Eversa Transform & NS entail a much faster reaction and produce higher MAGs yield (>30%); whereas CAL-A obtains the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs/DHA/EPA into MAGs products (88.30%); followed by lipase NS (81.02%). 13 C NMR analysis indicates that CAL-B and lipase TL are sn-1,3 specific; but CAL-A and lipase Eversa Transform are non-regiospecific or weak sn-2 specific; which plausibly explains high enrichment effect of the latter two lipases. All liquid lipases are observed reusable for a certain times (lipase Eversa Transform up to 12 times), demonstrating their competitive advantage over immobilized form for industrial application because of their higher activity and cheaper operation cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioinformatic as a tool to highlight and characterize extragenomic sequences within Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from Italian Zea mays kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Link is a genus including ubiquitous plant-pathogenic fungi that may cause severe crop losses. The Fusarium genus is divided in species complexes; the species are grouped by physiological, biological, ecological and genetic similarity. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of...

  5. QTL analysis of Fusarium root rot resistance in an Andean x Middle American common bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims Fusarium root rot (FRR) is a soil-borne disease that constrains common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. FRR causal pathogens include clade 2 members of the Fusarium solani species complex. Here we characterize common bean reaction to four Fusarium species and identify genomic regions as...

  6. Grain Yield and Fusarium Ear Rot of Maize Hybrids Developed From Lines With Varying Levels of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium spp. is found in all U.S. maize growing regions. Affected grain often contains carcinogenic mycotoxins called fumonisins. We tested the hypothesis that inbred lines with greater resistance to fumonisin contamination would pro...

  7. Fusarium sacchari, a cause of mycotic keratitis among sugarcane farmers - a series of four cases from North India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Yashik; Chander, Jagdish; Kaistha, Neelam; Singla, Nidhi; Sood, Sunandan; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2016-01-01

    The two most common filamentous fungi causing mycotic keratitis are Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. Around 70 Fusarium spp. are involved in causing human infections. In this study, four cases of keratitis in sugarcane farmers in India are being reported, caused by the sugar cane pathogen Fusarium

  8. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  9. Lipases industrial applications: focus on food and agroindustries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrand David

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes developed and produced for industrial applications represent a market estimated at a global value comprised between $5000 million and $5500 million in 2016. The major applications for industrial enzymes include food and beverages (dairy, bakery, fruit juices, beer, wine, detergents, biofuel productions, animal feed, and other applications such as textiles, leather, and paper processing. Altogether, food and feed applications account for 55–60% of the global enzymes market, and market is still growing at an estimated 6–8% annual growth. The lipases category represents less than 10% of the global enzymes market, with a broad range of industrial applications: detergents, oil processing, food processing and pharmaceutical end-users. Existing applications and new development in the food and agroindustries sectors are reviewed.

  10. Methylation status regulates lipoprotein lipase expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cecilia; Moreno, Pilar; Palacios, Florencia; Borge, Mercedes; Morande, Pablo; Landoni, Ana Inés; Gabus, Raul; Dighiero, Guillermo; Giordano, Mirta; Gamberale, Romina; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    Among different prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we previously demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is associated with an unmutated immunoglobulin profile and clinical poor outcome. Despite the usefulness of LPL for CLL prognosis, its functional role and the molecular mechanism regulating its expression are still open questions. Interaction of CLL B-cells with the tissue microenvironment favors disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Since tissue methylation can be altered by environmental factors, we investigated the methylation status of the LPL gene and the possibility that overexpression could be associated with microenvironment signals. Our results show that a demethylated state of the LPL gene is responsible for its anomalous expression in unmutated CLL cases and that this expression is dependent on microenvironment signals. Overall, this work proposes that an epigenetic mechanism, triggered by the microenvironment, regulates LPL expression in CLL disease.

  11. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  12. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Is a Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongqing Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. There are no effective medications currently available to prevent and treat AD and halt disease progression. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL is the primary enzyme metabolizing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain. We show here that inactivation of MAGL robustly suppressed production and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ associated with reduced expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 in a mouse model of AD. MAGL inhibition also prevented neuroinflammation, decreased neurodegeneration, maintained integrity of hippocampal synaptic structure and function, and improved long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial learning, and memory in AD animals. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by MAGL inhibition remain to be determined, our results suggest that MAGL, which regulates endocannabinoid and prostaglandin signaling, contributes to pathogenesis and neuropathology of AD, and thus is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  13. Lipoprotein Lipase Maintains Microglial Innate Immunity in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of a hypercaloric diet upregulates microglial innate immune reactivity along with a higher expression of lipoprotein lipase (Lpl within the reactive microglia in the mouse brain. Here, we show that knockdown of the Lpl gene specifically in microglia resulted in deficient microglial uptake of lipid, mitochondrial fuel utilization shifting to glutamine, and significantly decreased immune reactivity. Mice with knockdown of the Lpl gene in microglia gained more body weight than control mice on a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF diet. In these mice, microglial reactivity was significantly decreased in the mediobasal hypothalamus, accompanied by downregulation of phagocytic capacity and increased mitochondrial dysmorphologies. Furthermore, HCHF-diet-induced POMC neuronal loss was accelerated. These results show that LPL-governed microglial immunometabolism is essential to maintain microglial function upon exposure to an HCHF diet. In a hypercaloric environment, lack of such an adaptive immunometabolic response has detrimental effects on CNS regulation of energy metabolism.

  14. Ultrasonic enhancement of lipase-catalysed transesterification for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Sukhvir Kaur; Gupta, Shweta; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2017-01-01

    The production of biodiesel was carried out from canola oil and methanol catalysed by lipase from Candida rugosa under different ultrasonic experimental conditions using horn (20kHz) and plate (22, 44, 98 and 300kHz) transducers. The effects of experimental conditions such as horn tip diameter, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic frequency and enzyme concentrations on biodiesel yield were investigated. The results showed that the application of ultrasound decreased the reaction time from 22-24h to 1.5h with the use of 3.5cm ultrasonic horn, an applied power of 40W, methanol to oil molar ratio of 5:1 and enzyme concentration of 0.23wt/wt% of oil. Low intensity ultrasound is efficient and a promising tool for the enzyme catalysed biodiesel synthesis as higher intensities tend to inactivate the enzyme and reduce its efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Esterification of Valeric Acid to Alkyl Valerates Promoted by Biosilicified Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Cebrián-García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel, environmentally friendly, and sustainable ultrasound-assisted methodology in the valorization of valeric acid to alkyl valerate using a biosilicified lipase from Candida antarctica is reported. This one-pot room temperature methodology of enzyme biosilicification leads to biosilicified lipases with improved activity and reaction efficiency as compared to free enzymes. Yields in the ultrasound-promoted esterification of valeric acid was ca. 90% in 2 h with 15% m/v of biosilicified lipase (Bio-lipase; 616 U/g biocatalyst enzymatic activity and a molar ratio 1:2 (valeric acid:ethanol, slightly superior to that observed by the free enzyme (75% conversion, 583U/g biocatalyst enzymatic activity. The reuse of enzymes in these conditions was tested and the results show a relatively good reusability of these biosilicified enzymes under the investigated conditions, particularly preserving fairly stable specific activities (616 vs. 430 U/g biocatalyst after four reuses.

  16. Covalent immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa on Eupergit®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezbradica Dejan I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is presented for the stable covalent immobilization of Upase from Candida rugosa on Eupergit® with a high retention of hydrolytic activity. It comprises covalent bonding via lipase carbohydrate moiety previously modified by periodate oxidation, allowing a reduction in the involvement of the enzyme functional groups that are probably important in the catalytic mechanism. The hydrolytic activities of the lipase immobilized on Eupergif1 by two conventional methods (via oxirane group and via glutaralde-hyde and with periodate method were compared. Results of lipase assays suggest that periodate method is superior for lipase immobilization on Eupergit® among methods applied in this study with respect to both, yield of immobilization and hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme.

  17. Novel One-Pot Green Synthesis of Indolizines Biocatalysed by Candida antarctica Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bonte

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are of considerable interest as a promising source of enzymes with unsuspected potentials as catalysts for chemical synthesis. We describe here an efficient method for one-pot indolizine synthesis that has been developed using lipase A and lipase B from Candida antarctica as biocatalysts. As showed by HPLC/MS analysis, the yield in indolizines was higher in the presence of the biocatalyst than in absence of enzyme. Lipase A, from Candida antarctica, showed high catalytic activity and selectivity for the cycloaddition reactions. When the reactions were performed under ultrasound irradiation, the Candida antarctica lipase catalyzed reactions yielded pure indolozines, in good yields and in very short time.

  18. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of primary amines using a recyclable palladium nanoparticle catalyst together with lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Karl P J; Lihammar, Richard; Verho, Oscar; Engström, Karin; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2014-05-02

    A catalyst consisting of palladium nanoparticles supported on amino-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam (Pd-AmP-MCF) was used in chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) to convert primary amines to amides in high yields and excellent ee's. The efficiency of the nanocatalyst at temperatures below 70 °C enables reaction conditions that are more suitable for enzymes. In the present study, this is exemplified by subjecting 1-phenylethylamine (1a) and analogous benzylic amines to DKR reactions using two commercially available lipases, Novozyme-435 (Candida antartica Lipase B) and Amano Lipase PS-C1 (lipase from Burkholderia cepacia) as biocatalysts. The latter enzyme has not previously been used in the DKR of amines because of its low stability at temperatures over 60 °C. The viability of the heterogeneous Pd-AmP-MCF was further demonstrated in a recycling study, which shows that the catalyst can be reused up to five times.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones to polyesters and its mechanistic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, S; Suda, S; Uyama, H; Kobayashi, S

    1999-01-01

    Lipase catalysis induced a ring-opening polymerization of lactones with different ring-sizes. Small-size (four-membered) and medium-size lactones (six- and seven-membered) as well as macrolides (12-, 13-, 16-, and 17-membered) were subjected to lipase-catalyzed polymerization. The polymerization behaviors depended primarily on the lipase origin and the monomer structure. The macrolides showing much lower anionic polymerizability were enzymatically polymerized faster than epsilon-caprolactone. The granular immobilized lipase derived from Candida antartica showed extremely efficient catalysis in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone. Single-step terminal functionalization of the polyester was achieved by initiator and terminator methods. The enzymatic polymerizability of lactones was quantitatively evaluated by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  20. Characterization of lipase in reversed micelles formulated by Cibacron Blue F-3GA modified Span 85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Hao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) modified by Cibacron Blue F-3GA (CB) was prepared and used as an affinity surfactant to formulate a reversed micellar system for Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) solubilization. The system was characterized and evaluated by employing CRL-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil...... of the encapsulated lipase remained unchanged, but the apparent activity was significantly higher than that of the native enzyme in bulk solution. Kinetic studies indicated that the encapsulated lipase in the reversed micelles of CB-formulated Span 85 followed the Michaelis-Menten equation. The Michaelis constant...... was found to decrease with increasing surfactant concentration, suggesting an increase of the enzyme affinity for the substrate. Stability of the lipase in the reversed micelles was negatively correlated to W0. Introduction Reversed micelles are nanometer-scale transparent aggregates of water and surfactant...