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Sample records for furo foxes vulpes

  1. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spp. in experimentally infected ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pigs, guinea pigs and mice.

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    Webster, P; Kapel, C M O

    2005-06-30

    Vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis was evaluated in ferrets (n=21), foxes (n=11), pigs (n=12), guinea pigs (n=16), and mice (n=41). The placental barrier to be crossed by migratory Trichinella larvae varies structurally in different animal species. Ferrets and foxes have an endotheliochorial placenta structure, guinea pigs and mice a haemochorial, and pigs an epitheliochorial placenta. The non-encapsulating Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae have an extended muscle migration prior to entering a muscle cell. To evaluate if T. pseudospiralis was more likely to be transmitted to offspring, an additional group of foxes (n=11) infected with T. pseudospiralis was included. Two different dose levels were used for ferrets, pigs, guinea pigs, and mice. In pigs and guinea pigs, infection was given at different times of the gestation period. Vertical transmission, measured as recovery of muscle larvae in the offspring, was demonstrated in both ferrets groups, in all four guinea pig groups, and in the high dose mouse group, but not in any fox or pig groups.

  2. Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

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    Sréter, T; Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Varga, I

    2003-08-14

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and worm burden of extraintestinal nematodes in 100 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Hungary. The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%. Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila) was the predominant species (66%), followed by Crenosoma vulpis (24%), Eucoleus (Capillaria) böhmi (8%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (5%). Pearsonema (Capillaria) plica was found in 52% of the urinary bladders. In 3% of the foxes, Trichinella britovi was present in muscle samples. The high prevalence of lungworms and P. plica and the fox colonisation in urban areas may enhance the prevalence of these nematode infections in domestic dogs and cats, and the flow of T. britovi from the sylvatic cycle to the domestic cycle, enhancing the risk of infections in humans.

  3. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

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    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  4. Endoparasites of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy.

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    Magi, M; Macchioni, F; Dell'omodarme, M; Prati, M C; Calderini, P; Gabrielli, S; Iori, A; Cancrini, G

    2009-07-01

    A parasitologic study on 129 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Tuscany (central Italy) was carried out in 2004-2006. Five intestinal species were found at necropsy: Dipylidium caninum (prevalence 57.3%), Mesocestoides lineatus (45.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (39.1%), Toxocara canis (9.1%), and Toxascaris leonina (5.4%). Other parasites not associated with the intestine included Crenosoma vulpis (14.7%), Capillaria aerophila (7.0%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (7.0%), and filarial parasites (17.8%). Coprologic tests were less sensitive and less specific in identifying parasites than direct examinations at necropsy. Trichinella larvae were not found in muscles submitted to artificial digestion. By immunologic assay, antigens of Echinococcus spp. were detected in fecal samples of 20 foxes, but results could not be confirmed by fecal examination or molecular tests.

  5. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

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    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  6. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and anatomic assessment of femoral trochlea morphology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs. Sample-24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers. Procedures...

  7. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

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    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  8. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

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    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  9. [Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].

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    Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes.

  10. Screening for infection of Trichinella in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 6141 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for infection with Trichinella. The foxes were killed in Denmark during the hunting season 1995-1996 and 1997-1998; 3133 and 3008, respectively, Foxes included in the investigation came from throughout the country with the exception of the island...... of Bornholm. The right foreleg from each fox was submitted for investigation. The legs were stored at -20 degrees C for 3-10 months prior to examination. Following thawing, muscle tissue (10 g) from each leg was examined by trichinoscopy and by a pepsin-HCl digestion technique. In 1995-1996, three foxes were...... found positive corresponding to a prevalence of 0.001. Each of the infected foxes harboured an extremely low infection, i.e, about one larva per 10 g muscle tissue. It was not possible to obtain sufficient larval material for species identification, All three foxes were shot in the vicinity of a small...

  11. A spatial analysis of a population of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Dutch coastal dune area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Stein, A.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is usually classi?ed as being territorial, dispersing or transient. Past studies have focused almost exclusively on territorial or dispersing foxes, leaving transient foxes out of the analysis. In this paper, we present spatial-statistical methods for the classi?cation of f

  12. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

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    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  13. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

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    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.

  14. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.

  15. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) are definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces and Sarcocystis hjorti from moose (Alces alces).

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    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether foxes might act as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis alces in moose. In 2 experiments, 6 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 6 blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) were fed muscle tissue from moose containing numerous sarcocysts of S. alces, and euthanazed 7-28 days post-infection (p.i.). Intestinal mucosal scrapings and faecal samples were screened microscopically for Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts, which were identified to species by means of species-specific primers and sequence analysis targeting the ssu rRNA gene. All foxes in both experiments became infected with Sarcocystis; the oocysts were fully sporulated by 14 days p.i., containing sporocysts measuring 14-15 x 10 microm. Molecular identification revealed that the oocysts/sporocysts belonged to 2 species, S. alces and Sarcocystis hjorti, although sarcocysts of S. hjorti were only identified in moose subsequent to the infection of foxes. In the first experiment, all 8 foxes also became infected with a Hammondia sp. derived from moose, shedding unsporulated, subspherical oocysts, measuring 10-12 microm in diameter, from 6-7 days p.i. onwards. The study proved that canids (the red fox and arctic fox) are definitive hosts for S. alces and S. hjorti, as had been inferred from the phylogenetic position of these species.

  16. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Adnan Hodžić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis among free-living red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For this purpose, a total of 123 fecal samples fromred foxes, shot during hunting seasons between January 2011 and March 2012 were examined using immunofluorescent microscopy. Overall, observed prevalences of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 3.2 % (4/123 and 7.3% (9/123, respectively. The results show that foxes might play the role of potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites, but further molecular analysis are necessary to elucidate the source of infection, routes of transmission and zoonotic potential of these two pathogens.

  17. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes at an Outdoor Piggery

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    Patricia A. Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets. We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”, it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows, and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most vulnerable, especially when they are born out in the paddock, but older piglets were also lost. A significant ( p = 0.001 effect of individual sow identification on the weaning rate, but no effect of sow age (parity, suggests that individual sow behavior towards predators influences predation risk for litters. We tracked the movement of piglet carcasses by foxes, and confirmed that foxes make use of patches of native vegetation for cover, although there was no effect of paddock, distance to vegetation, or position on the farm on weaning rate. Trials with non-toxic baits reveal high levels

  18. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at an Outdoor Piggery

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    Fleming, Patricia A.; Dundas, Shannon J.; Lau, Yvonne Y. W.; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Predation of piglets by red foxes is a significant risk for outdoor/free-range pork producers, but is often difficult to quantify. Using remote sensing cameras, we recorded substantial evidence of red foxes taking piglets from around farrowing huts, and found that piglets were most likely to be recorded as “missing” over their first week. These data suggest that fox predation contributed to the marked production differences between this outdoor farm and a similar-sized intensive farm under the same management, and warrant greater control of this introduced, invasive predator. Abstract Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or) capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets). We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”), it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows), and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most

  19. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  20. Infectious canine hepatitis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in wildlife rescue centres in the UK.

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    Walker, D; Abbondati, E; Cox, A L; Mitchell, G B B; Pizzi, R; Sharp, C P; Philbey, A W

    2016-04-23

    Outbreaks of infectious canine hepatitis are described in red foxes ( ITALIC! Vulpes vulpes) at two wildlife rescue centres in the UK. Disease occurred in two-month-old to four-month-old juvenile foxes, which were held in small enclosures in groups of three to eight animals. The foxes died or were euthanased after a short clinical course, sometimes including neurological signs and jaundice, with a high case fatality rate. Four red foxes submitted for postmortem examination had enlarged, congested livers, with rounded borders and mild accentuation of the lobular pattern. On histological examination, there was random, multifocal to massive hepatic necrosis, along with multifocal vasculitis in the central nervous system (CNS) and mild, multifocal glomerulonephritis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies, typical of canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) infection, were present in hepatocytes, vascular endothelial cells in the CNS, renal glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells. CAV-1 was detected in tissues from affected foxes by PCR and sequencing. Congregation of juvenile foxes in wildlife rescue centres is likely to be a risk factor for transmission of CAV-1. Preventive measures in wildlife centres should be implemented to prevent the spread of the virus among conspecifics and to other susceptible species.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana).

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    Dubey, J P; Pas, An

    2008-05-06

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) from the United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscle, brain and heart. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 10 of 12 V. cana assayed by the latex agglutination or the modified direct agglutination test.

  2. Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.

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    Borgsteede, F H

    1984-01-01

    To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of Neospora caninum-associated dermatitis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    A 3-month- old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of 1 leg. Histological examination of biopsy of skin lesion revealed granolomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites...

  4. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

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    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  5. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

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    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  6. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals.

  7. High prevalence of Capillaria plica infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork-Mimm, Sabine; Rinder, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The nematode Capillaria plica is an ubiquitous parasite of the urinary tract of Canidae and Felidae. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infections to urinary bladder inflammation, pollacisuria, dysuria, and hematuria. Foxes serve as reservoir hosts and are considered to be a potential source of infection for companion and hunting dogs as well as domestic cats which acquire the infection by ingestion of earthworms which are the intermediate hosts. Despite its importance, epidemiological studies on this parasite are scarce and almost entirely lacking altogether for Central Europe. Therefore, we examined 116 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the infection of C. plica by pathologic examination of the urinary bladders and microscopy of mucosal smears and urine sediments. The parasite was detected in 90 (78%; 95% CI, 68.9-84.8%) of the foxes, originating from all administrative districts of Bavaria (Southern Germany). Since Bavaria is characterized by a high number of forests and wildlife sanctuaries that provide ideal living conditions for foxes, the corresponding risk of infection of companion and hunting dogs by oral ingestion of earthworms as the intermediate hosts can likewise not be excluded. Because of the scarcity of reports on prevalences of C. plica worldwide, we also include a brief review of the available literature.

  8. Prevalence of Trichinella larvae and extra-intestinal nematodes in Norwegian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Gjerde, Bjørn; Vikøren, Turid; Lillehaug, Atle; Handeland, Kjell

    2006-03-31

    A survey of the parasitic fauna of the Norwegian red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population was carried out in 1994/1995 and 2002-2005. All foxes were killed during the licensed hunting season from October to April and, in total, 393 animals from all regions of the country were examined. The present study details the results of extra-intestinal nematode and Trichinella larvae examinations. All individuals were examined for Trichinella, using routine digestion methods. Parasitological examination of the internal organs of some of the foxes also identified a number of different extra-intestinal nematodes. The following prevalences were identified (number positive/number foxes examined): Trichinella larvae 19/393 (4.8%); Capillaria böhmi (C. böhmi) 88/174 (51%); Capillaria aerophila (C. aerophila) 160/181 (88%); Crenosoma vulpis (Cr. vulpis) 105/181 (58%) and Capillaria plica (C. plica) 81/154 (53%). No evidence of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection was found. The 19 different Trichinella isolates were species typed by PCR and sequence analysis; 18 isolates were identified as Trichinella nativa and one as Trichinella britovi. A wide geographical distribution of the parasites was seen. The following exceptions were recorded: C. böhmi, the prevalence of which was significantly lower in northern Norway (6%) compared to other regions (central Norway, eastern Norway and southern and western Norway; 52-57%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of Trichinella infection in eastern Norway (8.1%), when compared with the rest of the country (0.6%). Cr. vulpis prevalence was significantly higher in central Norway (83%) than in other regions (41-56%). There were no significant differences in age and sex distribution of the parasites with the exception of Cr. vulpis where juvenile foxes had a greater likelihood of infection. The data also indicated that adult foxes were more commonly infected with Trichinella larvae (5.8%) than juveniles (3.3%) (no statistical significance).

  9. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls ofaorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examina-tion of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodulescontaining adult worms...... of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation(7–9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa.This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms fromother isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences...... of the current worms compared toother isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca....

  10. Trichinella sp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olvera, Jorge-Ramón; Vives, Laia; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Picart, Lluís; Rossi, Luca; Marco, Ignasi; Bigas, Esther; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-06-01

    European legislation allows the official recognition of Trichinella-free pig holdings, provided Trichinella sp. infection is absent from humans and prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) is below 0.1% in the area, region or country. Tibialis anterior muscle samples from 1,319 red foxes captured in Catalonia (NE Spain) between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed for Trichinella sp. using the digestion method. Four foxes resulted positive (one in 1999, one in 2002 and two in 2006), accounting for a low prevalence (0.3%). However, this prevalence was concentrated in mountain or rural areas with a low sample size, reaching high local prevalences. The two positive samples in 2006 were characterized as Trichinella britovi, and a sylvatic cycle of trichinellosis seems to occur, at least in the rural insufficiently sampled regions of Catalonia. Overall, the results obtained do not currently allow the establishment of Trichinella-free pig holdings in the study area, but further research is needed to better know the prevalence and cycle of Trichinella sp. in Catalonia.

  11. EUCOLEUS BOEHMI INFECTION IN THE NASAL CONCHAE AND PARANASAL SINUSES OF RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) ON PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alfonso; Aburto, Enrique; Jones, Kathleen; Robbins, William; Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-28

    Eucoleus boehmi (Nematoda: Capillariidae) occurs in the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses of wild and domestic canids. We surveyed the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, for E. boehmi infection and characterized the associated histopathology. Nasal capillarid infections were detected based on histologic examination of three coronal sections of the nasal cavity and by centrifugal flotation examination (CFE) of rectal feces. Capillarids were detected in histologic sections in 28 of 36 (78%) foxes; detection occurred most frequently in the caudal section (28 foxes) and least in the rostral section (10 foxes). Adult worm morphology was typical for capillarids (stichosome esophagus, bacillary bands, bipolar plugged eggs); E. boehmi eggs were specifically identified based on the characteristic pitted shell wall surface. Adult worms were detected in histologic sections in all 28 and E. boehmi eggs in 21 of the positive foxes. No eggs of Eucoleus aerophilus were observed in any of the sections. Affected foxes had an eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis with goblet cell hyperplasia. Eggs of E. aerophilus were detected on CFE in 20 of 36 (56%) foxes; 19 of the histologically positive foxes were coinfected with E. aerophilus. Eggs of E. boehmi were detected on CFE in 26 of 36 (72%) foxes and were consistent in size and morphology with those described from wild canids, but they differed from those reported from cases of infection in dogs. Prevalence based on identification of eggs on histologic section or CFE indicated 27 of 36 (75%) red foxes examined were infected with E. boehmi.

  12. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibil...

  13. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Whiteside

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sikó-Barabási, Sándor; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are one of the most widespread wild carnivores in the world, being recognized to harbor and transmit a wide range of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens causing emerging diseases. Wild animals play an essential role in the transmission of diseases and pathogens maintenance in nature. Epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in red foxes are of public health importance, as they may successfully act as a pathogen transmission interface between wildlife, domestic animals and humans. This study included 14 counties from Romania. A total number of 353 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined. Heart tissue samples were collected during necropsy and stored at -20 °C. Genomic DNA extraction was performed and all samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific primers for A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were used. Sequence analysis was performed (Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam) and obtained sequences are available at GenBank™. Out of the 353 samples, 9 (2.55 %; 95 % CI: 1.25-4.96 %) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Positive animals originated from 5 counties. In total, 5 out of 353 heart tissue samples (1.42 %; 95 % CI: 0.52-3.47 %) collected from red foxes were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Red foxes originated from 4 counties. None of the samples were positive for A. platys or E. canis. No co-infection with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. was found. This first report of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in red foxes from Romania suggests a limited role of foxes in the maintenance of the two related pathogens, but may represent a potential risk from a public health perspective.

  15. The effects of sex, age, season and habitat on diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidawa, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2011-07-01

    The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination of Microtus rodents, regardless of sex, age, month and habitat. Voles Microtus spp. were found in 73% of stomachs and constituted 47% of food volume consumed. Other food items were ungulate carrion (27% of volume), other mammals (11%), birds (9%), and plant material (4%). Sex- and age-specific differences in dietary diversity were found. Adult males and juvenile foxes had larger food niche breadths than adult females and their diets highly overlapped. Proportion of Microtus voles increased from autumn to late winter. Significant habitat differences between studied regions were found. There was a tendency among foxes to decrease consumption of voles with increasing percentage of forest cover. Based on our findings, red foxes in northeastern Poland can be recognized as a generalist predators, consuming easily accessible and abundant prey. However, high percentage of voles consumed regardless of age, sex, month, or habitats may indicate red fox specialization in preying on Microtus rodents.

  16. No evidence of Dirofilaria repens infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.

  17. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  18. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) Detects Genetic Structure and Confirms Behavioral QTL in Tame and Aggressive Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Wittgenstein, Helena; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hyma, Katie E; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Vladimirova, Anastasiya V; Fong, Hiu Wa Flora; Acland, Gregory M; Trut, Lyudmila N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.

  19. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS Detects Genetic Structure and Confirms Behavioral QTL in Tame and Aggressive Foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Johnson

    Full Text Available The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  1. Intestinal helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland, with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.

  2. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakas, Petras; Liaugaudaitė, Simona; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Švažas, Saulius

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that Sarcocystis rileyi is one of the earliest described species of the genus Sarcocystis forming macrocysts in ducks, the life cycle of this species is still unknown in Europe. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were observed in faeces of four of 23 (17.4 %) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of four of 20 (20.0 %) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of seven of 13 (53.8 %) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) hunted in Lithuania. A very small number of Sarcocystis sporocysts measuring 11.9 × 8.3 μm (n = 5) was found in faecal samples, whereas considerably more sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts and free sporocysts were detected in the small intestines of red foxes and raccoon dogs. These sporocysts measured 12.9 × 8.1 μm (n = 16) and 12.1 × 8.1 μm (n = 54) in red foxes and raccoon dogs, respectively. Using species-specific PCR and subsequent sequencing, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region partial sequences of oocysts/sporocysts from small intestine mucosal scrapings of six raccoon dogs and three red foxes were identified as belonging to S. rileyi. The present study provides strong evidence showing that the red fox and the raccoon dog can serve as final hosts of S. rileyi in Europe; however, transmission experiments are needed for the ultimate approval.

  3. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles.

  4. Primary structure of fox (Vulpes vulpes) proinsulin based on sequence studies of pancreatic peptides and cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiertek, D; Gromowska, M; Andersen, A S; Hansen, P H; Majewski, T; Izdebski, J

    2000-08-01

    Insulin and C-peptide were extracted and purified from fox (Vulpes vulpes) pancreas using gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and HPLC. Chromatographic data for the insulin, as well as for its oxidized and carboxymethylated chains proved it to be identical to that of polar fox (Alopex lagopus) and dog. The sequence analysis of a peptide which was assumed to be the corresponding C-peptide revealed that it comprises 23 amino acid residues and is identical to the C-peptide fragment isolated from dog pancreas: it differs from polar fox C-peptide by a single substitution (Asp-->Glu). mRNA was isolated from pancreatic tissue and cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription. A polymerase chain reaction was performed using gene-specific primers to obtain a DNA fragment corresponding to part of fox proinsulin. DNA sequencing revealed 100% identity to dog proinsulin at the protein level, although some amino acids were encoded by different codons. The total sequence of proinsulin was deduced from these results.

  5. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites.

  6. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany.

  7. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    Vocal individuality has been found in a number canid species. This natural variation can have applications in several aspects of species conservation, from behavioral studies to estimating population density or abundance. The swift fox (Vulpes velox) is a North American canid listed as endangered...

  8. Hair and Bone as Predictors of Tissular Mercury Concentration in the Western Alaska Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainowski, BH; Duffy, LK; McIntyre, J; Jones, P

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated if total mercury (THg) concentrations of keratin-based and bone-based tissues can predict THg concentrations in skeletal muscle, renal medulla, renal cortex, and liver. The THg concentration in matched tissues of 65 red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, from western Alaska was determined. Hair THg concentration had a significant positive correlation with liver, renal medulla, renal cortex, and muscle. The THg concentration for males and females is moderately predictive of THg concentration in the renal cortex and liver for these foxes based on R2 values (R2 = 0.61 and 0.63, respectively). Bone is weakly predictive of THg concentration in muscle (R2 = 0.36), but not a reliable tissue to predict THg concentration in liver (R2 = 0.28), renal cortex (R2 = 0.33), or renal medulla (R2 = 0.29). These results confirm the potential use of trapped animals, specifically foxes, as useful Arctic sentinel species to inform researchers about patterns in THg levels over time as industrialization of the Arctic continues. PMID:25777958

  9. Space use and territoriality in swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in northeastern Colorado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebsock, Amariah A.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Darden, Safi K.;

    2012-01-01

    space use of swift foxes on shortgrass prairie in northeastern Colorado. Our first objective was to evaluate sizes of seasonal and annual home ranges and core areas of 13 radio-collared swift foxes monitored continuously for 2 years. Our second objective was to compare home-range and core-area overlap......Space use is a fundamental characteristic that informs our knowledge of social relationships and the degree to which individuals are territorial. Until recently, relatively little was known about the spatial ecology and social organization of swift foxes (Vulpes velox (Say, 1823)). We investigated...

  10. Food of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in a mountain area of Northern Apennines / Alimentazione della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montana dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rosa

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From January 1988 to January 1989, 189 fox scats were collected. Each food categories was expressed as frequency of occurrence and as percentage of estimated bulk whenever was eaten. Fruits (Rosaceae were the most important food of foxes, in each season and showed a minimum value in summer. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Rodents and Insectivors rapresent the other main trophic resources of foxes, showing the maximum value of frequency of occurrence in summer and fall. Riassunto Dal gennaio 1988 al gennaio 1989 sono stati raccolti e analizzati 189 escrementi di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in una zona montana dell'Appennino settentrionale. I dati ottenuti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale e come volume stimato delle singole categorie alimentari. La principale componente della dieta annuale e stagionale della specie è costituita dai frutti delle Rosaceae; ad essi seguono gli Ortotteri, i Coleotteri, i Roditori e gli Insettivori.

  11. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) plays a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle of Trichinella in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Pozio, Edoardo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Sala, Claudia; Ilie, Marius S; Imre, Mirela; Morar, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a worldwide distribution. The majority of the biomass of these nematodes circulates among wildlife, but when humans fail in the proper management of domestic animals and wildlife, Trichinella infections are transmitted from the sylvatic to the domestic environment. Such failures occur in Romania, where a high prevalence of Trichinella spiralis has been detected in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that are hunted in Romanian counties, in which the prevalences of Trichinella spp. infection in backyard and free-ranging pigs range from 0.17 to 2.5%, to determine the role played by this carnivore species in the transmission of the parasite to domestic cycle. A total of 121 animals from 45 hunting grounds of three counties were screened to detect Trichinella spp. larvae by the digestion method. Infections were detected in 26 (21.5%) foxes from 18 (40%) hunting grounds of the three counties (13/67 in Arad, 1/3 in Hunedoara, and 12/51 in Timiş). The mean larval density was 10.5 larvae per gram. Of the 25 successfully tested samples, the Trichinella larvae from 24 isolates were identified as T. britovi (96%), and the larvae from one isolate were identified as T. spiralis (4%). No mixed infections were recorded. The present results revealed that the red fox should be considered an important T. britovi reservoir in the sylvatic cycle; in contrast, the detection of only a single T. spiralis-positive isolate suggests that red foxes play a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle in the investigated area of western Romania.

  12. Spatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, Muriel; Giessen, Joke van der; Brochier, Bernard; Losson, Bernard; Jordaens, Kurt; Verhagen, Ron; Lezenne Coulander, Cor de; Teunis, Peter F M

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium a

  13. First report of Anaplasma platys infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum in foxes from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Gilad, Matan; Cortes, Helder C E; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Simões, Margarida; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2015-03-23

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis and the protozoan Leishmania infantum are vector-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne diseases, some of which are zoonotic. The present survey investigated the prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Leishmania in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal by molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the epidemiological role of these canids as reservoirs of infection. Blood and/or bone marrow samples were collected from 78 red foxes obtained in eight districts of northern, central and southern Portugal. Real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) amplified a 123 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and a 265 bp fragment of the L. infantum internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) region of the rRNA operon evaluated by PCR-high resolution melt analysis (PCR-HRM), with sequencing of the DNA products. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out to compare these to other sequences from Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. deposited in GenBank. A. platys was detected in 10 (14.5%) and E. canis in two (2.9%) out of 69 foxes; and L. infantum was detected in one (1.3%) of the 78 foxes. The prevalence of A. platys was significantly different from the prevalence of E. canis (p=0.016) and from that of L. infantum (p=0.002). No co-infections were found in any one of the 78 foxes. No statistically significant differences were found between the type of sample (blood and bone marrow), geographic regions (north/centre and south), age (<2 years and ≥2 years) and gender for any one of the agents. This is the first known report of A. platys in red foxes worldwide, as well as the first molecular evidence of E. canis in foxes from Portugal. The moderate prevalence of A. platys suggests that red foxes may play a role in the epidemiology of infection with this bacterium and serve as a reservoir for domestic dogs.

  14. Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E R; Tomlinson, A; Hunter, S; Nichols, T; Roberts, E; Fox, M T; Taylor, M A

    2008-06-14

    The nematode parasite Angiostrongylus vasorum is a source of increasing concern in several parts of the world, where it causes significant disease in dogs. Wild canids, especially foxes, are likely to have a role in the epidemiology of canine infection, and the parasite could also affect fox health and population dynamics. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of 546 foxes culled mostly by gamekeepers in Great Britain in 2005-2006 were examined by dissection and a modified flushing technique. Forty foxes were found to be infected, giving an overall prevalence in the UK fox population of 7.3% (5.3-9.9). Prevalence varied widely between regions, from 0% (0-3) in Scotland and northern England to 23% (16-32) in south-east England. This closely matches the perceived incidence of disease in dogs, which is commonly diagnosed in the south-east but rarely in the north. In the Midlands, where disease has recently appeared in dogs, prevalence in foxes was 4.8% (2-11). Close geographical overlap of parasite distribution in foxes and dogs does not necessarily indicate an important wildlife reservoir of infection, but does suggest that A. vasorum might be spreading northwards. The hearts of infected foxes had thicker right ventricles than those of uninfected foxes, suggesting that the parasite could affect fox health and fitness. Burdens ranged from 1 to 59 adult nematodes. Sex, age and body condition were not significantly associated with infection. Eucoleus aerophilus and Crenosoma vulpis, nematode parasites of the respiratory system, were found in 213 and 11 foxes respectively, with slightly higher prevalence of E. aerophilus in the south and east. No specimens of the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis were found, giving an upper 95% confidence interval for prevalence of 0.84%.

  15. Foraging ecology and spatial behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a wet grassland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Katrine; Sunde, Peter; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    2014-01-01

    %), sheep (mainly as carrion, 14 % / 41 %) and lagomorphs (4 % / 7 %). Charadriiformes (including waders) comprised 3–12 % of prey remains throughout the year. Telemetry data and spotlight counts indicated that foxes did not select areas with high densities of breeding waders, suggesting that foxes did...

  16. Predictors of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes Helminth Parasite Diversity in the Provinces of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the viscera of 321 red foxes collected over the last 30 years in 34 of the 47 provinces of peninsular Spain, and identified their helminth parasites. We measured parasite diversity in each sampled province using four diversity indices: Species richness, Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's species diversity index, and inverse Simpson's index. In order to find geographical, environmental, and/or human-related predictors of fox parasite diversity, we recorded 45 variables related to topography, climate, lithology, habitat heterogeneity, land use, spatial situation, human activity, sampling effort, and fox presence probability (obtained after environmental modelling of fox distribution. We then performed a stepwise linear regression of each diversity index on these variables, to find a minimal subset of statistically significant variables that account for the variation in each diversity index. We found that most parasite diversity indices increase with the mean distance to urban centres, or in other words, foxes in more rural provinces have a more diverse helminth fauna. Sampling effort and fox presence probability (probably related to fox density also appeared as conditioning variables for some indices, as well as soil permeability (related with water availability. We then extrapolated the models to predict these fox parasite diversity indices in non-sampled provinces and have a view of their geographical trends.

  17. Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis in North American farmed silver fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Hudson, Robert C; Marshall, H Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis is a progressive growth of gingival tissues in foxes resulting in dental encapsulation. It is an autosomal recessive condition displaying a gender-biased penetrance, with an association with superior fur quality. This disease has been primarily described in European farmed foxes. Here we document its emergence in Canada.

  18. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  19. A helminthological survey of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A L; Ockens, N W; Kapel, C M; Monrad, J

    1996-09-01

    Sixty-eight red foxes were collected from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen and examined for helminth infections. Standard faecal flotations for intestinal parasites gave the following results: Strongyle eggs (75.0%), Capillaria eggs (36.8%), Toxocara eggs (23.5%), Taenia eggs (1.5%), and coccidia oocysts (2.9%). Gastrointestinal helminths were collected from 21 of the 68 foxes with the following specimens found: Uncinaria stenocephala (85.7%), Toxocara canis (81.0%), Taenia spp. (38.1%), Mesocestoides lineatus (23.8%) and Polymorphus spp. (9.5%). Faeces of 39 foxes were examined by the Baermann method for larvae of cardiopulmonary worms with 20 foxes (51.3%) being infected. Fourteen foxes (35.9%) were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, 11 (28.2%) were infected with Crenosoma vulpis, and 5 foxes (12.8%) were infected with both species. Muscle digestion of diaphragms from the 68 foxes indicated that none harboured larvae of Trichinella spiralis.

  20. Comparative behavioral effects between synthetic 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) and the odor of natural fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Gaelle; Hacquemand, Romain; Pourie, Gregory; Lucarz, Annie; Jacquot, Laurence; Brand, Gerard

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT)--a component of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces--is frequently used to induce unconditioned fear in rodents. Surprisingly, direct comparison between TMT and natural fox feces odor is almost nonexistent. In this study, Experiment 1 compared the avoidance in relation to TMT concentration, natural fox feces, and gender of fox and mice. Results show that the avoidance is (a) higher with either pure or 50% TMT as compared to natural fox feces, whereas the difference is slight with 10% TMT, and (b) significantly higher for the female mouse group compared to the male mouse group with TMT as well as natural fox feces. In addition, no clear difference in effect was observed between male and female fox feces. Experiment 2 compared behavioral parameters recorded as an index of fear and anxiety, general activity, and avoidance in elevated plus-maze and open-field chamber between 10% TMT and natural fox feces in relation to the estrus cycle of the mice. Results show no cycle period effect--except for the avoidance parameter "distance to odorant"--and no different effects between 10% TMT and natural fox feces except for freezing.

  1. First report of Eucoleus boehmi in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark, based on coprological examiantion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes can be infected with diverse range of parasite species that can be transmitted to humans and pet animals, and the differential diagnosis is essential for veterinary and zoonotic risk assessment. In the present study, faecal flotation and microscopy of parasite eggs was done on 31 foxes...... originating from two distant localities in Denmark, the city of Copenhagen in the north east part of the island Zealand and from the southern part of the peninsular Jutland. In total, eggs of Eucoleus boehmi were recovered from a surprisingly high number of foxes (n=22 samples; 71%). The findings represent...... the first observations of E. boehmi in Denmark, which is likely an overlooked infection of the upper respiratory tract of red foxes, which can be also found in other canids. Several morphological features of the eggs of E. boehmi can be used to distinguish it from other the closely related trichuroid eggs...

  2. First report of Eucoleus boehmi in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark, based on coprological examiantion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes can be infected with diverse range of parasite species that can be transmitted to humans and pet animals, and the differential diagnosis is essential for veterinary and zoonotic risk assessment. In the present study, faecal flotation and microscopy of parasite eggs was done on 31 foxes...... the first observations of E. boehmi in Denmark, which is likely an overlooked infection of the upper respiratory tract of red foxes, which can be also found in other canids. Several morphological features of the eggs of E. boehmi can be used to distinguish it from other the closely related trichuroid eggs...... originating from two distant localities in Denmark, the city of Copenhagen in the north east part of the island Zealand and from the southern part of the peninsular Jutland. In total, eggs of Eucoleus boehmi were recovered from a surprisingly high number of foxes (n=22 samples; 71%). The findings represent...

  3. Geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; De Waal, T; Zintl, A; McGrath, G; Byrne, W; O'Neill, E J

    2016-04-01

    The reported incidence of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, that infects dogs and other canids, is increasing worldwide outside recognized endemic foci. This apparent expansion of the parasite's range is causing concern to veterinary clinicians as the disease caused in dogs can be life threatening and its treatment is not straightforward. The red fox is thought to be a reservoir host for dogs. To investigate the spatial distribution of infection in foxes in Ireland, the hearts and lungs of 542 foxes from all over Ireland were examined. The incidence of infection was found to be 39·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35·7-44·1] with positive samples occurring in each of the country's 26 counties. This report confirms that the parasite is endemic in Ireland and the overall prevalence is the second highest in Europe. This is the first survey of A. vasorum infection in Irish foxes and highlights the potential exposure of the Irish dog population to high risk of cross-infection. Additionally, Crenosoma vulpis was found in seven of the foxes, a parasite not previously reported in the Irish fox.

  4. Habitat selection by female swift foxes (Vulpes velox) during the pup-rearing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Datta, Shubham; Schroeder, Greg M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Honness, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    The swift fox (Vulpes velox) was historically distributed in western South Dakota including the region surrounding Badlands National Park (BNP). The species declined during the mid-1800s, largely due to habitat loss and poisoning targeted at wolves (Canis lupis) and coyotes (C. latrans). Only a small population of swift foxes near Ardmore, South Dakota persisted. In 2003, an introduction program was initiated at BNP with swift foxes translocated from Colorado and Wyoming. We report on habitat use by female swift foxes during the pup-rearing season (May–July) in 2009. Analyses of location data from 13 radiomarked female foxes indicated disproportional use (P Ŷ = 1.01), sparse vegetation (Ŷ = 1.43) and prairie dog towns (Ŷ = 1.18) in proportion to their availability, whereas they were less likely to use woodland (Ŷ = 0.00), shrubland (Ŷ = 0.14), pasture/agricultural-land (Ŷ = 0.25) and development (Ŷ = 0.16) relative to availability. Swift foxes typically are located in habitats that provide greater visibility, such as shortgrass prairie and areas with sparse vegetation; which allow detection of approaching coyotes (e.g., primary predator of swift foxes).

  5. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  6. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A; Hogan, S; Maguire, D; Fitzpatrick, C; Vaughan, L; Wall, D; Hayden, T J; Mulcahy, G

    Intestinal washes, faecal flotations and serological examinations for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were used to assess the prevalence of parasites in carcases of foxes killed on roads or shot in the Dublin area and surrounding counties. The ascarids Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis were prevalent, as was the trematode Alaria alata. Taenia species, eggs of Capillaria species and sporocysts of Sarcocystis species were also found. Only one fox out of 70 examined was seropositive for N. caninum, whereas 24 of 51 were seropositive for T. gondii.

  7. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  8. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Cabaj, Władysław

    2013-06-01

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens. Natural transmission between hosts can only occur through the ingestion of infected meat. To date, two Trichinella species are known to be etiological agents of disease among domestic animals and wildlife in Poland: T. spiralis and T. britovi. In the last decades, since the administration of an oral vaccination against rabies, the red fox population in Poland has increased exponentially. The study area covers the Nowy Targ region: a mountainous area (585-1138 m above the sea) in southern Poland. Of 24 red foxes examined in the study, four were infected with Trichinella isolates: three were identified as T. britovi and one as T. pseudospiralis. The muscle of red foxes infected with T. britovi harboured 2.75, 3.11, 4.4 LPG and with T. pseudospiralis 0.36 LPG. Trichinella larvae were identified at species level by genomic and mitochondrial multiplex PCR, the products of which were sequenced for comparison with other sequences available in GenBank. The sequences obtained from the Polish T. pseudospiralis isolate, deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JQ809660.1 and JQ809661.1, matched sequences already published in GenBank. Sequence comparison showed a 100% match with the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of T. pseudospiralis isolate ISS 013, and a 96-95% match with those of T. pseudospiralis isolates ISS 141 and ISS 470. This is the first report of the identification of T. pseudospiralis larvae from red fox in Poland.

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  10. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny...... in the swift fox Vulpes velox, using recordings and observations of captive foxes from the time of natal den emergence (age 3-4 weeks) to the time of natal dispersal in the wild (age 4-5 months). We first classified adult vocalizations used during the mating and pup rearing seasons into vocal types (19 types....... Two of the 3 adult vocalizations not observed in juveniles appear to be associated with mating and possibly territoriality and the third is a high intensity alarm vocalization. Apart from 3 vocal types (1 alarm and 2 non-agonistic), once vocalizations had appeared in the juvenile repertoire, they did...

  11. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  12. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical...

  13. Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even

    2008-04-01

    The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain.

  14. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

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    Paolo Debernardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  15. Badger Meles meles and Fox Vulpes vulpes food in agricultural land in the western Po Plain (Italy

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    Luca Canova

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fox and badger diets were studied by means of scat analysis in agricultural land in northern Italy. Earthworms and corn were the staple food for the badger, while foxes fed mainly on animal food (birds and mammals. Dietary overlap between the two species was low. Fox diets were substantially similar to those in north-central Europe and other areas of Italy. Badger diets differed from those in mediterranean areas of Italy and were similar to diets of north European populations. Riassunto Alimentazione di Tasso Meles meles e Volpe Vulpes vulpes in aree agricole della Pianura Padana occidentale - La dieta di tasso e volpe in un'area agricola della Pianura Padana occidentale è stata studiata mediante analisi delle feci. Lombrichi e mais rappresentano la principale fonte alimentare per il tasso, mentre la dieta della volpe è basata prevalentemente su uccelli e mammiferi. La sovrapposizione alimentare fra le due specie è ridotta. La dieta della volpe è simile a quella delle popolazioni dell'Europa centrale e settentrionale; la dieta del tasso differisce nettamente da quella delle popolazioni italiane che vivono in ambiente mediterraneo.

  16. Influence of parasitism on trace element contents in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and its parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Bejcek, Vladimír; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Sulc, Miloslav; Száková, Jirina; Langrová, Iva

    2010-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in 56 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda) was studied. The levels of heavy metals were determined in the livers and kidneys of the animals depending on parasitism in the following ranges: Pb, 0.029-3.556; Cd, 0.055-9.967; Cr, 0.001-0.304; Cu, 4.15-41.15; Mn, 1.81-19.94; Ni: 0.037-0.831; Zn, 52.0-212.9 microg/g dry weight (dw). Cd in parasites (0.038-3.678 microg/g dw) were comparable with those in the livers of the host and lower than in the kidneys (0.095-6.032 microg/g dw). Contents of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in cestodes were predominantly higher than those in the kidney and liver of the host. Median lead levels in Mesocestoides spp. (45.6 microg/g dw) were 52-fold higher than in the kidney and liver of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) infected by both parasites and median Pb values in T. leonina (8.98 microg/g dw) were 8-fold higher than in the tissues of the parasitized red fox. Bioaccumulation factors of copper, zinc, nickel, and manganese are lower than those of lead and mostly range from 1.9 to 24 for Mesocestoides spp. and from 1.5 to 6 for nematode T. leonina depending on the tissue of host and element. A significant decrease in the content of Pb was found in the kidney of animals infected by T. leonina (0.260 microg/g dw) as well as those infected by Mesocestoides spp. (0.457 microg/g dw) in comparison with the lead content (0.878 microg/g dw) in the kidneys of the nonparasitized red fox. Regardless of a bioaccumulation of copper and manganese in the parasites, a significant increase of the concentrations of Mn and Cu was observed in the host's livers infected predominantly by Mesocestoides spp.

  17. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Two Populations of Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, P.N.S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitological examination of 275 faecal samples from Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) collected at Zackenberg Valley and Karupelv Valley in north-east Greenland from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using sieving and microscopy. Overall, 125 (45.5%) samples contained parasite eggs of Taenia crassiceps......, Taenia serialis, Toxascaris leonina, Eucoleus boehmi, Physalopteridae and Ancylostomatidae, and Strongyloides-like larvae. As long-term ecological studies are conducted at both sampling locations, the present findings constitute a baseline data set for further parasitological monitoring....

  18. The diet of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

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    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus multiplex, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus Martes (190 scats of M. martes and M. foina were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare Clethrionomys glareolus e Microtus multiplex, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere Martes, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (M. martes e Faina (M. foina, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  19. Methods of censusing Red fox (Vulpes vulpes populations / Metodi di censimento della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Beltrán

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimating absolute or relative numbers in red fox populations is not an easy task. Although a range of methods has been described, neither an optimal nor a universally accepted technique has been found. Moreover, none has been tested on populations of known size. We reviewed the efficiency of fourteen indices of fox abundance classified into two groups: (a methods where individuals are captured and marked, which include ear tagging or similar conspicuous markings, toe clipping, radioactive tagging of faeces, radio-tracking, and statistics from hunting and trapping; (b methods not requiring capture, which include both direct methods (nocturnal counts, unsystematic observations, and drive censuses, and indirect methods (den counts, transects for track, scat counts, and scent stations. As a rule, statistics are rarely applicable to populations estimates. Methods involving capture are expensive but provide more accurate estimates than the second group of indices, which are not suitable for paired comparisons from one year to another. Management and wildlife specialists should have in mind such restrictions when considering their goals and the required level of accuracy. Finally, we recommend the simultaneous utilization and comparison of several methods (one from each group, as proposed in a double sampling strategy for optimum evaluations. Riassunto La valutazione della consistenza di una popolazione di Volpe, mediante censimenti assoluti o relativi, è di difficile soluzione. Tra i diversi metodi di conteggio impiegati, nessuno si è rivelato ottimale e universale. Tuttavia nessuno è stato utilizzato per popolazioni di consistenza nota. Qui esaminiamo la validità di 14 metodi impiegati per il calcolo di indici di abbondanza, ripartendoli in due gruppi: (a metodi che implicano la cattura e il marcamento degli animali mediante marche auricolari o contrassegni similari, amputazione delle falangi

  20. Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated (OH) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in liver from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) sampled from Svalbard 1997-2011 (n = 100). The most important OH-PBDE in the arctic foxes was 6-OH-BDE47 detected in 24% of the samples. Relationships between 6-OH-BDE47, δ(13)C and BDE47 suggest that 6-OH-BDE47 residues in arctic foxes are related to marine dietary input, while the relative importance of the metabolic/natural origin of this compound remains unclear. 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 were the main OH-PCBs among the analyzed compounds. The OH-PCB pattern in the present arctic foxes indicates that arctic foxes have a capacity to biotransform a wide range of PCBs of different structures. Formation and retention of OH-PCBs was tightly related to PCB exposure. Furthermore, ΣOH-PCB concentrations were four times higher in the leanest compared to the fattest foxes. Concentrations of 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 among the highest contaminated arctic foxes were similar to the previously reported concentrations for polar bears. Given the high endocrine disruptive potential of OH-PCBs, we suggest that endocrine system may be affected by the relatively high OH-PCB residues in the Svalbard arctic fox population.

  1. The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian M O;

    2017-01-01

    , as reflected in high establishment rates. Although severe clinical disease was never observed in the foxes, A. vasorum infections in red foxes appear to be chronic and moreover, to resemble infections in dogs. The results underline the red fox as a suitable model as well as natural reservoir for the parasite.......Background: Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment...... of adult A. vasorum in single experimental infections. Methods: Fourteen juvenile and fourteen adult red foxes, free of metastrongyloid infections, were given a low (50) or high (200) dose of third-stage larvae (L3) of A. vasorum. Two groups of three foxes of each age group served as uninfected controls...

  2. The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian M. O.; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Jensen, Asger L.; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment of adult A. vasorum in single experimental infections. Methods Fourteen juvenile and fourteen adult red foxes, free of metastrongyloid infections, were given a low (50) or high (200) dose of third-stage l...

  3. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jessica A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite phylogeographical patterns being well characterised in a large number of species, and generalised patterns emerging, the carnivores do not all appear to show consistent trends. While some species tend to fit with standard theoretical phylogeographic expectations (e.g. bears, others show little obvious modern phylogeographic structure (e.g. wolves. In this study we briefly review these studies, and present a new phylogeographical study of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes throughout Europe, using a combination of ancient DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens, and modern sequences collated from GenBank. We used cytochrome b (250 bp and the mitochondrial control region (268 bp to elucidate both current and historical phylogeographical patterning. Results We found evidence for slight isolation by distance in modern populations, as well as differentiation associated with time, both of which can likely be attributed to random genetic drift. Despite high sequence diversity (11.2% cytochrome b, 16.4% control region, no evidence for spatial structure (from Bayesian trees is found either in modern samples or ancient samples for either gene, and Bayesian skyline plots suggested little change in the effective population size over the past 40,000 years. Conclusions It is probable that the high dispersal ability and adaptability of the red fox has contributed to the lack of observable differentiation, which appears to have remained consistent over tens of thousands of years. Generalised patterns of how animals are thought to have responded to historical climatic change are not necessarily valid for all species, and so understanding the differences between species will be critical for predicting how species will be affected by future climatic change.

  4. The quality of the diet of foxes (Vulpes vulpes in a Mediterranean coastal area (Central Italy / Qualità della dieta della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in un'area costiera mediterranea

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    Claudio Cavani

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of foxes in the Natural Park of Maremma includes essentially Juniperus fruits and Arthropods, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera. These components were analysed in order to value their chemical nutritive. The following parameters were determined: proximate analysis (crude protein Nx6.25; ether extract; crude fibre; ash, aminoacids, and mineral contents. Juniperus berries are characterized by a low crude protein and ash content (1.83 and 2.75% on dry matter while the level of fibrous constituents, expressed in terms of crude fibre, occurs in relatively high quantities (30.8% on dry matter. By contrast, Orthoptera and Coleoptera show high crude protein content (67.3 and 57.8% on dry matter of average nutritive value (chemical score 0.52 and 0.51. The ash level is 68.8 and 76.6 g/kg on dry matter, with high phosphorus, iron and zinc content. Juniperus berries are a feed component of moderate energy level, while Arthropods seem to be an important mineral and protein source. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nel Parco Naturale della Maremma è costituita essenzialmente da frutti di Ginepro e da Artropodi, soprattutto Coleotteri ed Ortotteri. Allo scopo di fornire una valutazione delle caratteristiche chimico-nutritive di questi componenti alimentari, sono stati analizzati diversi campioni della dieta. Sono stati determinati i parametri riguardanti le analisi standard per gli alimenti di uso zootecnico, il contenuto in aminoacidi e in elementi minerali. I frutti di Ginepro sono caratterizzati da uno scarso tenore in proteine grezze e in ceneri (1,83 e 2,75% della sostanza secca, mentre il contenuto in costituenti fibrosi, espressi in termini di fibra grezza, risulta relativamente elevato (30,8% della sostanza secca. Gli Ortotteri ed i Coleotteri mostrano invece un considerevole contenuto in proteine grezze (67,3 e 57,8% della sostanza secca, di valore

  5. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  6. Distribution, den characteristics and diet of the Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Mammalia: Canidae in Karnataka, India: preliminary observations

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    H.N. Kumara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis inhabits relatively dry areas with scrub thorn forests, deciduous forests, short grasslands and marginal croplands. Since it is a widely distributed species, especially in the dry tracts, very little attention has been paid to it by researchers and wildlife managers. We conducted an extensive survey in the south Indian state of Karnataka to determine the conservation status of the Indian Fox. We also carried out a more detailed observation in a small region called “Jayamangali Blackbuck Block” (JBB and surrounding private lands to study the den site characteristics of the species. Except for a few districts in the Western Ghats and the west coastal region, the fox was present throughout Karnataka. Relatively higher encounter rates were observed in regions with extensive grasslands. We located 52 dens during the study in JBB which provide a minimum of 12dens/km2 with 1.33/km2 active dens. Circumference of den sites were smaller in JBB than in the adjoining private lands indicating that foxes frequently shifted dens in this area. The number of openings and active openings increased as the circumference of the den site increased. Fecal analysis revealed remains of certain species of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods as the major food items of the fox.

  7. Distribution of Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in the lung of free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Alicia; López, Alfonso; Conboy, Gary; Ireland, William; Sims, David

    2005-09-01

    Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are nematode parasites that can cause verminous pneumonia in wild carnivores. There is a paucity of information regarding the distribution of parasites in the lungs and the relationship between histopathological and parasitological diagnoses in naturally infected foxes. The objectives of this study were: first, to study the lobar and airway distribution of C. vulpis and E. aerophilus in wild red foxes and second, to investigate the relationship between fecal and histopathological diagnoses. Samples from 6 sites of the lung and fecal contents were obtained from 51 wild foxes in Prince Edward Island. By fecal examination, 78.4% of wild foxes tested positive for C. vulpis and 68.6% for E. aerophilus. In contrast, 66.6% and 49% of foxes had histopathological evidence of C. vulpis and E. aerophilus in the lungs, respectively. Anatomically, C. vulpis was observed in the small bronchi and bronchioles of all pulmonary lobes whereas E. aerophilus was restricted to the large bronchi and the caudal lobes. Affected airways exhibited severe epithelial glandular hyperplasia and bronchiolar mucous metaplasia. It was concluded that C. vulpis is widely distributed in airways of all pulmonary lobes, whereas E. aerophilus is mainly restricted to the bronchi of caudal lobes. Also, this study showed that histological examination of lung underestimates the infection with E. aerophilus.

  8. [Molecular and morphological comparison of hookworms from genus Uncinaria invading red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog (Canis familiaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Paweł; Radowańska, Agnieszka; Jaros, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two species of hookworms from genus Uncinaria have been found so far in Poland. Uncinaria stenocephala infects mainly dog, wolf and red fox, whereas Uncinaria criniformis is a parasite of mustelids (but it was also reported from red fox). 19 male and 29 female hookworms from red foxes have been compared with 10 male and 12 female worms from dogs. Hookworms from dogs were generally smaller than these from foxes, but no other morphological differences could be found. These hookworms were qualified to species Uncinaria stenocephala on the ground of morphology of male. Genomic DNA samples have been isolated from these hookworms and segments of rDNA including part of small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene; internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1); 5.8 S ribosomal RNA; internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and part of large subunit of ribosomal RNA have been amplified and sequenced. Sequences from Uncinaria obtained both from foxes and dogs have shown very high similarity to the sequence of Uncinaria stenocephala, so all examined hookworms have been classified as belonging to this species.

  9. Neospora caninum-like oocysts observed in feces of free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Jenkins, Mark C; O'Handley, Ryan M; Barkema, Herman W

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feces of free-ranging foxes and coyotes for the presence of Neospora caninum oocysts. Feces were collected from 271 foxes and 185 coyotes in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, processed by sucrose flotation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of coccidian oocysts. In 2 fox and 2 coyote samples, oocysts morphologically and morphometrically similar to oocysts of N. caninum were observed. DNA was extracted from these samples and subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers to the N. caninum-specific Nc5 genomic sequence. Through DNA sequencing, alignment of the sequences of at least 3 clones from each isolate to sequences deposited in GenBank revealed 95-99% similarity to the Nc5 sequence of N. caninum. PCR using primers specific for Hammondia heydorni failed to yield an amplification product from these DNA samples.

  10. Seasonal changes of trophic niche overlap in the stone marten (Martes foina and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy

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    Anna Brangi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1989 and 1991, 284 scats of stone marten (Martes foina and 642 scats of red fox (Vulpes vulpes were collected in a 280 km² mountainous area in the northern Apennines. The scats were analyzed to identify differences between the two species' diets. The prey were grouped in 6 food categories: Fruits, Other Vegetables, Small Mammals, Other Vertebrates, Invertebrates and Garbage. Annual trophic niche was wider in the Red fox (0.62 than in the stone marten (0.53. We also found a large overlap between the two species with some small differences: Other Vertebrates, Small Mammals and Other Vegetables were more used by the Red fox, while Fruits were more used by the stone marten. Riassunto Variazioni stagionali della sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica della faina (Martes foina e della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montana degli Appennini settentrionali - Tra il 1989 e il 1991 sono state raccolte 284 feci di faina (Martes foina e 642 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montuosa di 280 km² situata nell'Appennino settentrionale. Le feci sono state analizzate per evidenziare le eventuali differenze nella dieta delle due specie. Le singole prede sono state raggruppate in 6 categorie alimentari: Frutta, Altri Vegetali, Micromammiferi, Altri Vertebrati, Invertebrati, Rifiuti. L'ampiezza annuale della dieta è risultata maggiore nella Volpe (0,62 che non nella Faina (0,53. È stata trovata inoltre una larga sovrapposizione tra le due specie con alcune differenze nell'uso degli Altri Vertebrati, dei Micromammiferi e degli Altri Vegetali che è maggiore nella Volpe e della Frutta, maggiore nella Faina.

  11. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  12. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynska, Marta; Barszcz, Karolina; Janczyk, Pawel; Wasowicz, Michal; Czubaj, Norbert

    2013-04-04

    Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage.

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts from the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) from Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Thompson, Peter C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Mowery, Joseph; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Antunes Murata, Fernando H; Sinnett, David R; Van Hemert, Caroline; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-07-01

    The muscles of herbivores commonly harbor sarcocysts of parasites belonging to species in the genus Sarcocystis, but such muscle parasites are rare in carnivores. Here, we report Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts in muscles of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Alaska, USA, for the first time. The tongues of 56 foxes were examined for Sarcocystis infection using several methods. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were detected in pepsin digests of 13 (23.2%), and sarcocysts were found in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) of 9 (16.0%). By light microscopy, sarcocysts were up to 4 mm long and up to 245 μm wide. In HE-stained sections, the sarcocyst wall appeared smooth and up to 1.5 μm thick without visible protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had a wavy parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (pvm) folded as pleomorphic villar protrusions (vp), sometimes with anastomoses of villar tips. The vp and the ground substance (gs) layer were smooth and without microtubules. The gs was up to 2.0 μm thick. The total width of the wall including vp and the gs was up to 4.0 μm. The vp were up to 3.0 μm long and most closely resembled "type 9c." All sarcocysts were mature and contained numerous 8.1 × 2.1 μm sized bradyzoites. Molecular characterization (at 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and cox1) showed the highest affinity for S. arctica of the Arctic fox (V. lagopus) from Norway. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that sarcocysts are common in tongues of Alaskan Arctic foxes suggesting that these carnivores are serving as intermediate hosts, and we also provide ultrastructure of S. arctica from the Arctic fox for the first time.

  14. Reproduction of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) on Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K A; Berry, W H; Standley, W G; O`Farrell, T P

    1992-09-01

    The reproduction of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) was investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 38 vixens radiocollared prior to parturition, 12 (32%) were successful in raising pups from conception to the point where pups were observed above ground. No yearling vixens were known tb be reproductively active. The mean litter size during 1989 - 1991 was 3.0 (n = 21, SE = 0.28) and ranged from one to six pups. Both the proportion of vixens successfully raising pups and the mean litter size observed at Camp Roberts during this study were lower than those reported at other locations. Sex ratios of kit fox pups were male biased two of the three years, but did not differ statistically from 1:1 throughout the study. Whelping was estimated to occur between February 15 and March 5. Results of this study support previous reports that kit foxes are primarily monogamous, although one case of polygamy may have occurred. Both the proportion of dispersing radiocollared juveniles (26%) and the mean dispersal distance (5.9 km) of juveniles at Camp Roberts appeared low compared to other locations.

  15. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  16. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  17. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    context from 20 captive individuals (3 females and 17 males) housed in large, single-pair enclosures at a swift fox breeding facility. Using a discriminant function analysis with 7 temporal and spectral variables measured on barking sequences, we were able to correctly classify 99% of sequences...

  18. Ecology and ranging behaviour of Red foxes in the city of Oxford / Ecologia e comportamento della volpe (Vulpes vulpes nella città di Oxford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Patrick Doncaster

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes living in the city of Oxford, like those in its neighbouring suburbs, are organized into social groups which each defend a territory. While territories in the suburbs are spatially stable, those in the city continually drift in location. They move in synchrony with their neighbours and the prevailing pattern is a honeycomb of group ranges of relatively small but constant size. The city environment is characterized by a high level of disturbance, which may favour range mobility, and by a patchy and highly divided mosaic of habitats. A quantification of patch density leads us to propose an explanation for the small size of territories and the existence of more adults than a single pair, in terms of the dispersion of habitat patches and competition for food resources contained therein. Riassunto Le popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes insediate nella città di Oxford e nelle aree suburbane limitrofe sono organizzate in gruppi sociali che difendono un proprio territorio. Mentre i territori nelle aree suburbane sono spazialmente stabili, quelli presenti in città cambiano continuamente posizione. Questi ultimi si muovono sincronicamente con quelli limitrofi e la disposizione prevalente è simile al favo delle api con territori relativamente piccoli, ma di dimensioni costanti. L'ambiente cittadino è caratterizzato da elevato disturbo, che può favorire la mobilita dei territori, e da un mosaico molto vario di ambienti. La presenza di territori di ridotte dimensioni occupati da più adulti e non da una singola coppia di volpi sembra dipendere dall'alternanza e variabilità degli ambienti e dalla competizione per le risorse alimentari.

  19. Factors affecting the distribution of fox dens in northern Italy / Fattori influenzanti la distribuzione delle tane di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Italia settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meriggi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1st. October to 31st. December 1988 the fox dens were censused in an area of 2,589 km² in Northern Italy. The mean density was 0.67 dens/km². Significant differences resulted between the density found in the four altitudinal ranges: plain 0.28 dens/km² (S.D.=0.30; low hill 0.71/km² (S.D.=0.37; middle hill 1.20/km² (S.D.=0.35; mountain 0.41/km² (S.D.=0.42. The highest densities were recorded in protected areas (0.98 dens/km², while the lowest values were found in hunting areas (0.41/km² in social hunting ground and 0.33/km² in estates. The density was positively correlated with the mean altitude (r=0.443, PRiassunto Dal 1 ottobre al 31 dicembre 1988 sono state censite le tane di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in provincia di Piacenza (2.589 km², 48 comuni. La densità media provinciale è stata di 0,67 tane/km². Differenze significative sono risultate tra le densità delle 4 fasce altimetriche della provincia: pianura 0,28/km² (D.S.=0

  20. Host-specific serological response to Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis-Germitsch, N.; Kapel, Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    was observed 7 weeks later. We hypothesize that infected foxes develop a variable and non-protective immunity. Such parasite tolerance allows long-term survival of A. vasorum in the animals, and may explain why the parasite appears to spread rapidly within a fox population, an epidemiological dynamic...

  1. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  2. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%, Taenia hydatigena (3.3%, Trichuris vulpis (3.3%, Dipylidium caninum (2.6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. All foxes were negative for Trichinella sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: Toxocara canis (46,4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11,8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11,1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3,9%, Taenia hydatigena (3,3%, Trichuris vulpis (3,3%, Dipylidium caninum (2,6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per Trichinella sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  3. First data on the feeding habits of the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes L. in Sicily / Primi dati sulla posizione trofica della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes L. in Sicilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Fais

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From December 1986 to May 1988 the diet of the fox was studied by analysis of 539 droppings of which 349 gathered in a woodland (Province of Palermo throughout a year (1987 and 190 in different localities of the Sicily. Invertebrates (77%, mostly Arthropods, were the staple food, followed by fruits (38%, Mammals (31% and Birds (12%. Mammals were especially represented by small species (21% and occasionally by Lagomorphs (4%; they mainly occurred in winter and spring. Fruits and Invertebrates were eaten in a good number throughout the year with peaks of frequency in autumn and in summer. The feeding habits of the fox in Sicily are typical of a generalist species. Riassunto Da dicembre 1986 a maggio 1988, la dieta della Volpe è stata studiata mediante l'analisi di 539 feci, di cui 349 raccolte nel bosco di Ficuzza (provincia di Palermo, dove sono state evidenziate le variazioni stagionali delle categorie alimentari rilevate, e 190 in diverse località della Sicilia. I dati raccolti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale delle presenze. Le principali componenti della dieta sono gli Invertebrati (77% rappresentati soprattutto da Artropodi, i frutti (38%, i Mammiferi (31% e gli Uccelli (12%. I Mammiferi sono costituiti prevalentemente da specie di piccole dimensioni (21% e occasionalmente da Lagomorfi (4%, e sono predati soprattutto in inverno e primavera. I frutti e gli Invertebrati sono abbondantemente consumati per l'intero arco dell'anno e mostrano picchi di presenza in autunno e in estate. In Sicilia, le abitudini alimentari della Volpe sono tipiche di un predatore generalista.

  4. Evaluation of four serological techniques to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, W; Barkema, H W; Schares, G; Rouvinen-Watt, K; Zeijlemaker, L; Poorter, B; O'Handley, R M; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P

    2007-04-10

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the performance and agreement of serological assays (ELISA, IFAT, Neospora caninum agglutination test and immunoblot) using reference sera and field sera from foxes and coyotes and (2) to estimate the N. caninum seroprevalence in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada. With fox and coyote reference sera the test performance of the ELISA, IFAT and IB was excellent (100% sensitivity and specificity). NAT showed a low sensitivity (50%). Serum was collected from 201 coyotes and 271 foxes. The seroprevalence observed in the different assays ranged from 0.5 to 14.0% in coyotes and 1.1 to 34.8% in foxes. The seroprevalence, when taking more than one test positive as cut-off value was 3.3 and 1.1% for coyotes and foxes, respectively. From the N. caninum-positive group, all coyotes were older than 3 years. Agreement among assays (measured as prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa) using the field sera ranged from 0.17 to 0.97. Best agreement was observed between ELISA and IFAT, poor agreement was observed between NAT and the other assays. Positive agreement was moderate to poor among all assays utilized in this study. Although the seroprevalence observed was low, N. caninum antibodies are present in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island (PEI) and their role in the N. caninum epidemiology needs further study.

  5. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted.

  6. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  7. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  8. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  9. Sequence analysis of the Ras-MAPK pathway genes SOS1, EGFR & GRB2 in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes): candidate genes for hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Tully, Sara J; Dawn Marshall, H

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) is an autosomal recessive disease that presents with progressive gingival proliferation in farmed silver foxes. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an analogous condition in humans that is genetically heterogeneous with several known autosomal dominant loci. For one locus the causative mutation is in the Son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1) gene. For the remaining loci, the molecular mechanisms are unknown but Ras pathway involvement is suspected. Here we compare sequences for the SOS1 gene, and two adjacent genes in the Ras pathway, growth receptor bound protein 2 (GRB2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), between HHG-affected and unaffected foxes. We conclude that the known HGF causative mutation does not cause HHG in foxes, nor do the coding regions or intron-exon boundaries of these three genes contain any candidate mutations for fox gum disease. Patterns of molecular evolution among foxes and other mammals reflect high conservation and strong functional constraints for SOS1 and GRB2 but reveal a lineage-specific pattern of variability in EGFR consistent with mutational rate differences, relaxed functional constraints, and possibly positive selection.

  10. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  11. Fluoride in the bones of foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linneaus, 1758) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) from North-Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona; Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Lanocha, Natalia; Budis, Halina; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of exposure to fluoride (F(-)) is increasingly focused on mineralized tissues, mainly bones. Their periodic growth and continuous reconstruction make them a good material for studying long-term F(-) accumulation. In this study, F(-)concentrations were determined in the bones of foxes and raccoon dogs from north-western Poland and relationships between bone F(-) and the age categories of the animals were attempted to be identified. Bone samples were collected from femurs of 32 foxes (15 males and 17 females) and 18 raccoon dogs (10 males and 8 females) from polluted, medium-polluted, and unpolluted by F(-) areas. Bone F(-) was determined by potentiometric method, and results were expressed per dry weight (dw); they ranged from 176 to 3,668 mg/kg dw in foxes and from 84 to 1,190 mg/kg dw in raccoon dogs. Foxes from north-western Poland accumulated much more F(-) in their bones than raccoon dogs. Our study shows that the assessment of hazards created by industrial emitters can be conducted conveniently by the measurements of fluorine content in hard tissues of wild animals. Due to availability of such type of material for studies, it seems that the analysis of fluoride content in bones can be a good tool in the development of ecotoxicology.

  12. The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment of ...

  13. First methodological-experimental contribution to the study of the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pilli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were: to devise an easy method for the evaluation of the differences in the diet between two or more samples of fox scats collected along transects; to elucidate seasonal and local variations in the consumption of mammals. The study area (2000 ha is located in the Prealps of the province of Belluno (municipality of Ponte nelle Alpi. Before our analysis of the scats, we evaluated the laboratory procedures used by previous Authors (Reynolds and Aebischer, 1991. We suggest a "semi-quantitative" method that allows us to obtain more information than with "qualitative" methods alone.

  14. Biological control of Aleutian Island arctic fox: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Empirical and literature data on the resource utilization patterns of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are evaluated to assess the potential...

  15. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    mobilisation (Jan-July) in which the food contained less energy and only 2% blubber. SigmaOC food concentration in the food containing 7.7% whale blubber was 309 ng/g wet mass. This corresponded to a SigmaOC exposure of ca. 17 microg/kg body mass/d and a responding SigmaOC residue in subcutaneous adipose...... tissue of ca. 1700 ng/g live mass in the 8 EXP fat foxes euthanized after 16 months. A control group (CON) composed of 15 foxes were fed equal daily caloric amounts of clean pork (Sus scrofa) fat. After 16 months, 8 EXP and 7 CON foxes were euthanized (mean body mass=9.25 kg) while the remaining 8 EXP...

  16. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  17. 准噶尔盆地荒漠区赤狐的食性分析%Food habitats of the red fox(Vulpes vulpes)in the Junggar Basin Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宣龙; 吴克凡; 时磊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 赤狐(Vulpes vulpes)隶属于哺乳纲、食肉目、犬科、狐属,广泛分布于欧亚大陆、非洲北部和北美大陆,在我国也广布各地(高耀亭等,1987;马世来等,2001).国内外有关赤狐的研究主要集中在洞穴结构(Nakazono and Ono,1987;贾竞波和萧前柱,1990;贾竞波等,1991;贾竞波和马建章,1992;周文扬和魏万红,1995;张洪海等,1999)和巢域选择等方面(Nakazono and Ono,1987;周文扬和魏万红,1995;张洪海等,1999;Frey and Conover,2006;Keith et al.,2007),而针对赤狐食性的研究主要集中在森林草原或苔原环境,如瑞典(Elmhagen et al.,2002)、立陶宛(Laima,2002)及匈牙利(Lanszki et al.,2006,2007)等.

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for spec

  20. Environmental variables and the use of habitat of the Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in the Maremma Natural Park, Grosseto province, Central Italy / Parametri ambientali e uso dell'habitat della volpe Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in alcune aree del Parco Naturale della Maremma (GR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lovari

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Berries of Juniperus oxycedrus, beetles and grasshoppers were the staple of the fox diet in the coastal ecotone of the Maremma Natural Park, while fruit and Insects were the main food resources in a rural zone around the park. Chiefly berries of J. oxycedrus, but also Insects and carrion, built up the greater part of the fox diet in the pinewood. On average, the presence in diet was correlated with the availability of the main food resources, which in turn was correlated with climatic factors. These influenced also the activity pattern of the Red fox. Home ranges were the largest (330 ha in the pinewood, intermediate (213 ha in the coastal ecotone, and smallest (131 ha in the rural zone. Such differences in size may be explained with the local pattern of food distribution and abundance, which also influenced the habitat use of the fox. In spite of the presence of several farm houses in the rural range, poultry and domestic rabbits were almost absent in the fox diet. The scrubwood (macchia was consistently the most preferred vegetation type. Riassunto Frutti di ginepro (Juniperus oxycedrus, Coleotteri e Ortotteri hanno costituito la maggior parte della dieta della Volpe nell'ecotone costiero del Parco Naturale della Maremma, mentre frutti e Insetti sono stati le principali risorse trofiche in una zona rurale nella parte esterna del parco. Nella pineta la dieta è risultata costituita prevalentemente da frutti di ginepro, ma anche da insetti e carogne. In media la presenza nella dieta delle principali risorse alimentari è risultata correlata con la loro disponibilità, la quale si è dimostrata a sua volta correlata con fattori climatici. Questi ultimi hanno influenzato anche il ritmo di attività della Volpe. Le dimensioni degli home range sono risultate massime (330 ha nella pineta, intermedie (213 ha nell'ecotone costiero e minime (131 ha nella zona rurale. Queste differenze

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis--adaptation of a worm egg isolation procedure coupled with a multiplex PCR assay to carry out large-scale screening of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Oines, Oivind; Madslien, Knut; Mathis, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, causing alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is a highly pathogenic emerging zoonotic disease in central Europe. The gold standard for the identification of this parasite in the main host, the red fox, namely identification of the adult parasite in the intestine at necropsy, is very laborious. Copro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been suggested as an acceptable alternative, but no commercial copro-ELISA tests are currently available and an in-house test is therefore required. Published methods for taeniid egg isolation and a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and other cestodes were adapted to be carried out on pooled faecal samples from red foxes in Norway. None of the 483 fox faecal samples screened were PCR-positive for E. multilocularis, indicating an apparent prevalence of between 0% and 1.5%. The advantages and disadvantages of using the adapted method are discussed as well as the results pertaining to taeniid and non-taeniid cestodes as identified by multiplex PCR.

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids.

  3. Sound transmission at ground level in a short-grass prairie habitat and its implications for long-range communication in the swift fox Vulpes velox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi K; Pedersen, Simon B; Larsen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    to 400 m. Effects of transmission were measured on three sound types: synthesized sweeps with 1.3 kHz bandwidths spanning in the range of 0.3-8.0 kHz; single elements of swift fox barking sequences (frequency range of 0.3-4.0 kHz) and complete barking sequences. Synthesized sweeps spanning 0.3-1.6 and 1...... seem to persist to at least 400 m. Individual temporal features were very consistent to at least 400 m. The communication range of the barking sequences is likely to be farther than 400 m and it should be considered a long-ranging vocalization. However, relative to the large home ranges of swift foxes...

  4. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  5. Cercopithifilaria sp. II in Vulpes vulpes: new host affiliation for an enigmatic canine filarioid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Casero, María; Annoscia, Giada; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Pereira, André; Azevedo, Fábia; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Cercopithifilaria bainae and Cercopithifilaria grassii (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are filarioids inhabiting the skin of dogs worldwide. The microfilariae of a third species namely, Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al. 2013, have been morphologically and molecularly characterized but scientific knowledge of this parasite is minimal. The first case of infection of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with the filarioid Cercopithifilaria sp. II is herein described in Castro Marim, Portugal. Microfilariae from skin sediment of the fox's ear were morphological characterized, and the identification was confirmed molecularly in samples from skin sediment, skin samples, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks collected from the animal (99% homology with Cercopithifilaria sp. II). Studies should evaluate if red foxes might play a role in the maintenance and distribution of Cercopithifilaria sp. II infection in dog populations.

  6. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna...

  7. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red fox

  8. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red fox

  9. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.

    2006-01-01

    .4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena......, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Nor-them Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one...... acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: red fox [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _vulpes_L.png Vulpes_vulpes_NL.png Vulpes_vulpes_S.png Vulpes_vulpes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=NS ...

  11. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.

  12. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a

  13. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red

  14. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  15. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified

  16. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a 100-k

  17. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; S. Losch; J. Mossong; C.P. Muller (Claude); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled be

  18. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; B.E.E. Martina (Byron); S. Losch; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.P. Muller (Claude)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled be

  19. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  20. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2013-07-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified.

  1. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  2. Concentrations of vitamin A, E, thyroid and testosterone hormones in blood plasma and tissues from emaciated adult male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) dietary exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, Tonje W; Sonne, Christian; Villanger, Gro D; Ahlstøm, Øystein; Fuglei, Eva; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships and effects of oral POP exposure on retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol (vitamin E), thyroid hormones and testosterone in emaciated adult farmed Arctic foxes. Eight brother-pairs were exposed to either a diet containing naturally POP-contaminated minke whale blubber (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) (n=8), or a control diet containing pig (Sus scrofa) fat as the primary fat source (n=8) for 22 months. In the whale blubber containing feed the ∑POPs concentration was 802ng/g w.w. and it was 24ng/g w.w. in control feed. The liver mass was significantly higher and the ratio of FT4 (free thyroxine):FT3 (free triiodothyronine) was significantly lower in the POP exposed group as compared to the control group given feed with pig fat (both p<0.05). The exposed group revealed lower plasma and liver concentrations of α-tocopherol compared to the control group (both p<0.05). These results indicate that plasma FT4:FT3 ratio and plasma and liver α-tocopherol are valuable biomarker endpoints for chronic oral POP exposure in wild Arctic foxes. Based on this we suggest that plasma FT4:FT3 ratio and plasma and liver α-tocopherol are valuable biomarker endpoints for chronic POP exposure in wildlife Arctic foxes and that these perturbations may affect their health status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction on Structural Characteristics and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of MC1R Gene in Red Fox(Vulpes vulpes)%赤狐黑色素皮质激素受体-1基因结构特征预测及分子进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴超; 杨福合; 巴恒星; 徐超; 鲍坤; 邢秀梅; 魏海军

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular characterization of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, the base composition and structure characteristics of red fox MC1R gene registered in GenBank were predicted and analyzed by the method of bioinformatics. In addition, the phylogenetic tree of MC1R protein was constructed by means of MEGA 5. 05 software between 12 species. The results showed that the length of red fox MC1R gene coding sequence was 954 bp, which encoded 317 amino acids. The content of G+C was higher than that of A + T. The estimated molecular weight of MC1R protein in red fox was 34. 8694 ku,with an isoelectric point of 9. 13, belonged to the stable alkalinous protein with hydrophily. The MC1R protein of red fox contained 7 obvious strong transmembrane regions, 7 phosphorylation sites and the 157-threonine amino acid site could be phosphorylated by PKC. The main secondary structure of MC1R protein was orhelix, and it was a member of G protein coupled receptor family, contained a number of functional motifs. The similarity comparison and phylogenetic tree indicated that the evolutionary distance of red fox MC1R protein was the most homogeneous to arctic fox, dog and raccoon dog.%为进一步分析黑色素皮质激素受体-1(melanocortin-1 receptor,MC1R)基因的分子特性,利用生物信息学方法对Gen-Bank中已报道的赤狐MC1R基因完整编码区序列的碱基组成特点及其编码蛋白的结构特征进行了预测及分析,构建了12个物种MC1R蛋白的系统进化树.结果表明,赤狐MC1R基因编码区序列长度为954 bp,共编码317个氨基酸,为单一外显子,G+C含量高于A+T,编码的蛋白质是一种分子质量为34.8694 ku,等电点为9.13的亲水性稳定碱性蛋白;存在7个强跨膜区、7个广泛磷酸化位点和1个潜在的蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点(第157位的苏氨酸),α-螺旋为其主要二级结构元件;属于G蛋白偶联受体家族一员,包括多个潜在重要功能基序;同源性分

  4. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  5. A conceptual model for the impact of climate change on fox rabies in Alaska, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B I; Blanton, J D; Gilbert, A; Castrodale, L; Hueffer, K; Slate, D; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-02-01

    The direct and interactive effects of climate change on host species and infectious disease dynamics are likely to initially manifest\\ at latitudinal extremes. As such, Alaska represents a region in the United States for introspection on climate change and disease. Rabies is enzootic among arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) throughout the northern polar region. In Alaska, arctic and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are reservoirs for rabies, with most domestic animal and wildlife cases reported from northern and western coastal Alaska. Based on passive surveillance, a pronounced seasonal trend in rabid foxes occurs in Alaska, with a peak in winter and spring. This study describes climatic factors that may be associated with reported cyclic rabies occurrence. Based upon probabilistic modelling, a stronger seasonal effect in reported fox rabies cases appears at higher latitudes in Alaska, and rabies in arctic foxes appear disproportionately affected by climatic factors in comparison with red foxes. As temperatures continue a warming trend, a decrease in reported rabid arctic foxes may be expected. The overall epidemiology of rabies in Alaska is likely to shift to increased viral transmission among red foxes as the primary reservoir in the region. Information on fox and lemming demographics, in addition to enhanced rabies surveillance among foxes at finer geographic scales, will be critical to develop more comprehensive models for rabies virus transmission in the region.

  6. Examination of D. immitis presence in foxes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease that usually affects dogs, but it can occur in other carnivore species. Since the disease appears endemically in dogs in some parts of Serbia, the aim of our investigation was to determine whether dirofilariosis exists in wild animals. The study included a total of 150 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 30 hunted foxes per region of South Banat, Raska, Rasina, Morava and Zlatibor were examined. After the corpses of foxes were autopsied, the heart and blood vessels were examined macroscopically for the evidence of adult forms of D. immitis. The presence of the agent was found in four foxes from the territory of three municipalities of South Banat: Kovin, Alibunar and Opovo, representing 13.33% of the total number of examined foxes in this region. None of the 120 autopsied foxes from four districts of central Serbia was found to have dirofilaria. The results obtained in investigation lead to conclusion that dirofilariosis exists as a parasitic disease in red foxes in South Banat.

  7. Biotope of Corsac Fox and Red Fox in Ikh Nart Natur e Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Corsac foxes ( Vu lpes corsac and red foxes ( V. vulpes range widely across northern and central Asia, occupying a variety of arid biotopes. In Mongolia, both species live sympatrically throughout most of the country, but few details of their habitat associations exist. We examined the biotope of corsac and red foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia, which lies at the confl ue nce of steppe and semi-desert vegetation zones. We evaluated the extent to which both species occur in these two zones and the habitats within them based on locations of scats ( n = 1 ,967, opportunistic sightings ( n = 2 19, and captures ( n = 3 5 collected from August 2004 to August 2007. Corsac and red foxes occurred in both steppe and semi-desert zones and all habitat types in the reserve. However, corsacs occurred more frequently than expected in steppe zone and red foxes occurred more than expected in semi-desert zone. Corsac locations associated positively with steppe habitats, including grass, shrub, and semi-shrub plains, whereas red fox locations fell mainly in drier, more rugged semi-desert habitats, suggesting ecological separation exists between species. As corsac and red foxes appear to be declining in Mongolia, our results suggest that protection efforts in Ikh Nart should focus on steppe habitats for corsacs and semi-desert habitats for red foxes.

  8. Evaluation of Survey Methods and Development of Species Distribution Models for Kit Foxes in the Great Basin Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) once occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, ranging from Idaho to central Mexico. Their range-wide decline has warranted the kit fox to be listed as endangered in Colorado, threatened in California and Oregon, and designated as a state sensitive species in Idaho and Utah. Once considered the most abundant carnivore in western Utah, the kit fox has been in steep decline over the past decade, creating a demand to determ...

  9. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind li

  10. The presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen JWB; Rombout Y; Limper L; van der Veen; Moolenbeek C; Franchimont H; Homan W; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Er zijn onderzoekingen gedaan naar het voorkomen van Echinococcus multilocularis bij vossen in Nederland van 1996 tot 1998. Deze parasiet is de oorzaak van alveolaire echinococcose, een ernstige parasitaire zoonose. Hiervoor zijn eerst 272 vossen onderzocht in het grensgebied met Duitsland en Belg

  11. Trichinella britovi beim Rotfuchs (Vulpes vulpes) in Österreich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krois, E.; Nöckler, K.; Duscher, G.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary Laboratory in Moedling for rabies testing, were examined for Trichinella with the compression technique. Positive samples were evaluated quantitatively by digestion and differentiated by PCR. Results: 24 foxes (1.55%) were positive (Carinthia: 1.52%, Salzburg: 2.77%, Styria: 1.62%, the Tyrols: 1...... infections in foxes. Materials and methods: Masseter and tongue samples from 1,546 foxes with known origin (sample coordinates from the provinces of Carinthia [n=401], Salzburg [108], Styria [493], Tyrol [395] and Vorarlberg [149] were determined by Geographic Information System), sent to the State...

  12. A Multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between dog and red fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, M; Reichert, W; Mattern, R

    2011-11-01

    Foxes are frequently the cause of car accidents in Baden-Württemberg (BW, Germany). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is in close relation to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the silver fox which is a coat colour variant of the red fox. As insurance claims that involve accidents with animals require authentication, we analyzed frequency distribution and allele sizes in two canine microsatellite loci in 26 dogs (different breeds) and 19 red foxes of the region of BW, Germany. Moreover, sequencing analysis was performed. Red foxes exhibited only 1 allele at each microsatellite locus, whereas in dog 7 alleles at the CPH4 locus and 6 alleles at the CPH12 locus were detected. Sequences of PCR products from the two species revealed several differences between dogs and foxes. We established a sequenced allelic ladder and give population data from dogs and red foxes from the region of BW, Germany. Using microsatellite polymorphisms is efficient in differentiating between dogs and foxes in forensic casework.

  13. Energy expenditure and water flux of Ruppell's foxes in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, J.B.; Lenain, D; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B.I.; Seddon, P

    2002-01-01

    Scattered populations of Ruppell's foxes (Vulpes rueppelli) occur across the deserts of northern Africa and Arabia. Little is known about the biology of these canids, especially the physiological mechanisms that contribute to their ability to live in such harsh environments. For individuals from Sau

  14. Oral Malignant Melanoma in a Ferret ( Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Rossi, Giacomo; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms in dogs but are rare in other domesticated species. This case report describes the clinical manifestations and histological appearance of oral melanoma in a ferret ( Mustela putorius furo). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published description of a clinical case and histopathological findings of oral melanoma in this species.

  15. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox.

  16. Fox Conner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-15

    Order of the Crown, the Belgian Order of the Crown; Companion of the British Order of the Bath; the French Croix de Guerre , and Panamanian Order of La...War College, L’Ecole de Guerre .9 In 1912, Fox Conner was selected as the first American 10 liaison officer to be assigned to a French Regiment. And so

  17. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caley

    Full Text Available A recent study has inferred that the red fox (Vulpes vulpes is now widespread in Tasmania as of 2010, based on the extraction of fox DNA from predator scats. Heuristically, this inference appears at first glance to be at odds with the lack of recent confirmed discoveries of either road-killed foxes--the last of which occurred in 2006, or hunter killed foxes--the most recent in 2001. This paper demonstrates a method to codify this heuristic analysis and produce inferences consistent with assumptions and data. It does this by formalising the analysis in a transparent and repeatable manner to make inference on the past, present and future distribution of an invasive species. It utilizes Approximate Bayesian Computation to make inferences. Importantly, the method is able to inform management of invasive species within realistic time frames, and can be applied widely. We illustrate the technique using the Tasmanian fox data. Based on the pattern of carcass discoveries of foxes in Tasmania, we infer that the population of foxes in Tasmania is most likely extinct, or restricted in distribution and demographically weak as of 2013. It is possible, though unlikely, that that population is widespread and/or demographically robust. This inference is largely at odds with the inference from the predator scat survey data. Our results suggest the chances of successfully eradicating the introduced red fox population in Tasmania may be significantly higher than previously thought.

  18. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Peter; Ramsey, David S L; Barry, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has inferred that the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is now widespread in Tasmania as of 2010, based on the extraction of fox DNA from predator scats. Heuristically, this inference appears at first glance to be at odds with the lack of recent confirmed discoveries of either road-killed foxes--the last of which occurred in 2006, or hunter killed foxes--the most recent in 2001. This paper demonstrates a method to codify this heuristic analysis and produce inferences consistent with assumptions and data. It does this by formalising the analysis in a transparent and repeatable manner to make inference on the past, present and future distribution of an invasive species. It utilizes Approximate Bayesian Computation to make inferences. Importantly, the method is able to inform management of invasive species within realistic time frames, and can be applied widely. We illustrate the technique using the Tasmanian fox data. Based on the pattern of carcass discoveries of foxes in Tasmania, we infer that the population of foxes in Tasmania is most likely extinct, or restricted in distribution and demographically weak as of 2013. It is possible, though unlikely, that that population is widespread and/or demographically robust. This inference is largely at odds with the inference from the predator scat survey data. Our results suggest the chances of successfully eradicating the introduced red fox population in Tasmania may be significantly higher than previously thought.

  19. Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Charly; Huynh, Minh; Husnik, Roman; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common complaint in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Their relatively simple and short gastrointestinal tract makes them good candidates for flexible endoscopy. However, apart from a few references in biomedical research articles, there is little information on the use of flexible endoscopy in ferrets. This review describes patient preparation, equipment, and select gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques in ferrets, including esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunoileoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.

  20. Mercury Content in Organs and Tissues of Indigenous (Vulpes vulpes L.) and Invasive (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray.) Species of Canids from Areas Near Cherepovets (North-Western Industrial Region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Gremyachikh, V A; Poddubnaya, N Y

    2016-10-01

    Trophic and spatial components of ecological niches of two canids native Vulpes vulpes and introduced Nyctereutes procyonoides are overlapping partially in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of mercury in predatory mammals of Canidae family from surroundings of Cherepovets have been determined in liver and kidneys (over 0.50 mg/kg wet weight), with minimal concentrations in brain (mercury in the same organs of the red fox and raccoon dog is not significantly different. These levels of mercury content are noticeably higher than those in the predators of Canidae family that inhabit territories of Europe lacking the local sources of mercury. At the same time, absolute values of metal quantity are commensurable with the levels registered in predators from the mercury polluted regions of Spain and Poland.

  1. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Thomas M.; Dickman, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators—mesopredators—often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas

  2. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Alan E; Newsome, Thomas M; Dickman, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas where

  3. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  4. Babesia microti-like infections are prevalent in North American foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenheuer, Adam J; Horney, Barbara; Bailey, Matthew; Scott, McBurney; Sherbert, Brittany; Catto, Victoria; Marr, Henry S; Camacho, Angel-Tomas; Ballman, Anne E

    2010-09-20

    Babesia microti-like organisms have recently been identified as a cause of hemolytic anemia and azotemia in European dogs. A genetically and morphologically similar B. microti-like parasite has been identified in two foxes from North America. In order to assess the prevalence of this parasite in North American wild canids we screened blood samples from coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Canada and red foxes and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from North Carolina, USA for the presence B. microti-like DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-nine percent (50/127) of the red fox samples, 26% (8/31) of the gray fox samples and none (0/12) from the coyote samples tested positive for the presence of B. microti-like DNA. Partial 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and beta-tubulin genes from the North American B. microti-like parasites of foxes were sequenced and samples from six domestic dogs from Spain that were infected with a B. microti-like parasite were analyzed for comparison. Partial 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and beta-tubulin gene sequences from the North American B. microti-like parasites of foxes were nearly identical to those previously reported from foxes as well as those from domestic dogs from Spain characterized in this study. Interestingly, partial beta-tubulin gene sequences characterized from the B. microti-like parasites of domestic dogs from Spain in this study were different from those previously reported from a Spanish domestic dog sample which is believed to be a pseudogene. The ability of the North American B. microti-like parasite to infect and induce disease in domestic dogs remains unknown. Further studies investigating the pathogenic potential of the North American B. microti-like parasite in domestic dogs are indicated.

  5. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Furo[2,3-b]- and Furo[3,2-c]quinolines via Heterogeneous Palladium-catalyzed Heteroannulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jung [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ok-Kyung; Park, Young Chul; Yum, Eul Kgun [Chungnam National University, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    As a part of our continuing organometallic studies on diversification of nitrogen-containing biologically active heterocycles, we attempted to synthesize furo[2,3-b]- and furo[3,2-c]quinolines starting from o-halohydroxyquinolines and terminal alkynes with heterogeneous Pd(OAc)2 catalyst, which was supported by nanosized pore carbon ball. 2-substituted furo[2,3-b]quinolines and furo[3,2-c]quinolines were synthesized from the reaction of 3-iodoquinolin-2-ol and 3-iodoquinolin-4-ol, respectively, with diverse alkynes. The heteroannulation reaction proceeds with Sonogashira coupling followed by 5-endo-dig cyclization in good isolated yields under copper and ligand free conditions.

  6. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  7. Theobromine intoxication in a red fox and a European badger in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Galgan, V; Schubert, B; Segerstad, C H

    2001-04-01

    A red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and a European badger (Meles meles) were found dead on a golf-course in October 1997 near Stockholm (Sweden). At necropsy, both animals were obese and the main finding was acute circulatory collapse. Theobromine intoxication was suspected as chocolate waste was available at a nearby farm and no other cause of death could be detected. Gastric contents and samples of liver from both animals were analyzed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography for the presence of methylxanthines. Theobromine and caffeine were detected in gastric contents and theobromine was identified in the liver samples from both animals. This appears to be the first report of theobromine intoxication in the red fox and the European badger.

  8. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the raccoon dog and fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue; Shoumura, Shizuko

    2006-11-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of the raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) were examined by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observations. The distribution and type of the lingual papillae found in the raccoon dog were similar to those in the fox. Filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dosal surface of the tongue. Each filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. The filiform papillae of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. The fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body. Each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. On the periphery of the papillae, large conical papillae were observed.

  9. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age.

  10. From ‘third pole’ to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    The ‘third pole’ of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60–5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3–4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our ‘Out-of-Tibet’ hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age. PMID:24920475

  11. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  12. Experimental infection of Foxes with European bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biarnais Mélanie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1954, there have been in excess of 800 cases of rabies as a result of European Bat Lyssaviruses types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 infection, mainly in Serotine and Myotis bats respectively. These viruses have rarely been reported to infect humans and terrestrial mammals, as the only exceptions are sheep in Denmark, a stone marten in Germany and a cat in France. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs using silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes as a model. Results Our experimental studies have shown that the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs is low by the intramuscular (IM route, however, animals were sensitive to intracranial (IC inoculation. Mortality was 100% for both EBLV-1 (~4.5 logs and EBLV-2 (~3.0 logs delivered by the IC route. Virus dissemination and inflammatory infiltrate in the brain were demonstrated but virus specific neutralising antibody (VNA was limited (log(ED50 = 0.24–2.23 and 0.95–2.39 respectively for specific EBLV-1 and EBLV-2. Foxes were also susceptible, at a low level, to peripheral (IM infection (~3.0 logs with EBLV-1 but not EBLV-2. Three out of 21 (14.3% foxes developed clinical signs between 14 and 24 days post-EBLV-1 infection. None of the animals given EBLV-2 developed clinical disease. Conclusion These data suggest that the chance of a EBLV spill-over from bat to fox is low, but with a greater probability for EBLV-1 than for EBLV-2 and that foxes seem to be able to clear the virus before it reaches the brain and cause a lethal infection.

  13. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    Objective-To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind limbs. An...... and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation....

  14. Food Habits by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), a Review%赤狐食性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 孙兆惠; 刘振生; 滕丽微

    2014-01-01

    赤狐根据食物资源的可获得性来利用食物.环境气候条件影响食物的可获得性,同时对赤狐的食物组成和多样性产生影响.通过以往的研究表明,赤狐的食物主要有三大类:哺乳动物、无脊椎动物和植物,其中小型啮齿动物和兔形目动物占主要比例.随着地理环境因子和生物因子的变化,各食物组分所占比例也随之变化.小型啮齿动物和兔形目所占比例波动较小,其他食物(如鸟类、昆虫和植物)的变化明显.

  15. The breed selection and selective breeding of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)%赤狐的选种选配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍加荣; 刘伟; 刘学庆; 杨福合

    2015-01-01

    为了更好地提高我国毛皮动物赤狐的毛皮品质,培育出适合本土化的良种,笔者查阅相关文献和总结现场育种经验,从动物遗传育种的重要概念入手,对比分析,避免概念的混淆,同时首次提出赤狐的选种选配的工作要点.结果表明:在赤狐的选育过程中,种狐的选择非常重要,要根据不同的生态环境,选择适宜的育种目标和性状值.

  16. The diet of Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to a changing agricultural ecosystem. A historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    2015-01-01

     years most probably reflect changes in the populations of the two species. By comparing digitised orthophotos of six agricultural areas (3.5 × 3.5 km) of the past 1974/1975 and present landscapes, it was revealed that the total area of crop fields, small natural habitats, hedgerows and grasslands have...... remained almost unchanged. However, mean field size has increased by 48 %, and the mean size of small natural habitats has increased by 15 %; meaning that the length of field boundaries and the number of small natural habitats have decreased by 65 and 33 %, respectively. The distance between natural...... habitats in the cultivated areas has become larger during the past 40 years. Overall, the areas of natural biotopes have remained the same in Denmark during the past 40 years. Field boundaries on the other hand which are known to be important vole habitats have become fewer in the cultivated areas. Despite...

  17. Pulses of movement across the sea ice: population connectivity and temporal genetic structure in the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Karin; Carmichael, Lindsey; Fuglei, Eva; Eide, Nina E; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Lemmings are involved in several important functions in the Arctic ecosystem. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) can be divided into two discrete ecotypes: "lemming foxes" and "coastal foxes". Crashes in lemming abundance can result in pulses of "lemming fox" movement across the Arctic sea ice and immigration into coastal habitats in search for food. These pulses can influence the genetic structure of the receiving population. We have tested the impact of immigration on the genetic structure of the "coastal fox" population in Svalbard by recording microsatellite variation in seven loci for 162 Arctic foxes sampled during the summer and winter over a 5-year period. Genetic heterogeneity and temporal genetic shifts, as inferred by STRUCTURE simulations and deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, respectively, were recorded. Maximum likelihood estimates of movement as well as STRUCTURE simulations suggested that both immigration and genetic mixture are higher in Svalbard than in the neighbouring "lemming fox" populations. The STRUCTURE simulations and AMOVA revealed there are differences in genetic composition of the population between summer and winter seasons, indicating that immigrants are not present in the reproductive portion of the Svalbard population. Based on these results, we conclude that Arctic fox population structure varies with time and is influenced by immigration from neighbouring populations. The lemming cycle is likely an important factor shaping Arctic fox movement across sea ice and the subsequent population genetic structure, but is also likely to influence local adaptation to the coastal habitat and the prevalence of diseases.

  18. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas and blood from red foxes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Bartonella are arthropod-borne, fastidious, Gram-negative, and aerobic bacilli distributed by fleas, lice, sand flies, and, possibly, ticks. The zoonotic Bartonella species, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the causes of cat scratch disease and endocarditis in humans, have been reported from cats, cat fleas, and humans in Australia. However, to date, there has been no report of B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae in Australian wild animals and their ectoparasites. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), an introduced pest animal species in Australia, and only B. clarridgeiae was detected in blood from one red fox. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed that the B. henselae detected in the current study were related to B. henselae strain Houston-1, a major pathogenic strain in humans in Australia, and confirmed the genetic distinctness of B. clarridgeiae. The identification and characterization of Bartonella species in red foxes in the Southwest of Western Australia suggests that red foxes may act as reservoirs of infection for animals and humans in this region.

  19. Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Moleón, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrate scavenging assemblages include two major functional groups: obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures), which depend totally on carrion and are undergoing severe declines around the globe, and facultative scavengers, which exploit carrion opportunistically and are generally ubiquitous. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that vultures can indirectly regulate the abundance of mesopredators (i.e., facultative scavengers) through modulating their access to carrion resources. We studied scavenging efficiency and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) abundance in two neighbouring areas of South-eastern Spain where vultures (mainly griffon vultures Gyps fulvus) are present (Cazorla) and absent (Espuña). To do so, we monitored ungulate carcasses consumption during winter and summer, and counted red fox scats along walking transects as a proxy of fox density. Our results confirmed that scavenging efficiency was higher in Cazorla and in carcasses visited by vultures. This resulted in increasing scavenging opportunities for facultative scavengers where vultures were absent. Accordingly, mean red fox abundance was higher in Espuña. These results suggest the existence of a vulture-mediated mesopredator release (i.e., an increase of mesopredator numbers following vulture loss), which could trigger important indirect ecological effects. Also, our study demonstrates that facultative scavengers are hardly able to functionally replace vultures, mainly because the former exploit carrion on a slower time scale.

  20. Seminal concentration of trace elements in fox and relationships to spermatozoa quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massányi, Peter; Trandzik, Jozef; Nad, Pavol; Skalická, Magdalena; Koréneková, Beata; Lukac, Norbert; Fabis, Marian; Toman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the semen of foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 10), microscopic analysis of occurrence of pathological spermatozoa, and correlations of these elements with pathological forms were studied. Samples were analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For analysis of pathological spermatozoa semen samples fixed with Hancock's solution and stained with Giemsa were prepared. For each fox at least 1000 spermatozoa were evaluated. The concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in semen of foxes were found to be 2.16+/-0.53 mg/kg, 13.09+/-5.22 mg/kg, and 33.16+/-24.36 mg/kg, respectively, on wet weight basis. Concentration of cadmium was low (0.07+/-0.05 mg/kg). The levels of lead and nickel in the semen of foxes were 0.08+/-0.06 mg/kg and 0.35+/-0.24 mg/kg, respectively. The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 7.76+/-1.33% with predominancy of knob twisted flagellum, separated flagellum, and broken flagellum. In relation to trace elements the analysis showed significant (p spermatozoa (r = -0.72), zinc and broken flagellum (r = -0.69), iron and retention of cytoplasmic drop (r = 0.87), cadmium and separated flagellum (r = -0.68), and between cadmium retention of cytoplasmic drop (r = 0.87).

  1. High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839 infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world.

  2. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  3. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  4. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  5. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-04-06

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ(2) = 122.1, df = 6, p < 0.0001), whereas anticipated changes in abundance had no significant influence on reported sightings (p = 0.15). An annual index of fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. New insights into FoxE1 functions: identification of direct FoxE1 targets in thyroid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FoxE1 is a thyroid-specific forkhead transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in adults. FoxE1 recognizes and binds to a short DNA sequence present in thyroglobulin (Tg and thyroperoxidase (Tpo promoters, but FoxE1 binding to regulatory regions other than Tg and Tpo promoters remains almost unexplored. Improving knowledge of the regulatory functions of FoxE1 is necessary to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In order to further investigate downstream FoxE1 targets, we performed a genome-wide expression screening after knocking-down FoxE1 and obtained new insights into FoxE1 transcriptional networks in thyroid follicular cells. After validation, we confirmed Adamts9, Cdh1, Duox2 and S100a4 as upregulated genes and Casp4, Creld2, Dusp5, Etv5, Hsp5a, Nr4a2 and Tm4sf1 as downregulated genes when FoxE1 was silenced. In promoter regions of putative FoxE1-regulated genes and also in the promoters of the classical thyroid genes Nis, Pax8 and Titf1, we performed an in silico search of the FoxE1 binding motif that was in close proximity to the NF1/CTF binding sequence, as previously described for other forkhead factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we detected specific in vivo FoxE1 binding to novel regulatory regions in two relevant thyroid genes, Nis and Duox2. Moreover, we demonstrated simultaneous binding of FoxE1 and NF1/CTF to the Nis upstream enhancer region, as well as a clear functional activation of the Nis promoter by both transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In search for potential downstream mediators of FoxE1 function in thyroid cells, we identified two novel direct FoxE1 target genes. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence regarding the implication of Nis and Duox2 in executing the transcriptional program triggered by FoxE1. Furthermore, this study points

  7. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  8. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  9. Synthesis and Reactions of Furo[2,3-b]pyrroles

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    A. Lycka

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl 6H-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylate (2a was prepared by thermolysis of the corresponding methyl 2-azido-3-(3-furylpropenoate (1. 6-Methyl (2b and 6-benzyl (2c derivatives were obtained using phase-transfer catalysis conditions (PTC. The formylation of 2a-2c gave 2-formylated compounds (3a-3c. Compounds 4b, 4c were prepared by reactions of corresponding esters 2b, 2c with hydrazine in refluxing ethanol. By reaction of 3a-3c with hydroxylammonium chloride in acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine, methyl 2-cyano-6-R1-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylates (5a-5c were obtained. The reaction of these compounds with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in dimethylformamide led to methyl 2-(5'-tetrazolyl-6-R1-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylates (6a-6c. A series of 5-methoxycarbonyl-6-R1-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde N,N-dimethylhydrazones (7a-7c was prepared from methyl 2-formyl-6-R1-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylates (3a-3c and unsym-dimethylhydrazine. The correlation of the 13C and 15N chemical shifts with the data of the calculated (AM1 net atomic charges is discussed.

  10. A potential novel Brucella species isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Erwin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Riehm, Julia M; Nöckler, Karsten; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Tomaso, Herbert; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-02-24

    The wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a known indicator species for natural foci of brucellosis. Here, we describe phenotypic and molecular characteristics of two atypical Brucella strains isolated from two foxes hunted 2008 in Eastern Austria. Both strains agglutinated with monospecific anti-Brucella A serum and were positive in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies directed against various Brucella lipopolysaccharide epitopes. However, negative nitrate reductase- and negative oxidase-reaction were atypical traits. Affiliation to the genus Brucella was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by detection of the Brucella specific insertion element IS711 and gene bcsp31 using real-time PCR. Both fox strains showed identical IS711 Southern blot profiles but were distinct from known brucellae. The number of IS711 copies detected was as high as found in B. ovis or marine mammal Brucella strains. Molecular analyses of the recA and omp2a/b genes suggest that both strains possibly represent a novel Brucella species.

  11. Using the dog genome to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in red foxes and other distantly related members of the Canidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Louie, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the ideal marker for characterizing genomic variation but can be difficult to find in nonmodel species. We explored the usefulness of the dog genome for finding SNPs in distantly related nonmodel canids and evaluated so-ascertained SNPs. Using 40 primer pairs designed from randomly selected bacterial artificial chromosome clones from the dog genome, we successfully sequenced 80-88% of loci in a coyote (Canis latrans), grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which compared favourably to a 60% success rate for each species using 10 primer pairs conserved across mammals. Loci were minimally heterogeneous with respect to SNP density, which was similar, overall, in a discovery panel of nine red foxes to that previously reported for a panel of eight wolves (Canis lupus). Additionally, individual heterozygosity was similar across the three canids in this study. However, the proportion of SNP sites shared with the dog decreased with phylogenetic divergence, with no SNPs shared between red foxes and dogs. Density of interspecific SNPs increased approximately linearly with divergence time between species. Using red foxes from three populations, we estimated F(ST) based on each of 42 SNPs and 14 microsatellites and simulated null distributions conditioned on each marker type. Relative to SNPs, microsatellites systematically underestimated F(ST) and produced biased null distributions, indicating that SNPs are superior markers for these functions. By reconstituting the frequency spectrum of SNPs discovered in nine red foxes, we discovered an estimated 77-89% of all SNPs (within the region screened) present in North American red foxes. In sum, these findings indicate that information from the dog genome enables easy ascertainment of random and gene-linked SNPs throughout the Canidae and illustrate the value of SNPs in ecological and evolutionary genetics.

  12. Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shihhui; Slomianka, Lutz; Farmer, Andrew J; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Herbeck, Yury E; Trut, Lyudmila N; Wolfer, David P; Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Work on laboratory and wild rodents suggests that domestication may impact on the extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its responsiveness to regulatory factors. There is, however, no model of laboratory rodents and their nondomesticated conspecifics that would allow a controlled comparison of the effect of domestication. Here, we present a controlled within-species comparison of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in farm-bred foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that differ in their genetically determined degree of tameness. Quantitative comparisons of cell proliferation (Ki67) and differentiating cells of neuronal lineage (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampus of foxes were performed as a proxy for neurogenesis. Higher neurogenesis was observed in tameness-selected foxes, notably in an extended subgranular zone of the middle and temporal compartments of the hippocampus. Increased neurogenesis is negatively associated with aggressive behavior. Across all animals, strong septotemporal gradients were found, with higher numbers of proliferating cells and young neurons relative to resident granule cells in the temporal than in the septal hippocampus. The opposite gradient was found for the ratio of DCX/Ki67- positive cells. When tameness-selected and unselected foxes are compared with rodents and primates, proliferation is similar, while the number of young neurons is higher. The difference may be mediated by an extended period of differentiation or higher rate of survival. On the background of this species-specific neurogenic pattern, selection of foxes for a single behavioral trait key to domestication, i.e., genetic tameness, is accompanied by global and region-specific increases in neurogenesis.

  13. Selection for tameness modulates the expression of heme related genes in silver foxes

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    Vilà Carles

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic and molecular mechanisms of tameness are largely unknown. A line of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes selected for non-aggressive behavior has been used in Russia since the 1960's to study the effect of domestication. We have previously compared descendants of these selected (S animals with a group of non-selected (NS silver foxes kept under identical conditions, and showed that changes in the brain transcriptome between the two groups are small. Unexpectedly, many of the genes showing evidence of differential expression between groups were related to hemoproteins. Results In this study, we use quantitative RT-PCR to demonstrate that the activity of heme related genes differ between S and NS foxes in three regions of the brain. Furthermore, our analyses also indicate that changes in mRNA levels of heme related genes can be well described by an additive polygenic effect. We also show that the difference in genetic background between the two lines of foxes is limited, as estimated by mitochondrial DNA divergence. Conclusion Our results indicate that selection for tameness can modify the expression of heme related genes in canid brain regions known to modulate emotions and behavior. The possible involvement of heme related genes in behavior is surprising. It is possible that hemoglobin modulates the behavior of canids by interaction with CO and NO signaling. Another possibility is that hemorphins, known to be produced after enzymatic cleavage of hemoglobin, are responsible for behavioral alterations. Thus, we hypothesize that hemoglobin metabolism can be a functionally relevant aspect of the domestic phenotype in foxes selected for tameness.

  14. Kind granddaughters of angry grandmothers: the effect of domestication on vocalization in cross-bred silver foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2009-07-01

    The genetic basis of the effects of domestication has previously been examined in relation to morphological, physiological and behavioural traits, but not for vocalizations. According to Belyaev [Belyaev, D.K., 1979. Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. J. Hered. 70, 301-308], directional selection for tame behaviour toward humans resulted in domestication. This hypothesis has been confirmed experimentally on the farm-bred silver fox Vulpes vulpes population that has undergone 45 years of artificial selection for tameness and 35 years of selection for aggressiveness. These foxes, with their precisely known attitudes toward people, provide a means of examining vocal indicators of tameness and aggressiveness to establish the genetic basis for vocal production in canids. We examined vocalizations toward people in foxes selected for tameness and aggressiveness compared to those of three kinds of crosses: Hybrids (Tame x Aggressive), A-Backcrosses (Aggressive x Hybrid) and T-Backcrosses (Tame x Hybrid). We report the effects of selection for tameness on usage and structure of different vocalizations and suggest that vocal indicators for tameness and aggressiveness toward people are discrete phenotypic traits in silver foxes.

  15. Possible vector dissemination by swift foxes following a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Brady K; Butler, Matthew J; Pence, Danny B; Alexander, James L; Nissen, Janet B; Ballard, Warren B; Nicholson, Kerry L

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea Pulex irritans. Black-tailed prairie dogs examined from the study area harbored only Pulex simulans and Oropsylla hirsuta. Although P. irritans was most common, P. simulans and O. hirsuta were collected from six swift foxes and a single coyote (Canis latrans) following the plague epizootic. Thus, both of these canids could act as transport hosts (at least temporarily) of prairie dog fleas following the loss of their normal hosts during a plague die-off. All six adult swift foxes tested positive for antibodies to Y. pestis. All 107 fleas from swift foxes tested negative for Y. pestis by mouse inoculation. Although swift foxes could potentially carry Y. pestis to un-infected prairie dog colonies, we believe they play only a minor role in plague epidemiology, considering that they harbored just a few uninfected prairie dog fleas (P. simulans and O. hirsuta).

  16. Synthesis and Photooxygenation of Furo[3,2-c]coumarin Derivatives as Antibacterial and DNA Intercalating Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; EI-Gogary, Sameh R.

    2012-01-01

    Syntheses of 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin and 3-phenyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin as angular furocou- marins were carried out through Williamson reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with a-haloketones followed by cycli- zation. Photooxygenation of the synthesized furocoumarin derivatives was performed and the photoproducts were isolated and characterized. The affinity of 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin towards DNA and the antibacterial activity were evaluated and compared with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP).

  17. Land Use as a Driver of Patterns of Rodenticide Exposure in Modeled Kit Fox Populations.

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    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Although rodenticides are increasingly regulated, they nonetheless cause poisonings in many non-target wildlife species. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide use is common in agricultural and residential landscapes. Here, we use an individual-based population model to assess potential population-wide effects of rodenticide exposures on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica. We estimate likelihood of rodenticide exposure across the species range for each land cover type based on a database of reported pesticide use and literature. Using a spatially-explicit population model, we find that 36% of modeled kit foxes are likely exposed, resulting in a 7-18% decline in the range-wide modeled kit fox population that can be linked to rodenticide use. Exposures of kit foxes in low-density developed areas accounted for 70% of the population-wide exposures to rodenticides. We conclude that exposures of non-target kit foxes could be greatly mitigated by reducing the use of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in low-density developed areas near vulnerable populations.

  18. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  19. Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-10-12

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks.

  20. Differenze craniometriche in popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes L. nel Mediterraneo occidentale

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    Agatino Maurizio Siracusa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La Volpe rossa (Vulpes vulpes ha un ampio areale e una tassonomia complessa, ancora non ben definita; poco numerosi sono inoltre gli studi sulla craniometria delle popolazioni mediterranee. In questo studio abbiamo misurato 21 variabili di 78 crani appartenenti a popolazioni della Penisola italiana (22, della Sardegna (6, della Sicilia (8 e della Spagna (42. I dati sono stati sottoposti ad indagine statistica mediante tecniche univariate (t-test e analisi discriminante. I risultati del t-test tra Italia e Spagna mostrano differenze statisticamente significative per 13 variabili (11 per i maschi e 13 per le femmine, tra Italia e Sardegna per 17 variabili, tra Spagna e Sardegna per 17 variabili, tra Italia e Sicilia 7 variabili, tra Spagna e Sicilia 11 variabili e tra Sicilia e Sardegna 8 variabili. Dal confronto tra i sessi sono risultate differenti, in modo statisticamente significativo, 11 variabili per il campione della Penisola italiana e 15 per la Spagna; di queste variabili differenti statisticamente, solo otto risultano comuni. Per Sicilia e Sardegna non abbiamo effettuato nessun confronto, dato il basso numero di campioni. L?analisi discriminante applicata agli stessi dati craniometrici ha permesso di estrarre funzioni discriminanti capaci di distinguere in maniera statisticamente significativa (p<0,001 differenti clusters che non sempre però concordano sia con la sistematica classica, sia con le recenti indagini genetiche.

  1. Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

    2009-05-26

    Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role

  2. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  3. A retrospective economic analysis of the Ontario red fox oral rabies vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwiff, S A; Nunan, C P; Kirkpatrick, K N; Shwiff, S S

    2011-05-01

    Ontario initiated a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programme in 1989. This study utilized a benefit-cost analysis to determine if this ORV programme was economically worthwhile. Between 1979 and 1989, prior to ORV baiting, the average annual human post-exposure treatments, positive red fox rabies diagnostic tests and indemnity payments for livestock lost to rabies were 2248, 1861 and $246,809, respectively. After baiting, from 1990 to 2000, a 35%, 66% and 41% decrease in post-exposure treatments, animal rabies tests and indemnity payments was observed, respectively. These reductions were viewed as benefits of the ORV programme, whereas total costs were those associated with ORV baiting. Multiple techniques were used to estimate four different benefit streams and the total estimated benefits ranged from $35,486,316 to $98,413,217. The annual mean ORV programme cost was $6,447,720, with total programme costs of $77,372,637. The average benefit-cost ratios over the analysis period were .49, 1.06, 1.27 and 1.36, indicating overall programme efficiency in three of the four conservative scenarios.

  4. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

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    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT. Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21, Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60 and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3 were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  5. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

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    Robardet E.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression. Urbanisation level was the only influencing factor, with a decreasing gradient from rural [54%, CI 95% (40-68] to peri-urban [31%, CI 95% (15-52] and urban area [4%, CI 95% (0.7-15]. The consumption of Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp., grassland species, the main presumed intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis, was studied by the same approach. The two species were consumed less in the urban area and more in autumn than in spring. Anthropogenic food consumption was linked to urbanisation and to age. The frequency of anthropogenic food consumption decreased in the rural area. A global model explaining the presence of E. multilocularis and including urbanisation level and diet was then elaborated. Independently of urbanisation, there was a suggestion of less E. multilocularis infection with anthropogenic food consumption. Red foxes consuming Microtus sp. and A. terrestris had higher worm burden than those that did not. The results suggest that the decreasing gradient observed from rural to urban area is linked to behaviour and feeding habits.

  6. Effects of habitat composition on the use of resources by the red fox in a semi arid environment of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Arte, Graziella L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is considered an opportunistic predator able to avoid prey shortages by exploiting a wide range of available food resources. However, as predicted by the Resources Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH), the distribution of other key resources such as suitable areas for dens can affect fox populations. Furthermore, in insularity conditions, resources are spatially limited and their availability is greatly influenced by territory sizes and the feeding habits of predators. In this paper we report the spatial use and foraging habits of foxes in three habitats (grassland, cultivation and suburban) of a sub-arid island off north Africa in relation to habitat composition and food availability. We found that diet composition in a gross sense did not differ significantly among habitats, with insects comprising > 48% and fruits 25% of the total prey items. Grasslands offered temporary clumped food resources (e.g. birds) that induced foxes to increase their territory sizes and to enlarge their diet range during prey shortages. Inversely, in cultivated and suburban areas, the main prey (insects) were more evenly distributed, especially in olive groves which constitute the most extensive form of cultivation on the island. In large areas covered by olive trees, the high availability of Coleoptera spp. significantly reduced core areas used by foxes and also distances among dens. Palm groves were patchy on the island but contained high densities of Orthoptera spp. and date fruits which represent alternative food sources. Thus, these patches are attractive foraging places, but a modification of the perimeter of fox territories was necessary for their exploitation. Our study confirmed that in this arid environment, habitat composition per se affected a generalist predator less than the dispersion of its main prey. In addition, the patchy distribution of resources can assume a role in the spacing and feeding behaviours of foxes only in relation to clumped alternative

  7. Habitat evaluation using GIS a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, R.; Stine, P.; Church, R.; Gilpin, M.

    2001-01-01

    Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species' abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value, using the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) of California (USA) as an example. Over the last 30 years, many field studies and surveys have enhanced our knowledge of the life history, behavior, and needs of the kit fox, which has been proposed as an umbrella or indicator species for grassland habitat in the San Joaquin Valley of California. There has yet been no attempt to convert much of this field knowledge into a model of spatial habitat value useful for planning purposes. This is a significant omission given the importance and visibility of the imperiled kit fox and increasing trends toward spatially explicit modeling and planning. In this paper we apply data from northern California to derive a small-cell GIS raster of habitat value for the kit fox that incorporates both intrinsic habitat quality and neighborhood context, as well the effects of barriers such as roads. Such a product is a useful basis for assessing the presence and amounts of good (and poor) quality habitat and for eventually constructing GIS representations of viable animal territories that could be included in future reserves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  9. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  10. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Nouvellet

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV. Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  11. Fox-7 for Insensitive Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    cavitation , and therefore nucleation, to occur at each frequency. As well as producing ultrasound at different frequencies, the method of delivery of...processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology to improve booster formulations, and results from these...7 booster formulations. Also included are particle processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology

  12. Rhinitis and disseminated disease in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) naturally infected with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ann P; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2010-04-19

    Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona infection in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with rhinitis and disseminated disease are described for the first time. The ferret exhibited severe rhinitis with intra-lesional S. neurona merozoites and schizonts. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by staining with S. neurona-specific antibodies, and by phylogenetic analyses of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. On the basis of intense schizogony in the nasal mucosa, we propose the possibility of an olfactory nerve pathway route of infection for S. neurona meningoencephalitis.

  13. Synthesis of novel trifluoromethyl substituted furo[2,3-b]pyridine and pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Royya; Poornachandra, Yedla; Nagender, Punna; Mallareddy, Gannarapu; Ravi Kumar, Nagiri; Ranjithreddy, Palreddy; Ganesh Kumar, Chityal; Narsaiah, Banda

    2016-01-27

    A series of novel trifluoromethyl substituted furo[2,3-b]pyridine and pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[3,2-d] pyrimidine derivatives 3a-b, 6a-k, 9, 10a-b, 11a-c and 12a-c were prepared from 2-carbethoxy-3-amino-6-trifluoromethyl furo[2,3-b]pyridine 1 under different set of conditions. Compounds functionalized with oxadiazole 11a-c were also prepared from 2-carbohydrazide-3-amino-6-trifluoromethyl furo[2,3-b]pyridine 4. All the final products were screened for anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Neuro-2a, Hela, A549 and COLO 205 as well as normal human lung cell line, IMR-90. All the compounds showed promising anticancer activity against all the tested cell lines at <25 μM concentration except 5b, 6d, 6e and 6k. The selectivity index (SI) values have also been calculated for all the tested compounds in comparison to the normal cell line. Compounds 6g, 10a, 10b, and 11a were considered as potential leads which showed cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 10, 10.7, 11.0 and 10.5 μM, respectively. Compounds 7 and 12a were considered as highly potent exhibiting promising cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 5.8 and 3.6 μM, respectively.

  14. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  15. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  16. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  17. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of invaded ecosystems and may introduce pathogens to native species. The raccoon dog is a very successful invaded Europe and has recently invaded Denmark. The present study included analyses of Trichinella spp. and gastrointestinal helminths ...

  18. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Lempp (Charlotte); A. Jungwirth (Andreas); Grilo, M.L. (Miguel L.); Reckendorf, A. (Anja); Ulrich, A. (Arlena); Van Neer, A. (Abbo); R. Bodewes (Rogier); V.M. Pfankuche (Vanessa M.); Bauer, C. (Christian); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); U. Siebert (Ursula)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAnthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of

  19. 赤狐生境选择研究进展%Research Progress of Habitat Selection by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李路云; 王海东; 张海; 滕丽微; 刘振生

    2014-01-01

    总结了赤狐生境选择的研究方法和研究内容,概括了影响赤狐生境选择的主要因素,并探讨了赤狐生境选择的灵活性及赤狐和与其同域分布的动物种的共存机制.最后,提出了赤孤相应的保护措施.

  20. Synthesis of 9H-furo [2,3-f]Chromene Derivatives by Promoting ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Hossaini, Zinatossadat; Sheikholeslami-Farahani, Fatemeh; Azizi, Zahra; Siadati, Seyyed Amir

    2015-01-01

    Three- component reactions of 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuran-yl)-1-ethanone, aldehydes and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in the presence of nanoparticles of ZnO as catalyst are explained as effective and green synthetic method for generating 9H- furo[2,3-f]chromenes in good yield.

  1. Synthesis of the furo[2,3-b]chromene ring system of hyperaspindols A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Paterson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the unique furo[2,3-b]chromene ring system found in hyperaspidinols A and B, acylphloroglucinols from Hypericum chinense has been achieved in twelve steps. By comparison of the NMR spectra of the synthesized compounds with those of the natural products, a relative stereochemistry is suggested, especially that of the ketal carbon.

  2. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary.

  3. The last "pest". The fox in the Italian law and in the actual hunting management / L'ultimo "nocivo". La Volpe nella legislazione italiana e nella pratica venatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cassola

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the general mentality as well as in the actual hunting management of the Italian territory, the fox Vulpes vulpes has largely replaced the wolf Canis lupus as the target of abnormal and injustified destructive efforts. By exagerating its predatory pressure on domestic and game animals, and more recently as an asserted anti-rabies measure, the control of fox populations still continue to be heady practised in most regions, even where (such as in Tuscany, central Italy the rabies desease did not arrive. Some official data are given about foxes killed and rewards paid in several areas in the Eighties, for a total amount of several tens of thousands foxes (nearly 2,000 in the Siena province alone yearly and some milliards lira. The absurdity of such management policy and the damage indirectly caused to the agriculture are emphasized, as well as the need of stopping at last any persecution of predatory or so-called "pest" animals. Riassunto Nella mentalità popolare e nella quotidiana gestione venatoria del territorio, la Volpe Vulpes vulpes sembra aver ormai sostituito il Lupo Canis lupus come oggetto catalizzatore di abnormi e ingiustificati sforzi distruttivi. Esagerandone l'entità della predazione su animali domestici e selvatici, e più recentemente con il pretesto di diradarne le popolazioni come asserita misura di profilassi antirabbica, si continua assurdamente in molte regioni italiane a condurre operazioni di "controllo" della Volpe che perpetuano nei fatti l'anti-ecologica e ormai inaccettabile "lotta ai nocivi". Vengono in particolare qui riferiti alcuni dati ufficiali, provenienti anche da regioni, come la Toscana, mai toccate dall'epidemia di rabbia silvestre degli anni 1977-1986, relativi agli abbattimenti di volpi e ai premi pagati nel corso dell'ultimo decennio, per un totale di parecchie decine di migliaia di volpi uccise (quasi 2000 ogni anno nella

  4. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  5. Importance of native grassland habitat for den-site selection of Indian foxes in a fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Arjun Punjabi

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26 by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010. At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001 and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05 than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69 and boulder piles (0.27 in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox.

  6. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda P Basto

    Full Text Available The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS, a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA. Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive

  7. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  8. Clínica e linguagem ou o furo na prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus André Vieira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir da reunião de algumas premissas que definiriam a clínica e seguindo indicações do psicanalista Jacques Lacan, o artigo procura situar o campo de intervenção dos profissionais que lidam com a linguagem. Para tanto, assinalam-se os perigos da concepção dualista, afastando o risco de demarcar a intervenção destes profissionais como medida paliativa para os efeitos do que ocorreria no somático. Localizando o que não funciona sob o termo "furo", cuja articulação com a fala constituiria o campo da Psicanálise, utilizamos um fragmento clínico para demonstrar não sua (impossível eliminação, mas o trabalho que se pode visar tendo-o como norte.

  9. Age, growth, food habits, and reproduction of bonefish, Albula vulpes, in south Florida waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruger, G.E

    1974-01-01

    Life history and biology of bonefish, Albula vulpes, were studied from 170 specimens collected from anglers in the Lower Florida Keys between February 1970 and June 1972 and from 36 museum specimens...

  10. Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Michael J. Fox and his wife, actress Tracy Pollan, founded ...

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis and biological activity of 3-aryl-furo[3,2-c]coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit R. Kaneria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of various 3-aryl-furo[3,2-c]coumarins 4a–l has been carried out by employing two different methodologies under microwave irradiation condition. In the first method different 3-aryl-furo[3,2-c]coumarins 4a–l have been synthesized by reacting various 4-hydroxy coumarins 1a–d with appropriate 2-aryl-1-nitro ethenes 2a–c under Nef reaction condition, while in the second method the same target compounds have been synthesized by reacting various 4-hydroxy coumarins 1a–d with appropriate aroylmethyl bromides 3a–c under Feist–Benary reaction condition. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-90 spectral analysis. All the synthesized compounds 4a–l were screened for their antimicrobial activity.

  12. A foxy view of human beauty: implications of the farm fox experiment for understanding the origins of structural and experiential aspects of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, I E

    2013-09-01

    Within 20 years, experimental selection of quantified "not too aggressive, not too fearful" behavior to human approach was shown in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to produce a neotenic package of traits in adults: ability to seek, induce, and sustain contact (called friendly or rapport behavior); relatively short limbs and foreshortened skull/face; and light pigmentation areas. Earlier sexual maturation, prolonged receptivity, and larger litters were also noted. The increased estradiol supporting these changes was apparently also responsible for faster skeletal maturation, including earlier fusion of the basicranium causing tooth crowding, but also paedomorphic craniofacial proportions that we find attractive in our own and other species. In this paper, these important findings of the farm fox experiment are juxtaposed with insights from social psychology, physical anthropology, and neuroscience about facial beauty and reaction to it. Since many unrelated species show some or all of the neotenic package or domestication profile when they have achieved rapport past the juvenile stage, craniofacial proportions considered attractive are discussed as genetically and hormonally linked to the evolution of rapport--social contact, trust, and cooperation--whether by natural, intuitive, intentional, or mixed paths of selection.

  13. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mulatti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oral fox vaccination campaigns, targeting a recent rabies epidemic in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-eastern Italy, were implemented twice, first in the winter of 2009 and then in the spring of 2010. Following on an unsuccessful manual bait distribution campaign, vaccine baits were aerially distributed by helicopters using a satellite-navigated, computer-supported, automatic bait drop system. The flight paths were traced with distance of 500-1,000 m from one another to optimise helicopter missions and guarantee homogeneous coverage of the vaccination area. The vaccine distribution was evaluated by superimposing a 1 km-step grid and weighing the number of baits per cell. The implementation of a geographical information system for the management of vaccine distribution proved to be useful, both for the planning and execution phases, of the campaigns. It supported effective management of the flights and allowed near real-time monitoring of the campaigns. In addition, it facilitated the identification of areas with suboptimal bait density that would require additional flights or supplementary, manual distribution.

  14. Oral fox immunization against rabies in Italy: efficiency of the method and results / Esperienze italiane di immunizzazione orale delle volpi contro la rabbia: validità del metodo e risultati ottenuti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Civardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1984 to 1987 six campaigns of oral fox vaccination against Rabies by living modified antirabies vaccine (SAD-B 19 were carried out in the province of Brescia (Central Alps and in the provinces of Bolzano and Trento (Eastern Alps. The oral fox vaccination has been shown to be a rapid and safe method to estinguish enzootic foci of sylvatic Rabies. Laboratory tests have been performed in order to control the presence of tetracycline, the serum conversion and the presence of wild or attenutated viruses in the nervous tissue of foxes and other wild animals. Results confirm the effectiveness of the method. Riassunto Sono esposti i risultati degli esperimenti di immunizzazione orale della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes contro la rabbia silvestre in Italia, illustrando la preparazione e l'esecuzione dei piani di vaccinazione, il monitoraggio delle volpi ed i relativi controlli di laboratorio. Dal 1984 al 1987 sono state compiute 6 campagne vaccinali che hanno interessato le province di Brescia, Trento e Bolzano. I risultati ottenuti confermano la validità della vaccinazione orale della Volpe come strumento di lotta e di profilassi contro la rabbia silvestre.

  15. Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a free-roaming red fox: case report and historical review on diphtheria in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Andreas; Konrad, Regina; Meinel, Dominik M; Mauder, Norman; Schwabe, Ingo; Sting, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the classical causative agent of diphtheria, is considered to be nearly restricted to humans. Here we report the first finding of a non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar belfanti strain in a free-roaming wild animal. The strain obtained from the subcutis and mammary gland of a dead red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was characterized by biochemical and molecular methods including MALDI-TOF and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Since C. diphtheriae infections of animals, usually with close contact to humans, are reported only very rarely, an intense review comprising also scientific literature from the beginning of the 20th century was performed. Besides the present case, only 11 previously reported C. diphtheriae animal infections could be verified using current scientific criteria. Our report is the first on the isolation of C. diphtheriae from a wildlife animal without any previous human contact. In contrast, the very few unambiguous publications on C. diphtheriae in animals referred to livestock or pet animals with close human contact. C. diphtheriae carriage in animals has to be considered as an exceptionally rare event.

  16. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from red foxes in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Estepa, Vanesa; Sargo, Roberto; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-02-01

    The presence of broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates and the implicated mechanisms of resistance and virulence factor genes were investigated in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Portugal. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were isolated from two of 52 fecal samples (4 %), being both ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found in the two isolates were bla(SHV-12) + bla(TEM-1b). The tet(A) and sul2 genes were also detected in these isolates, together with the non-classical class 1 integron (intI1-dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3) with the PcH1 promoter. The two isolates belonged to the phylogroup A. Amino acid changes in GyrA (S83L + D87G) and ParC (S80I) proteins were identified in our study. Concerning MLST typing, both isolates were assigned to ST1086, never found before in wild animals, and they presented closely related PFGE patterns. This study reveals the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, in a wild ecosystem, which could be disseminated through the environment to other niches.

  17. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shehabi F.S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8 % with a worm load ranging between 3 - > 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5 %. The sensitivity increased to 87.5 % and 100 % in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91 %. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal.

  18. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M; Lonsinger, Robert C; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models) and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes). Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry) appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects) were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat transects may be

  19. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations.

  20. Luteinizing hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, N J; Kuijten, A M; Galac, S

    2008-04-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is associated with increased circulating concentrations of adrenal androgens, whereas plasma concentrations of cortisol and ACTH are usually not affected. Here, we report on a 5-year-old castrated male pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in which the major presenting signs were polyuria and polyphagia. Routine biochemistry values were within their reference ranges. The urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio (UCCR) was increased and the plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged right adrenal gland and atrophy of the left adrenal gland. Administration of hCG resulted in an increase of plasma cortisol and androstenedione concentrations. Based on these findings LH/hCG-dependent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism were suspected and treatment was started with a depot GnRH-agonist implant containing 9.4mg deslorelin. Within 3 weeks after placement of the implant all clinical signs had disappeared. Three months later the endocrine parameters had normalized, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the right adrenal gland had diminished in size and the left adrenal gland was considered of normal size. No recurrences of clinical signs were seen within 2 years after placement of the deslorelin implant. At that time urinary corticoid and plasma hormone concentrations were within their reference ranges, and no further change in the size of the adrenal glands was seen. In conclusion, this is the first confirmed case of LH-dependent hypercortisolism in a ferret that was treated successfully with a depot GnRH-agonist.

  1. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β+ B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (i.e., pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MαF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM. PMID:28286781

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B. Ernest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo is an important model organism for the study of avian influenza and other diseases of humans and animals, as well as a popular pet animal. In order to evaluate genetic diversity and study disease relationships in ferrets, 22 nuclear microsatellite loci (17 dinucleotide and 5 tetranucleotide were developed from ferret genomic libraries and organized into seven multiplex sets. Polymorphism was preliminarily assessed in one population in Australia and one in the USA, sampled with 25 individuals each. The loci displayed allelic diversity ranging from 1 to 5 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.04 to 0.65 and 0.04 to 0.76, respectively. Additionally, the loci amplified products in 15 samples from the wild ancestor, European polecat (Mustela putorius and domestic ferret-polecat hybrids. In polecat/hybrid samples, allelic diversity ranged from 3 to 8 alleles, and expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.13 to 0.81 and 0.13 to 0.80 respectively. These markers will be useful for molecular assessments of genetic diversity and applications to evolution, ecology, and health in domestic ferrets and wild polecats.

  3. Fox reimbedding and Bing submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Let M be an orientable closed connected 3-manifold. We introduce the notion of amalgamated Heegaard genus of M with respect to a closed separating 2-manifold F, and use it to show that the following two statements are equivalent: (i) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that the exterior of the image of Y is a union of handlebodies; and (ii) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that every knot in M can be isotoped to lie within the image of Y . Our result can be regarded as a common generalization of the reimbedding theorem by Fox [Fox48] and the characterization of 3-sphere by Bing [Bin58], as well as more recent results of Hass and Thompson [HT89] and Kobayashi and Nishi [KN94].

  4. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  5. Business plan - Black Fox Media

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    BlackFoxMedia is the company, which will specialize in the installation and operation of large advertising screens, which would not overload the space with their size, so that it all looks natural and attractive. We would like to make the contribution by improving the quality and effectiveness of the entire advertising market, broadcasting qualitative advertisement on high-quality advertising screens in places where the people would have time to see it. Mainly we want to get to the spaces nex...

  6. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  7. Temporal analysis of genetic structure to assess population dynamics of reintroduced swift foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Moehrenschlager, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Reintroductions are increasingly used to reestablish species, but a paucity of long-term postrelease monitoring has limited understanding of whether and when viable populations subsequently persist. We conducted temporal genetic analyses of reintroduced populations of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in Canada (Alberta and Saskatchewan) and the United States (Montana). We used samples collected 4 years apart, 17 years from the initiation of the reintroduction, and 3 years after the conclusion of releases. To assess program success, we genotyped 304 hair samples, subsampled from the known range in 2000 and 2001, and 2005 and 2006, at 7 microsatellite loci. We compared diversity, effective population size, and genetic connectivity over time in each population. Diversity remained stable over time and there was evidence of increasing effective population size. We determined population structure in both periods after correcting for differences in sample sizes. The geographic distribution of these populations roughly corresponded with the original release locations, which suggests the release sites had residual effects on the population structure. However, given that both reintroduction sites had similar source populations, habitat fragmentation, due to cropland, may be associated with the population structure we found. Although our results indicate growing, stable populations, future connectivity analyses are warranted to ensure both populations are not subject to negative small-population effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of multiple sampling years to fully capture population dynamics of reintroduced populations. Análisis Temporal de la Estructura Genética para Evaluar la Dinámica Poblacional de Zorros (Vulpes velox) Reintroducidos.

  8. A strategy of fox management in Italy: the guide lines of the Istituto Nazionale di Biologia della Selvaggina / Proposte per una strategia nazionale di gestione della Volpe: le linee direttrici dell'Istituto Nazionale di Biologia della Selvaggina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Toso

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authors critically consider the usual fox management in Italy and suggest a new strategy concerning the hunting activity and population control. The following topics are discussed: a improvement of the knowledge about the geographical and ecological distribution of foxes using the information furnished by a specific national atlas; b population dynamics monitoring mainly obtained from the bag records and the cheking of breeding dens in selected sampling areas; c hunting methods and season; d guide-lines for the policy of fox control based on an up-to-date review about the effects of fox predation on game and the effectiveness of the different methods carried on. Riassunto Gli Autori esaminano criticamente il tipo di gestione cui viene sottoposta la Volpe Vulpes vulpes in Italia e suggeriscono una nuova strategia per ciò che concerne il prelievo venatorio ed il controllo delle popolazioni. In particolare vengono affrontati i seguenti temi: a miglioramento delle conoscenze sulla distribuzione geografica ed ecologica della specie attraverso la redazione di uno specifico atlante nazionale; b monitoraggio della dinamica delle popolazioni, ottenuto soprattutto con l'analisi dei carnieri ed il conteggio delle tane riproduttive in aree campione; c tempi e modalità del prelievo venatorio; d analisi delle attuali conoscenze circa l'impatto della predazione della Volpe sulla selvaggina e conseguenti indicazioni sull'opportunità e efficacia delle operazioni di controllo delle popolazioni volpine anche in relazione ai metodi diretti ed indiretti utilizzati.

  9. The Fox and the Crocodile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芬

    2008-01-01

    Time: a sunny day Place: a river in the forest Characters: Fox, Crocodile(鳄鱼) , Rabbit A, Rabbit B, Little Deer, Mother Deer Scene ⅠStoryteller: There are many animals in the forest. There is a river in the forest, too.When the animals are thirsty(口渴的) , they often drink water in the river. But there is a bad big crocodile living in the river too. All the small animals hate him but they are also afraid of him.

  10. Synthesis of furo[3,2-c ]- and pyrano[ 3,2-c ] quinolines by lanthanide triflate catalyzed imino-Diels-Alder reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA, Yun(马云); QIAN, Chang-Tao(钱长涛); SUN, Jie(孙杰); XIE, Mei-Hua(谢美华)

    2000-01-01

    Imino Diels-Alder reaction of imines witth 2,3-dihydrofuran or 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran proceeded smothly in the presence of a catalytic amount (0.5 mol %) of ytterbium triflate to afford furo[3,2-c]- and pyrano[3,2-c] quinolines conveniently in high yield.

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cécile; Gevaert, Lieven; Kohout, Ladislav; Van Staden, Johannes; Verschaeve, Luc

    2010-08-01

    Smoke, smoke-water and aerosols have a stimulatory effect on seed germination and growth vigour of many seedlings, making them potentially useful for different purposes, provided they do not pose a health risk. Therefore, the genotoxicity of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, a variant of the most active smoke compound (3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one) was evaluated using the Vitotox assay. Smoke-water extracts were obtained from burning leaves: Themeda triandra (smoke-water Tt) and a mix of Themeda triandra and Passerina vulgaris (smoke-water Kb). No genotoxic effect was observed for any of the three samples. However, the three samples are toxic at the highest concentrations (3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, 2 ppm; smoke-water Tt, dilutions 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 4; smoke-water Kb, dilution 1 : 1) without addition of S9 mix. Both the butenolide 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and smoke-water Tt are also toxic at high doses in the presence of S9 (2 ppm and dilutions 1 : 1 and 1 : 2, respectively), but not smoke-water Kb. Thus, from these results, no genotoxicity of these three samples can be assumed, which is accordance with the previous tests performed with 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one and a smoke-water.

  12. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.;

    1995-01-01

    differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle......Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...

  13. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  14. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  15. E-Interview: Norma Fox Mazer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)

  16. Observations on the Bryant Fox Squirrel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This published report outlines the history and current status of the Bryant Fox Squirrel in the year 1944. Topics covered in the report include Characteristics,...

  17. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range, which is described in this plan. The...

  18. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the Recovery Plan is to restore the Delmarva fox squirrel to secure status throughout its former range. The plan includes the following...

  19. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Refuge Tour Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report by members of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Team, the South Zone Biologist, and the Regional Forester that summarizes a tour of Chincoteague...

  20. E-Interview: Norma Fox Mazer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)

  1. Fox-Wolfram Moments in Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernaciak, Catherine; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox--Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, either computed from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox--Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.

  2. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  3. Charting the Chemical Reactivity Space of 2,3-Substituted Furo[2,3-b]pyridines Synthesized via the Heterocyclization of Pyridine-N-oxide Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Fernando; da Silva Emery, Flavio

    2016-11-04

    A concise strategy for the synthesis of 2,3-substituted furo[2,3-b]pyridines is described. Mild, metal-free conditions were successfully applied to produce a range of 2-(alkyl or aryl)-3-ethylcarboxylate-furo[2,3-b]pyridines in yields of 50-91%. Then, the chemical reactivity of this heterocyclic framework was explored to develop straightforward methods for its functionalization. The pyridine moiety reactivity was successfully explored by C-H amination and borylation reactions, although C-H fluorination and radical C-H arylation processes were not as efficient. In addition, while the furopyridine core proved stable under basic conditions, the ring-opening reaction of the furan moiety with hydrazine generated a valuable new pyridine-dihydropyrazolone scaffold.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sebastes vulpes (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes) from the East Sea, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo-Soon; Oh, Sung-Yong; Lee, Eun Kyung; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Sebastes vulpes is considered a valid species despite the presence of extensive hybrids. To obtain the basic genetic intraspecific structure, we analyzed the complete mitogenome of S. vulpes using next-generation sequencing. The complete mitogenome was 16,462 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 1 control region. The complete mitogenome comprised 27.7% A, 26.5% T, 17.1% G and 28.6% C, showing a minor AT bias (54.3%). The initial codon in all PCGs was ATG, excluding COX1 (GTG). The majority of stop codons in the PCGs were TAA, excluding ND1 and ND3 (TAG), ND4 (AGA) and Cytb (incomplete termination codon, T). All tRNAs had a typical cloverleaf structure, excluding tRNA(Ser (AGY)), which lacked the DHU arm. The complete mitogenome of S. vulpes can be used to study hybridisation and on-going speciation.

  5. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Five Year Review Summary and Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This review constitutes an evaluation of information on the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel that has become available since 1993, when the Delmarva Fox Squirrel...

  6. Fox management plan, Aleutian Islands Unit, AMNWR: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The presence or absence of arctic fox on islands in the Aleutian Islands Units is described as a decision tool for fox eradication. An effective chemical...

  7. Aplicabilidade da análise isotópica na compreensão da variação sazonal e espacial da dieta da raposa (Vulpes vulpes) num habitat Mediterrânico

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Ana Cláudia Neves, 1990-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia da Conservação). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 A raposa-vermelha (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) é um mesocarnívoro nativo da Eurásia, que devido ao seu percurso evolutivo e história de vida, resultou num predador generalista quer em termos do uso do habitat quer em termos alimentares, o que lhe permitiu tornar-se no carnívoro selvagem com a distribuição geográfica mais ampla. Esta capacidade adaptativa torna-se particularmente rele...

  8. Aplicabilidade da análise isotópica na compreensão da variação sazonal e espacial da dieta da raposa (Vulpes vulpes) num habitat Mediterrânico

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Ana Cláudia Neves, 1990-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia da Conservação). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 A raposa-vermelha (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) é um mesocarnívoro nativo da Eurásia, que devido ao seu percurso evolutivo e história de vida, resultou num predador generalista quer em termos do uso do habitat quer em termos alimentares, o que lhe permitiu tornar-se no carnívoro selvagem com a distribuição geográfica mais ampla. Esta capacidade adaptativa torna-se particularmente rele...

  9. FoxP2 in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Sandra; Adam, Iris; Scharff, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Humans with mutations in the transcription factor FOXP2 display a severe speech disorder. Songbirds are a powerful model system to study FoxP2. Like humans, songbirds communicate via vocalizations that are imitatively learned during critical periods and this learning is influenced by social factors...

  10. Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Novel Partnerships De-Risking Successes PD Therapeutics Conference Sponsored Prizes Data Science Challenge Robert A. Pritzker Prize Bachmann-Strauss Prize DONATE TO ADVANCE RESEARCH FUNDRAISE WITH TEAM FOX PARTICIPATE IN YOUR AREA LATEST FROM THE BLOG MORE NEWS MJFF LIVE October 28, 2016 Ask ...

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine and furo[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Joy M; Arabshahi, Homayon J; Leung, Euphemia; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Barker, David

    2014-10-30

    Forty seven thieno[2,3-b]pyridines-2-carboxamides, furo[2,3-b]pyridines-2-carboxamides and tetrahydrothieno[2,3-b]quinolones-2-carboxamides derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antiproliferative activity against the NCI-60 cell lines. The 5-keto-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-b]quinolones-2-carboxamides (series 17) were found to have the greatest activity, with the compound containing a 3-methoxyphenylcarboxamide (compound 17d) being the most active, with GI50 values in the low nanomolar range against a range of cell lines, in particular the melanoma cell line MDA-MD-435 (GI50 - 23 nM) and the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 (GI50 - 46 nM). Molecular modelling of series 17 against phosphoinositide specific-phospholipase C reveals that the side chains of the amino acids His356, Glu341, Arg549 and Lys438 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the ligands as well as a lipophilic pocket is occupied by the phenyl carboxamide moiety.

  12. 赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞的分离与体外培养%Isolation and culture in vitro of melanocytes from the skin of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍加荣; 刘学庆; 岳志刚; 杨福合

    2015-01-01

    [目的]建立一种适合赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞的分离和体外培养体系,为研究毛色形成的分子机理提供必要载体.[方法]采集赤狐的皮肤样品,经Dispase Ⅱ和胰酶两步消化,以添加有表皮生长因子(Epidermal growth factor,EGF)、十四烷酰佛波醇乙酸酯(12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate,TPA)和牛垂体提取物(Bovine pituitary extract,BPE)的K-SFM培养基进行原代和传代培养,再通过形态观察、用酶标仪测定黑色素含量、多巴染色结合透射电镜观察、毛色基因RT-PCR检测等方法对体外培养获得的黑色素细胞进行鉴定.[结果]体外培养获得的赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞有2或3个树突,胞质内含有大量的黑色素小体,经测定第3、4和5代细胞的黑色素含量分别为0.0283、0.0276和0.0265 ng/cell,黑色素含量差异不显著(P>0.05).从第4代赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞的总RNA中能RT-PCR扩增出MITF、TYR、TYRP1、MIT等毛色基因特异条带,说明培养获得的赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞生物学状态良好.[结论]以K-SFM为基础培养基,通过添加EGF、TPA和BPE等成分,可体外培养获得赤狐皮肤黑色素细胞,且能有效回避添加CT培养细胞的潜在致癌风险.

  13. Intrapopulation variability shaping isotope discrimination and turnover: experimental evidence in arctic foxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lecomte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific stable isotope signatures can provide insights into the trophic ecology of consumers and their roles in food webs. Two parameters are central for making valid inferences based on stable isotopes, isotopic discrimination (difference in isotopic ratio between consumer and its diet and turnover time (renewal process of molecules in a given tissue usually measured when half of the tissue composition has changed. We investigated simultaneously the effects of age, sex, and diet types on the variation of discrimination and half-life in nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C, respectively in five tissues (blood cells, plasma, muscle, liver, nail, and hair of a top predator, the arctic fox Vulpes lagopus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed 40 farmed foxes (equal numbers of adults and yearlings of both sexes with diet capturing the range of resources used by their wild counterparts. We found that, for a single species, six tissues, and three diet types, the range of discrimination values can be almost as large as what is known at the scale of the whole mammalian or avian class. Discrimination varied depending on sex, age, tissue, and diet types, ranging from 0.3‰ to 5.3‰ (mean  = 2.6‰ for δ¹⁵N and from 0.2‰ to 2.9‰ (mean  = 0.9‰ for δ¹³C. We also found an impact of population structure on δ¹⁵N half-life in blood cells. Varying across individuals, δ¹⁵N half-life in plasma (6 to 10 days was also shorter than for δ¹³C (14 to 22 days, though δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C half-lives are usually considered as equal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our multi-factorial experiment revealed that at least six levels of isotopic variations could co-occur in the same population. Our experimental analysis provides a framework for quantifying multiple sources of variation in isotopic discrimination and half-life that needs to be taken into account when designing and analysing ecological

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as novel and potent phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taltavull, Joan; Serrat, Jordi; Gràcia, Jordi; Gavaldà, Amadeu; Córdoba, Mònica; Calama, Elena; Montero, José Luis; Andrés, Míriam; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Vilella, Dolors; Hernández, Begoña; Beleta, Jorge; Ryder, Hamish; Pagès, Lluís

    2011-10-01

    A series of pyrido[3',2':4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidines (PFP) were synthesized and tested for phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitory activity, with the potential to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Structure-activity relationships within this series, leading to an increase of potency on the enzyme, is presented. Both gem-dimethylcyclohexyl moieties fused to the pyridine ring and the substitution at the 5 position of the PFP scaffold, proved to be key elements in order to get a high affinity in the enzyme.

  15. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    OpenAIRE

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor...

  16. FOXE3 plays a significant role in autosomal recessive microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Stoler, Joan M; Melancon, Serge B; Semina, Elena V

    2010-03-01

    FOXE3 forkhead transcription factor is essential to lens development in vertebrates. The eyes of Foxe3/foxe3-deficient mice and zebrafish fail to develop normally. In humans, autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in FOXE3 have been associated with variable phenotypes including anterior segment anomalies, cataract, and microphthalmia. We undertook sequencing of FOXE3 in 116 probands with a spectrum of ocular defects ranging from anterior segment dysgenesis and cataract to anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Recessive mutations in FOXE3 were found in four of 26 probands affected with bilateral microphthalmia (15% of all bilateral microphthalmia and 100% of consanguineous families with this phenotype). FOXE3-positive microphthalmia was accompanied by aphakia and/or corneal defects; no other associated systemic anomalies were observed in FOXE3-positive families. The previously reported c.720C > A (p.C240X) nonsense mutation was identified in two additional families in our sample and therefore appears to be recurrent, now reported in three independent microphthalmia families of varied ethnic backgrounds. Several missense variants were identified at varying frequencies in patient and control groups with some apparently being race-specific, which underscores the importance of utilizing race/ethnicity-matched control populations in evaluating the relevance of genetic screening results. In conclusion, FOXE3 mutations represent an important cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive bilateral microphthalmia.

  17. On Sorting Strings under Visual FoxPro%Visual FoxPro环境字符排序探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊爱法

    2011-01-01

    从Visual FoxPro的排序设置开始,就字符型数据精确比较和非精确比较中的疑难问题进行剖析,详细阐述了Visual FoxPro环境下字符数据的排序方法.%Through the description of the sorting methods of Visual FoxPro, this article analyses the problems existing in the precise and imprecise comparison of strings data. Finally the author suggests some ways to sort strings data under Visual FoxPro.

  18. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7).

  19. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution.

  20. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis found in 2 foxes in Southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    -BD23-BB1C85C34327%7d). Since September 2011 we have surveyed _E. multilocularis_ in wild carnivores. A total of 856 carnivores have been studied so far: 692 foxes, 150 raccoon dogs, 11 badgers, 3 raccoons, and one wolf. Of these, 7 foxes were positive, all of them originating from the same area...

  2. Parasites of red foxes in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H J

    1978-07-01

    Sixty-one red foxes from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were examined for helminths. Alaria americana, A. arisaemoides, A. mustelae, Cryptocotyle lingua, Echinostoma revolution and Metorchis conjunctus, Capillaria aerophila, Crenosoma vulpis, Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala and Taenia crassiceps were found. Approximately 67% of the foxes examined were clinically affected with Sarcoptes scabiei mange.

  3. FoxO: a new addition to the ESC cartel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2011-09-02

    The forkhead box O (FoxO) family is involved in diverse cellular processes such as tumor suppression, stress response, and metabolism. In a recent Nature Cell Biology Letter, Zhang et al. (2011) uncover a novel role for FoxO proteins in regulating the identity of human ESCs.

  4. Update of human and mouse forkhead box (FOX gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Brian C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The forkhead box (FOX proteins are transcription factors that play complex and important roles in processes from development and organogenesis to regulation of metabolism and the immune system. There are 50 FOX genes in the human genome and 44 in the mouse, divided into 19 subfamilies. All human FOX genes have close mouse orthologues, with one exception: the mouse has a single Foxd4, whereas the human gene has undergone a recent duplication to a total of seven (FOXD4 and FOXD4L1 → FOXD4L6. Evolutionarily ancient family members can be found as far back as the fungi and metazoans. The DNA-binding domain, the forkhead domain, is an example of the winged-helix domain, and is very well conserved across the FOX family and across species, with a few notable exceptions in which divergence has created new functionality. Mutations in FOX genes have been implicated in at least four familial human diseases, and differential expression may play a role in a number of other pathologies -- ranging from metabolic disorders to autoimmunity. Furthermore, FOX genes are differentially expressed in a large number of cancers; their role can be either as an oncogene or tumour suppressor, depending on the family member and cell type. Although some drugs that target FOX gene expression or activity, notably proteasome inhibitors, appear to work well, much more basic research is needed to unlock the complex interplay of upstream and downstream interactions with FOX family transcription factors.

  5. 76 FR 13312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI. in the Federal Register (75 FR 76322). The rulemaking concerned the..., 2010, at 75 FR 76322, is withdrawn on March 11, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this withdrawn... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh,...

  6. FoxM1 Regulates Mammary Luminal Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janai R. Carr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer correlates with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype and a negative clinical outcome. However, a role for FoxM1 in regulating mammary differentiation was not known. Here, we identify another function of FoxM1, the ability to act as a transcriptional repressor, which plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of luminal epithelial progenitors. Regeneration of mammary glands with elevated levels of FoxM1 leads to aberrant ductal morphology and expansion of the luminal progenitor pool. Conversely, knockdown of FoxM1 results in a shift toward the differentiated state. FoxM1 mediates these effects by repressing the key regulator of luminal differentiation, GATA-3. Through association with DNMT3b, FoxM1 promotes methylation of the GATA-3 promoter in an Rb-dependent manner. This study identifies FoxM1 as a critical regulator of mammary differentiation with significant implications for the development of aggressive breast cancers.

  7. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pokrovsky

    Full Text Available Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Fox genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JiangBo; Li, ZhiQuan; Tong, XiaoLing; Chen, Cong; Chen, Min; Meng, Gang; Chen, Peng; Li, ChunLin; Xin, YaQun; Gai, TingTing; Dai, FangYin; Lu, Cheng

    2015-09-01

    The forkhead box (Fox) transcription factor family has a characteristic of forkhead domain, a winged DNA-binding domain. The Fox genes have been classified into 23 subfamilies, designated FoxA to FoxS, of which the FoxR and FoxS subfamilies are specific to vertebrates. In this review, using whole-genome scanning, we identified 17 distinct Fox genes distributed on 13 chromosomes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. A phylogenetic tree showed that the silkworm Fox genes could be classified into 13 subfamilies. The FoxK subfamily is specifically absent from the silkworm, although it is present in other lepidopteran insects, including Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene. Microarray data revealed that the Fox genes have distinct expression patterns in the tissues on day 3 of the 5th instar larva. A Gene Ontology analysis suggested that the Fox genes have roles in cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes, except in pore complex biogenesis. An analysis of the selective pressure on the proteins indicated that most of the amino acid sites in the Fox proteins are undergoing strong purifying selection. Here, we summarize the general characteristics of the Fox genes in the silkworm, which should support further functional studies of the silkworm Fox proteins.

  9. Effects of supplemental feeding on survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal in San Joaquin kit foxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Previous field studies at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California indicated that a decline in tie population size of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox might be linked to declining prey abundance. To evaluate whether kit fox populations we limited by food resources; survival probabilities, sources of mortality, reproductive success, and dispersal rates were compared between foxes with access to supplemental food and foxes without access to supplemental food (controls). Of foxes born in 1988, the probabilities of supplementary fed foxes surviving to age one and age two were higher than corresponding probabilities of control foxes. Survival probabilities of fed foxes from the 1988 cohort also were higher than the average survival probabilities of foxes born in the previous eight years. Most foxes that died during their first year of life died in June, July, or August. Monthly probabilities of survival were higher for fed pups than control pups curing the months of July and August of 1988. Survival probabilities of fed foxes originally r captured as adults and fed foxes born in 1989 were not significantly different than survival probabilities of corresponding control groups. Most foxes for which a cause of death could be determined were lolled by predators. Average dispersal distances were not significantly different between fed and control groups but the two longest dispersal distances were made by control foxes. These results indicate that food availability affects survival, reproduction, and dispersal by kit foxes and provides evidence that kit fox populations may at times be limited by food abundance.

  10. Synthesis of thiopyrano[4",3":4',5']pyrido[3',2':4, 5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Essam; Kh.Ahmed; A.Ameen

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of the 6-hydroxy-thiopyrano[3,4-c]pyridine-5-carbonitrile derivative 1 with α-halo-carbonyl compounds gave the ortho-substituted intermediates 2a-c which were converted into furo[2,3-b]thiopyrano[4,3-d]pyridines 3a-c by fusion of a furan moiety under basic conditions. Further cyclization of 3a-c led to a fusion of a pyrimidine ring, yielding the tetracyclic products 6,7 and 8. In addition, condensation of 6 with various aromatic aldehydes afforded the corresponding imines 9a,b. Mannich reaction of 7 gave products 10a,b.

  11. FoxO integration of insulin signaling with glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojin; Dong, H Henry

    2017-05-01

    The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA-binding domain, known as 'forkhead box' domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals. Of the FoxO family, FoxO6 is the least characterized member and is shown to play pivotal roles in the liver, skeletal muscle and brain. Altered FoxO6 expression is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, dietary obesity and type 2 diabetes and risk of neurodegeneration disease. FoxO6 is evolutionally divergent from other FoxO isoforms. FoxO6 mediates insulin action on target genes in a mechanism that is fundamentally different from other FoxO members. Here, we focus our review on the role of FoxO6, in contrast with other FoxO isoforms, in health and disease. We review the distinctive mechanism by which FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We highlight the importance of FoxO6 dysregulation in the dual pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetes. We review the role of FoxO6 in memory consolidation and its contribution to neurodegeneration disease and aging. We discuss the potential therapeutic option of pharmacological FoxO6 inhibition for improving glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. From FOX-7 to H-FOX to insensitive energetic materials with hypergolic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Dharavath; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-06-08

    Nitrogen/halogen rich derivatives, , , , and of FOX-7 (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene), and H-FOX (1-hydrazinyl-2,2-dinitroethenamine) have been synthesized, characterized and found to exhibit good energetic properties. Compound displays hypergolic properties with commonly utilized fuels such as monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), and hydrazine hydrate (HH), as well as with ethylenediamine (EN), and 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) showing ignition delay times between 2.5 to 10 ms. Additionally, the hypergolic properties of 4 and 8 were further studied by using ammonia borane as a fuel solubilized in a green ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide, (1 : 1 molar ratio). This is a new role for a derivative of H-FOX. The energetic and physical properties of all the molecules were either measured or calculated. All of materials were characterized by NMR, and infrared spectra, elemental analyses, and differential scanning calorimetry. Single crystal X-ray structural measurements for and were helpful in their confirmation.

  13. Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation of species distributions: a case study of the swift fox in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Slivinski, Christiane C.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate maps of species distributions are essential tools for wildlife research and conservation. Unfortunately, biologists often are forced to rely on maps derived from observed occurrences recorded opportunistically during observation periods of variable length. Spurious inferences are likely to result because such maps are profoundly affected by the duration and intensity of observation and by methods used to delineate distributions, especially when detection is uncertain. We conducted a systematic survey of swift fox (Vulpes velox) distribution in western Kansas, USA, and used Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) image restoration to rectify these problems. During 1997–1999, we searched 355 townships (ca. 93 km) 1–3 times each for an average cost of $7,315 per year and achieved a detection rate (probability of detecting swift foxes, if present, during a single search) of = 0.69 (95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = [0.60, 0.77]). Our analysis produced an estimate of the underlying distribution, rather than a map of observed occurrences, that reflected the uncertainty associated with estimates of model parameters. To evaluate our results, we analyzed simulated data with similar properties. Results of our simulations suggest negligible bias and good precision when probabilities of detection on ≥1 survey occasions (cumulative probabilities of detection) exceed 0.65. Although the use of MCMC image restoration has been limited by theoretical and computational complexities, alternatives do not possess the same advantages. Image models accommodate uncertain detection, do not require spatially independent data or a census of map units, and can be used to estimate species distributions directly from observations without relying on habitat covariates or parameters that must be estimated subjectively. These features facilitate economical surveys of large regions, the detection of temporal trends in distribution, and assessments of landscape-level relations between

  14. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan Second Revision 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recovery plan is the second revision of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Plan and is based upon information obtained from previous planning efforts...

  15. Investigations of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of doing n census study of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel is to provide some basis for determining the annual and periodic fluctuation in the...

  16. Reintroductions of the Endangered Delmarva Fox Squirrel in Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Delmarva Fox Squirrel discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and criteria,...

  17. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Census Report 1977 Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Area time counts of the endangered Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrels and concurrently of Eastern Grey Squirrels were conducted in 1977 on several mornings during the...

  18. Genetic Variation Within and Among Populations of Delmarva Fox Squirrels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to provide important information about genetic variation in populations of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel in the context of a more general...

  19. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  20. Horicon and Fox River National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Horicon and Fox River NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the refuges'...

  1. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Trapping Results October/November 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  2. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Status and Recovery Plan Update 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This update has been developed to supplement the recommendations in the 1993 recovery plan for the endangered Delmarva Fox Squirrel. The conservation strategy...

  3. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  4. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  5. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  6. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  7. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  8. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  9. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  10. Expression of Fox genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAldea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox genes code for transcription factors that play important roles in different biological processes. They are found in a wide variety of organisms and appeared in unicellular eukaryotes. In metazoans, the gene family includes many members that can be subdivided into 24 classes. Cephalochordates are key organisms to understand the functional evolution of gene families in the chordate lineage due to their phylogenetic position as an early divergent chordate, their simple anatomy and genome structure. In the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae, 32 Fox genes were identified, with at least one member for each of the classes that were present in the ancestor of bilaterians. In this work we describe the expression pattern of 13 of these genes during the embryonic development of the Mediterranean amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We found that FoxK and FoxM genes present an ubiquitous expression while all the others show specific expression patterns restricted to diverse embryonic territories. Many of these expression patterns are conserved with vertebrates, suggesting that the main functions of Fox genes in chordates were present in their common ancestor.

  11. Survival and Abundance of Delmarva Fox Squirrels at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS; Sciurus niger cinereus) is a subspecies of the Eastern fox squirrel. The DFS once ranged from southeastern Pennsylvania (Poole, 1932)...

  12. Biomagnification of cycad neurotoxins in flying foxes: implications for ALS-PDC in Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Cox, Paul Alan

    2003-08-12

    Beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) occurs in higher levels in museum specimens of the Guamanian flying fox than in the cycad seeds the flying foxes feed on, confirming the hypothesis that cycad neurotoxins are biomagnified within the Guam ecosystem. Consumption of a single flying fox may have resulted in an equivalent BMAA dose obtained from eating 174 to 1,014 kg of processed cycad flour. Traditional feasting on flying foxes may be related to the prevalence of neuropathologic disease in Guam.

  13. Radioiodination of 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin and biological evaluation in solid tumor bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elhalim, S M; Ibrahim, I T

    2014-10-22

    Compound 2,3-dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]coumarin is a coumarin derivative that could be labeled with (125)I. The process of labeling was started using 1mg of the compound, 50µg CAT oxidizing agent, 30min as reaction time at pH with a yield about 95%. The (125)I-coumarin derivative was stable for about 48h. Radiochemical purity of the labeled compound was performed by electrophoresis and HPLC. The labeled compound was separated with purity about 95%. Tumor transplantation to produce a solid tumor in the right leg of albino mice was made by intramuscular injection of 2×10(6) EAC (Ehrlish acittes carcinoma cells). Biodistribution study of (125)I-coumarin derivative revealed that the uptake in tumor bearing leg was over 5% at 1h and 4h post-injection. This uptake encourages the use of (123)I-coumarin derivative in imaging of tumor sites.

  14. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C

    2014-09-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor agreement and correlation with the laboratory analyzer (bias, -0.13 mmol/L; level of agreement, -2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L, concordance correlation coefficient 0.665). The relative sensitivity and specificity of the portable blood glucometer for detection of hypoglycemia were 100% (95% CI: 66% to 100%) and 50% (95% CI: 20% to 80%), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 67% (95% CI: 39% to 87%) and 100% (95% CI: 46% to 100%), respectively. Based on these results, clinicians are advised to be cautious when considering the results from this handheld glucometer in pet ferrets, and blood glucose concentrations should be determined with a laboratory analyzer validated for this species.

  15. Sea ice occurrence predicts genetic isolation in the Arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Eli; Waidyaratne, Sitara; Dalén, Love; Angerbjörn, Anders; Vila, Carles; Hersteinsson, Pall; Fuglei, Eva; White, Paula A; Goltsman, Michael; Kapel, Christian M O; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-10-01

    Unlike Oceanic islands, the islands of the Arctic Sea are not completely isolated from migration by terrestrial vertebrates. The pack ice connects many Arctic Sea islands to the mainland during winter months. The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), which has a circumpolar distribution, populates numerous islands in the Arctic Sea. In this study, we used genetic data from 20 different populations, spanning the entire distribution of the Arctic fox, to identify barriers to dispersal. Specifically, we considered geographical distance, occurrence of sea ice, winter temperature, ecotype, and the presence of red fox and polar bear as nonexclusive factors that influence the dispersal behaviour of individuals. Using distance-based redundancy analysis and the BIOENV procedure, we showed that occurrence of sea ice is the key predictor and explained 40-60% of the genetic distance among populations. In addition, our analysis identified the Commander and Pribilof Islands Arctic populations as genetically unique suggesting they deserve special attention from a conservation perspective.

  16. Steroid Receptors Reprogram FoxA1 Occupancy through Dynamic Chromatin Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinstead, Erin E; Miranda, Tina B; Paakinaho, Ville;

    2016-01-01

    between ER, GR, and FoxA1 requires further investigation. Here we show that ER and GR both have the ability to alter the genomic distribution of the FoxA1 pioneer factor. Single-molecule tracking experiments in live cells reveal a highly dynamic interaction of FoxA1 with chromatin in vivo. Furthermore...

  17. FoxK2 is Required for Cellular Proliferation and Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Lars P.; Wijchers, Patrick J. E. C.; von Oerthel, Lars; Burbach, J. Peter H.; Hoekman, Marco F. M.; Smidt, Marten P.

    2015-01-01

    FoxK2 is a forkhead transcription factor expressed ubiquitously in the developing murine central nervous system. Here we investigated the role of FoxK2 in vitro and focused on proliferation and cellular survival. Knockdown of FoxK2 results in a decrease in BrdU incorporation and H3 phosphorylation,

  18. FoxK2 is required for cellular proliferation and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, L.P.; Wijchers, P.J.E.C.; von Oerthel, L.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Hoekman, M.F.M.; Smidt, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    FoxK2 is a forkhead transcription factor expressed ubiquitously in the developing murine central nervous system. Here we investigated the role of FoxK2 in vitro and focused on proliferation and cellular survival. Knockdown of FoxK2 results in a decrease in BrdU incorporation and H3 phosphorylation,

  19. Detection of circovirus in foxes with meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bexton (Steve); L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S. Getu (Sarah); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); D. Schipper (Debby); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); L. Oldroyd (Lucy); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic

  20. Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexton, Steve; Wiersma, Lidewij C; Getu, Sarah; van Run, Peter R; Verjans, Georges M G M; Schipper, Debby; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; Bodewes, Rogier; Oldroyd, Lucy; Haagmans, Bart L; Koopmans, Marion M P; Smits, Saskia L

    2015-07-01

    A fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated.

  1. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  2. FoxO proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Acute as well as chronic disorders of the nervous system lead to significant morbidity and mortality for millions of individuals globally. Given the ability to govern stem cell proliferation and differentiated cell survival, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the forkhead box class O (FoxO) are increasingly being identified as potential targets for disorders of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and auditory neuronal disease. FoxO proteins are present throughout the body, but they are selectively expressed in the nervous system and have diverse biological functions. The forkhead O class transcription factors interface with an array of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B (Akt), serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SgK), IκB kinase (IKK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) (SIRT1), growth factors, and Wnt signaling that can determine the activity and integrity of FoxO proteins. Ultimately, there exists a complex interplay between FoxO proteins and their signal transduction pathways that can significantly impact programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy as well as the development of clinical strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Bartonella rochalimae in Raccoons, Coyotes, and Red Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Jennifer B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Kasten, Rickie W.; Murray, William J.; Bar-Gal, Gila K.; King, Roni; Courreau, Jean-François; Baneth, Gad

    2009-01-01

    To determine additional reservoirs for Bartonella rochalimae, we examined samples from several wildlife species. We isolated B. rochalimae from 1 red fox near Paris, France, and from 11 raccoons and 2 coyotes from California, USA. Co-infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was documented in 1 of the coyotes. PMID:19961681

  4. Clever cancer strategies with FoxO transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling

    2008-12-15

    Given that cancer and related disorders affect a wide spectrum of the world's population, and in most cases are progressive in nature, it is essential that future care must overcome the present limitations of existing therapies in the absence of toxic side effects. Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may fill this niche since these proteins are increasingly considered to represent unique cellular targets directed against human cancer in light of their pro-apoptotic effects and ability to lead to cell cycle arrest. Yet, FoxOs also can significantly affect normal cell survival and longevity, requiring new treatments for neoplastic growth to modulate novel pathways that integrate cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and survival. In this respect, members of the FoxO family are extremely compelling to consider since these transcription factors have emerged as versatile proteins that can control angiogenesis, stem cell proliferation, cell adhesion and autoimmune disease. Further elucidation of FoxO protein function during neoplastic growth should continue to lay the foundation for the successful translation of these transcription factors into novel and robust clinical therapies for cancer.

  5. The Doctor Fox Research (1973) Rerevisited: "Educational Seduction" Ruled Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Eyal; Babad, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In their study about the Dr. Fox lecture, Naftulin, Ware, and Donnelly (1973) claimed that an expressive speaker who delivered an attractive lecture devoid of any content could seduce students into believing that they had learned something significant. Over the decades, the study has been (and still is) cited hundreds of times and used by…

  6. 75 FR 76322 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River, Oshkosh,...

  7. FoxO4 is the main forkhead transcriptional factor localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen-qi; WANG Tian; PAN Ling-mei; HUANG Rui-hua; SHI Fang-xiong

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) proteins play critical roles in the regulation of differentiation, proliferation, immunity and aging of cells. Most studies on Fox proteins are limited to cultured cells and rodent. The aim of the current study is to detect by immunohistrochemistry whether FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 proteins are localized in the stomach and intestine of the pig. The results showed that FoxO4 exists in the mucosa in all parts of the stomach and intestine; FoxO3a exists mainly in the lamina propria and muscularis of some parts. However, FoxO1 is not detectable in all parts of the stomach and intestine. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that there exists a distinct expression pattern of Fox proteins, and that FoxO4 is a primary forkhead transcriptional factor localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of the pig.

  8. Flying-fox roost disturbance and Hendra virus spillover risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%, during (4.7% and after (3.4% roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440. Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39 (P= 0.550. We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a 'best practice' approach to dispersal or roost modification activities

  9. Flying-Fox Roost Disturbance and Hendra Virus Spillover Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Jordan, David; Kung, Nina; Mayer, David; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Bats of the genus Pteropus (flying-foxes) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which periodically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in Australia. The increased urban presence of flying-foxes often provokes negative community sentiments because of reduced social amenity and concerns of HeV exposure risk, and has resulted in calls for the dispersal of urban flying-fox roosts. However, it has been hypothesised that disturbance of urban roosts may result in a stress-mediated increase in HeV infection in flying-foxes, and an increased spillover risk. We sought to examine the impact of roost modification and dispersal on HeV infection dynamics and cortisol concentration dynamics in flying-foxes. The data were analysed in generalised linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). The difference in mean HeV prevalence in samples collected before (4.9%), during (4.7%) and after (3.4%) roost disturbance was small and non-significant (P = 0.440). Similarly, the difference in mean urine specific gravity-corrected urinary cortisol concentrations was small and non-significant (before = 22.71 ng/mL, during = 27.17, after = 18.39) (P= 0.550). We did find an underlying association between cortisol concentration and season, and cortisol concentration and region, suggesting that other (plausibly biological or environmental) variables play a role in cortisol concentration dynamics. The effect of roost disturbance on cortisol concentration approached statistical significance for region, suggesting that the relationship is not fixed, and plausibly reflecting the nature and timing of disturbance. We also found a small positive statistical association between HeV excretion status and urinary cortisol concentration. Finally, we found that the level of flying-fox distress associated with roost disturbance reflected the nature and timing of the activity, highlighting the need for a ‘best practice’ approach to dispersal or roost modification activities. The

  10. Nutritional and hormonal factors control the gene expression of FoxOs, the mammalian homologues of DAF-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imae, M; Fu, Z; Yoshida, A; Noguchi, T; Kato, H

    2003-04-01

    Transcription factors of the FoxO family in mammals are orthologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans forkhead factor DAF-16, which has been characterized as a target of insulin-like signalling. Three members of this family have been identified in rodents: FoxO1, FoxO3 and FoxO4, originally termed FKHR, FKHRL1 and AFX respectively. A number of in vitro studies have revealed that FoxOs are regulated through phosphorylation in response to insulin and related growth factors, resulting in their nuclear exclusion and inactivation. To clarify the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these factors in vivo, we investigated in the present study whether or not, and if so how, their mRNA levels in rat liver respond to the stimuli of several nutritional and hormonal factors. Imposed fasting for 48 h significantly elevated mRNA levels of FoxO1 (1.5-fold), FoxO3 (1.4-fold), and FoxO4 (1.6-fold). Refeeding for 3 h recovered the induced mRNA levels of FoxO1 and FoxO3 to the control levels, but did not affect that of FoxO4. FoxO1 and FoxO4 mRNA levels were proved to be highly reflective of their protein levels measured by Western immunoblotting. Of the three FoxO genes, FoxO4 only showed altered levels of mRNA (a 1.5-fold increase) in response to a protein-free diet. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes for 28 days decreased hepatic mRNA levels of FoxO1 and FoxO3 and increased the level of FoxO4 mRNA, but short-term (7 days) diabetes had fewer effects on the expression of these genes. Insulin replacement partially restored the FoxO1 and FoxO4 mRNA levels, but had no effect on the FoxO3 mRNA level. Daily administration for 1 week of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, increased the mRNA levels of FoxO1 (1.8-fold) and FoxO3 (2.4-fold). These results show that the FoxO genes respond differently to nutritional and hormonal factors, suggesting a new mechanism for the regulation of FoxO-dependent gene expression by these factors. Moreover, changes of FoxO1 and FoxO4 in the nucleus in

  11. Fox-Kemper and Willis receive Ocean Sciences Early Career Awards: Response from Baylor Fox-Kemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Kemper, Baylorti

    2012-06-01

    Baylor Fox-Kemper and Josh K. Willis each received the 2011 Ocean Sciences Early Career Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes "significant contributions to and promise in the ocean sciences."

  12. Fox-Kemper and Willis receive Ocean Sciences Early Career Awards: Citation for Baylor Fox-Kemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Baylor Fox-Kemper and Josh K. Willis each received the 2011 Ocean Sciences Early Career Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes "significant contributions to and promise in the ocean sciences."

  13. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Hofman

    Full Text Available Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis, endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus. Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP, while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less. Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  14. FoxO regulates microtubule dynamics and polarity to promote dendrite branching in Drosophila sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, James C; Broihier, Heather T

    2016-10-01

    The size and shape of dendrite arbors are defining features of neurons and critical determinants of neuronal function. The molecular mechanisms establishing arborization patterns during development are not well understood, though properly regulated microtubule (MT) dynamics and polarity are essential. We previously found that FoxO regulates axonal MTs, raising the question of whether it also regulates dendritic MTs and morphology. Here we demonstrate that FoxO promotes dendrite branching in all classes of Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons. FoxO is required both for initiating growth of new branches and for maintaining existing branches. To elucidate FoxO function, we characterized MT organization in both foxO null and overexpressing neurons. We find that FoxO directs MT organization and dynamics in dendrites. Moreover, it is both necessary and sufficient for anterograde MT polymerization, which is known to promote dendrite branching. Lastly, FoxO promotes proper larval nociception, indicating a functional consequence of impaired da neuron morphology in foxO mutants. Together, our results indicate that FoxO regulates dendrite structure and function and suggest that FoxO-mediated pathways control MT dynamics and polarity.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of a classical 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as antifolates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangjee, Aleem; Yang, Jie; McGuire, John J.; Kisliuk, Roy L.

    2013-01-01

    Two classical antifolates, a 2,4-diamino-5-substituted furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and a 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, were synthesized as potential inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS). The syntheses were accomplished by condensation of 2,6-diamino-3(H)-4-oxo-pyrimidine with α-chloro-ketone 21 to afford two key intermediates 23 and 24, followed by hydrolysis, coupling with l-glutamate diethyl ester and saponification of the diethyl ester to afford the classical antifolates 13 and 14. Compounds 13 and 14 with a single carbon atom bridge are both substrates for folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase (FPGS), the enzyme responsible for forming critical poly-γ-glutamate antifolate metabolites with increased potency and/or increased cell retention. Compound 14 is a highly efficient FPGS substrate demonstrating that 2,4-diamino-5-substituted furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are important lead structures for the design of antifolates with FPGS substrate activity. It retains inhibitory potency for DHFR and TS compared to the two atom bridged analog 5. Compound 13 is a poor inhibitor of purified DHFR and TS, and both 13 and 14 are poor inhibitors of the growth of CCRF-CEM human leukemia cells in culture, indicating that single carbon bridged compounds in these series though conducive to FPGS substrate activity were not potent inhibitors. PMID:16990006

  16. Lattice three-species models of the spatial spread of rabies among foxes

    CERN Document Server

    Benyoussef, A; Chakib, H; Ez-Zahraouy, H

    1999-01-01

    Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible, infected or incubating, and infectious or rabid. They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.

  17. La comunicación gubernamental de Vicente Fox

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bravo

    2009-01-01

    En una primera parte se ofrece una distinción teórica entre la comunicación social y gubernamental, para posteriormente hacer una descripción de la comunicación gubernamental durante el sexenio de Vicente Fox. El artículo remata con el uso que la administración foxista hizo de los tiempos oficiales y el gasto sexenal en comunicación gubernamental.

  18. Spontaneous rickets in the wild arctic fox Alopex lagopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.

    1981-10-01

    Normal and rachitic, skeletally immature arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) were subjected to physical examination, roentgenographic studies, and in some cases histologic studies. The involved animals had active rickets coupled with antecedent normal diaphyseal bone formation. Evaluation of all the long bones showed highly variable manifestations of the disease, which undoubtedly reflect different rates of physeal endochondral transformation and metaphyseal remodeling. Histologic examination showed distinct patterns of widening of the physes and variable osteodystrophy in the trabecular and cortical bone of the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. These aforementioned factors certainly would necessitate different regional calcium needs and, therefore, different regional responses to an overall calcium deficiency. The physes involved in the most rapid growth rates in this period showed the most widening of the growth plate, and the most dystrophic changes in the metaphysis. Skeletal injuries, including metaphyseal fractures and slow-down of longitudinal growth (particularly in the ulna) were also evident. Because of apparent dietary differences in the affected and normal fox kits, this juvenile-onset disease was presumed due to calcium-deficient intake following weaning. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of spontaneously occurring rickets in a wild animal in its natural habitat. There are several possible mechanisms for the variable widening of the physis and the loss of bone mineralization in these fox kits: calcium-deficient diet, binding of calcium in the bowel by high phosphorus intake, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin A toxicity.

  19. Human labour is associated with decreased cytoplasmic FoxO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, R; Riley, C; Barker, G; Rice, G E; Lappas, M

    2012-01-01

    Forkhead box O (FoxO) proteins function primarily as transcription factors in the nucleus where they bind to their cognate DNA targeting sequences. FoxO regulated genes include those involved in cellular stress responses, inflammation and apoptosis; all of which are involved in the processes of human labour and delivery. We have previously identified Forkhead box O4 (FoxO4) proteins in human gestational tissues; there is, however, no data is available on the role of FoxO4 in the processes of human labour and delivery. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the effect of (i) human labour, preterm chorioamnionitis and pro-inflammatory stimuli on the expression of FoxO4 in human placenta and fetal membranes; and (ii) FoxO4 knockdown by siRNA on the expression of pro-labour mediators. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and/or Western blotting was used to analyse the expression of FoxO4 (n = 6 per group). Human labour and preterm chorioamnionitis significantly decreased cytoplasmic FoxO4 expression in placenta and/or choriodecidua. Knockdown of FoxO4 mRNA and protein in JEG-3 cells using siRNA was associated with decreased COX-2 mRNA expression concomitant with lower PGF(2α) secretion. However, in BeWo cells, siRNA inhibition of FoxO4 was not associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or apoptosis. In summary, human term labour and chorioamnionitis is characterised by lower FoxO4 mRNA and/or protein expression in placenta and/or choriodecidua. Although the exact role of FoxO4 in human pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, our data demonstrate that it can regulate COX-2 expression and subsequent prostaglandin expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FoxO1 regulates allergic asthmatic inflammation through regulating polarization of the macrophage inflammatory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangwoon; Lee, Tae Jin; Reader, Brenda F; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Gyu; Park, Gye Young; Karpurapu, Manjula; Ballinger, Megan N; Qian, Feng; Rusu, Luiza; Chung, Hae Young; Unterman, Terry G; Croce, Carlo M; Christman, John W

    2016-04-05

    Inflammatory monocyte and tissue macrophages influence the initiation, progression, and resolution of type 2 immune responses, and alveolar macrophages are the most prevalent immune-effector cells in the lung. While we were characterizing the M1- or M2-like macrophages in type 2 allergic inflammation, we discovered that FoxO1 is highly expressed in alternatively activated macrophages. Although several studies have been focused on the fundamental role of FoxOs in hematopoietic and immune cells, the exact role that FoxO1 plays in allergic asthmatic inflammation in activated macrophages has not been investigated. Growing evidences indicate that FoxO1 acts as an upstream regulator of IRF4 and could have a role in a specific inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that IRF4 expression regulated by FoxO1 in alveolar macrophages is required for established type 2 immune mediates allergic lung inflammation. Our data indicate that targeted deletion of FoxO1 using FoxO1-selective inhibitor AS1842856 and genetic ablation of FoxO1 in macrophages significantly decreases IRF4 and various M2 macrophage-associated genes, suggesting a mechanism that involves FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in alveolar macrophages that works to polarize macrophages toward established type 2 immune responses. In response to the challenge of DRA (dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus) allergens, macrophage specific FoxO1 overexpression is associated with an accentuation of asthmatic lung inflammation, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of FoxO1 by AS1842856 attenuates the development of asthmatic lung inflammation. Thus, our study identifies a role for FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in the development of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages that contribute to type 2 allergic airway inflammation.

  1. Conocimiento científico sobre la gestión de depredadores generalistas en España: el caso del zorro (Vulpes vulpes y la urraca (Pica pica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Díaz-Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de depredadores generalistas en España se basa principalmente en el control directo de sus poblaciones, que se aplica en diferentes ámbitos de la gestión de fauna, siendo fuente de gran controversia social. Es una práctica ampliamente extendida dentro del ámbito cinegético, siendo zorro (Vulpes vulpes y urraca (Pica pica las principales especies objeto del control. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos dedicados al estudio de los diferentes aspectos relacionados con esta práctica son escasos. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido revisar los estudios científico-técnicos realizados hasta la fecha en España sobre esta actividad para describir el estado actual de conocimientos. El aspecto más estudiado ha sido la evaluación de diferentes métodos de captura para zorro y urraca. Métodos tradicionales como las jaulas-trampa para zorros son poco eficaces y poco selectivos, mientras que algunos nuevos sistemas como la trampa Collarum, parecen ser una alternativa aceptable. Las jaulas trampa para urracas parecen ser eficaces y selectivas, al menos en zonas agrícolas. Sin embargo es escasa la información científica disponible sobre el efecto del control sobre las poblaciones de los propios depredadores, sus presas y otras especies. Según la información existente, las medidas habitualmente empleadas no tienen un efecto claro de disminución de las poblaciones de zorro, mientras que sí parecen reducir las poblaciones de urraca a corto plazo. Igual- mente los resultados no son claros en cuanto al efecto positivo sobre las poblaciones de presas, como sería esperable. Hay indicios de que otras especies de depredadores se pueden ver afectadas por el control, sobre todo cuando éste no es selectivo. Es necesario un mayor esfuerzo de in- vestigación en este campo que contribuya a una gestión sostenible y respetuosa con otras especies en los cotos de caza.

  2. Non-viral FoxM1 gene delivery to hepatocytes enhances liver repopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D; Liu, C-C; Wang, M-J; Li, J-X; Chen, F; Yao, H; Yu, B; Lu, L; Borjigin, U; Chen, Y-X; Zhong, L; Wangensteen, K J; He, Z-Y; Wang, X; Hu, Y-P

    2014-05-22

    Hepatocyte transplantation as a substitute strategy of orthotopic liver transplantation is being studied for treating end-stage liver diseases. Several technical hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve the therapeutic liver repopulation, such as the problem of insufficient expansion of the transplanted hepatocytes in recipient livers. In this study, we analyzed the application of FoxM1, a cell-cycle regulator, to enhance the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes. The non-viral sleeping beauty (SB) transposon vector carrying FoxM1 gene was constructed for delivering FoxM1 into the hepatocytes. The proliferation capacities of hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had a higher proliferation rate than wild-type (WT) hepatocytes in vitro. In comparison with WT hepatocytes, the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had an enhanced level of liver repopulation in the recipient livers at both sub-acute injury (fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)(-/-) mice model) and acute injury (2/3 partial hepatectomy mice model). Importantly, there was no increased risk of tumorigenicity with FoxM1 expression in recipients even after serial transplantation. In conclusion, expression of FoxM1 in hepatocytes enhanced the capacity of liver repopulation without inducing tumorigenesis. FoxM1 gene delivered by non-viral SB vector into hepatocytes may be a viable approach to promote therapeutic repopulation after hepatocyte transplantation.

  3. REVERSALS IN INDUSTRIAL FORTUNE: A TALE OF THE FOX CITIES AND OSHKOSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralp O. Gunderson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the the 19th Century origins of the manufacturing sectors of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and the Fox Cities of Wisconsin. Despite close geographic proximity and the common bond of the Fox River, these communities have followed different paths of manufacturing. The Fox Cities developed a large and profitable flourmilling sector which almost disappeared by the beginning of the 20th Century. Oshkosh Manufacturing focused on lumbering and wood products. Despite being relatively inefficient, these manufacturers were very slow to disappear. Fox Cities industries evolved from flourmilling to the paper industry which has proven to bea prosperous industry; compared to lumbering and wood products.

  4. FOX-12的高燃速HTPB推进剂性能%Properties of high burning rate HTPB propellant containing FOX-12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥会祥; 赵凤起; 庞维强; 李勇宏; 杨建; 刘子如

    2011-01-01

    为降低高燃速HTPB推进剂的感度,探讨了N-脒基脲二硝酰胺盐(FOX-12)对该推进剂能量性能、燃烧性能和安全性能的影响.结果表明,FOX-12使推进剂的燃温(Tc)、平均相对分子质量(M)和爆热(Qv)均降低,但对推进剂比冲(Isp)的影响较小,FOX-12含量为5%时,Isp降低约0.458%.随FOX-12含量增加,相同压力下的推进剂燃速降低,但推进剂摩擦感度、撞击感度和静电火花感度均逐步降低;当FOX-12含量为5%,在4~10 MPa下,推进剂燃速的降幅最大为4.75%,而摩擦感度由96%降至68%.由于FOX-12的真空安定性差于AP,含FOX-12推进剂的热安定性降低,但能满足应用要求.FOX-12的氧平衡为负,这可能使推进剂氧化性分解产物与HTPB粘合剂、Al等组分的反应速率降低,促使推进剂耐烤燃的性能增强.总之,FOX-12能显著提高高燃速HTPB推进剂的应用安全性.%In order to reduce sensitivity of high burning rate HTPB propellant, the effect of N-guanylurea-dianitramide ( FOX-12) on energy performance,combustion characteristic,and security performance of the propellant were discussed. Results show thatFOX-12 leads to the decrease of Tc ,M and Q, ,but has less effect on Iap of propellants. When the content of FOX-12 is 5% ,Iap of the propellant is lower about 0. 458% compared with basic formulation. With the increasing of FOX-12 content,the burning rate of propellants decreases at the same pressure, and the friction sensitivity, impact sensitivity and electrostatic spark sensitivity of propellants reduce gradually. When the content of FOX-12 is 5% ,the maximum decline of burning rate is 4.75% at 4 ~ 10 Mpa,but the friction sensitivity of the propellant reduces from 96% to 68%. Because the vacuum stability of FOX-12 is lower than that of AP, the thermal stability of propellant with FOX-12 decreases accordingly, but meets the application requirements. The negative oxygen balance of FOX-12 may reduce the reaction rate

  5. Bioinformatic Analysis of FoxA1 Protein%FoxA1蛋白的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小峰; 葛保健

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor FoxAl is a 'pioneer' factor that binds to chromatinized DNA and regulates cell signaling and cell cycle. High expression of FoxAl has been reported in various tumors, and it maybe a potential therapeutic target of the cancer. This study aimed to obtain more information about FoxAl. The structures and functions, protein interaction network, multiple sequence alignment were analyzed with software tools and database. We obtained more biological information about FoxAl protein by bioinformatic analysis, which is very useful for further research.%转录因子FoxA1通过与染色体结合释放出DNA结合位点对信号转导和细胞增殖进行调控.研究发现多种肿瘤组织中FoxA1表达上调,参与肿瘤生长调控,揭示FoxA1有可能成为新的肿瘤治疗靶点.该研究采用生物信息学方法,在获得FoxA1基因和蛋白序列的基础上,对其结构、性质以及与其有相互作用的蛋白进行初步的生物信息学分析,以期为进一步研究FoxA1的生物学特性奠定基础.

  6. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  7. Mechanical unloading activates FoxO3 to trigger Bnip3-dependent cardiomyocyte atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dian J; Jiang, Nan; Blagg, Andrew; Johnstone, Janet L; Gondalia, Raj; Oh, Misook; Luo, Xiang; Yang, Kai-Chun; Shelton, John M; Rothermel, Beverly A; Gillette, Thomas G; Dorn, Gerald W; Hill, Joseph A

    2013-04-08

    Mechanical assist device therapy has emerged recently as an important and rapidly expanding therapy in advanced heart failure, triggering in some patients a beneficial reverse remodeling response. However, mechanisms underlying this benefit are unclear. In a model of mechanical unloading of the left ventricle, we observed progressive myocyte atrophy, autophagy, and robust activation of the transcription factor FoxO3, an established regulator of catabolic processes in other cell types. Evidence for FoxO3 activation was similarly detected in unloaded failing human myocardium. To determine the role of FoxO3 activation in cardiac muscle in vivo, we engineered transgenic mice harboring a cardiomyocyte-specific constitutively active FoxO3 mutant (caFoxO3(flox);αMHC-Mer-Cre-Mer). Expression of caFoxO3 triggered dramatic and progressive loss of cardiac mass, robust increases in cardiomyocyte autophagy, declines in mitochondrial biomass and function, and early mortality. Whereas increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were not apparent, we detected robust increases in Bnip3 (Bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3), an established downstream target of FoxO3. To test the role of Bnip3, we crossed the caFoxO3(flox);αMHC-Mer-Cre-Mer mice with Bnip3-null animals. Remarkably, the atrophy and autophagy phenotypes were significantly blunted, yet the early mortality triggered by FoxO3 activation persisted. Rather, declines in cardiac performance were attenuated by proteasome inhibitors. Consistent with involvement of FoxO3-driven activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, we detected time-dependent activation of the atrogenes program and sarcomere protein breakdown. In aggregate, these data point to FoxO3, a protein activated by mechanical unloading, as a master regulator that governs both the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways to orchestrate cardiac muscle atrophy.

  8. Mechanical Unloading Activates FoxO3 to Trigger Bnip3‐Dependent Cardiomyocyte Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dian J.; Jiang, Nan; Blagg, Andrew; Johnstone, Janet L.; Gondalia, Raj; Oh, Misook; Luo, Xiang; Yang, Kai‐Chun; Shelton, John M.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Gillette, Thomas G.; Dorn, Gerald W.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanical assist device therapy has emerged recently as an important and rapidly expanding therapy in advanced heart failure, triggering in some patients a beneficial reverse remodeling response. However, mechanisms underlying this benefit are unclear. Methods and Results In a model of mechanical unloading of the left ventricle, we observed progressive myocyte atrophy, autophagy, and robust activation of the transcription factor FoxO3, an established regulator of catabolic processes in other cell types. Evidence for FoxO3 activation was similarly detected in unloaded failing human myocardium. To determine the role of FoxO3 activation in cardiac muscle in vivo, we engineered transgenic mice harboring a cardiomyocyte‐specific constitutively active FoxO3 mutant (caFoxO3flox;αMHC‐Mer‐Cre‐Mer). Expression of caFoxO3 triggered dramatic and progressive loss of cardiac mass, robust increases in cardiomyocyte autophagy, declines in mitochondrial biomass and function, and early mortality. Whereas increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were not apparent, we detected robust increases in Bnip3 (Bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19‐kDa interacting protein 3), an established downstream target of FoxO3. To test the role of Bnip3, we crossed the caFoxO3flox;αMHC‐Mer‐Cre‐Mer mice with Bnip3‐null animals. Remarkably, the atrophy and autophagy phenotypes were significantly blunted, yet the early mortality triggered by FoxO3 activation persisted. Rather, declines in cardiac performance were attenuated by proteasome inhibitors. Consistent with involvement of FoxO3‐driven activation of the ubiquitin‐proteasome system, we detected time‐dependent activation of the atrogenes program and sarcomere protein breakdown. Conclusions In aggregate, these data point to FoxO3, a protein activated by mechanical unloading, as a master regulator that governs both the autophagy‐lysosomal and ubiquitin‐proteasomal pathways to orchestrate cardiac muscle atrophy. PMID:23568341

  9. Identification of functional glucocorticoid response elements in the mouse FoxO1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Qin, Yiwen; Lee, David N; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher

    2014-07-25

    Glucocorticoids stimulate muscle atrophy through a cascade of signals that includes activation of FoxO transcription factors which then upregulate multiple genes to promote degradation of myofibrillar and other muscle proteins and inhibit protein synthesis. Our previous finding that glucocorticoids upregulate mRNA levels for FoxO1 in skeletal muscle led us to hypothesize that the FoxO1 gene contains one or more glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). Here we show that upregulation of FoxO1 expression by glucocorticoids requires the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and binding of hormones to it. In cultured C2C12 myoblasts dexamethasone did not alter FoxO1 mRNA stability. Computational analysis predicted that the proximal promoter of the FoxO1 gene contained a cluster of eight GRE half sites and one highly conserved near-consensus SRE; the cluster is found between -800 and -2000bp upstream of the first codon of the FoxO1 gene. A reporter gene constructed using the first 2kb of the FoxO1 promoter was stimulated by dexamethasone. Removal of a 5' domain containing half of the GREs reduced reporter gene activity and removal of all GREs in this region ablated activation by dexamethasone. Restriction fragments of the cluster of 8 upstream GREs bound recombinant GR in gel shift assays. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the proximal promoter of the FoxO1 gene contains multiple functional GREs, indicating that upregulation of FoxO1 expression by glucocorticoids through GREs represents an additional mechanism by which the GR drives glucocorticoid-mediated muscle atrophy. These findings are also relevant to other physiological roles of FoxO1 such as regulation of hepatic metabolism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Conversion factors in carnivore scat analysis: sources of bias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferdinand Rühe; Michael Ksinsik; Christian Kiffner

    2008-01-01

    .... In our study, we aimed at: 1) presenting conversion factors (CFs) of roe deer Capreolus capreolus, European hare Lepus europaeus and house mice Mus musculus digested by wolf Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and red fox Vulpes vulpes, 2...

  11. Survey of furbearer populations on the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge: Study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), marten (Martes americana), and lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been identified by the USFWS as three of the most economically important...

  12. Estimativa da produção anual de serapilheira dos bosques de mangue no Furo Grande, Bragança-Pará Estimates of the annual litter production in mangrove stands in Furo Grande, Bragança-Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As condições ambientais de determinado local podem influenciar a produtividade dos manguezais. Assim, este estudo estimou a produção total e dos componentes da serapilheira no Furo Grande, Bragança, PA. Este estudo compreendeu quatro ciclos anuais (julho/2000 a agosto/2004 em três sítios. Foram instaladas sete cestas em cada sítio ao longo de uma transecção de 140 m, com intervalos de 20 m. Cada cesta possuía uma área útil de 1 m², com tela de 1 mm², suspensa acima do nível das marés de sizígia. O material acumulado nas cestas foi coletado mensalmente, separado em folha, flor, fruto, estípula, galho e miscelânea, sendo posteriormente secado a 70 ºC até alcançar peso constante. A produção média dos quatro anos foi de 9,85 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 1, 6,41 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 2 e 5,99 t.ha-1.ano-1 no sítio 3, cuja comparação apresenta diferença significativa entre os sítios 1 e 3 (H=7,53; gl=2; pIt is well known that environmental conditions of a determined place can influence the productivity of mangroves. So, the present study estimated the total and components litter production in Furo Grande, Bragança-PA. This study comprised four annual cycles (July/2000 to August/2004 at three sites. Seven traps were placed at each site along a 140 m transect, with 20 m intervals. Each trap had a useful area of 1 m², with 1 mm² mesh, suspended above the spring tide level. Accumulated material in the traps was collected on a monthly basis, sorted manually into leaves, flowers, fruits, stipules, twigs, and miscellaneous and then oven-dried to constant weight at 70ºC. The mean production of four years was 9.85 t.ha-1.year-1 at site 1, 6.41 t.ha-1. year-1 at site 2, and 5.99 t.ha-1. year-1 at site 3, with significant difference between sites 1 and 3 (H=7.53; df=2; p<0.05. Overall, the results showed that leaf was the most productive component, and together with flower, had peak in the dry season, which seems to favor energy

  13. Alveolar Echinococcus species from Vulpes corsac in Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia, China, and differential development of the metacestodes in experimental rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chong-Ti; Wang, Yan-Hai; Peng, Wen-Feng; Tang, Liang; Chen, Dong

    2006-08-01

    Adults of alveolar Echinococcus species with different uterine structures were collected from Vulpes corsac in the Hulunbeier Pasture of Northeastern China in 2001. They were Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (type No. 3, similar to E. m. multilocularis), with vaselike uterus; Echinococcus cf. sibiricensis Rausch et Schiller, 1954 (type No. 1), with pyriform uterus; and Echinococcus sp. (type No. 2) with spherical uterus at segment top. The metacestode development in rodents also differed among those 3 parasites. In the case of E. multilocularis (type No. 3), many germinal cells grew on the inner surface of early cysts, most of which metastasized into host tissue to form brood vesicles or from the germinal cell layer on the inner surface of the vesicle wall. Cells also had an appearance of proliferating by means of alveolar buds from alveolar tissue that developed outward to form new alveolar foci. In Echinococcus cf. sibiricensis (type No. 1), the formation of alveolar vesicles was due to the metastasizing of germinal tissue into host tissue; protoscoleces grew in the center of alveolar vesicles. In type No. 2 (Echinococcus sp.), the formation of the alveolar vesicle was by multiplication of germinal cell layers on the inner surface of alveolar cysts; protoscoleces grew from the germinal cell layer and mesh in the vesicles. On the basis of uterine structure and on differences in development of metacestodes in experimental rodents, we propose that the 3 types of Echinococcus represent 3 independent species: E. multilocularis, Echinococcus sibiricensis, and Echinococcus sp. (type No. 2-as yet under study).

  14. Loss of Interdependent Binding by the FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 Forkhead Transcription Factors Culminates in Perturbation of Active Chromatin Marks and Binding of Transcriptional Regulators at Insulin-sensitive Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalley, Akua; Schill, Daniel; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Johnson, Nicole; Cirillo, Lisa Ann

    2016-04-15

    FoxO1 binds to insulin response elements located in the promoters of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), activating their expression. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 promotes cytoplasmic translocation, inhibiting FoxO1-mediated transactivation. We have previously demonstrated that FoxO1 opens and remodels chromatin assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter via a highly conserved winged helix motif. This finding, which established FoxO1 as a "pioneer" factor, suggested a model whereby FoxO1 chromatin remodeling at regulatory targets facilitates binding and recruitment of additional regulatory factors. However, the impact of FoxO1 phosphorylation on its ability to bind chromatin and the effect of FoxO1 loss on recruitment of neighboring transcription factors at its regulatory targets in liver chromatin is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that an amino acid substitution that mimics insulin-mediated phosphorylation of a serine in the winged helix DNA binding motif curtails FoxO1 nucleosome binding. We also demonstrate that shRNA-mediated loss of FoxO1 binding to the IGFBP1 and G6Pase promoters in HepG2 cells significantly reduces binding of RNA polymerase II and the pioneer factors FoxA1/A2. Knockdown of FoxA1 similarly reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and FoxO1. Reduction in acetylation of histone H3 Lys-27 accompanies loss of FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 binding. Interdependent binding of FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 possibly entails cooperative binding because FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 facilitate one another's binding to IGFPB1 promoter DNA. These results illustrate how transcription factors can nucleate transcriptional events in chromatin in response to signaling events and suggest a model for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism through interdependent FoxO/FoxA binding.

  15. Island Fox Veterinary And Pathology Services On San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    anthropogenic resources such as garbage (Totten et al. 2002), and domestic cat food (Theimer et al. 2015). The highest densities of foxes exists on the...Garcelon, J. Bascompte, L. Laughrin. 2001. Feral pigs facilitate hyperpredation by golden eagles and indirectly cause the decline of the island fox

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    in the areas in northwest Greenland in close proximity to the Canadian Archipelago. Foxes from air bases, which are known to feed intensively on garbage, harbored similar numbers of species compared to foxes from settlements in the same regions. The number of T. leonina in animals less than 1 yr of age...

  17. Forkhead factor FoxO1 is essential for placental morphogenesis in the developing embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anwarul; Morris, Jesse; Abedin, Mohammad Joynal; Collins, Shandon; Richardson, James A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), a member of the Forkhead box-containing O family of transcription factors, is a key regulator of numerous genes that govern a wide array of cellular functions, including differentiation, homeostasis, and survival. However, the role of FoxO1 in development remains elusive. Here, we describe an essential and previously undefined role for FoxO1 in placental development. We demonstrate that FoxO1-null embryos up to embryonic day 9.0 (E9.0) are indistinguishable, including their morphology, cardiovascular structure, and vascular gene expression, from wild-type (WT) littermates. However, FoxO1-nulls manifested a profoundly swollen/hydropic allantois, which failed to fuse with the chorion, a phenotype that leads to subsequent cardiovascular malformation, progressive apoptotic cell death, and embryonic lethality at E10.5. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in placental development revealed significant attenuation of VCAM1 expression in FoxO1-null embryos. Using immunohistochemical, transcriptional, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further discovered that FoxO1 is an essential upstream regulator of the VCAM1 gene. Collectively, our findings provide critical molecular insight into a unique FoxO1–VCAM1 axis that governs placental morphogenesis, a process that is essential for subsequent normal cardiovascular development and fetal life. PMID:21930913

  18. The Doctor Fox Effect: A Paired Lecture Comparison of Lecturer Expressiveness and Lecture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramagli, Howard J., Jr.; Greenwood, Gordon E.

    The influence of the Doctor Fox effect on student ratings on instruction was examined. The idea for the Doctor Fox effect stemmed from the work of Erving Goffman and his notion that expressive behavior may influence an audience as much or more than substance when there is little time or reason for the audience to evaluate the presentation (1950).…

  19. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY... the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River, at Green Bay, WI. This deviation will... of Green Bay, WI. This temporary deviation allows the bridge to open once an hour on the hour...

  20. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Brás, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, H.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  1. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Bras, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, J.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  2. Debate and the Destruction of Friendship: An Analysis of Fox and Burke on the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Bruce J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the role of parliamentary debate in the demise of the friendship between Fox and Burke over the issue of the French Revolution and English domestic reform. Investigates the drawing out of Fox's position and the polarization of opinion in Commons by Burke's rhetorical destruction of traditional Whig principles. (JMF)

  3. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  4. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  5. Structural basis for DNA recognition by FoxO1 and its regulation by posttranslational modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Michael M; Anand, Ruchi; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2008-09-10

    FoxO transcription factors regulate the transcription of genes that control metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress tolerance, and possibly life span. A number of posttranslational modifications within the forkhead DNA-binding domain regulate FoxO-mediated transcription. We describe the crystal structures of FoxO1 bound to three different DNA elements and measure the change in FoxO1-DNA affinity with acetylation and phosphorylation. The structures reveal additional contacts and increased DNA distortion for the highest affinity DNA site. The flexible wing 2 region of the forkhead domain was not observed in the structures but is necessary for DNA binding, and we show that p300 acetylation in wing 2 reduces DNA affinity. We also show that MST1 phosphorylation of FoxO1 prevents high-affinity DNA binding. The observation that FoxO-DNA affinity varies between response elements and with posttranslational modifications suggests that modulation of FoxO-DNA affinity is an important component of FoxO regulation in health and misregulation in disease.

  6. Isolation, spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 7-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-furo[2,3-f]chromen-9-one: A new flavonoid from the bark of Millettia ovalifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Taj Ur; Arfan, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Liaqat, Wajiha; Gilani, Mazhar Amjad; Uddin, Ghias; Ludwig, Ralf; Zaman, Khair; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Ayub, Khurshid

    2015-07-01

    The phytochemical examination of chloroform soluble fraction (FX2) of methanolic extract of bark of Millettia ovalifolia yielded a new flavonoid; 7-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-furo [2,3-f]chromen-9-one (1). Compound 1 is characterized by spectroscopic analytical techniques such as UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. A theoretical model is also developed for obtaining geometric, electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometry optimization and harmonic vibration simulations have been carried out at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). The vibrational spectrum of compound 1 shows nice correlation with the experimental IR spectrum, through a scaling factor of 0.9613. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts are simulated using Cramer's re-parameterized function WP04 at 6-31G(d,p) basis set, and correlate nicely with the experimental chemical shifts.

  7. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen Derivatives as a Novel Series of Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-hui; WANG Yan; ZHU Yu-ying; LIU Si-jie; HAN Jian; ZHOU Yi-fan; LI Da-wei; KOIRALA Diwa; HU Chun

    2011-01-01

    Based on the principles of the bioisosterism, combination of the active substructures of selective estrogen receptor modulators which are currently therapeutic agents available for the prevention and treatment of various estrogen dependent diseases, and structural optimization, a novel series of 2-aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen derivatives was designed as potent selective estrogen receptor modulators via molecular docking. The target compoundshave been synthesized, and characterized by IR, proton NMR, ESI-MS, elemental analysis and evaluated for their antitumor activity against human osteosarcoma U2OS-EGFP-4FI2G cell line. Some target compounds showed good inhibition effects on U2OS-EGFP-4F 12G cell line and the preliminary structure-activity relationships were discussed.

  8. [Study on the inactivated vaccine of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox. VI. Experimental development of the inactivated vaccine of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Yan, X; Yan, X; Luan, F; Wang, C

    1997-06-01

    The aluminum hydroxide gel, propolis and oil adjuvant inactivated vaccines were developed by silecting good immunity, representing principal epidemic serotype I GVF44 of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox in civil. The results showed that the aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine in safety was better than propolis and oil adjuvant vaccines, the most optimal inactivated concentration of formalin is 0.1%. Efficient immunity doses are 4 billon bacteria/1 ml. There were on any bad influences to occur for fox after the aluminum hydroxide gel of three times immunity doses were injected. The inoculated foxes could resist challenge of a hundred ID50 virulent strains after the vaccine was injected to foxes for 21 d. Immunity period of the vaccine is 6 months storage period is 10 months at 4-10 degrees C. The field experiments confirmed that the vaccine possessed accuracy, stability and reliability.

  9. Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates mitotic entry and prevents spindle defects in cerebellar granule neuron precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schueller, Ulrich; Zhao, Qing; Godinho, Susana A.; Heine, Vivi M.; Medema, Rene H.; Pellman, David; Rowitch, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 has been reported to regulate, variously, proliferation and/or spindle formation during the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle. Here we define specific functions of FoxM1 during brain development by the investigation of FoxM1 loss-of-function mutations in the

  10. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  11. FoxO3a与肿瘤的发生和发展%Role of FoxO3a in the occurrence and development of tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何时

    2012-01-01

    Forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a is one of the FoxO family members. With the role of tumor suppressor genes, it can regulate the development of a variety of tumors, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, glioblastoma, and so oa FoxO3a is regulated by many lands of signaling pathways, particularly the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PDK/ Akt) signaling pathway. As the target molecule of PI3K/AKT signal pathway, the activity of FoxO3a is regulated by AKT phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. FoxO3a plays an important role in regulation of downstream signaling molecules, such as Bim, FasL, p27kipl transcription, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. The activity and distribution of FoxO3a can be modulated by drugs. Therefore, FoxO3a is expected to become the new idea of cancer treatment%叉头转录因子O亚型(forkhead box O,FoxO) 3a是FoxO家族一员,具有抑癌基因的作用,调控多种肿瘤的发生发展,包括乳腺癌、前列腺癌、白血病、胶质母细胞瘤等.FoxO3a作为磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶/蛋白激酶B (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B,PI3K/Akt)信号通路的重要靶分子,主要通过AKT磷酸化与去磷酸化起作用,调节其活性以及下游信号分子如细胞死亡调解因子、Fas配体和细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶等转录作用,诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡.药物调控FoxO3a的活性和分布有望成为癌症治疗的新思路.

  12. FoxO transcription factors and stem cell homeostasis: insights from the hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothova, Zuzana; Gilliland, D Gary

    2007-08-16

    The forkhead O (FoxO) family of transcription factors participates in diverse physiologic processes, including induction of cell-cycle arrest, stress resistance, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Several recent studies indicate that FoxO-dependent signaling is required for long-term regenerative potential of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment through regulation of HSC response to physiologic oxidative stress, quiescence, and survival. These observations link FoxO function in mammalian systems with the evolutionarily conserved role of FoxO in promotion of stress resistance and longevity in lower phylogenetic systems. Furthermore, these findings have implications for aging in higher organisms and in malignant stem cell biology, and suggest that FoxOs may play an important role in the maintenance and integrity of stem cell compartments in a broad spectrum of tissues.

  13. Interplay between metabolic rate and diet quality in the South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sergio I; Jaksic, Fabian M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    We studied the metabolic costs associated with the ingestion of peppertree fruits (Schinus molle) in the culpeo fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus, the second largest canid in South America. Throughout its range of distribution, this fox feeds on rodents and other small vertebrates, and also on peppertree fruits, which represent 98% of total fruits consumed in semiarid Chile. Peppertree contains a high diversity of phytochemicals. Foxes feeding on diets containing rats and peppertree fruits (mixed diets) exhibited a 98.9% increase in basal rate of metabolism when compared to rat-acclimated foxes. Thus, acute ingestion of chemically defended fruits has an energetic cost for the fox, reflected in higher values of basal metabolism. Increased metabolic rates may be associated with increased protein synthesis for detoxification and for tissue repair, including the production of biotransformation enzymes.

  14. Thermal behavior, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of G(FOX-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangzhen; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi; Ma, Haixia; Gao, Hongxu; Chang, Chunran; Ren, Yinghui; Hu, Rongzu

    2008-10-30

    [H(2)N=C(NH(2))(2)](+)(FOX-7)(-)-G(FOX-7) was prepared by mixing FOX-7 and guanidinium chloride solution in potassium hydroxide solution. Its thermal decomposition was studied under the non-isothermal conditions with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The apparent activation energy (E) and pre-exponential constant (A) of the two exothermic decomposition stages were obtained by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion (T(b)) was obtained as 201.72 degrees C. The specific heat capacity of G(FOX-7) was determined with Micro-DSC method and theoretical calculation method and the standard molar specific heat capacity is 282.025 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 298.15 K. Adiabatic time-to-explosion of G(FOX-7) was also calculated to be a certain value between 13.95 and 15.66 s.

  15. Environmental Fate and Ecological Impact of Emerging Energetic Chemicals (ADN, DNAN and its Amino-Derivatives, PETN, NTO, NQ, FOX-7, and FOX-12) and an Insensitive Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    environmental health criteria for insensitive munitions: aquatic ecotoxicological exposures using 2,4-dinitroanisole. US Army Corps Engineers, Report... Aquatic toxicology of explosives. In: Ecotoxicology of Explosives, Sunahara GI, Lotufo G, Kuperman RG, Hawari J. (Eds). CRC Press, ISBN: 978-0-8493...2,2-dinitro- ethylene (FOX-7), and N-guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12). Here we will provide examples showing how the ecotoxicological studies can

  16. FoxO3 induces reversible cardiac atrophy and autophagy in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schips, Tobias G; Wietelmann, Astrid; Höhn, Katharina; Schimanski, Silvia; Walther, Paul; Braun, Thomas; Wirth, Thomas; Maier, Harald J

    2011-09-01

    The transcription factor FoxO3 contributes to anti-hypertrophic signalling in the heart presumably by regulating autophagic-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways. We wanted to study FoxO3 function in the adult heart in vivo by expressing a constitutively active mutant of FoxO3 in transgenic mice. We generated transgenic mice in which a tetracycline-regulated constitutively active FoxO3 transgene (FoxO3-CA) is controlled by the heart-specific α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac-specific expression in adult mice resulted in a decrease in heart weight by 25% and a reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output. The decrease in heart size was due to a reduction in the size of individual cardiomyocytes, whereas there was no evidence for increased cell death. FoxO3 activation was accompanied by the initiation of a foetal gene programme with increased expression of β-myosin heavy chain and natriuretic peptides, and by the activation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin signalling. As shown by electron microscopy, FoxO3-CA massively stimulated destruction of sarcomeres and autophagy, and induced expression of LC3-II and BNIP3. When FoxO3-CA expression was shut off in affected mice, cardiac atrophy and dysfunction as well as molecular markers were normalized within 1 month. FoxO3-CA expression did not counteract hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction. Heart-specific expression of constitutively active FoxO3 leads to reversible heart atrophy. The reversibility of the phenotype suggests a remarkable ability of the adult myocardium to respond to different regulatory cues.

  17. Biochemical and hematologic reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromi; Clifford, Deana L; Vickers, T Winston; Coonan, Timothy J; Garcelon, David K; Borjesson, Dori L

    2012-07-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemical data collected must be interpreted by comparison with normal reference intervals generated from healthy animals, within a similar population, because many blood parameters are influenced by diet, environment, and stress. Species-specific reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) are not available. We reviewed hematology and serum biochemistry panels from 280 island foxes sampled from 1999-2008 and established normal reference intervals from clinically healthy foxes using a nonparametric approach. Blood parameters were analyzed for differences in age, sex, island of origin, and captivity status. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, as well as calcium and phosphorus concentrations, were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults, but total protein and globulin concentration was lower for juveniles than for adults. Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, in foxes from the northern Channel islands of California, USA (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel) were higher when compared with foxes from Santa Catalina Island to the south. Higher lymphocyte and eosinophil numbers in the northern island foxes may be associated with increased levels of parasitism on the northern islands. Differences in BUN concentration in both free-ranging and captive foxes may reflect dietary differences among islands. Although aggressive conservation programs have been enacted, island foxes are still susceptible to infectious and neoplastic diseases and, potentially, to toxins. Island fox species-specific reference intervals will enable managers and veterinarians to better care for sick and injured foxes and will contribute to future population health monitoring.

  18. 1,1-Diamino-2,2-Dintroethene (FOX-7) In Copper And Nickel Diamine Complexes And Copper FOX-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    two electron-donating amino groups on the C2 carbon, displays a “push−pull” alkene system,1 giving rise to a fundamental chemistry of considerable...and theoretical values for carbon and hydrogen is outside of the acceptable range; this arises most usually for hydrated species. The values obtained...phen)6(FOX)4(NO3)3(H2O)2 (6). 1,10-Phenanthroline mono- hydrate (1.5 mmol, 0.297 g) was added to a solution of Ni(NO3)2·6H2O (0.145 g, 0.5 mmol in 3 mL

  19. Laser ablation of FOX-7: proposed mechanism of decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civis, Martin; Civis, Svatopluk; Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spanel, Patrik; Kyncl, Martin

    2011-02-01

    A novel high-energy explosive material, FOX-7 (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene), was studied using a combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The LIBS technique uses short laser pulses (an ArF excimer laser) as the energy source to convert small quantities of a sample into plasma and to induce the emission of its molecular fragments or atoms. SIFT-MS is a novel method for absolute quantification based on chemical ionization using three reagent ions, with the ability to determine concentrations of trace gases and vapors of volatile organic compounds in real time. SIFT-MS was used to study the release of NO, NO(2), HCN, HONO, HCHO, CH(3)CH(2)OH, and C(2)H(2) after laser ablation of the explosive compound FOX-7 in solid crystalline form. The radiation emitted after excitation was analyzed using a time-resolved UV-vis spectrometer with an ICCD detector. The electronic bands of CN (388 nm), OH (308.4 nm), and NO (237.1 nm) radicals and the atomic lines of C, N, and H were identified.

  20. Penelitian pembuatan kompon karet untuk sol dan foxing sepatu kanvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Exsperiments of making rubber compound for canvas shoe sole and foxing have been done by varying filler (MgCO3. Composition used for rubber compound is : pale crepe 100 parts; MgCO3 30 parts; CaCO3 75 parts; ZnO 10 parts; stearic acid 0,5 part; napthenic oil 2 parts; paraffin wax 0,5 part; titanium dioxide 10 parts ; AOSP 1 part; MBT 0,4 part; TMT 0,2 part and sulfur 2 parts. The products are 9 kinds of rubber compound and has been tested for physical properties. The physical tests consist of : tensile strength, elongation at break, permanent set, tear strength, elongation at break, permanent set, tear strength, hardness, density, abrassion and flexing. By evaluating their physical properties, the rubber compound for shoe sole and foxing containing 30 parts of MgCO3 and 75 parts of CaCO3 achieving the optimal degree and is in accordance with the Indonesian Industrial Standard for General Purpose of Canvas Shoe (SII.140785.

  1. An amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene, AmphiFoxD: insights into vertebrate neural crest evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    During amphioxus development, the neural plate is bordered by cells expressing many genes with homologs involved in vertebrate neural crest induction. However, these amphioxus cells evidently lack additional genetic programs for the cell delaminations, migrations, and differentiations characterizing definitive vertebrate neural crest. We characterize an amphioxus winged helix/forkhead gene (AmphiFoxD) closely related to vertebrate FoxD genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the AmphiFoxD is basal to vertebrate FoxD1, FoxD2, FoxD3, FoxD4, and FoxD5. One of these vertebrate genes (FoxD3) consistently marks neural crest during development. Early in amphioxus development, AmphiFoxD is expressed medially in the anterior neural plate as well as in axial (notochordal) and paraxial mesoderm; later, the gene is expressed in the somites, notochord, cerebral vesicle (diencephalon), and hindgut endoderm. However, there is never any expression in cells bordering the neural plate. We speculate that an AmphiFoxD homolog in the common ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates was involved in histogenic processes in the mesoderm (evagination and delamination of the somites and notochord); then, in the early vertebrates, descendant paralogs of this gene began functioning in the presumptive neural crest bordering the neural plate to help make possible the delaminations and cell migrations that characterize definitive vertebrate neural crest. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Drosophila FoxP mutants are deficient in operant self-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mendoza

    Full Text Available Intact function of the Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2 gene is necessary for normal development of speech and language. This important role has recently been extended, first to other forms of vocal learning in animals and then also to other forms of motor learning. The homology in structure and in function among the FoxP gene members raises the possibility that the ancestral FoxP gene may have evolved as a crucial component of the neural circuitry mediating motor learning. Here we report that genetic manipulations of the single Drosophila orthologue, dFoxP, disrupt operant self-learning, a form of motor learning sharing several conceptually analogous features with language acquisition. Structural alterations of the dFoxP locus uncovered the role of dFoxP in operant self-learning and habit formation, as well as the dispensability of dFoxP for operant world-learning, in which no motor learning occurs. These manipulations also led to subtle alterations in the brain anatomy, including a reduced volume of the optic glomeruli. RNAi-mediated interference with dFoxP expression levels copied the behavioral phenotype of the mutant flies, even in the absence of mRNA degradation. Our results provide evidence that motor learning and language acquisition share a common ancestral trait still present in extant invertebrates, manifest in operant self-learning. This 'deep' homology probably traces back to before the split between vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  3. Recrudescent infection supports Hendra virus persistence in Australian flying-fox populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes. Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persistence of Hendra virus in flying-fox populations via computer simulation using a model that integrates published information on the ecology of flying-foxes, and the ecology and epidemiology of Hendra virus. Simulated infection patterns agree with infection patterns observed in the field and suggest that Hendra virus could be maintained in an isolated flying-fox population indefinitely via periodic recrudescence in a manner indistinguishable from maintenance via periodic immigration of infected individuals. Further, post-recrudescence pulses of infectious flying-foxes provide a plausible basis for the observed seasonal clustering of equine cases. Correct understanding of the infection dynamics of Hendra virus in flying-foxes is fundamental to effectively managing risk of infection in horses and humans. Given the lack of clear empirical evidence on how the virus is maintained within populations, the role of recrudescence merits increased attention.

  4. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  5. A fork in the path: Developing therapeutic inroads with FoxO proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Hou, Jinling; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Advances in clinical care for disorders involving any system of the body necessitates novel therapeutic strategies that can focus upon the modulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and longevity. In this respect, members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) that include FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 are increasingly being recognized as exciting prospects for multiple disorders. These transcription factors govern development, proliferation, survival and longevity during multiple cellular environments that can involve oxidative stress. Furthermore, these transcription factors are closely integrated with several novel signal transduction pathways, such as erythropoietin and Wnt proteins, that may influence the ability of FoxOs to act as a "double-edge sword" to sometimes promote cell survival, but at other times lead to cell injury. Here we discuss the fascinating but complex role of FoxOs during cellular injury and oxidative stress, progenitor cell development, fertility, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, cellular metabolism and diabetes, cell longevity, immune surveillance and cancer.

  6. A Fork in the Path: Developing Therapeutic Inroads with FoxO Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Maiese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in clinical care for disorders involving any system of the body necessitates novel therapeutic strategies that can focus upon the modulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and longevity. In this respect, members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs that include FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 are increasingly being recognized as exciting prospects for multiple disorders. These transcription factors govern development, proliferation, survival and longevity during multiple cellular environments that can involve oxidative stress. Furthermore, these transcription factors are closely integrated with several novel signal transduction pathways, such as erythropoietin and Wnt proteins, that may influence the ability of FoxOs to act as a “double-edge sword” to sometimes promote cell survival, but at other times lead to cell injury. Here we discuss the fascinating but complex role of FoxOs during cellular injury and oxidative stress, progenitor cell development, fertility, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, cellular metabolism and diabetes, cell longevity, immune surveillance and cancer.

  7. FoxO3 coordinates metabolic pathways to maintain redox balance in neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonju; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Zhang, Yuqing; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Paik, Ji-Hye

    2013-10-02

    Forkhead Box O (FoxO) transcription factors act in adult stem cells to preserve their regenerative potential. Previously, we reported that FoxO maintains the long-term proliferative capacity of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs), and that this occurs, in part, through the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that among the FoxO3-regulated genes in NPCs are a host of enzymes in central carbon metabolism that act to combat reactive oxygen species (ROS) by directing the flow of glucose and glutamine carbon into defined metabolic pathways. Characterization of the metabolic circuit observed upon loss of FoxO3 revealed a drop in glutaminolysis and filling of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Additionally, we found that glucose uptake, glucose metabolism and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activity were similarly repressed in the absence of FoxO3. Finally, we demonstrate that impaired glucose and glutamine metabolism compromises the proliferative potential of NPCs and that this is exacerbated following FoxO3 loss. Collectively, our findings show that a FoxO3-dependent metabolic programme supports redox balance and the neurogenic potential of NPCs.

  8. FOX-2 dependent splicing of ataxin-2 transcript is affected by ataxin-1 overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Welzel

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a fundamental posttranscriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression, and splicing defects have been linked to various human disorders. The splicing factor FOX-2 is part of a main protein interaction hub in a network related to human inherited ataxias, however, its impact remains to be elucidated. Here, we focused on the reported interaction between FOX-2 and ataxin-1, the disease-causing protein in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. In this line, we further evaluated this interaction by yeast-2-hybrid analyses and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we discovered that FOX-2 localization and splicing activity is affected in the presence of nuclear ataxin-1 inclusions. Moreover, we observed that FOX-2 directly interacts with ataxin-2, a protein modulating spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 pathogenesis. Finally, we provide evidence that splicing of pre-mRNA of ataxin-2 depends on FOX-2 activity, since reduction of FOX-2 levels led to increased skipping of exon 18 in ataxin-2 transcripts. Most striking, we observed that ataxin-1 overexpression has an effect on this splicing event as well. Thus, our results demonstrate that FOX-2 is involved in splicing of ataxin-2 transcripts and that this splicing event is altered by overexpression of ataxin-1.

  9. Zebrafish foxP2 zinc finger nuclease mutant has normal axon pathfinding.

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    Lingyan Xing

    Full Text Available foxP2, a forkhead-domain transcription factor, is critical for speech and language development in humans, but its role in the establishment of CNS connectivity is unclear. While in vitro studies have identified axon guidance molecules as targets of foxP2 regulation, and cell culture assays suggest a role for foxP2 in neurite outgrowth, in vivo studies have been lacking regarding a role for foxP2 in axon pathfinding. We used a modified zinc finger nuclease methodology to generate mutations in the zebrafish foxP2 gene. Using PCR-based high resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA of G0 founder animals, we screened and identified three mutants carrying nonsense mutations in the 2(nd coding exon: a 17 base-pair (bp deletion, an 8bp deletion, and a 4bp insertion. Sequence analysis of cDNA confirmed that these were frameshift mutations with predicted early protein truncations. Homozygous mutant fish were viable and fertile, with unchanged body morphology, and no apparent differences in CNS apoptosis, proliferation, or patterning at embryonic stages. There was a reduction in expression of the known foxP2 target gene cntnap2 that was rescued by injection of wild-type foxP2 transcript. When we examined axon pathfinding using a pan-axonal marker or transgenic lines, including a foxP2-neuron-specific enhancer, we did not observe any axon guidance errors. Our findings suggest that foxP2 is not necessary for axon pathfinding during development.

  10. FoxO is required for the activation of hypertrehalosemic hormone expression in cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süren-Castillo, Songül; Abrisqueta, Marc; Maestro, José L

    2014-01-01

    FoxO proteins are a subgroup of the Forkhead-box family of transcription factors, which function as the main transcriptional effectors of the insulin receptor pathway. This pathway, activated by the binding of insulin or IGFs (or insect insulin-like peptides), promotes the phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxO because of its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The homolog of FoxO in the cockroach Blattella germanica works in a situation of nutrient shortage by inhibiting the endocrine induction of reproduction. Using Blattella germanica as a model, we studied the functions of FoxO using RNA interference methodologies. We analyzed the mRNA levels of hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) and genes related to lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and quantified triacylglycerides, glycogen and trehalose. FoxO knockdown eliminates the starvation-induced expression of HTH in the corpora cardiaca. In addition, FoxO knockdown prevents the activation of the expression of Brummer lipase, glycogen phosphorylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the fat body of starved females. Starvation-induced activation of FoxO stimulates the transcription of different genes related to catabolic processes, including HTH and genes involved in lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our results show conservation in the action of the transcription factor FoxO in the activation of catabolic processes from basal insects to vertebrates. The results also describe a new and essentially different mode of action of transcription factor FoxO, which works through the activation of neuropeptide HTH expression, which will subsequently produce its own catabolic stimulatory function. © 2013.

  11. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah A.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current study, we tested the physiological significance of FoxO activation in the progression of muscle atrophy associated with cachexia. FoxO-DNA binding dependent transcription was blocked in the muscles of mice through injection of a dominant negative (DN) FoxO expression plasmid prior to inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or the induction of sepsis. Expression of DN FoxO inhibited the increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, cathepsin L, and/or Bnip3 and inhibited muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis. Interestingly, during control conditions, expression of DN FoxO decreased myostatin expression, increased MyoD expression and satellite cell proliferation, and induced fiber hypertrophy, which required de novo protein synthesis. Collectively, these data show that FoxO-DNA binding-dependent transcription is necessary for normal muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis, and further suggest that basal levels of FoxO play an important role during normal conditions to depress satellite cell activation and limit muscle growth.—Reed, S. A., Sandesara, P. B., Senf, S. F., Judge, A. R. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22102632

  12. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway regulates FoxO and alters dopaminergic neuron survival in Drosophila.

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    Tomoko Kanao

    Full Text Available Activation of the forkhead box transcription factor FoxO is suggested to be involved in dopaminergic (DA neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD, in which a PD gene product LRRK2 activates FoxO through phosphorylation. In the current study that combines Drosophila genetics and biochemical analysis, we show that cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-dependent kinase II (cGKII also phosphorylates FoxO at the same residue as LRRK2, and Drosophila orthologues of cGKII and LRRK2, DG2/For and dLRRK, respectively, enhance the neurotoxic activity of FoxO in an additive manner. Biochemical assays using mammalian cGKII and FoxO1 reveal that cGKII enhances the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 through phosphorylation of the FoxO1 S319 site in the same manner as LRRK2. A Drosophila FoxO mutant resistant to phosphorylation by DG2 and dLRRK (dFoxO S259A corresponding to human FoxO1 S319A suppressed the neurotoxicity and improved motor dysfunction caused by co-expression of FoxO and DG2. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC also increased FoxO's activity, whereas the administration of a NOS inhibitor L-NAME suppressed the loss of DA neurons in aged flies co-expressing FoxO and DG2. These results strongly suggest that the NO-FoxO axis contributes to DA neurodegeneration in LRRK2-linked PD.

  13. Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan J; Cox, Paul Alan

    2006-06-15

    Fanihi -- flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus mariannus, Pteropodidae) -- are a highly salient component of the traditional Chamorro diet. A neurotoxic, non-protein amino acid, beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) accumulates in flying foxes, which forage on the seeds of Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) in Guam's forests. BMAA occurs throughout flying fox tissues both as a free amino acid and in a protein-bound form. It is not destroyed by cooking. Protein-bound BMAA also remains in cycad flour which has been washed and prepared by the Chamorro people as tortillas, dumplings, and thickened soups. Other animals that forage on cycad seeds may also provide BMAA inputs into the traditional Chamorro diet.

  14. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherapy, electrocauterisation, excision-liposuction and curettage, and fractional carbon dioxide laser are among the treatment options. In the literature, there are articles reporting beneficial effects of pimecrolimus in FFD. Nevertheless, there have not been any reports about the use of tacrolimus in FFD. We report two patients diagnosed with FFD by clinical and histopathologic examination and discussed therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus on FFD in the light of literature.

  15. Modification of Fox-Wolfram Moments for Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Laurence Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Collisions of composite particles impose an arbitrary boost in the longitudinal direction on a given event. This implies that the centre-of-mass frame at hadron colliders is undetermined for processes with missing energy in the final state. This motivates the modification of the Fox-Wolfram moments such that the moments for a given event are identical when viewed in the lab or centre-of-mass frame of the beam. The resulting moments are invariant under rotations in the plane transverse to the beam and boosts parallel to the beam. These moments are then used to demonstrate improved signal separation in the channel where the Higgs decays to two b-quarks while being produced in association with a vector boson.

  16. Modification of Fox-Wolfram moments for hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, L.A. [University of Melbourne,Victoria (Australia)

    2016-03-07

    Collisions of composite particles impose an arbitrary boost in the longitudinal direction on a given event. This implies that the centre-of-mass frame at hadron colliders is undetermined for processes with missing energy in the final state. This motivates the modification of the Fox-Wolfram moments such that the moments for a given event are identical when viewed in the lab or centre-of-mass frame of the beam. The resulting moments are invariant under rotations in the plane transverse to the beam and boosts parallel to the beam. These moments are then used to demonstrate improved signal separation in the channel where the Higgs decays to two b-quarks while being produced in association with a vector boson.

  17. 哺乳动物FoxL2基因的分子进化分析%Molecular Evolution Analysis for Mammal FoxL2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 刘静; 张向伟; 黄林艳; 李蓉; 李成磊; 王勤

    2015-01-01

    本研究以FoxL2基因为研究对象,选取GenBank公布的26个物种的FoxL2基因氨基酸序列,代表脊椎动物中5纲15目21科24属,重点分析哺乳动物中该基因的结构与功能相关性以及其系统发育情况.结果表明:26条FoxL2基因序列存在非常保守的forkhead结构域,哺乳类比非哺乳动物多出丙氨酸、甘氨酸及脯氨酸重复区,其中多聚丙氨酸束的缩短可能与Ⅰ型BPES相关,而多聚丙氨酸束的延伸使核内蛋白错位和细胞质聚集导致Ⅱ型BPES.FoxL2含有较多磷酸化位点,推测其在体内的活性可能是通过磷酸化调控的.FoxL2基因氨基酸序列构建的系统发育树中亲缘关系较近的物种能够较好的聚在一起.

  18. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732 bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Notes of blue foxes on Rat Island in 1962: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the study of the blue fox during summer of 1961 on Rat Island. The work completed can be found on the Aleutian Islands NWR Narrative Report....

  20. Horicon and Fox River National Wildlife Refuge: Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CWD Plan for Horicon and Fox River NWRs provides background information on the disease and a summary of surveillance and history of CWD in Wisconsin and...

  1. Evaluation of diphacinone as a predacide for introduced arctic fox in the Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic fox were introduced for the purpose of fur farming by the Russians at the turn of the century on the majority of the islands in the Aleutian chain. These...

  2. Altitude of the top of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin. The...

  3. Analysis of Delmarva Fox Squirrel Benchmark Population Data 1991 through 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes Delmarva fox squirrel population performance between January 1991 and May 1998 on seven benchmark study sites: Blackwater National Wildlife...

  4. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Management at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1984-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  5. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Study Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Report #5 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  6. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Study Egypt Road Block November & December 1982 March 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  7. Removal of introduced arctic fox in the Aleutian Islands: a method for restoring natural

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Following their introduction in 1911, arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) devastated native bird populations on Alaid and Nizki islands in the western Aleutian Islands....

  8. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  9. Common eiders nesting and arctic fox predation at Icy Cape, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the common eiders nesting and arctic fox predation at Icy Cape, Alaska. Study areas, methods, and results are discussed.

  10. Summary of introduced arctic fox eradication efforts at Little Tanaga Island, 1989 to 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As with so many islands in the Aleutian Islands, Little Tanaga Island was stocked with arctic foxes for fur farming purposes in 1922 (Bailey 1993). In an effort to...

  11. Report of fox hunting activities conducted on Agattu Island spring 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the period 16 May to 30 May 1977, 6 subadult foxes were trapped or shot on Agattu Island. This year's activities were a continuation of the 1976 eradication...

  12. Thickness of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Fox Hills aquifer in the Williston structural basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that can be...

  13. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Study Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Report #2 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  14. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Study Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge Report #3 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Demarva Fox Squirrel on Chesapeake Marshlands Complex discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors,...

  15. FoxM1 mediated resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuo XU; Xin ZHANG; Xun WANG; Hai-yan GE; Xiao-ying WANG; David GARFIELD; Ping YANG; Yuan-lin SONG; Chun-xue BAI

    2012-01-01

    Gefitinib is effective in only approximately 20% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC),and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.FoxM1 is upregulated in NSCLC and associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients.In this study,we examined the possible role of FoxM1 in gefitinib resistance and the related mechanisms.Methods:Gefitinib resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and gefitinib-sensitive human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 were used.mRNA and protein expression of FoxM1 and other factors were tested with quantitative RT PCR and Western blot analysis.RNA interference was performed to suppress FoxM1 expression in SPC-A-1 cells,and lentiviral infection was used to overexpress FoxM1 in H292 cells.MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells.Results:Treatment of SPC-A-1 cells with gefitinib (1 and 10 μmol/L) upregulated the expression of FoxM1 in time- and concentrationdependent manners,while gefrtinib (1 μmol/L) downregulated in H292 cells.In SPC-A-1 cells treated with gefitinib (1 μmol/L),the expression of several downstream targets of FoxM1,including survivin,cyclin B1,SKP2,PLK1,Aurora B kinase and CDC25B,were significantly upregulated.Overexpression of FoxM1 increased the resistance in H292 cells,while attenuated FoxM1 expression restored the sensitivity to gefitinib in SPC-A-1 cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis.Conclusion:The results suggest that FoxM1 plays an important role in the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vitro.FoxM1 could be used as a therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to gefitinib.

  16. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)

    OpenAIRE

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno; Luiz Michel Santos; Maria Angélica Miglino; Jayme Augusto Peres; Ricardo Romão Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary ca...

  17. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aliny P; Souza, Tayse D; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil.

  18. Cycad neurotoxins, consumption of flying foxes, and ALS-PDC disease in Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul Alan; Sacks, Oliver W

    2002-03-26

    The Chamorro people of Guam have been afflicted with a complex of neurodegenerative diseases (now known as ALS-PDC) with similarities to ALS, AD, and PD at a far higher rate than other populations throughout the world. Chamorro consumption of flying foxes may have generated sufficiently high cumulative doses of plant neurotoxins to result in ALS-PDC neuropathologies, since the flying foxes forage on neurotoxic cycad seeds.

  19. On "The Natural History of the Human Teeth" by Joseph Fox (published in 1803)

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    "The Natural History of the Human Teeth," written by English surgeon, John Hunter, was first published in 1771, and is one of the most famous works in the history of dentistry. In 1803, another English surgeon, Joseph Fox, also published a book with the same title as Hunter's, but it is not as famous as the former. However, Fox's work is remembered for its description of appliances for correcting dental irregularity and his account of diseases which affect children during their first dentitio...

  20. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase induce expression of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kihyuk; Ochi, Eisuke; Song, Hongsun; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-10-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. We previously found that levels of Forkhead box proteins, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius increased after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Eccentric muscle contractions (ECs), defined as elongation of muscle under tension, were used for inducing EIMD. The objective of this study was to clarify whether AMPK participates in activation and expression of FoxO proteins and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius muscle after EIMD. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following three groups; CON (n = 6), 180ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 180°/s; n = 6), and 30ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 30°/s; n = 6). 20 ECs were conducted with percutaneous electrical stimulation of gastrocnemius and simultaneous forced dorsiflexion of ankle joint (from 0° to 45°). To evaluate activation of AMPK, we measured the phosphorylated states of AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase. For evaluation of the direct relationships of AMPK and other proteins, we also examined contents of FoxOs and myostatin with stimulation of L6 myotube with AMPK agonist, 5 -aminoimidazole -4 -carboxamide -1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Western blotting was employed for protein analysis. Significant torque deficit was only observed in the 180ECs, suggesting EIMD. We also observed that phosphorylated AMPKα was induced in response to 180ECs (p muscle treated with 180ECs. Therefore, we conclude that activation of AMPK plays a key role in increasing the level of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin in gastrocnemius after EIMD.

  1. Application of bioluminescence ATP measurement for evaluation of fungal viability of foxing spots on old documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina Sylvia; Dubar, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence-based protocol was tested to assess the viability of fungal species in old documents damaged by foxing. Foxing appears as scattered yellow brownish-red stains, damaging the aesthetics of documents and their long-term readability. In the field of cultural heritage conservation, the debate over the mechanism of foxing is ongoing. Previous studies found evidence of mold-like structures in some coloured areas; however, many species have not yet been identified and their role in the phenomenon is not understood. To better understand their involvement in this type of paper decay, we focused our attention first on their viability. We demonstrated the reliability and sensitivity of the ATP bioluminescence assay compared with conventional methods based on cultivation, which has rarely given rise to in vitro growth from foxed papers. From nine books dating back from the 19th and 20th centuries, the mean ATP amount of foxed spots ranged from 0.29 to 3.63 ng/cm(2), suggesting the presence of strains inside the brownish spots and providing evidence of their viability. Outside the spots, ATP content was considered negligible, with a mean ATP amount of 0 to 0.03 ng/cm(2). ATP assay appears to be a useful and robust method for the detection and quantification of viable elements in foxing spots.

  2. EXPRESSION OF FoxP3 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Eremeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-two patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA forty persons with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA, and 47 healthy controls were involved into the study. Expression of FoxP3 mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR. In patients with bronchial asthma (ABA and NABA we have revealed a significant decrease in FoxP3 mRNA expression levels, in comparison with control group. The patients with severe BA exhibited lowest levels of the FoxP3 mRNA expression as compared with other groups.We revealed a decreased FoxP3 mRNA expression in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, and an increased IL-17 level in blood serum of patients with bronchial asthma. These results may be considered a manifestation of serious inflammatory process. Probably, the data may reflect a disregulated expression of FoxP3 transcription factor. Therefore, we may assume a key role of FoxP3 for regulation of inflammatory activity in bronchial asthma.

  3. Explosive vocal activity for attracting human attention is related to domestication in silver fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2011-02-01

    Domestication affects behavioral and vocal responses, involved in communication with humans; in particular, those that attract human attention. In this study, we found that silver foxes of Tame strain, experimentally domesticated for a few tenses of generation, displayed bursts of vocal activity during the first minute after appearance of an unfamiliar human, that faded quickly during the remaining time of the test, when the experimenter stayed passively before the cage. Distinctively, foxes of Aggressive strain, artificially selected for tenses of generation for aggressive behavior toward humans, and the control group of Unselected for behavior silver foxes kept steady levels of vocal activity for the duration of the tests. We found also that Aggressive foxes vocalized for a larger proportion of time than Unselected foxes for all 5 min of the test. We discuss the obtained data in relation to proposal effects of domestication on mechanisms directed to involving people into human-animal interactions and structural similarity between human laughter and vocalization of Tame foxes.

  4. Applications of post-translational modifications of FoxO family proteins in biological functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhao; Yachen Wang; Wei-Guo Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The functions of the FoxO family proteins, in particular their transcriptional activities, are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses, which in turn regulate the subcellular localization of FoxO family proteins, as well as their half-life, DNA binding, transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.%The functions of the FoxO family proteins,in particular their transcriptional activities,are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs),including phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,methylation and glycosylation.These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses,which in turn regulate the subceilular localization of FoxO family proteins,as well as their half-life,DNA binding,transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins.In this review,we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.

  5. Genesis of the vertebrate FoxP subfamily member genes occurred during two ancestral whole genome duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Tang, Yezhong; Wang, Yajun

    2016-08-22

    The vertebrate FoxP subfamily genes play important roles in the construction of essential functional modules involved in physiological and developmental processes. To explore the adaptive evolution of functional modules associated with the FoxP subfamily member genes, it is necessary to study the gene duplication process. We detected four member genes of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys (a representative species of jawless vertebrates) through genome screenings and phylogenetic analyses. Reliable paralogons (i.e. paralogous chromosome segments) have rarely been detected in scaffolds of FoxP subfamily member genes in sea lampreys due to the considerable existence of HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 transposases. However, these transposases did not alter gene numbers of the FoxP subfamily in sea lampreys. The coincidence between the "1-4" gene duplication pattern of FoxP subfamily genes from invertebrates to vertebrates and two rounds of ancestral whole genome duplication (1R- and 2R-WGD) events reveal that the FoxP subfamily of vertebrates was quadruplicated in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events. Furthermore, we deduced that a synchronous gene duplication process occurred for the FoxP subfamily and for three linked gene families/subfamilies (i.e. MIT family, mGluR group III and PLXNA subfamily) in the 1R- and 2R-WGD events using phylogenetic analyses and mirror-dendrogram methods (i.e. algorithms to test protein-protein interactions). Specifically, the ancestor of FoxP1 and FoxP3 and the ancestor of FoxP2 and FoxP4 were generated in 1R-WGD event. In the subsequent 2R-WGD event, these two ancestral genes were changed into FoxP1, FoxP2, FoxP3 and FoxP4. The elucidation of these gene duplication processes shed light on the phylogenetic relationships between functional modules of the FoxP subfamily member genes.

  6. FoxO1 Transcription Factor and Its Posttranslational Modification%FoxO1转录因子及其翻译后修饰的生物学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟茜; 邓宇斌

    2010-01-01

    FoxO1转录因子属于Fox家族成员,主要参与细胞凋亡、应激、DNA损伤/修复、肿瘤发生、血管生成和糖代谢等生命过程.PI-3K和Akt信号通路可磷酸化FoxO1,使其由胞核转运至胞质,导致转录活性灭活,从而抑制FoxO1所调控的下游基因表达.FoxO1的乙酰化可削弱FoxO1结合同源DNA序列的能力,同时加强FoxO1的磷酸化,进一步降低其转录活性.正是由于FoxO1本身的翻译后修饰可调节FoxO1的功能,使得其在肿瘤发生、免疫反应、细胞周期、分化、代谢、应激和凋亡中都起着重要的作用.本文对FoxO1及其翻译后修饰的生物学意义进行综述.

  7. FoxD3 Regulation of Nodal in the Spemann Organizer is Essential for Xenopus Dorsal Mesoderm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Aaron B.; Engleka, Mark J.; Lu,Qun; Piwarzyk, Eileen C.; Yaklichkin, Sergey; Lefebvre, Julie L.; Walters, James W.; Pineda-Salgado, Liliam; Labosky, Patricia A.; Kessler, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Induction and patterning of the mesodermal germ layer is a key early step of vertebrate embryogenesis. We report that FoxD3 function in the Xenopus gastrula is essential for dorsal mesodermal development and for Nodal expression in the Spemann organizer. In embryos and explants, FoxD3 induced mesodermal genes, convergent extension movements, and differentiation of axial tissues. Engrailed-FoxD3, but...

  8. Detection of a high-endemic focus of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in southern Denmark, January 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Knapp, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Danish surveillance programme for Echinococcus multilocularis was initiated in September 2011, and so far 679 wild carnivores have been examined. In April 2012, one infected fox was detected in Højer near the Danish-German border, and in January 2013 three additional foxes from the same area...... were found infected. Local prevalence in the area was 31% (four of 13 foxes) which is a new epidemiological situation calling for re-evaluation of the national risk management....

  9. The "O" class: crafting clinical care with FoxO transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead Transcription Factors: Vital Elements in Biology and Medicine provides a unique platform for the presentation of novel work and new insights into the vital role that forkhead transcription factors play in both cellular physiology as well as clinical medicine. Internationally recognized investigators provide their insights and perspectives for a number of forkhead genes and proteins that may have the greatest impact for the development of new strategies for a broad array of disorders that can involve aging, cancer, cardiac function, neurovascular integrity, fertility, stem cell differentiation, cellular metabolism, and immune system regulation. Yet, the work clearly sets a precedent for the necessity to understand the cellular and molecular function of forkhead proteins since this family of transcription factors can limit as well as foster disease progression depending upon the cellular environment. With this in mind, our concluding chapter for Forkhead Transcription Factors: Vital Elements in Biology andMedicine offers to highlight both the diversity and complexity of the forkhead transcription family by focusing upon the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) that include FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4, and FoxO6. FoxO proteins are increasingly considered to represent unique cellular targets that can control numerous processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular development, vascular tone, oxidative stress, stem cell proliferation, fertility, and immune surveillance. Furthermore, FoxO transcription factors are exciting considerations for disorders such as cancer in light of their pro-apoptotic and inhibitory cell cycle effects as well as diabetes mellitus given the close association FoxOs hold with cellular metabolism. In addition, these transcription factors are closely integrated with several novel signal transduction pathways, such as erythropoietin and Wnt proteins, that may influence the ability of FoxOs to lead to cell survival or

  10. A Fault-Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment (FOX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hensbergen, Eric; Speight, William; Xenidis, Jimi

    2013-03-15

    IBM Research’s contribution to the Fault Oblivious Extreme-scale Execution Environment (FOX) revolved around three core research deliverables: • collaboration with Boston University around the Kittyhawk cloud infrastructure which both enabled a development and deployment platform for the project team and provided a fault-injection testbed to evaluate prototypes • operating systems research focused on exploring role-based operating system technologies through collaboration with Sandia National Labs on the NIX research operating system and collaboration with the broader IBM Research community around a hybrid operating system model which became known as FusedOS • IBM Research also participated in an advisory capacity with the Boston University SESA project, the core of which was derived from the K42 operating system research project funded in part by DARPA’s HPCS program. Both of these contributions were built on a foundation of previous operating systems research funding by the Department of Energy’s FastOS Program. Through the course of the X-stack funding we were able to develop prototypes, deploy them on production clusters at scale, and make them available to other researchers. As newer hardware, in the form of BlueGene/Q, came online, we were able to port the prototypes to the new hardware and release the source code for the resulting prototypes as open source to the community. In addition to the open source coded for the Kittyhawk and NIX prototypes, we were able to bring the BlueGene/Q Linux patches up to a more recent kernel and contribute them for inclusion by the broader Linux community. The lasting impact of the IBM Research work on FOX can be seen in its effect on the shift of IBM’s approach to HPC operating systems from Linux and Compute Node Kernels to role-based approaches as prototyped by the NIX and FusedOS work. This impact can be seen beyond IBM in follow-on ideas being incorporated into the proposals for the Exasacale Operating

  11. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Anti-tumor Activity of Ethyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,3a,4,6-tetrahydro-1H-furo[3,4-c]pyran-3a-carboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Han-Yu; WANG Tian-Tian; ZHANG Yi-Kai; CHEN Huan; LV Zhi-Liang; ZHANG Ming-Feng; GENG Dong-Ping; NIU Chun-Juan; LI Ke

    2011-01-01

    The title compound(ethyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,3a,4,6-tetrahydro-1H-furo[3,4-c]pyran-3a-carboxylate) has been synthesized,and its crystal structure was characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction.The crystal belongs to monoclinic,space group P21/n,with a = 10.124(4),b = 11.754(4),c = 13.792(5) ,β = 111.533(3)o,V = 1526.6(10) 3,Z = 4,C17H19O6,Mr = 319.32,Dc = 1.389 g/cm3,F(000) = 676,λ(MoKα) = 0.71073 ,μ = 0.105 mm-1,R = 0.0660 and wR = 0.2027 for 2993 observed reflections(I 2σ(I)).The compound shows potent anti-tumor activity in vitro.

  12. HDAC1 activates FoxO and is both sufficient and required for skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Adam W.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Roberts, Brandon M.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are activated, and necessary for the muscle atrophy, in several pathophysiological conditions, including muscle disuse and cancer cachexia. However, the mechanisms that lead to FoxO activation are not well defined. Recent data from our laboratory and others indicate that the activity of FoxO is repressed under basal conditions via reversible lysine acetylation, which becomes compromised during catabolic conditions. Therefore, we aimed to determine how histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins contribute to activation of FoxO and induction of the muscle atrophy program. Through the use of various pharmacological inhibitors to block HDAC activity, we demonstrate that class I HDACs are key regulators of FoxO and the muscle-atrophy program during both nutrient deprivation and skeletal muscle disuse. Furthermore, we demonstrate, through the use of wild-type and dominant-negative HDAC1 expression plasmids, that HDAC1 is sufficient to activate FoxO and induce muscle fiber atrophy in vivo and is necessary for the atrophy of muscle fibers that is associated with muscle disuse. The ability of HDAC1 to cause muscle atrophy required its deacetylase activity and was linked to the induction of several atrophy genes by HDAC1, including atrogin-1, which required deacetylation of FoxO3a. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of class I HDACs during muscle disuse, using MS-275, significantly attenuated both disuse muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Together, these data solidify the importance of class I HDACs in the muscle atrophy program and indicate that class I HDAC inhibitors are feasible countermeasures to impede muscle atrophy and weakness. PMID:24463822

  13. Dos obras de Kohn-Pedersen-Fox/EE.UU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Two works by Pedersen Fox Associates PC are described in this article. In the first one, the play of volumes and the curved curtain wall façade are the leading part defining the building. At the same time it must be pointed out the decorative use of the different cladding materials and the contrast between the base of the volume and its upper part, of a very different feature from the point of view of the design. The second work takes benefit of the site with symbolic aims as for its façade, the whole being harmonized around a gardened inner court full colored.En la primera de ellas juegan un papel decisivo el cerramiento de muro-cortina y la línea curva de la fachada, elementos ambos que definen el edificio. Asimismo hay que destacar el empleo decorativo de los diferentes materiales de revestimiento y el contraste entre la base del edificio y la parte superior, de muy distinta concepción desde el punto de vista del diseño. La segunda de ellas aprovecha con fines simbólicos el emplazamiento del edificio en cuanto a su fachada principal armonizándolo con una distribución en torno a un patio interior ajardinado, con predominio del color.

  14. Characterization of the FoxL2 proximal promoter and coding sequence from the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Rhen, Turk

    2017-10-01

    Sex is determined by temperature during embryogenesis in snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Previous studies in this species show that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces ovarian development at temperatures that normally produce males or mixed sex ratios. The feminizing effect of DHT is associated with increased expression of FoxL2, suggesting that androgens regulate transcription of FoxL2. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the proximal promoter (1.6kb) and coding sequence for snapping turtle FoxL2 (tFoxL2) in frame with mCherry to produce a fluorescent reporter. The tFoxL2-mCherry fusion plasmid or mCherry control plasmid were stably transfected into mouse KK1 granulosa cells. These cells were then treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100nM DHT to assess androgen effects on tFoxL2-mCherry expression. In contrast to the main hypothesis, DHT did not alter expression of the tFoxL2-mCherry reporter. However, normal serum increased expression of tFoxL2-mCherry when compared to charcoal-stripped serum, indicating that the cloned region of tFoxL2 contains cis regulatory elements. We also used the tFoxL2-mCherry plasmid as an expression vector to test the hypothesis that DHT and tFoxL2 interact to regulate expression of endogenous genes in granulosa cells. While tFoxL2-mCherry and DHT had independent effects on mouse FoxL2, FshR, GnRHR, and StAR expression, tFoxL2-mCherry potentiated low concentration DHT effects on mouse aromatase expression. Further studies will be required to determine whether synergistic regulation of aromatase by DHT and FoxL2 also occurs in turtle gonads during the sex-determining period, which would explain the feminizing effect of DHT in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive potential of Echinococcus multilocularis in experimentally infected foxes, dogs, raccoon dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, C M O; Torgerson, P R; Thompson, R C A; Deplazes, P

    2006-01-01

    A total of 15 red foxes, 15 raccoon dogs, 15 domestic dogs and 15 domestic cats were each infected with 20,000 protoscolices of Echinococcus multilocularis. At 35, 63, and 90 days post inoculation (dpi), five animals from each group were necropsied and the worm burdens determined. The highest worm burdens in foxes (mean of 16,792) and raccoon dogs (mean of 7930) were found at 35 dpi. These declined to a mean of just 331 worms in foxes and 3213 worms in raccoon dogs by day 63 with a further decline to 134 worms in foxes and 67 worms in raccoon dogs by day 90. In dogs, there was no significant difference between worm burdens recovered at days 35 (mean of 2466) and day 90 (mean of 1563), although reduced numbers were recovered on day 63 (mean of 899). In cats, worms were found in four animals 35 dpi (mean of 642), in three at 63 dpi (mean of 28) and in two at 90 dpi (mean of 57). Faecal egg counts were determined at 3 day intervals from 25 dpi. A mathematical model of egg excretion dynamics suggested that the mean biotic potential per infected animal was high in foxes (346,473 eggs); raccoon dogs (335,361 eggs) and dogs (279,910 eggs) but very low for cats (573 eggs). It also indicated that approximately 114, 42 and 27 eggs per worm were excreted in the faeces of dogs, raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. The fecundity of worms in cats was low with an average of less than one egg per worm. The peak levels of coproantigen were detected earlier in foxes and raccoon dogs than in dogs. Eggs recovered from foxes, raccoon dogs and dogs resulted in massive infections in experimental mice. However, metacestodes did not develop from eggs originating from infected cats. It is concluded that foxes, raccoon dogs and dogs are good hosts of E. multilocularis. In contrast, the low worm establishment, the very few excreted eggs and the lack of infectivity of eggs strongly indicate that cats play an insignificant role in parasite transmission.

  16. InsR/FoxO1 signaling curtails hypothalamic POMC neuron number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona Plum

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor (InsR signaling through transcription factor FoxO1 is important in the development of hypothalamic neuron feeding circuits, but knowledge about underlying mechanisms is limited. To investigate the role of InsR/FoxO1 signaling in the development and maintenance of these circuits, we surveyed the pool of hypothalamic neurons expressing Pomc mRNA in different mouse models of impaired hypothalamic InsR signaling. InsR ablation in the entire hypothalamus did not affect Pomc-neuron number at birth, but resulted in a 25% increase, most notably in the middle arcuate nucleus region, in young adults. Selective restoration of InsR expression in POMC neurons in these mice partly reversed the abnormality, resulting in a 10% decrease compared to age-matched controls. To establish whether FoxO1 signaling plays a role in this process, we examined POMC neuron number in mice with POMC-specific deletion of FoxO1, and detected a 23% decrease in age-matched animals, consistent with a cell-autonomous role of InsR/FoxO1 signaling in regulating POMC neuron number, distinct from its established role to activate Pomc transcription. These changes in Pomc cells occurred in the absence of marked changes in humoral factors or hypothalamic NPY neurons.

  17. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Natural Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes - Tissue Tropism and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K Goldspink

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV is a lethal zoonotic agent that emerged in 1994 in Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir. To date, HeV has spilled over from flying-foxes to horses on 51 known occasions, and from infected horses to close-contact humans on seven occasions. We undertook screening of archived bat tissues for HeV by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Tissues were tested from 310 bats including 295 Pteropodiformes and 15 Vespertilioniformes. HeV was detected in 20 individual flying-foxes (6.4% from various tissues including spleen, kidney, liver, lung, placenta and blood components. Detection was significantly higher in Pteropus Alecto and P. conspicillatus, identifying species as a risk factor for infection. Further, our findings indicate that HeV has a predilection for the spleen, suggesting this organ plays an important role in HeV infection. The lack of detections in the foetal tissues of HeV-positive females suggests that vertical transmission is not a regular mode of transmission in naturally infected flying-foxes, and that placental and foetal tissues are not a major source of infection for horses. A better understanding of HeV tissue tropism will strengthen management of the risk of spillover from flying-foxes to horses and ultimately humans.

  19. Expression of full-length and splice forms of FoxP3 in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L R; Woetmann, A; Ødum, N;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the presence of full-length and alternative splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4 cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure...... the amount of FoxP3 mRNA full-length and splice forms. CD4-positive T cells were isolated from peripheral blood from 50 RA patients by immunomagnetic separation, and the FoxP3 mRNA expression was compared with the results from 10 healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed an increased expression of full......-length FoxP3 mRNA in RA patients when compared to healthy controls, as well as an increase in CD25 mRNA expression, but no corresponding increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The presence of an alternative splice form of FoxP3 lacking exon 2 was confirmed in both RA patients and healthy controls...

  20. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T...

  1. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox... restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River due to a water ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the water ski...

  2. An Efficient Method For The One-Pot, Four-Component Benzaldehyde Based Synthesis of 3-Methyl-1,4-Diphenyl-7,8-Dihydro-1H-Furo[3,4-E]Pyrazolo[3,4-B]Pyridin-5(4H-Ones Catalyzed by Alum in Environment-Friendly Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadif A. Shirvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A mild and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,4- diphenyl-7,8-dihydro-1H-furo[3,4-e]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5(4H-one derivatives via one-pot, four-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, tetronic acid, 3-aminobut-2-enenitrile, and phenylhydrazine is described using Alum as catalyst. The features of this procedure are mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, short reaction time, and operational simplicity.

  3. FoxA1 is a key mediator of hormonal response in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica L L; Carroll, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    Hormonally regulated breast and prostate cancers are the most common cause of cancer in females and males respectively. FoxA1 acts as a pioneer factor for both androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-α (ER), dictating the binding location, and therefore function of these transcription factors. It is an essential protein for the transcriptional activity of both ER and AR, yet it has distinct roles with the two different nuclear receptors. In both malignancies, FoxA1 plays a pivotal role from early stage cancer through to drug resistant and metastatic disease. Due to this key role in mediating ER and AR function, FoxA1 is not only an attractive therapeutic target but could potentially function as a novel biomarker.

  4. An investigation into FOXE1 polyalanine tract length in premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Wendy J; Harris, Sarah E; Craven, Megan J; Vincent, Andrea L; Winship, Ingrid M; Gersak, Ksenija; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-03-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition affecting 1% of women worldwide. There is strong evidence for genetic involvement in POF as many cases are familial, and mutations in several genes have been associated with POF. We investigated variation in FOXE1 polyalanine tract length, following the observation that polyalanine tract deletions are seen in the closely related FOXL2 in patients with POF. In addition, polyalanine tract expansions in FOXL2 are often seen in patients with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES), a rare eyelid disorder often associated with POF. The FOXE1 polyalanine tract shows marked variation in its length between POF patients and normal controls, existing as an allele of 12, 14, 16, 17 or 19 alanine residues. We found evidence to suggest that variation in FOXE1 polyalanine tract length predisposes to POF.

  5. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife.

  6. An evaluation of the efficacy of FoxO1 as a medicine in treating metabolic syndrome%靶向 FoxO1治疗代谢综合症的潜在意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梁; 刘小玲; 许俞露; 许宏勋; 胡海

    2014-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia , a prominent metabolic disease , is believed to play an important part in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease .Preclinical studies show that FoxO 1 can effectively control insulin-dependent regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein ( MTP ) and apolipoprotein C-Ⅲ ( ApoC-Ⅲ) .Under physiological conditions, FoxO1 activity can be inhibited by insulin.In insulin resistant states, FoxO1 becomes deregulated, contributing to unbridled FoxO1 activity in the liver.This effect contributes to hepatic overproduction of VLDL and impaired catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles, accounting for the pathogenesis of HTG .These data spur the hypothesis that selective inhibition of FoxO1 activity in the liver would improve triglyceride metabolism and ameliorate HTG .In this article, we review the role of FoxO1 in insulin action and lipid metabolism , and evaluate the potential therapeutic value of targeting FoxO1 for treating HTG .%高甘油三酯血症( Hypertriglyceridemia ,HTG)是一种重要的代谢综合征,导致动脉粥样硬化和冠状动脉疾病。FoxO1对调控胰岛素依赖调节的微粒体甘油三酸酯转运蛋白( Microsomal Riglyceride Transfer Protein ,MTP)和载脂蛋白C-III( Apolipoprotein C-III,ApoC-III)有重要作用。文章综述了FoxO1在胰岛素调节和脂类代谢中的作用,并评估利用靶向FoxO1治疗HTG的可能性。

  7. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight.

  8. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  9. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Henn, Jennifer; Foley, Janet E; Brown, Richard N; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Patrick; Chomel, Bruno B

    2009-12-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria and are usually vector-borne. However, the vector has not been definitively identified for many recently described species. In northern California, gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are infected with two zoonotic Bartonella species, B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Fleas (range 1-8 fleas per fox) were collected from 22 (41.5%) of 54 gray foxes from urban and backcountry zones near Hoopa, California. The flea species were determined, and DNA was individually extracted to establish the Bartonella species harbored by these fleas. Of the 108 fleas collected, 99 (92%) were identified as Pulex simulans. Overall, 39% (42/108) of the fleas were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Bartonella, with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii identified in 34 (81%) and 8 (19%) of the PCR-positive fleas, respectively. There was no difference between the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in P. simulans for the urban and backcountry zones. Fourteen (64%) of the 22 foxes were Bartonella bacteremic at one or more of the capture dates. In 10 instances, both the foxes and the fleas collected from them at the same blood collection were Bartonella-positive. B. rochalimae was the predominant species identified in both foxes and fleas. The competency of Pulex fleas as a vector of B. rochalimae has not been confirmed and will need to be demonstrated experimentally. Pulex spp. fleas readily feed on humans and may represent a source of human exposure to zoonotic species of Bartonella.

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in lower lip squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Portela da CUNHA FILHO

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the number of FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg cells in the microenvironment of lower lip squamous cell carcinomas (LLSCCs and to correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters (tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and histopathological grade of malignancy. Fifty cases of LLSCC were selected. Lymphocytes exhibiting nuclear immunostaining for FoxP3 were quantified in 10 microscopic fields at the deep invasive front of LLSCCs. The results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were observed in all cases studied. The number of these cells tended to be higher in smaller tumors, tumors without regional lymph node metastasis, and tumors in early clinical stages, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Low-grade tumors contained a larger number of FoxP3+ lymphocytes than high-grade tumors (p = 0.019. Tumors with an intense inflammatory infiltrate exhibited a larger number of Treg cells (p = 0.035. On the other hand, the number of FoxP3+ lymphocytes was smaller in tumors arranged in small cell clusters (p = 0.003. No significant differences in the number of FoxP3+ lymphocytes were observed according to the degree of keratinization (p = 0.525 or nuclear pleomorphism (p = 0.343. The results suggest the participation of Treg cells in immune and inflammatory responses in the microenvironment of LLSCCs. These cells may play a more important role in early stages rather than in advanced stages of lip carcinogenesis.

  11. Mst1-FoxO signaling protects Naive T lymphocytes from cellular oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ste-20 family kinase Hippo restricts cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis for proper organ development in Drosophila. In C. elegans, Hippo homolog also regulates longevity. The mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase, Mst1, plays a role in apoptosis induced by various types of apoptotic stress. Mst1 also regulates peripheral naïve T cell trafficking and proliferation in mice. However, its functions in mammals are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that the Mst1-FoxO signaling pathway plays a crucial role in survival, but not apoptosis, of naïve T cells. In Mst1(-/- mice, peripheral T cells showed impaired FoxO1/3 activation and decreased FoxO protein levels. Consistently, the FoxO targets, Sod2 and catalase, were significantly down-regulated in Mst1(-/- T cells, thereby resulting in elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and induction of apoptosis. Expression of constitutively active FoxO3a restored Mst1(-/- T cell survival. Crossing Mst1 transgenic mice (Mst1 Tg with Mst1(-/- mice reduced ROS levels and restored normal numbers of peripheral naïve T cells in Mst1 Tg;Mst1(-/- progeny. Interestingly, peripheral T cells from Mst1(-/- mice were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation and paraquat-induced oxidative stresses, whereas those from Mst1 Tg mice were resistant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data support the hypothesis that tolerance to increased levels of intracellular ROS provided by the Mst1-FoxOs signaling pathway is crucial for the maintenance of naïve T cell homeostasis in the periphery.

  12. Climate change and the effects of temperature extremes on Australian flying-foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbergen, Justin A; Klose, Stefan M; Markus, Nicola; Eby, Peggy

    2008-02-22

    Little is known about the effects of temperature extremes on natural systems. This is of increasing concern now that climate models predict dramatic increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of such extremes. Here we examine the effects of temperature extremes on behaviour and demography of vulnerable wild flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.). On 12 January 2002 in New South Wales, Australia, temperatures exceeding 42 degrees C killed over 3500 individuals in nine mixed-species colonies. In one colony, we recorded a predictable sequence of thermoregulatory behaviours (wing-fanning, shade-seeking, panting and saliva-spreading, respectively) and witnessed how 5-6% of bats died from hyperthermia. Mortality was greater among the tropical black flying-fox, Pteropus alecto (10-13%) than the temperate grey-headed flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (less than 1%), and young and adult females were more affected than adult males (young, 23-49%; females, 10-15%; males, less than 3%). Since 1994, over 30000 flying-foxes (including at least 24500 P. poliocephalus) were killed during 19 similar events. Although P. alecto was relatively less affected, it is currently expanding its range into the more variable temperature envelope of P. poliocephalus, which increases the likelihood of die-offs occurring in this species. Temperature extremes are important additional threats to Australian flying-foxes and the ecosystem services they provide, and we recommend close monitoring of colonies where temperatures exceeding 42.0 degrees C are predicted. The effects of temperature extremes on flying-foxes highlight the complex implications of climate change for behaviour, demography and species survival.

  13. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution

  14. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  15. Desarrollo de prototipo de sensor IoT usando la red SigFox

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto, en colaboración con Wellness Smart Cities, está centrado en el estudio de las posibilidades que puede ofrecer la red SigFox para la integración y comunicación de dispositivos a través del Internet de las Cosas (IoT). Para ello, se hará uso de un modelo concreto de módem para realizar las pruebas; el TD1204 (de Telecom Design). Dicho dispositivo, usado como un sensor de la red SigFox, permitirá monitorizar diversas alarmas definidas en los casos de uso a probar; c...

  16. Spatio-temporal analysis of fox rabies cases in Germany 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eckardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve new insights into rabies dynamics, this paper is the first to investigate fox rabies in Germany from a space-time pattern perspective. Based on a locally restricted dataset covering a fourteen month period, our findings indicate a strongly aggregated spatiotemporal point pattern resulting from an inhomogeneous stochastic process. In contrast to spatial or temporal approaches or cellular automata, our analysis focuses on the disease dynamics in time and space in a continuous time domain. Our findings confirm existing theories regarding fox rabies control highlighting the potential risk of urban areas and the need for effective rabies vaccination.

  17. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  18. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Field

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW, with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes, the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species

  19. Nástroje marketingového mixu ve firmě Fox interier

    OpenAIRE

    VÍTOVCOVÁ, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    The theme of my bachelor´s work is named "Tools of Marketing Mix in the Firm Fox interier". Selected firm is concerned with sale of wood. The aim of this bachelor work is to describe precisely tools of marketing used in the firm Fox interier´s branch office Kozolupy. Then pursuant to realized data recommend change or expansion of marketing tools which are currently used by the firm to from literature. In the first part of my work is processed literature review, which introduces the basic theo...

  20. Evaluation of neophobia and its potential impact upon predator control techniques: a study on two sympatric foxes in southern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Alejandro; Vassallo, Aldo Iván; García, Germán Oscar; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Zapata, Sonia Cristina; Nielsen, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    An alternative approach to increase the efficiency of predator control and selectivity is to consider the natural behavioural repertoire of the target species and how such behaviours may increase their vulnerability. Neophobia, or the hesitancy to approach a novel food item, object, or place, is an important factor influencing the investigative behaviour of animals, and its incorporation to predator control techniques may help to reduce losses of livestock to predators. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated the existence and intensity of neophobic responses in two sympatric fox species, the Culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus) and the Grey (P. griseus) foxes in southern Patagonia, Argentina. For this purpose, we used bait stations to compare fox behavioural responses in the absence (pre-treatment), presence (treatment) and removal (post-treatment) of a novel stimulus, which consisted of an orange PVC-traffic cone. Both fox species showed a neophobic response: bait-station visitation rates decreased (P=0.005 and P=0.048, for Culpeo and Grey foxes, respectively) in the presence of the novel object. The intensity of the response differed between species being higher for Culpeo foxes (approximately 80% of reduction in visitation rate during treatment for Culpeo foxes vs. 10% for Grey foxes). However, the bait-station visitation pattern after novel object removal indicated that animals probably increased exploration of the station. The high level of neophobia achieved by the Culpeo fox, together with an increase in post-treatment site exploration, suggests that behavioural manipulations (reduction of neophobia and its consequent increase in risk taking) could improve selective and efficient fox control in rural areas where livestock production is a major economic activity.

  1. DMFC (3,5-dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one) regulates Bim to trigger Bax and Bak activation to suppress drug-resistant human hepatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xia; Sun, Jianguo; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-03-01

    3,5-Dimethyl-(7)H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (DMFC) is a coumarin derivative with anti-cancer activity against human hepatoma cells, but the mechanisms underlying DMFC function in cancer suppression is unknown. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying DMFC anti-cancer activity and determining whether DMFC is effective in suppression of drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show here that DMFC effectively suppresses both the parent and the multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell growth in vitro and DMFC suppresses hepatoma cell growth at least in part through inducing tumor cell apoptosis. In the molecular level, we observed that DMFC treatment decreases Bcl-2 level by a post-transcriptional mechanism and activates Bim transcription to increase Bim mRNA and protein level in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that DMFC-induced Bim interrupts interactions between Bcl-2 and Bax and between Mcl-1 and Bak, resulting in dissociation of Bax from Bcl-2 and Bak from Mcl-1 and subsequent activation of both Bax and Bak. Activation of Bax and Bak leads to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Consistent with its potent apoptosis-inducing activity, DMFC exhibited potent activity against the multidrug-resistant hepatoma xenograft growth in vivo. Therefore, we determine that DMFC suppresses hepatoma growth through decreasing Bcl-2 and increasing Bim to induce tumor cell apoptosis and hold great promise for further development as a therapeutic agent to treat chemoresistant hepatoma.

  2. Some know- how to improve properties of Visual FoxPro%改进Visual FoxPro性能的几个技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阴光琰

    2004-01-01

    高性能是Microsoft FoxPro数据库管理系统(特别是它的数据库引擎)的最大特点.Visual FoxPro关系型数据库引进了对象模型,提高了引擎的存取速度并增强了客户/服务器特性,因此整个管理系统的功能变得更加强大.但是,这些强大功能的代价是使管理系统变得更加复杂.因此,一方面,很容易开发出性能稳定、面向对象、使用远程数据的应用程序,另一方面,也很难避免出现低性能的应用程序.

  3. Cytogenetic studies and karyotype nomenclature of three wild canid species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska-Schelling, A; Schelling, C; Zawada, M; Yang, F; Bugno, M; Ferguson-Smith, M

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the chromosomes of three wild and endangered canid species: the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and the fennec fox (Fennecuszerda) using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. For the first time detailed and encompassing descriptions of the chromosomes are presented including the chromosomal assignment of nucleolar organizer regions and the 5S rRNA gene cluster. We propose a karyotype nomenclature with ideograms including more than 300 bands per haploid set for each of these three species which will form the basis for further research. In addition, we propose four basic different patterns of karyotype organization in the family Canidae. A comparison of these patterns with the most recent molecular phylogeny of Canidae revealed that the karyotype evolution of a species is not always strongly connected with its phylogenetic position. Our findings underline the need and justification for basic cytogenetic work in rare and exotic species.

  4. FoxM1 Promotes Stemness and Radio-Resistance of Glioblastoma by Regulating the Master Stem Cell Regulator Sox2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeri; Kim, Kang Ho; Kim, Dong Geon; Cho, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeonghwan; Rheey, Jinguen; Shin, Kayoung; Seo, Yun Jee; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Il; Lee, Jeongwu; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and most lethal brain tumor. As current standard therapy consisting of surgery and chemo-irradiation provides limited benefit for GBM patients, novel therapeutic options are urgently required. Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor is an oncogenic regulator that promotes the proliferation, survival, and treatment resistance of various human cancers. The roles of FoxM1 in GBM remain incompletely understood, due in part to pleotropic nature of the FoxM1 pathway. Here, we show the roles of FoxM1 in GBM stem cell maintenance and radioresistance. ShRNA-mediated FoxM1 inhibition significantly impeded clonogenic growth and survival of patient-derived primary GBM cells with marked downregulation of Sox2, a master regulator of stem cell phenotype. Ectopic expression of Sox2 partially rescued FoxM1 inhibition-mediated effects. Conversely, FoxM1 overexpression upregulated Sox2 expression and promoted clonogenic growth of GBM cells. These data, with a direct binding of FoxM1 in the Sox2 promoter region in GBM cells, suggest that FoxM1 regulates stemness of primary GBM cells via Sox2. We also found significant increases in FoxM1 and Sox2 expression in GBM cells after irradiation both in vitro and in vivo orthotopic tumor models. Notably, genetic or a small-molecule FoxM1 inhibitor-mediated FoxM1 targeting significantly sensitized GBM cells to irradiation, accompanying with Sox2 downregulation. Finally, FoxM1 inhibition combined with irradiation in a patient GBM-derived orthotopic model significantly impeded tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the FoxM1-Sox2 signaling axis promotes clonogenic growth and radiation resistance of GBM, and suggest that FoxM1 targeting combined with irradiation is a potentially effective therapeutic approach for GBM.

  5. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of FOX-12%N-脒基脲二硝酰胺盐(FOX-12)的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通辉; 何金选; 张海林

    2004-01-01

    以二硝酰胺铵(ADN)和双氰胺为原材料经过一系列反应,制备出新型有机二硝酰胺盐-N-脒基脲二硝酰胺盐(FOX-12),并鉴定了其结构,测定了其熔点、感度、吸湿性等性能.

  7. 乳腺癌中FoxP3表达与上皮间质转化的相关性及其意义%Clinical significance of FoxP3 and the correlation of FoxP3 expression with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍莉莉; 李慧; 魏枫; 赵华; 任秀宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the correlation between the expression of FoxP3, TGF-β1, and epitheli-al-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer and to determine the clinical significance of FoxP3. Methods: The expression of FoxP3, TGF-β1, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin protein were detected in the cancer cells of 74 cases with breast carcinoma via immunohistochemistry. The correlation of FoxP3 protein with clinico-pathologic features of breast carcinoma and the re-lationships among the expressions of FoxP3, TGF-β1, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were analyzed. Results:The ex-pression rates of FoxP3, TGF-β1, and EMT are 36.5%(27/74), 39.2%(29/74), and 40.5%(30/74), respectively. The FoxP3 protein ex-pression in breast cancer is correlated with lymph node metastasis (P0.05). The expression of FoxP3 is also correlated with the expression of TGF-β1. Furthermore, TGF-β1 can induce EMT (P0.05)。FoxP3和TGF-β1的表达之间存在相关性,而TGF-β1可以促进EMT发生(P<0.05)。结论:FoxP3的表达与乳腺癌淋巴结转移和EMT的发生相关,可能作为预测乳腺癌转移可能性的标记物。

  8. FoxO1 regulates myocardial glucose oxidation rates via transcriptional control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Keshav; Saleme, Bruno; Al Batran, Rami; Aburasayn, Hanin; Eshreif, Amina; Ho, Kim L; Ma, Wayne K; Almutairi, Malak; Eaton, Farah; Gandhi, Manoj; Park, Edwards A; Sutendra, Gopinath; Ussher, John R

    2017-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation and a critical regulator of metabolic flexibility during the fasting to feeding transition. PDH is regulated via both PDH kinases (PDHK) and PDH phosphatases, which phosphorylate/inactivate and dephosphorylate/activate PDH, respectively. Our goal was to determine whether the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) regulates PDH activity and glucose oxidation in the heart via increasing the expression of Pdk4, the gene encoding PDHK4. To address this question, we differentiated H9c2 myoblasts into cardiac myocytes and modulated FoxO1 activity, after which Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and PDH phosphorylation/activity were assessed. We assessed binding of FoxO1 to the Pdk4 promoter in cardiac myocytes in conjunction with measuring the role of FoxO1 on glucose oxidation in the isolated working heart. Both pharmacological (1 µM AS1842856) and genetic (siRNA mediated) inhibition of FoxO1 decreased Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and subsequent PDH phosphorylation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes, whereas 10 µM dexamethasone-induced Pdk4/PDHK4 expression was abolished via pretreatment with 1 µM AS1842856. Furthermore, transfection of H9c2 cardiac myocytes with a vector expressing FoxO1 increased luciferase activity driven by a Pdk4 promoter construct containing the FoxO1 DNA-binding element region, but not in a Pdk4 promoter construct lacking this region. Finally, AS1842856 treatment in fasted mice enhanced glucose oxidation rates during aerobic isolated working heart perfusions. Taken together, FoxO1 directly regulates Pdk4 transcription in the heart, thereby controlling PDH activity and subsequent glucose oxidation rates.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although studies have shown an association between FoxO1 activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression, our study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 is a direct transcriptional target of FoxO1 (but not FoxO3/FoxO4) in the heart. Furthermore, we report

  9. SIRT1 Protein, by Blocking the Activities of Transcription Factors FoxO1 and FoxO3, Inhibits Muscle Atrophy and Promotes Muscle Growth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    In several cell types, the protein deacetylase SIRT1 regulates the activities of FoxO transcription factors whose activation is critical in muscle atrophy. However, the possible effects of SIRT1 on the activity of FoxOs in skeletal muscle and on the regulation of muscle size have not been investigated. Here, we show that after food deprivation, SIRT1 levels fall dramatically in type II skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior), which show marked atrophy, unlike in the liver (where SIRT1 rises) or heart or the soleus, a type I muscle (where SIRT1 is unchanged). Maintenance of high SIRT1 levels by electroporation in mouse muscle inhibits markedly the muscle wasting induced by fasting as well as by denervation, and these protective effects require its deacetylase activity. SIRT1 overexpression reduces muscle wasting by blocking the activation of FoxO1 and 3. It thus prevents the induction of key atrogenes, including the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, atrogin1 and MuRF1, and multiple autophagy (Atg) genes and the increase in overall proteolysis. In normal muscle, SIRT1 overexpression by electroporation causes rapid fiber hypertrophy without, surprisingly, activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Thus, SIRT1 activation favors postnatal muscle growth, and its fall appears to be critical for atrophy during fasting. Consequently, SIRT1 activation represents an attractive possible pharmacological approach to prevent muscle wasting and cachexia. PMID:24003218

  10. Visual FoxPro上机实践中常见错误汇总%Summary of Commom Errors in Visual FoxPro Experimental Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦萍萍

    2015-01-01

    Visual FoxPro数据库程序语言设计是一门操作性比较强的高级程序语言类课程,它有着强大的功能,并能针对不同用户有着不同用途。该文主要针对学生在上级实验学习的过程出经常遇到的问题进行归总和解析,找出了问题产生原因,并提供解决该问题的方法。为Visual FoxPro数据库程序语言设计的教学提供参考,以提高教学效果和质量。%Visual Foxpro Database programming language design is a relatively strong operability advanced programming language courses. It has powerful features, and can have different purposes for different users. In this paper, aimed at students in the course of the experiment on the computer learning problems often encountered have been aggregated and analysis, to identify the causes of the problem and provide a solution to this problem. Provide a reference for the Visual FoxPro database programming language de⁃signed for teaching to improve teaching effectiveness and quality.

  11. FoxO1基因cDNA序列的克隆及组织表达%Cloning and Tissues Expression Analysis of Goose Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Gene cDNA Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐; 魏守海

    2014-01-01

    为了研究鹅FoxO1(forkhead box O1)基因的功能,根据GenBank已收录的鸡(Gallus gallus)、人(Homo sapiens)和小鼠(Mus musculus)等物种FoxO1基因序列的同源保守区域,设计特异性引物,利用RT-PCR技术克隆鹅FoxO1基因cDNA序列,并对基因序列进行了生物信息学分析.结果表明,成功克隆得到了鹅FoxO1基因cDNA序列,通过BLAST比对,鹅FoxO1基因与原鸡、人、小鼠的核苷酸序列同源性分别为97%、83%、82%,FoxO1基因在四川白鹅中表达水平总体表现为:皮脂>腹脂>腿肌>胸肌>肝脏.因此,FoxO1基因在多个组织中都有表达,且表达差异较大.

  12. A novel N-terminal motif is responsible for the evolution of neural crest-specific gene-regulatory activity in vertebrate FoxD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroki; Kozmik, Zbynek; Yu, Jr-Kai; Wada, Hiroshi

    2014-01-15

    The neural crest is unique to vertebrates and has allowed the evolution of their complicated craniofacial structures. During vertebrate evolution, the acquisition of the neural crest must have been accompanied by the emergence of a new gene regulatory network (GRN). Here, to investigate the role of protein evolution in the emergence of the neural crest GRN, we examined the neural crest cell (NCC) differentiation-inducing activity of chordate FoxD genes. Amphioxus and vertebrate (Xenopus) FoxD proteins both exhibited transcriptional repressor activity in Gal4 transactivation assays and bound to similar DNA sequences in vitro. However, whereas vertebrate FoxD3 genes induced the differentiation of ectopic NCCs when overexpressed in chick neural tube, neither amphioxus FoxD nor any other vertebrate FoxD paralogs exhibited this activity. Experiments using chimeric proteins showed that the N-terminal portion of the vertebrate FoxD3 protein is critical to its NCC differentiation-inducing activity. Furthermore, replacement of the N-terminus of amphioxus FoxD with a 39-amino-acid segment from zebrafish FoxD3 conferred neural crest-inducing activity on amphioxus FoxD or zebrafish FoxD1. Therefore, fixation of this N-terminal amino acid sequence may have been crucial in the evolutionary recruitment of FoxD3 to the vertebrate neural crest GRN. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Elaboração de escala diagramática para furo-de-bala e avaliação de doenças foliares em dois sistemas de produção de pessegueiro Shot hole diagrammatic scale development and leaf diseases assessment in two production systems of peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alberto Challiol

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As principais doenças foliares que ocorrem em pessegueiro, em Lapa e Araucária, municípios do Estado do Paraná (Brasil, são a ferrugem (Tranzschelia discolor e o furo-de-bala (Wilsonomyces carpophilus. A primeira causa desfolha logo após a colheita, e a segunda está sempre presente nos pomares, entretanto seus efeitos não são claramente conhecidos e também faltam metodologias para avaliação dessa doença. O presente trabalho objetivou elaborar escala diagramática para furo-de-bala e comparar incidência e severidade de furo-de-bala e da ferrugem em dois sistemas de manejo: produção integrada e convencional. A escala diagramática para furo de bala foi elaborada no primeiro ano de avaliação, selecionando-se folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade, sendo estabelecidos os níveis mínimo e máximo da doença no campo, e os demais níveis foram interpolados de acordo com a acuidade visual. Para comparar os dois sistemas de produção, foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais em duas regiões produtoras (Lapa e Araucária, comparando-se produção integrada (PI e produção convencional (PC em duas safras (2002-2003 e 2003-2004, em pomares comerciais de pessegueiro, cultivar 'Chimarrita'. O tratamento PI foi conduzido seguindo as normas técnicas do sistema de PI para pêssego, e o tratamento PC, seguindo o manejo utilizado pelo produtor em cada área. Para avaliar as doenças, foram quantificadas se a incidência e a severidade do furo-de-bala e da ferrugem em ramos marcados, de outubro a abril, nas duas safras. Além disso, foi determinada a desfolha no período de avaliação. A escala diagramática desenvolvida estabeleceu seis níveis de severidade para furo-de-bala, podendo ser indicada para avaliações de comparação entre sistemas e monitoramento da doença no campo. Em Araucária, a incidência e a severidade de furo-de-bala tiveram comportamento inverso entre os anos, sendo menor na PI em primeira safra e maior na

  14. Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

  15. Using Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" To Reach Kids Where They Hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, C J

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how one teacher uses Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" to explore leaders and followers as the main topic of discussion in a sophomore class. Describes how students keep a reader's journal with quotations from the text and personal responses. (SG)

  16. FoxP2 directly regulates the reelin receptor VLDLR developmentally and by singing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Iris; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Kobalz, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the transcription factor FOXP2 cause a severe speech and language disorder. In songbirds, FoxP2 is expressed in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the avian basal ganglia song nucleus, Area X, which is crucial for song learning and adult song performance. Experimental downregulation ...

  17. Development of a Questionnaire To Evaluate Fox Valley Technical College's Marketing Communications with Prospective Student Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susan A.

    A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of Fox Valley Technical College's (FVTC's) marketing communications with prospective students. The literature on customer service, marketing communications, and institutional image was reviewed, and 17 construct criteria and 7 content criteria were developed as the framework for the…

  18. An investigation into FOXE1 polyalanine tract length in premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watkins, WJ; Harris, SE; Craven, MJ; Vincent, AL; Winship, IM; Gersak, K; Shelling, AN

    2006-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition affecting 1% of women worldwide. There is strong evidence for genetic involvement in POF as many cases are familial, and mutations in several genes have been associated with POF. We investigated variation in FOXE1 polyalanine tract length, follow

  19. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeta, C T; Mansfield, K L; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R; Nel, L H

    2007-10-01

    A panel of 124 rabies viruses from wildlife host species (principally the bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis) and domestic carnivore species were collected between 1980 and 2005 from a region of South Africa associated with endemic bat-eared fox rabies. We have studied the molecular epidemiology of bat-eared fox rabies by virtue of nucleotide sequence analyses of PCR amplicons specific to the variable G-L intergenic region as well as the conserved nucleoprotein gene of each of the rabies viruses in this South African panel. Although it was demonstrated that all of these viruses were very closely related, they could be segregated into two major phylogenetic groups. The data presented in this paper complement antigenic and surveillance data on rabies in this host species in South Africa. Most importantly our data support a hypothesis that the bat-eared fox independently maintains rabies cycles in specific geographical loci. This is the first molecular epidemiological investigation describing rabies transmission dynamics in this wildlife carnivore host species in South Africa.

  20. Red fox tracking activity on the snow cover in steppe forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Mikheyev

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of field data the characteristics of red fox track activity in steppe forests of a southeast of Ukraine under the snow cover conditions were presented. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of vital activity traces as elements of an information field was carried out.

  1. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF REARING KITS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS IN BLOOD OF POLAR FOXES FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SZYMECZKO

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the number of rearing kits on selected blood parameters in polar fox females in the fifth week of lactation. The haematological parameters were tested in the blood of polar fox females with small (group A-mean number of pups: 3.5 and large (group B-mean number of pups: 10.7 litter. In female polar foxes rearing 9-13 kits (group B there was found a lower number of red blood cells, a lower haematocrit value and lower concentration of haemoglobin. No significant (P<0.05 effect of litter size on the number of white blood cells was observed, however there was an essential (P<0.05 increase in the percentage of neutrophiles as well as lowering of lymphocytes in the total count of leucocytes in the female of polar foxes from B group. A large number of pups in litter significantly (P<0.05 lowered the content of glucose in female blood on the 35th day of lactation.

  2. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  3. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Daniel J.; Anderson, Ashley G.; Berto, Stefano; Runnels, Wesley; Harper, Matthew; Ammanuel, Simon; Rieger, Michael A.; Huang, Hung-Chung; Rajkovich, Kacey; Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Gibson, Jay R.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Araujo et al. demonstrate that Foxp1 plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of autism-related pathways as well as genes involved in neuronal activity by identifying the gene expression program regulated by FoxP1 in both human neural cells and patient-relevant heterozygous Foxp1 mouse brains.

  4. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Daniel J.; Anderson, Ashley G.; Berto, Stefano; Runnels, Wesley; Harper, Matthew; Ammanuel, Simon; Rieger, Michael A.; Huang, Hung-Chung; Rajkovich, Kacey; Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Gibson, Jay R.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factor Forkhead box p1 (FOXP1) are causative for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. However, the function of FOXP1 within the brain remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify the gene expression program regulated by FoxP1 in both human neural cells and patient-relevant heterozygous Foxp1 mouse brains. We demonstrate a role for FoxP1 in the transcriptional regulation of autism-related pathways as well as genes involved in neuronal activity. We show that Foxp1 regulates the excitability of striatal medium spiny neurons and that reduction of Foxp1 correlates with defects in ultrasonic vocalizations. Finally, we demonstrate that FoxP1 has an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating pathways involved in striatal neuron identity through gene expression studies in human neural progenitors with altered FOXP1 levels. These data support an integral role for FoxP1 in regulating signaling pathways vulnerable in autism and the specific regulation of striatal pathways important for vocal communication. PMID:26494785

  5. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  6. Hunting Reynard : How 'Reynard the Fox' tricked his way into English and Dutch children's literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Sanne

    2008-01-01

    This article examines adaptations in their capacity of preserving literary heritage. It describes how the Middle Dutch beast epic Reynard the Fox lost its position in literature for adults and became part of a literary heritage that was no longer read but only studied for its historical value. Versi

  7. Fox-Kemper and Willis receive Ocean Sciences Early Career Awards: Citation for Josh K. Willis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, Dean

    2012-06-01

    Baylor Fox-Kemper and Josh K. Willis each received the 2011 Ocean Sciences Early Career Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes "significant contributions to and promise in the ocean sciences."

  8. Fox-Kemper and Willis receive Ocean Sciences Early Career Awards: Response from Josh K. Willis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Josh K.

    2012-06-01

    Baylor Fox-Kemper and Josh K. Willis each received the 2011 Ocean Sciences Early Career Award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes “significant contributions to and promise in the ocean sciences.”

  9. Development of an Updated Strategic Marketing Plan for Fox Valley Technical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susan A.

    This project was conducted to develop a comprehensive strategic marketing plan for Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC). Components included a review of the literature, establishing criteria for the plan, validation of the criteria, the actual development of the plan involving a formative committee, and the review of institutional marketing plans…

  10. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  11. Transcription factor FoxO1 is essential for enamel biomineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Poché

    Full Text Available The Transforming growth factor β (Tgf-β pathway, by signaling via the activation of Smad transcription factors, induces the expression of many diverse downstream target genes thereby regulating a vast array of cellular events essential for proper development and homeostasis. In order for a specific cell type to properly interpret the Tgf-β signal and elicit a specific cellular response, cell-specific transcriptional co-factors often cooperate with the Smads to activate a discrete set of genes in the appropriate temporal and spatial manner. Here, via a conditional knockout approach, we show that mice mutant for Forkhead Box O transcription factor FoxO1 exhibit an enamel hypomaturation defect which phenocopies that of the Smad3 mutant mice. Furthermore, we determined that both the FoxO1 and Smad3 mutant teeth exhibit changes in the expression of similar cohort of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins required for proper enamel development. These data raise the possibility that FoxO1 and Smad3 act in concert to regulate a common repertoire of genes necessary for complete enamel maturation. This study is the first to define an essential role for the FoxO family of transcription factors in tooth development and provides a new molecular entry point which will allow researchers to delineate novel genetic pathways regulating the process of biomineralization which may also have significance for studies of human tooth diseases such as amelogenesis imperfecta.

  12. Amigos de Fox, breve historia de un "partido" efímero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tejeda Ávila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amigos de Fox fue más allá de la cuestión del financiamiento, conformó una red de ciudadanos con el propósito explícito de llevar a la Presidencia de la República a un candidato surgido de las filas de la oposición y "sacar al PRI de Los Pinos". Los artífices del concepto Amigos de Fox fueron un grupo de empresarios que se conocieron cuando trabajaban en Coca-Cola. A partir de estrategias de mercadotecnia y publicidad impulsaron una movilización ciudadana que tuvo éxito en el ámbito de la campaña presidencial del año 2000: su candidato ganó en las urnas. Amigos de Fox creó una estructura paralela al PAN que se comportó como un partido, expresando nuevas formas de participación electoral; primero impuso a Vicente Fox como el candidato oficial del PAN y después lo llevó a la Presidencia.

  13. Creating Imaginative Worlds: Unique Details and Structure in Norma Fox Mazer's Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how writer Norma Fox Mazer has helped many readers make the leap between reality and imagination simply in the way she handles details in the lives of her characters. Explores the ideas of communicating with detail, experimenting with structure, and playing with time in crucial scenes. (SG)

  14. Using Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" To Reach Kids Where They Hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, C J

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how one teacher uses Norma Fox Mazer's "Out of Control" to explore leaders and followers as the main topic of discussion in a sophomore class. Describes how students keep a reader's journal with quotations from the text and personal responses. (SG)

  15. Characterization of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD5 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Yongli

    2012-03-01

    As one member of winged helix domain transcription factors, FoxD5 was reported to be a trunk organizer. Recent study showed that zebrafish foxd5 is expressed in the somites. To further understand the function of FoxD5 in fish muscle development, the FoxD5 gene was isolated from flounder. Its expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization, while its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD, was analyzed by ectopic expression. It showed that flounder FoxD5 was firstly expressed in the tailbud, adaxial cells, and neural plate of the head. In flounder embryo, FoxD5 is expressed not only in forebrain but also in somite cells that will form muscle in the future. When flounder FoxD5 was over-expressed in zebrafish by microinjection, the expression of zebrafish MyoD in the somites was reduced, suggesting that FoxD5 is involved in myogenesis by regulating the expression of MyoD.

  16. Insights on FoxN1 biological significance and usages of the "nude" mouse in studies of T-lymphopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Burnley, Preston; Coder, Brandon; Su, Dong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Mutation in the "nude" gene, i.e. the FoxN1 gene, induces a hairless phenotype and a rudimentary thymus gland in mice (nude mouse) and humans (T-cell related primary immunodeficiency). Conventional FoxN1 gene knockout and transgenic mouse models have been generated for studies of FoxN1 gene function related to skin and immune diseases, and for cancer models. It appeared that FoxN1's role was fully understood and the nude mouse model was fully utilized. However, in recent years, with the development of inducible gene knockout/knockin mouse models with the loxP-Cre(ER(T)) and diphtheria toxin receptor-induced cell abolished systems, it appears that the complete repertoire of FoxN1's roles and deep-going usage of nude mouse model in immune function studies have just begun. Here we summarize the research progress made by several recent works studying the role of FoxN1 in the thymus and utilizing nude and "second (conditional) nude" mouse models for studies of T-cell development and function. We also raise questions and propose further consideration of FoxN1 functions and utilizing this mouse model for immune function studies.

  17. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT. Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis, whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  18. Regulation of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system by the FoxO transcriptional network during muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Giulia; Romanello, Vanina; Pescatore, Francesca; Armani, Andrea; Paik, Ji-Hye; Frasson, Laura; Seydel, Anke; Zhao, Jinghui; Abraham, Reimar; Goldberg, Alfred L; Blaauw, Bert; DePinho, Ronald A; Sandri, Marco

    2015-04-10

    Stresses like low nutrients, systemic inflammation, cancer or infections provoke a catabolic state characterized by enhanced muscle proteolysis and amino acid release to sustain liver gluconeogenesis and tissue protein synthesis. These conditions activate the family of Forkhead Box (Fox) O transcription factors. Here we report that muscle-specific deletion of FoxO members protects from muscle loss as a result of the role of FoxOs in the induction of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. Notably, in the setting of low nutrient signalling, we demonstrate that FoxOs are required for Akt activity but not for mTOR signalling. FoxOs control several stress-response pathways such as the unfolded protein response, ROS detoxification, DNA repair and translation. Finally, we identify FoxO-dependent ubiquitin ligases including MUSA1 and a previously uncharacterised ligase termed SMART (Specific of Muscle Atrophy and Regulated by Transcription). Our findings underscore the central function of FoxOs in coordinating a variety of stress-response genes during catabolic conditions.

  19. miR-182 attenuates atrophy-related gene expression by targeting FoxO3 in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Rahnert, Jill A; Zheng, Bin; Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E; Franch, Harold A; Price, S Russ

    2014-08-15

    Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in response to a variety of conditions including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, cancer, and elevated glucocorticoids. MicroRNAs (miR) may play a role in the wasting process. Activation of the forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) transcription factor causes skeletal muscle atrophy in patients, animals, and cultured cells by increasing the expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome proteolytic systems. To identify microRNAs that potentially modulate the atrophy process, an in silico target analysis was performed and miR-182 was predicted to target FoxO3 mRNA. Using a combination of immunoblot analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and FoxO3 3'-UTR luciferase reporter genes, miR-182 was confirmed to regulate FoxO3 expression in C2C12 myotubes. Transfection of miR-182 into muscle cells decreased FoxO3 mRNA 30% and FoxO3 protein 67% (P muscle atrophy decreased miR-182 expression by 63% (P muscle of rats injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes compared with controls. Finally, miR-182 was present in exosomes isolated from the media of C2C12 myotubes and Dex increased its abundance. These data identify miR-182 as an important regulator of FoxO3 expression that participates in the control of atrophy-inducing genes during catabolic diseases.

  20. Association of aplastic anemia and FoxP3 gene polymorphisms in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Ji Won; Lee, Nuri; Roh, Eun Youn; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young

    2017-04-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by pancytopenia and bone marrow failure, and most acquired AA is an immune-mediated disorder. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppressing autoreactive T cells were decreased in AA patients. FoxP3 is a major regulator for the development and function of Tregs. Polymorphism in FoxP3 was shown to be associated with various autoimmune diseases, however, has not yet been studied in AA. In this study, we examined the association between FoxP3 polymorphisms and AA in Korean patients. The study population consisted of 94 patients diagnosed by bone marrow examination in Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) during 1997-2012 and 195 healthy controls. FoxP3 polymorphisms (rs5902434 del/ATT, rs3761548 C/A, rs3761549 C/T, rs2232365 A/G) were analyzed by PCR-sequencing method. We analyzed differences of genotype and allele frequencies between patients and controls. We also compared differences of genotype and allele frequencies between responder and non-responder in patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy (IST). For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used and P in the genotype frequencies of FoxP3 polymorphisms between patients and controls. With regards to the allele frequencies, rs3761548 C allele was significantly higher in AA patients than in controls (87.4% vs. 79.7%, P = 0.047). In patients treated with IST, rs3761549 C allele was significantly higher in non-responder patients than in responders (89.6% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.036) and female rs3761549 C/C genotype carriers were associated with greater risk for non-response to IST (84.2% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.006). Polymorphisms in rs3761548 and rs3761549 of FoxP3 in our population were associated with disease susceptibility and response for IST, respectively. This study suggests an association between FoxP3 polymorphisms and AA in Korean patients and will be useful in further understanding the genetic basis of disease susceptibility and