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Sample records for furnace flue dust

  1. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  2. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar; Clemente, Carmen; Alonso, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose

    2007-03-06

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue dust using ammonium carbonate solutions. Once zinc is dissolved: ZnO + 4NH3 + H2O --> Zn(NH3)4(2+) + 2OH- with other impurities (i.e. cadmium and copper), these are eliminated from the zinc solution via cementation with metallic zinc. The purified zinc solution was evaporated (distilled) until precipitation of a zinc carbonate species, which then was calcined to yield a zinc oxide of a high grade. For the unattacked dust residue from the leaching operation, mainly composed of zinc ferrite, several options can be considered: back-recycling to the furnace, further treatment by sodium hydroxide processing or a more safely dumping due to its relatively inertness.

  3. Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

    2010-05-15

    Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm.

  4. Inertization of pyrite cinders and co-inertization with electric arc furnace flue dusts by pyroconsolidation at solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñals, J; Balart, M J; Roca, A

    2002-01-01

    The viability of a pyroconsolidation process to render pyrite cinders inert and to co-inert pyrite cinders with a hazardous polymetallic residue such as electric arc furnace flue dusts (EAF) containing Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni and Mo were investigated. The effects of pyroconsolidation temperature (800-1200 degrees C), milling pyrite cinders and additions of both CaO and EAF on the resulting microstructure of the pellets were determined. The microstructural changes were then compared with the results of the standard leaching tests. Full inertization of pyrite cinders was achieved after milling to < 100 micron followed by a pelletization and pyroconsolidation process at a temperature of 1200 degrees C. This process also allows co-inertization of pyrite cinders with controlled additions of EAF (up to approximately to 10%). Following pyroconsolidation at 1200 degrees C, the metallic elements were inert components in the four main phases: traces of Cr in hematite; Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni in spinel-phase; traces of Cr and Zn in calcium ferrites; and Pb and traces of Cu, Zn and Ba in K-Ca-Al-Fe glassy silicate.

  5. Arsenic immobilization of Teniente furnace dust

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    Ichimura, R. [Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Tateiwa, H. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Almendares, C. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, G. [CODELCO, Santiago (Chile). Division Ventanas

    2007-07-01

    A 5-year joint Japanese-Chilean project to modify the treatment of furnace dust from a converter in Chile producing harmful amounts of arsenic and lead was described. A pilot plant was constructed to evaluate the method's commercialization potential. Flue dust was recovered by a dust collector installed to capture suspended dust generated by the smelting furnace. Arsenic content was approximately 15 per cent. Ninety per cent of the arsenic was then liquidated to lixivia and dissolved by leaching flue dust with sulphuric acid. The leaching rate decreased when flue dust had a high content of residual sulfide ore. A flotation device was then incorporated in the treatment process in order to increase the copper recovery rate. A solvent recovery process was then adopted to recover the copper and zinc contained in the solution after the arsenic recovery. An economic evaluation of the process indicated that efforts should be made to improve the efficiency of the dust treatment method. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  6. 烟气余热回收装置在铝熔保炉除尘系统中的应用%Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Unit in Dust Removal System of Aluminum Melting and Holding Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊振国

    2016-01-01

    The paper described the necessity and technical requirements of application of flue gas waste heat recovery unit in dust removal system for aluminum melting and holding furnace;it presented critical technology issues needed to be resolved in dust removal system when using flue gas waste heat recovery unit with specific process scheme;it highlighted comparative analysis of economic and social benefits based on case studies.%文章阐述了在铝熔保炉除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收装置的必要性和技术要求;结合余热回收除尘系统工艺方案的设计,给出了烟气余热回收设备在除尘系统中使用时需要解决的关键技术;通过工程实例对比分析除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收设备的经济和社会环境效益。

  7. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  8. Study of Zinc Leaching of EAF Flue Dust Using Sodium Hydroxide

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    Ahsan Abdul Ghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the production of steel from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, large amount of by-product called EAF flue dust is generated. The major proportion of flue dust is comprised of Zn (41.5 % wt.. Different phases identified by XRD analysis are zincite, franklinite and magnetite with zincite being dominant. In this study, we have performed flue dust treatment using sodium hydroxide as leaching medium. Different concentrations of alkali were used to optimize maximum recovery of Zn. XRF and Wet Chemical method were used to characterize the dust samples both before and after leaching. The optimum alkali concentration for selective leaching of zinc was found to be 4 M with a zinc recovery of 90 %.

  9. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  10. Heat and mass transfer in a vertical flue ring furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Mona

    1997-12-31

    The main emphasis of this thesis was the design of a mathematical simulation model for studying details in the baking of anodes in the Hydro Aluminium anode baking furnace. The change of thermal conductivity, density, porosity and permeability during heat treatment was investigated. The Transient Plane Source technique for measuring thermal conductivity of solids was used on green carbon materials during the baking process in the temperature range 20-600 {sup o}C. Next, change of mass, density, porosity and permeability of anode samples were measured after being baked to temperatures between 300 and 1200 {sup o}C. The experimental data were used for parameter estimation and verification of property models for use in the anode baking models. Two distinct mathematical models have been modified to study the anode baking. A transient one-dimensional model for studying temperature, pressure and gas evolution in porous anodes during baking was developed. This was extended to a two-dimensional model incorporating the flue gas flow. The mathematical model which included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation and turbulent channel flow, was developed by source code modification of the Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT. The two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke and anode was used for studying the effect of different firing strategies, raw materials properties and packing coke thickness. The model proved useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry and anode properties. 152 refs., 73 figs, 11 tabs.

  11. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  12. Determination of minor elements in steelmaking flue dusts using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2005-07-15

    Element determination in solid waste products from the steel industry usually involves the time-consuming step of preparing a solution of the solid. Laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to the analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Sn, elements of importance from the point of view of their impact on the environment, in electric arc furnace flue dust (EAFD). A simple method of sample preparation as pressed pellets using a mixture of cellulose and paraffin as binder material was applied. Calibration standards were prepared spiking multielement solution standards to a 1:1 ZnO+Fe(2)O(3) synthetic matrix. The wet powder was dried and mechanically homogenised. Quantitative analysis were based on external calibration using a set of matrix matched calibration standards with Rh as a internal standard. Results obtained using only one-point for calibration without matrix matched, needing less time for standardization and data processing, are also presented. Data are calculated for flue dust reference materials: CRM 876-1 (EAFD), AG-6203 (EAFD), AG-6201 (cupola dust) and AG-SX3705 (coke ashes), and for two representative electrical arc furnace flue dusts samples from Spanish steelmaking companies: MS-1 and MS-2. For the reference materials, an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the MS samples matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solutions (CN). The analytical precision was found to be better than 7% R.S.D. both within a single pellet and between several pellets of the same sample for all the elements.

  13. Hydrothermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

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    Yu, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Yuh-Ruey; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2011-06-15

    In this study, ZnO crystals were fabricated from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) after alkaline leaching, purification and hydrothermal treatment. The effects of temperature, duration, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on ZnO crystal morphology and size were investigated. Results show a high reaction temperature capable of accelerating the dissolution of ZnO precursor, expediting the growth of 1D ZnO, and increasing the L/D ratio in the temperature range of 100-200°C. ZnO crystals with high purity can also be obtained, using the one-step hydrothermal treatment with a baffle that depends on the different solubility of zincite and franklinite in the hydrothermal conditions.

  14. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern.

  15. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, V.N., E-mail: vasta@teihal.gr [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece); General Department of Applied Sciences, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, GR 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J. [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in

  16. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

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    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  17. Flue Dust Agglomeration in the Secondary Lead Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    A secondary lead smelter produces several tons of bag-house dust a day. Appropriate handling of this dust is mandatory to meet the proposed OSHA and EPA workroom and ambient standards. Dust agglomeration proved a successful approach. Dusts with a high concentration of PbCl2, or compounds containing PbCl2 can be agglomerated at much lower temperatures than samples with low PbCl2 concentrations. The chlorine sources are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) battery plate separators. Since PVC is used in Europe to a much greater extent than in the U.S., the composition of feedstock must be considered in equipment selection at U.S. secondary smelters. The vapor pressure characteristics of PbCl2 favor its evaporation at blast furnace temperatures. Condensation occurs in the gas cooling system. Recycling of baghouse dust leads to a buildup of PbCl2 in the smelter. Its removal from the system is eventually necessary through leaching, if charges with a high PVC content are processed.

  18. Removal of dust from flue gas in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Wang; Keting Gui; Mingheng Shi; Changfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB, φ 500mm x 2100mm) was designed to study dust removal from flue gas. Based on the mechanism of dust removal in a fixed bed, the effects on collection efficiency of magnetic field intensity, ratio of flue gas velocity to minimum fluidization velocity, bed height, and particle average diameter, were investigated. Then feasible methods for MSFB to better remove dust were proposed. Over 95% of dust removal with MSFB can be achieved, when stable fluidization is maintained and when magnetic particles are frequently renewed.

  19. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  20. Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Cerjan-Stefanović, Stefica; Novosel-Radović, Vjera; Jenko, Monika

    2004-06-18

    In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken. For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production process in the Zeljezara Sisak Steel Mill between December 2000 and December 2001, were subjected to a series of tests. The chemical composition of EAF dust samples was investigated by means of a several different analytical methods. The results from the chemical analysis show that the approximate order of abundance of major elements in EAF dusts is as follows: Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si, Pb, S, Cr, Cu, Al, C, Ni, Cd, As and Hg. Granular-metric composition of single samples was determined by applying sieve separation. Scanning electron micro-structural examination of EAF dust microstructure was performed and results indicated that all twelve EAF dusts were composed of solid spherical agglomerates with Fe, Zn, Pb, O, Si and Ca as the principal element. The investigation of grain morphology and the mineralogical composition of EAF dust were taken by combination of high resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (HR AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The analysis of XPS-spectra determined the presence of zinc in the form of ZnO phase and the presence of lead in the form of PbO phase, i.e. PbSO3/PbSO4 forms. The results of the X-ray diffraction phase analysis show that the basis of the examined EAF dust samples is made of a mixture of metal oxides, silicates and sulphates. The metal concentration, anions, pH value and conductivity in water eluates was determined in order to define the influence of EAF dust on the environment.

  1. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morcali M.H; Yucel O; Aydin A; Derin B

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron...

  2. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, P; Kehagias, T; Tsilika, I; Kaimakamis, G; Chrissafis, K; Kokkou, S; Papadopoulos, D; Karakostas, Th

    2007-01-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST GENERATED IN THE RECYCLING PROCESS OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST

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    Fábio Gonçalves Rizz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD is a solid waste generated by the production of steel through the Electric Arc Furnace. This waste is labeled dangerous, which motivates studies aiming its recycling. Experiments were made to study a pyrometallurgical process for the recycling of the dust, using the insertion of dust briquettes in molten pig iron in three temperatures. In the briquettes, there were made additions of calcium fluoride in four different concentrations. This paper has the objective to characterize the dust that results from this process, verifying the influence of the temperature and the concentration of calcium fluoride in the briquette in the morphology and chemical composition of the new dust, determining the optimal conditions for the recovery of the zinc content of the dust. This newly generated dust was analyzed in an Scanning Electronic Microscope, used to capture micrographs and chemical composition by EDS. The micrographs show that the temperature and the calcium fluoride concentration interfere in the way the dust particles agglomerate. Chemical analysis points that the higher zinc recuperation occurrs in the experiments at 1500°C with 7% addition of calcium fluoride.

  4. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away.

  5. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Morcali M.H.; Yucel O.; Aydin A.; Derin B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal) was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet) were investigated in detail. It was demonstrate...

  6. ADDITION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST IN HOT METAL

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    Felipe Fardin Grillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the mass in final hot metal and volatilization mass contained in the electric arc furnace dust (EAFD, by addition in hot metal at a temperature of 1,400°C; 1,450°C and 1,500°C altering experimental conditions such as the percentage of EAFD to be added and the percentage of silicon in hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using techniques of chemical analysis and size analysis. After characterization, the EAFD to be added to the hot metal was agglomerated in the form of briquettes. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale was placed in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. A flow of inert gas (argon was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. The result of the sample EAFD volatilized shows that there is an increase in the zinc concentration when compared with the concentration of zinc present in EAFD “as received”.

  7. Analysis of coal dust combustion and gasification in the cyclone furnace

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    Zarzycki Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design and operation of the cyclone furnace fuelled with coal dust. The main function of the furnace is coal dust gasification. The combustible gases that mainly contain CO can be used to feed a pulverized coal-fired boiler. The results of numerical calculations presented in the study demonstrated that cyclone furnace can operate over a wide range of fuel flow rates: from the conditions of coal dust combustion, which ensure maintaining the cyclone furnace in a state of hot reserve to the conditions of coal dust gasification, which allow for production of CO. Gasification process helps control temperature under conditions of elevated oxygen concentration. The results allow for the use of the furnace to improve flexibility and coal dust operation through the reduction in its technological minimum.

  8. Hydrometallurgical treatments of steel making flue dusts. Tratamientos hidrometalurgicos de polvos de aceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F.J.; Caravaca, C.; Cobo, A. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgica, CSIC, Madrid, (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Steel making flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the metals contained such as cadmium, chromium and lead, among others metals, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. In the present work a number of hydrometallurgical processes in various stages of development, including some industrial ones, have surveyed. Those processes have been critically described in terms of chemistry, produced recovery and detoxification of the dusts. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Effects of cement flue dusts from a Nigerian cement plant on air, water and planktonic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Victor F; Oluyemi, Emmanuel A

    2010-03-01

    Effects of cement flue dust from Ewekoro cement Kilns were monitored at some aquatic receptor locations. High levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and atmospheric deposition rates (ADRs) were recorded within the factory compared to ancillary locations outside the factory. The TSP and ADR levels which were location dependent were significantly higher (P cement factory catchment areas.

  10. Characterization study of electric arc furnace dust phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD is a solid waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process in electric arc furnace. The aim of this work is to carry out a chemical and structural characterization of two EAFD samples with different Zn contents. Optical emission spectroscopy via inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X ray diffractometry (XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis were carried out in such EAFD samples. From XRD measurements, the samples exhibits the following phases: ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, MgFe2O4, FeCr2O4, Ca0.15Fe2.85O4, MgO, Mn3O4, SiO2 and ZnO. The phases detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, Ca0.15Fe2.85O4 and FeCr2O4. Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4, observed in the XRD patterns as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis.

  11. Characterization of dust from blast furnace cast house de-dusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2016-12-14

    During casting of liquid iron and slag, a considerable amount of dust is emitted into the cast house of a blast furnace (BF). Usually, this dust is extracted via exhaust hoods and subsequently separated from the ventilation air. In most BFs the cast house dust is recycled. In this study a sample of cast house dust was split by air classification into five size fractions, which were then analysed. Micrographs showed that the dominating particle type in all size fractions is that of single spherical-shaped particles. However, some irregular-shaped particles were also found and in the finest size fraction also some agglomerates were present. Almost spherical particles consisted of Fe and O, while highly irregular-shaped particles consisted of C. The most abundant element was Fe, followed by Ca and C. These elements were distributed relatively uniformly in the size fractions. As, Cd, Cu, K, Pb, S, Sb and Zn were enriched significantly in the fine size fractions. Thus, air classification would be an effective method for improved recycling. By separating a small fraction of fines (about 10-20%), a reduction of the mass of Zn in the coarse dust recycled in the range of 40-55% would be possible.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of Zinc Speciation in Electric Arc Furnace Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Chris A.

    2011-04-01

    The remelting of automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the generation of a dust, which contains considerable amounts of zinc and other metals. Typically, the amount of zinc is of significant commercial value, but the recovery of this metal can be hindered by the varied speciation of zinc. The majority of the zinc exists as zincite (ZnO) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) or ferritic spinels ((Zn x Mn y Fe1-x-y )Fe2O4), but other zinccontaining species such as zinc chloride, zinc hydroxide chlorides, hydrated zinc sulphates and zinc silicates have also been identified. There is a scarcity of research literature on the thermodynamic aspects of the formation of these zinc-containing species, in particular, the minor zinc-containing species. Therefore, in this study, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry® 6.1 was utilized to calculate the types and the amounts of the zinc-containing species. The variables studied were: the gas composition, the temperature and the dust composition. At high temperatures, zincite forms via the reaction of zinc vapour with oxygen gas and the zinc-manganese ferrites form as a result of the reaction of iron-manganese particles with zinc vapour and oxygen. At intermediate temperatures, zinc sulphates are produced through the reaction of zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide gas. As room temperature is approached, zinc chlorides and fluorides form by the reaction of zinc oxide with hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases, respectively. Zinc silicate likely forms via the high temperature reaction of zinc vapour and oxygen with silica. In the presence of excess water and as room temperature is approached, the zinc sulphates, chlorides and fluorides can become hydrated.

  13. Stabilization of electric-arc furnace dust in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Caldas de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD is a by-product of steel production and recycling. This fine-grained material contains high amounts of zinc and iron as well as significant amounts of potentially toxic elements such as lead, cadmium and chromium. Therefore, the treatment and stabilization of this industrial residue is necessary. Concrete is a well-known suitable environment for stabilization/solidification of materials which have leachable elements in need of fixation. The effect of the EAFD content on the mechanical and chemical performance of Portland cement concrete is investigated in this paper. The effect of the EAFD content on the setting time of cement slurry was also analyzed. The axial compressive strength of the concrete samples increases with the EAFD addition in the range of 10 to 20 wt. (% EAFD; also the tensile strength increases with the EAFD addition. An increase in EAFD content significantly increases the setting time of the concrete. The acetic acid leaching and water solubilization tests indicate low mobility of the potentially toxic elements from the EAFD concrete composite. The results of the immersion tests show that the addition of EAFD to the concrete seems to reduce chloride penetration, which may help prevent pitting corrosion in reinforced concrete.

  14. Mineral phases of weathered and recent electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; dos Reis Neto, José Manoel; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

    2008-06-15

    A weathered and a recent sample of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated in a southern Brazilian steel industry, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. One sample, in the form of a wet paste, was collected from the lowest part of a landfill and corresponds to a weathered material whereas the other sample was collected from the top portion of the landfill and corresponds to a recently produced material. The dominant cations present in both samples are iron, zinc and lead with minor amounts of manganese, calcium and silicon. The dominant mineralogical phases identified in both materials are Magnetite, Franklinite and Zincite. The recent sample has Laurionite whereas the weathered sample has Hydrocerussite and Hydrozincite.

  15. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.

  16. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lixin; Wang, Bin; Fengshan HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regio...

  17. Chemical characterization of dust particles recovered from bag filters of electric arc furnaces for steelmaking: some factors influencing the formation of hexachlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtaka, Noriaki; Ohtsuka, Yasuo

    2010-11-15

    To make clear some factors controlling the formation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the process of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, six dust samples recovered from different bag filters in commercial EAF steelmaking plants have been characterized with XRD, SEM-EPMA, XPS and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. These dust samples contain 1.9-8.0 mass% of chlorine element, and the XPS and TPD measurements exhibit that the Cl is enriched at the dust surface and composed of the inorganic and organic functionalities, part of the Cl being evolved as HCl in the temperature region of flue gas treatment. All of the samples also include 2.1-6.4 mass% of carbon element, and some of the C can release CO(2) in the TPD up to 300°C to form active carbon sites. The number is related closely to HCB concentration of each dust. Further, it is suggested that the Zn present in the samples consists of ZnFe(2)O(4), ZnO and surface ZnCO(3), and the dust with a larger content of the ZnCO(3) has a higher concentration of HCB. It is possible that HCB formation occurs via gas-solid-solid interactions among gaseous Cl-containing compounds in flue gas, active carbon sites and surface Zn-species produced in exhaust ducts and bag filters.

  18. Simplified identification of critical dust emissions from wood furnaces (Delta-p-Method); Vereinfachte Feststellung von Staub-Grenzwertueberschreitungen (Delta-p-Methode)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.; Rossmann, P. [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Ester, S. [Woehler MGKG GmbH, Bad Wuennenberg (Germany); Wazula, H. [Landesinnungsverband fuer das Bayerische Kaminkehrerhandwerk, Muenchen (Germany); Schmoeckel, G. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz LfU, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Recurrent dust emission measurements from domestic wood boilers are laborious and time consuming as they require an additional laboratory determination by reweighing the filters after the flue gas sampling on the site. Therefore the conventional determination method for dust emissions was combined with an additional rapid testing feature which promises an immediate identification of any dust emission boundary exceedance. In this method the accumulating filter pollution during a 15 minute flue gas sampling period is reflected by an increase of the pressure drop over the filter while the volume flow is kept constant (Delta-p-method). In a series of 137 trials on a test stand this correlation between pressure drop and dust emissions was proved. From subsequent field trials with 363 measurements an optimum threshold value for the pressure drop was identified: At a pressure drop of 24 hPa only 47% of all measurements would still require a subsequent gravimetric evaluation of the loaded filter. This means that under realistic conditions an immediate reporting of the measuring result on the site would be possible in the majority of all cases (53%), identifying the furnace as 'dust proof'. In only 3.7% of all such reports this would prove false. (orig.)

  19. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part examines the theoretical possibility of recycling dust of arc steel furnaces. The different modes of dust disposal depending on the task of recycling are discussed: recycling at minimal cost; recycling with a maximum extraction of iron; recycling with maximum extraction of zinc. The results of laboratory studies providing information on the technical feasibility of recycling dust formed at the Belarusian metallurgic plant are provided.

  20. The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

  1. Effect of small glass composition changes on flue gas emissions of glass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kersbergen, M.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Relatively small changes in glass composition might have drastic consequences on the evaporation rates of volatile glass components in glass melting furnaces. Transpiration evaporation tests have been applied to measure the impact of minor glass composition changes on the evaporation rates of

  2. Effect of small glass composition changes on flue gas emissions of glass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kersbergen, M.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Relatively small changes in glass composition might have drastic consequences on the evaporation rates of volatile glass components in glass melting furnaces. Transpiration evaporation tests have been applied to measure the impact of minor glass composition changes on the evaporation rates of volati

  3. Formation of hexachlorobenzene from dusts of an electric arc furnace used in steelmaking: effect of temperature and dust composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Taichi; Shimura, Mizuki; Kasai, Eiki

    2008-10-01

    A certain amount of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), designated a persistent organic pollutant (POP) by the Stockholm Convention, is emitted from an electric arc furnace (EAF) used in the steelmaking process. To understand the formation and decomposition behaviors of HCB during the treatment of waste gases from an EAF, characterization of dust samples from EAFs in different plants was conducted. Dusts 1 and 2 were bag filter dusts collected from a common steel plant and a special steel plant, respectively. The initial concentrations of HCB in dusts 1 and 2 were 62 and < 0.1 ng/g of dust, respectively. Then a series of heating experiments was carried out with these dust samples under various conditions. The formation of HCB from both dusts was not significant under an Ar atmosphere, although the amount of formation from dust 1 slightly increased with an increase in the holding temperature. Under an Ar--20% O2 atmosphere, however, a remarkable amount of HCB formed from dust 1 above 573 K. A certain amount of HCB was also formed from dust 2, even though the initial concentration of HCB was very low. Moreover, the coexistence of metallic compounds such as CuCl2 had a significant accelerating effect on the formation of HCB.

  4. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  5. 炉膛长度对烟气自循环工业炉燃烧的影响%Influence of Furnace Hearth Length on Combustion in Flue Gas Self-Circulation Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晋湘; 马爱洁; 晗迪布

    2013-01-01

    高温空气燃烧技术中炉膛长度对炉膛内的燃烧特性及火焰特性有重要的影响.针对不同炉膛长度对烟气自循环工业炉进行了模拟研究,得到随着炉膛长度的增加温度分布及NOx排放的规律,并对其产生原因进行分析.最终发现实验炉膛长度为1.0 m时炉膛内燃烧比较稳定,温度分布均匀,NOx排放量较少.%The furnace hearth length in high temperature air combustion technology has important influence on the combustion characteristic and flame characteristic of furnace hearth. The combustion of flue gas self-circulation furnace at different furnaces hearth length were studied by numerical simulation, and the regularity of the temperature distribution and NOχ emission while the furnace length increased was found, and the reasons were also analyzed. It is found that when the furnace length is 1.0 m, the combustion in the furnace is stable, the temperature distribution is uniform, and the NOχ emission is less.

  6. Recovery of Zinc from Zinc Ash and Flue Dusts by Hydrometallurgical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, G.; Grislingås, A.; Steintveit, G.

    1981-01-01

    A process has been developed for recovering zinc and other metal values from chloride-containing solid zinc waste materials such as zinc ash from galvanizing baths, and flue dusts from zinc smelting and Waelz processes. The waste is leached with a liquid organic phase containing a cation exchanger; the commercial carboxylic acid Versatic 911 is highly efficient for this operation. Halogens present in the organic phase are readily washed out with water. Zinc and other metal values are then selectively stripped with sulfuric acid, generating a neutral solution of zinc sulfate suitable for electrolytic production of zinc metal. Alternatively, zinc sulfate can be crystallized directly from the organic phase by stripping with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  7. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD. In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet were investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc and iron recovery (% increases with increasing temperature as well as time. Pelletizing was found to be a better method than using the powder as received for the zinc recovery and iron conversion (. In the calcination (roasting process, crude zinc oxide, which evaporated from non-ferric metals were collected as condensed product (crude waelz oxide, was heated in air atmosphere. Lead, cadmium as well as chlorine and other impurities were successfully removed from crude waelz oxide by this method. In the calcination experiments; temperature and time are investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc purification (% increases with increasing temperature. The highest zinc refining (% was obtained at 1200°C for 120 minutes. A kinetic study was also undertaken to determine the activation energy of the process. Activation energies were 242.77 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with powder forms, 261.99 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with pellet forms respectively. It was found that, initially, the reaction was chemically controlled.

  8. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  9. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  10. Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, C A

    2010-07-15

    Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel.

  11. Continuous measurement of dust in flue gases; Kontinuerlig maetning av stoft i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haegerstedt, Lars-Erik [Birka Teknik and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, Gunnar [ITM Luftlaboratoriet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The EC's (European Commission) directive on waste incineration and future directives for large combustion plants are often going to include stricter, and sometimes also new demands on continuous measurements of various emission parameters. Parallel to these directives, intensive work is under way to develop standard methods for the inspection and quality assurance of the equipment used to check that the EC directives are followed. A pollutant of particular interest in Scandinavia is dust. This is due to the fact that at many plants various types of fuel mixes are combusted. Dust which is generated from various types of fuel has different properties. Since most of today's dust analysers measure one or more different properties, it is important to emphasize the consequences for a certain type of dust analyser on changing the fuel as well as if set demands on quality risk being violated. Under such circumstances, it is also important that plant owners who are about to obtain a new measurement system choose one which will still be applicable for use after the new legislature has come into force. With such a background and commissioned by Vaermeforsk, Birka Teknik and Miljoe, Inst. foer Tillaempad Miljoeforskning (ITM) and SwedPower AB have carried out a study in order to highlight these questions. The project began during the winter/spring of 2001 and included a parallel comparison of six continuous and two discontinuous dust analysers. The discontinuous pieces of equipment, which are used for reference purposes and for the calibration of the continuous analysers (except TEOM), basically followed a soon to be introduced CEN standard for discontinuous sampling of dust. The continuous analysers tested were manufactured by Durag, Goyen, PCME-DT, PCME-SC, SICK and TEOM. TEOM measures the mass of the dust in the flue gas in real time and the equipment is intended preferably to be able to calibrate optical gas analysers semi-continuously i.e. the equipment is

  12. Continuous measurement of dust in flue gases; Kontinuerlig maaetning av stoft i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik [SwedPower AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Haegerstedt, Lars-Erik [Birka Teknik och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, Gunnar [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

    2002-02-01

    The EC's (European Commission) directive on waste incineration and future directives for large combustion plants are often going to include stricter, and sometimes also new, demands on continuous measurements of various emission parameters. Parallel to these directives, intensive work is under way to develop standard methods for the inspection and quality assurance of the equipment used to check that the EC directives are followed. A pollutant of particular interest in Scandinavia is dust. This is due to the fact that at many plants various types of fuel mixes are combusted. Dust which is generated from various types of fuel has different properties. Since most of today's dust analysers measure one or more different properties, it is clearly important to emphasize the consequences for a certain type of dust analyser on changing the fuel as well as if set demands on quality risk being violated. Under such circumstances, it is also important that plant owners who are about to obtain a new measurement system choose one which will still be applicable for use after the new legislature has come into force. With such a background and commissioned by Vaermeforsk, Birka Teknik and Miljoe, ITM and SwedPower AB have carried out a study in order to highlight these questions. The project began during the winter/spring of 2001 and included a parallel comparison of six continuous and two discontinuous dust analysers. The discontinuous pieces of equipment, which are used for reference purposes and for the calibration of the continuous analysers (except TEOM), basically followed a soon to be introduced CEN standard for discontinuous sampling of dust. The continuous analysers tested were manufactured by Durag, Goyen, PCME-DT, PCME-SC, SICK and TEOM. TEOM measures the mass of the dust in the flue gas in real time and the equipment is intended preferably to be able to calibrate optical gas analysers semi-continuously i.e. the equipment is firstly an alternative to the

  13. Flue gas dust composition and fouling tendency in recovery boilers; Flygaskans sammansaettning och nedsmutsande tendens i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssen, Mikael; Backman, Rainer; Wallen, Jonas; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi (Finland)

    2000-02-01

    In this work eight Swedish black liquors have been characterized for the following properties: Combustability and bed behavior; Dust formation tendency; Fouling tendency of dust; SO{sub 2} formation tendency; and, NO formation tendency. The research was made using; (i) chemical analysis of the samples, (ii) special laboratory scale combustion and pyrolysis tests and (iii) an advanced computer model (Recovery Boiler Chemistry Advisor) for calculating the chemical composition and melting properties of the flue gas dust (fly ash). All tests and analysis were successfully performed and the results were reproducible and reliable. The results were classified for each of the five properties from one to five, and summarised into a table. The liquors showed good or extremely good combustability, also the behavior of the bed was normal or extremely good. None of the liquors had extremely high or low values in their swelling tendency or in their total combustion times. The liquors showed bigger differences in their tendency to form dust. Most of the liquors were 'good' because of the lower than normal tendency to form dust during combustion. Only one of the liquors, liquor B, was rated as 'bad', one of the liquors, liquor E, was rated 'extremely good', in other words liquor B had the highest tendency to form dust whereas liquor E had the lowest tendency to form dust. The advanced computer modelling work gave the composition, and the melting properties for the two dust components, carry-over and the condensed dust. The fouling tendency of the liquors were extremely good (low), the differences were so small that no distinction could be made between the liquors. Compared to earlier studies, the sticky temperature, T{sub 15}, for the eight liquors were extremely high, for both modelling cases when the combustion was assumed to take place either in a 'cold' or in a 'hot' furnace. This is partly explained by the fact that the

  14. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust through dissolution in deep eutectic ionic liquids and electrowinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Ashraf

    2014-09-15

    The dust waste formed during steelmaking in electric arc furnace (EAF) is rich in ferrous and nonferrous metals. Recycling of this dust as a raw material in iron or steel-making is hazardous and therefore it is mostly dumped. This paper demonstrates recycling of EAF dust through selective dissolution of metal oxides in a deep eutectic ionic liquid. It was found that about 60% of Zn and 39% of Pb could be dissolved from the dust when stirred for 48h in 1 choline chloride:2 urea ionic liquid at 60°C. The resultant electrolyte was subsequently fed to a conventional three-electrode cell where cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were conducted to describe its electrochemical behavior. Two deposition peaks were determined and ascribed to deposition of zinc and lead. Static potentials were successively applied to electrowin metallic zinc. SEM/EDX investigations showed that the zinc electrowon contained remarkable contents of lead.

  15. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses.

  16. Gazification of coal dust particles in the blast furnace tuyere apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvydky, V. S.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Spirin, N. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The mathematical statement of the problem on gasification of coal dust particles in the blast-furnace tuyere apparatus is given, which includes the motion equation of a variable mass particle, heat equation of a particle and the heat-balance equation of the blast flow. The results of calculations are obtained by using mathematical software packages (Mathcad, Maple). Relatively weak effect of the volatiles combustion process on the thermal state of the tuyere zone is shown.

  17. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal.

  18. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, C A

    2008-01-31

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which is produced as a result of the melting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace, contains considerable amounts of zinc and lead, which are of significant economic value. Typically, the other major components are iron oxide and calcium oxide with minor amounts of other metal oxides. In this research, a detailed thermodynamic study of the pyrometallurgical processing of the dust, using carbon as a reducing agent was performed. The SOLGASMIX solver of Outokumpu HSC Chemistry((R)) 5.1 was used to calculate the equilibrium composition under reducing conditions. The control input dust composition was as follows (in mass percent): 8.100% CaO, 8.250% 2CaO.SiO(2), 11.200% CaCO(3), 8.830% CaO.Fe(2)O(3), 7.840% Fe(3)O(4), 3.770% PbO, 38.150% ZnFe(2)O(4) and 13.860% ZnO. Selective reduction and separation of both the zinc and the lead as metallic vapours, from the iron, in oxide form, was examined. The separation of the zinc or the lead from the iron, was defined quantitatively in terms of the selectivity factor (logbeta) as follows. Equation [see the text] where the subscript symbols refer to the metal being present in gaseous (g), metallic solid (m), solid oxide (o) or metallic liquid (l) form, respectively. The standard calculations were performed for one hundred grams of dust at atmospheric pressure. The variables investigated were as follows; temperature in the range of 1273-1873K, reactant ratio (i.e. moles of carbon per gram of dust), dust composition, addition of inert gas and reduced total pressure. The calculated values were in reasonable agreement with those from previously published studies and also industrial results.

  20. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode.

  1. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of tenorite (CuO nanoparticles from smelting furnace dust(SFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darezereshki E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenorite (CuO nanoparticles were prepared from a dilute CuSO4 solution. The solution was obtained by leaching (pH=1.5 of smelting furnace dust of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex, Iran. The recovery of copper from the acidic sulphate solution was carried out by solvent extraction using Lix 984-N. Tenorite nanoparticles were synthesized by direct thermal decomposition of Langite [Cu4(OH6SO4(H2O2] as a precursor which was calcinated in air for 2 h at 750°C. The Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameter of the spherical pure CuO nanoparticles and their crystallite size were estimated to be 92 nm and 40nm, respectively. The simplicity of the present method suggests its potential application at industrial scale as a cheap and convenient way to produce pure CuO nanoparticles from dilute CuSO4 solutions obtained from leaching of smelting furnace dust.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective chlorination of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, C A

    2009-07-30

    The remelting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the production of a dust, which contains high concentrations of the oxides of zinc, iron, calcium and other metals. Typically, the lead and zinc are of commercial value, while the other metals are not worth recovering. At the present time, EAF dusts are treated in high temperature Waelz rotary kiln-type processes, where the lead and zinc oxides are selectively reduced and simultaneously reoxidized and a crude zinc oxide is produced. Another alternative processing route is selective chlorination, in which the non-ferrous metals are preferentially chlorinated to their gaseous chlorides and in this manner separated from the iron. In the present research, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of this chlorination process has been performed and the following factors were investigated; temperature, amount of chlorine, lime content, silica content, presence of an inert gas and the oxygen potential. High lead and zinc recoveries as gaseous chlorides could be achieved but some of the iron oxide was also chlorinated. Additionally, the calcium oxide in the dust consumes chlorine, but this can be minimized by adding silica, which results in the formation of stable calcium silicates. The optimum conditions were determined for a typical dust composition. The selectivities achieved with chlorination were lower than those for reduction, as reported in the literature, but there are other advantages such as the potential recovery of copper.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective chlorination of electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, C.A., E-mail: pickles-c@mine.queensu.ca [Department of Mining Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2009-07-30

    The remelting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the production of a dust, which contains high concentrations of the oxides of zinc, iron, calcium and other metals. Typically, the lead and zinc are of commercial value, while the other metals are not worth recovering. At the present time, EAF dusts are treated in high temperature Waelz rotary kiln-type processes, where the lead and zinc oxides are selectively reduced and simultaneously reoxidized and a crude zinc oxide is produced. Another alternative processing route is selective chlorination, in which the non-ferrous metals are preferentially chlorinated to their gaseous chlorides and in this manner separated from the iron. In the present research, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of this chlorination process has been performed and the following factors were investigated; temperature, amount of chlorine, lime content, silica content, presence of an inert gas and the oxygen potential. High lead and zinc recoveries as gaseous chlorides could be achieved but some of the iron oxide was also chlorinated. Additionally, the calcium oxide in the dust consumes chlorine, but this can be minimized by adding silica, which results in the formation of stable calcium silicates. The optimum conditions were determined for a typical dust composition. The selectivities achieved with chlorination were lower than those for reduction, as reported in the literature, but there are other advantages such as the potential recovery of copper.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, C.A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Queen' s University Kingston, Ontario K7L-3N6 (Canada)], E-mail: pickles-c@mine.queensu.ca

    2008-01-31

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which is produced as a result of the melting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace, contains considerable amounts of zinc and lead, which are of significant economic value. Typically, the other major components are iron oxide and calcium oxide with minor amounts of other metal oxides. In this research, a detailed thermodynamic study of the pyrometallurgical processing of the dust, using carbon as a reducing agent was performed. The SOLGASMIX solver of Outokumpu HSC Chemistry 5.1 was used to calculate the equilibrium composition under reducing conditions. The control input dust composition was as follows (in mass percent): 8.100% CaO, 8.250% 2CaO.SiO{sub 2}, 11.200% CaCO{sub 3}, 8.830% CaO.Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 7.840% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 3.770% PbO, 38.150% ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 13.860% ZnO. Selective reduction and separation of both the zinc and the lead as metallic vapours, from the iron, in oxide form, was examined. The separation of the zinc or the lead from the iron, was defined quantitatively in terms of the selectivity factor (log {beta}) as follows. for zinc {beta}{sub Zn/Fe}=(X{sub Zn{sub g}})/(X{sub Fe{sub m}}) (Y{sub Fe{sub o}})/(Y{sub Zn{sub o}}) for lead {beta}{sub Pb/Fe}=(X{sub Pb{sub g}})/(X{sub Fe{sub m}}) (Y{sub Fe{sub o}})/(Y{sub Pb{sub o+1}}) where the subscript symbols refer to the metal being present in gaseous (g), metallic solid (m), solid oxide (o) or metallic liquid (l) form, respectively. The standard calculations were performed for one hundred grams of dust at atmospheric pressure. The variables investigated were as follows; temperature in the range of 1273-1873 K, reactant ratio (i.e. moles of carbon per gram of dust), dust composition, addition of inert gas and reduced total pressure. The calculated values were in reasonable agreement with those from previously published studies and also industrial results.

  6. Multi-fuel furnace. Demonstration project. Final rapport; Multibraendselsovn - Demonstrationsprojekt. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Bentzen, J.

    2012-06-15

    It has been verified that the Dall Energy Furnace have unique features: - The furnace will accept biomass fuel with moisture content in range 20% to 60% and still keep the flue gas temperature within +-10 deg. Celsius (for pre-set temperature 900 to 975 deg. Celsius); - The ash quality from the furnace is very good with no excessive sintering and without carbon in the ash; - Flue gas dust content at the furnace exit is below 50 mg/Nm3, while the content of NO{sub x} and CO is below 175 mg/Nm3 and 20 mg/Nm3, respectively. The Dall Energy biomass furnace consists of two separate stages which are combined in a single aggregate: an updraft gasification process and a gas combustion process. As the furnace is refractory lined and as the furnace can operate at low excess air it is possible to burn biomass with water content above 60%. No mechanical parts are used at temperatures above 200 deg. Celsius. This provides a very rugged system. In the gasifier section a combustible gas is produced with a low velocity at the top of the gasifier bed. This gas is combusted to a flue gas with extremely low dust content. Also, the NO{sub x} and CO content is very low. The temperature of the flue gas at the exit is kept low by injecting water spray together with the secondary air. (Author)

  7. Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with PVC: dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, Sam; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E

    2014-06-15

    Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the dust as well as assessing the suitability of using the thermal de-chlorination of the common plastic (PVC) under inert atmosphere was carried out to assess the possibility of Zn and other heavy metals extraction (Pb and Cd) from EAFD. The dielectric and thermal properties of EAFD, PVC and their mixtures were measured. Once combined and heated the metal oxides present in the dust reacted with HCl released from PVC during thermal de-chlorination, forming metal chlorides which were subsequently recovered by leaching with water. It was found that zinc chloride could be almost completely recovered in the leaching stage, with the overall recovery of Zn reaching 97% when the EAFD:PVC ratio was 1:2. The investigation highlighted that franklinite, the most refractory mineral to leaching, was completely destroyed. The leaching residue was found to compose mainly of magnetite and hematite.

  8. 炉膛出口烟气测温装置的分析与比较%Analysis and Comparisons of Furnace Outlet Flue Gas Temperature Measuring Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秋艳

    2013-01-01

    This paper using furnace outlet flue gas temperature measuring device as foothold, combined with the use of temperature measuring device and its development trend, analyzes the existing traditional temperature measurement device existing advantages and disadvantages, the principle and characteristics of new infrared and acoustic temperature measurement, and puts forward some solutions to the difficult problems for the powerplant that boiler outlet flue gas temperature can be measured in full load range and in long-term continuous scope.%  本文就炉膛出口烟温测量装置为立足点,结合近年来测温装置的使用情况及其发展趋势,分析了现有传统的测温装置存在的优势和弊端,新兴的红外和声波测温的原理及其各自的特点,提出了解决锅炉能够在全负荷范围内长期连续测量炉膛出口烟温装置困难问题的方案。

  9. Submerged arc furnace process superior to the Waelz process in reducing PCDD/F emission during thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu-Qian; Huang, Shao-Bin; Liao, Wei-Tung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Besides the Waelz process, the submerged arc furnace (SAF) process has also been extensively used to retain metals from ashes and scraps in the metallurgical industry. However, very little is known about the formation and depletion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from this thermal process. In this study, an electric arc furnace (EAF) dust treatment plant adopting the SAF process was investigated and compared to the plant adopting the Waelz process. The predominant contributor of PCDD/F I-TEQ input was the EAF dusts, accounting for 98.4% of the total. The PCDD/F contents in the generated fly ashes of the SAF were extremely low, as almost all the organic compounds for PCDD/F formation were decomposed by the high operating temperatures (1500-1700 °C) of the SAF. Therefore, the PCDD/F emission factor of the SAF process (46.9 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust) was significantly lower than that of the Waelz process (840-1120 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust). Its PCDD/F output/input ratios (0.23 and 0.50 based on mass and toxicity) were also lower than those of the Waelz process plant (0.62 and 1.19). Therefore, the SAF process is superior to the Waelz process in reducing the potential of PCDD/F formation.

  10. Metal-dusting resistance of uncoated and coated iron and nickel base materials against metal-dusting in heat treatment furnaces with carbonaceous atmospheres; Bestaendigkeit von unbeschichteten und beschichteten Eisen- und Nickelbasiswerkstoffen gegenueber Metal-Dusting in Aufkohlanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleingries, Mirko; Ackermann, Helen; Lucka, Klaus [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Hoja, Timo; Mehner, Andeas; Zoch, Hans-Werner [IWT, Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany); Altena, Herwig [AICHELIN Ges.m.b.H, Moedling (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Metal-Dusting is a well-known corrosion problem that occurs in carburizing atmospheres in industrial thermal processing plants. In literature almost no quantitative data on the metal dusting resistance of typical alloys employed in industrial furnaces are available. Therefore, a series of experiments with uncoated and sol gel ZrO{sub 2} coated high temperature materials was conducted in order to quantify their metal dusting behaviour under conditions close to those in case hardening furnaces. The experimental results show a strong influence of the surface conditions on the alloys resistance and a noticeable enhancement of the resistance by sol gel coatings. (orig.)

  11. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust; Reciclagem de poeira de aciaria eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de, E-mail: vicente@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  12. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Janaína G M S; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes; Santos, Carlos Alberto Dos; Vilela, Antônio Cezar Faria; Cunha, João Batista Marimon da

    2006-08-25

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), FeCr(2)O (4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4), MgO, Mn(3)O(4), SiO(2) and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4), Ca(0.15)Fe(2.85)O(4) and FeCr(2)O(4). Magnesium ferrite (MgFe(2)O(4)), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis.

  13. In vitro assessment of genotoxic effects of electric arc furnace dust on human lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Gajski, Goran

    2009-02-15

    In vitro genotoxic effects of leachates of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) on human peripheral lymphocytes, assessed prior and following the treatment with a strong alkaline solution were investigated using the alkaline comet assay. Prior and following the treatment, lymphocytes were incubated with leachate of EAFD for 6 and 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Negative controls were also included. Mean values of the tail lengths established in the samples treated with the leachate stemming from the original dust for 6 and 24 hours, were 15.70 microm and 16.78 microm, respectively, as compared to 12.33 microm found in the control sample. Slight, but significant increase in the tail length was also found with the dust treated with a strong alkaline solution (13.37 microm and 13.60 microm). In case of high heavy metal concentrations (the extract of the original furnace dust), the incubation period was revealed to be of significance as well. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that alkaline comet assay could be used as a rapid, sensitive and low-cost tool when assessing genotoxicity of various waste materials, such as leachates of the electric arc furnace dust.

  14. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  15. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust.

  16. The use of biological tests for establishing the influence of flue dust from lead and zinc works on plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity of water extracts of flue dust from lead and zinc works was assayed by means of biological tests. As test species served: Pinui silvestris, P. nigra, Trifalium pratense, Cucurnis sativus variety Delikates, Raphanus sativus, Pisum arvense and Allium cepa. The extracts tested with a containing as low as 26.0 mg/ml Zn and 1.02 mg/ml Pb, caused a shortening of the roots of the tested plants. Most sensitive proved to be Cucumis sativus, Trifolium pratense and Pinus silvestris. Cytoloigical analysis of the growth apex of Allium cepa roots demonstrated that the Solutions used caused disturbances in cell division in the form of c-mitosis and lowered the value of the mitotic index.

  17. Waste Heat Recovery Technology for the Flue Gas of Hot Rolling Heating Furnace%热轧加热炉烟气余热回收利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种热轧加热炉烟气余热回收利用技术的系统流程、工艺设计方案、主要参数及经济效益。利用这套技术将加热炉烟气潜在余热进行梯级高效利用,并通过生产实践证明,达到了理想的应用效果。%The systematic process, technological design, main parameters and economic benefits of the waste heat recovery technology for the flue gas of hot rolling heating furnace are introduced.Potential waste heat from the heating furnace flue gas was efficiently utilized in a cascade model through adopting the technology, the ideal effect of which has been proved by production practice.

  18. Modeling of zinc solubility in stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Lasa, Cristina; Irabien, Angel

    2007-06-18

    Equilibrium models which attempt for the influence of pH on the solubility of metals can improve the dynamic leaching models developed to describe the long-term behavior of waste-derived forms. In addition, such models can be used to predict the concentration of metals in equilibrium leaching tests at a given pH. The aim of this work is to model the equilibrium concentration of Zn from untreated and stabilized/solidified (S/S) electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) using experimental data obtained from a pH-dependence leaching test (acid neutralization capacity, ANC). EAFD is a hazardous waste generated in electric arc furnace steel factories; it contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr or Cd. EAFD from a local factory was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), acid digestion and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Zn and Fe were the main components while the XRD analysis revealed that zincite, zinc ferrite and hematite were the main crystalline phases. Different cement/EAFD formulations ranging from 7 to 20% dry weight of cement were prepared and subjected to the ANC leaching test. An amphoteric behavior of Zn was found from the pH dependence test. To model this behavior, the geochemical model Visual MINTEQ (VMINTEQ) was used. In addition to the geochemical model, an empirical model based on the dissolution of Zn in the acidic zone and the re-dissolution of zinc compounds in the alkaline zone was considered showing a similar prediction than that obtained with VMINTEQ. This empirical model seems to be more appropriate when the metal speciation is unknown, or when if known, the theoretical solid phases included in the database of VMINTEQ do not allow to describe the experimental data.

  19. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Janaina G.M.S. [Laboratorio de Siderurgia/LASID, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS/PPGEM Centro de Tecnologia, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500 CEP, 91501-970 Caixa postal 15021, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jana@ct.ufrgs.br; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade [Nucleo de Caracterizacao de Materiais/NucMat, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes [Nucleo de Caracterizacao de Materiais/NucMat, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Santos, Carlos Alberto dos [Nucleo de Educacao a Distancia, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, UERGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria [Laboratorio de Siderurgia/LASID, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS/PPGEM Centro de Tecnologia, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500 CEP, 91501-970 Caixa postal 15021, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cunha, Joao Batista Marimon da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, FeCr{sub 2}O {sub 4}, Ca{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 2.85}O{sub 4}, MgO, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Ca{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 2.85}O{sub 4} and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis.

  20. Flue gas wells to minimize dust and acidic components in small-scale burning of field fuel, further development; Roekgasbrunn foer minimering av stoft och sura komponenter vid smaaskalig foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen, vidareutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngvesson, Johan; Roennbaeck, Marie; Arkeloev, Olof

    2011-01-15

    Agricultural derived solid fuels are more problematic to combust in small-scale heating plants than conventional wood fuels. Their high content of ash, chlorine and sulphur leads to increased emissions of dust, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride in the flue gases. By transporting the flue gases to a flue gas well where it condenses, and separates dust and sour components, enables a cost effective flue gas purification for small-scale heating plants (50 kW - 10 MW) of agricultural derived solid fuels. This project have studied two heating plants using flue gas wells with the aim to add to the knowledge about how a flue gas wells may look like and to quantify how much emissions of dust, chlorine and sulphur in the flue gases are reduced. The project also aimed to summon regulations and laws regarding the handling of the condensate that develop in the flue gas well. In the project measures were conducted on two different heating plants with mounted flue gas wells: a 60 kW biofuels boiler combusting grains and red canary grass and a 1 MW batch fired boiler combusting wheat straw. Measurements on flue gases were conducted with and without water injection in the flue gases. The flue gas wells reduced dust emissions of up to 80 %. The best reduction was achieved at the 60 kW heating plant when firing red canary grass. Firing grains in the same plant lead to 7 % reduction of the dust emissions. In the 1 MW heating plant firing wheat straw the flue gas well accomplished 40 % reduction of dust emissions. The boiler ability to achieve complete combustion, hence minimize the content of volatile and semi-volatile components in the flue gas, is largely affecting the flue gas well ability to reduce dust emissions. This did not, however, affect the reduction of dust in the flue. Chlorine emissions was reduced by up to 88 % by a flue gas well. Water injection made a big difference on reduction of chlorine emission from grain combustion. Sulphur emissions was reduced by 50

  1. CTIF`s contribution to enhance cupola furnace smoke de-dusting; Contribution du CTIF a l`amelioration du depoussierage des fumees de cubilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonnier, M. [Centre Technique des Industries de la Fonderie (CTIF), 92 - Sevres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Two industrial prototypes for enhancing subsequent smoke dust extraction in cupola furnaces have been developed by the CTIF French Foundry research center: processes involve post-combustion of smokes inside the furnace, which allow for a strong reduction in carbon monoxide emissions and a lower hydrocarbon content, and smoke conditioning by evaporative cooling, which regulates the smoke flow and stimulates filtration condition optimization before de-dusting. Prototypes have been installed in two foundries and results are discussed

  2. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT. PART 3. EXPERIMENTS ON BRIQUETTING OF DUST OFARC STEEL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rozhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the global experience of recycling dust by briquetting. The advantages and disadvantages of recycling dust with its preliminary briquetting are described. Information about experiments on briquetting of dust generated in different organizations of the Belarusian metallurgy plant with various binders is given. Economic calculations were performed on the basis of technical data obtained during the manufacture of prototypes of briquettes. The results of the calculations showedinexpediency of recycling dust briquetting method because of the low iron content in the dust, high cost of binder and a relatively small rate of ecological tax.

  3. Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Guylaine; Duchesne, Josée

    2006-07-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1 mg/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level (TCRL). The EAFD showed a complex heterogeneous mineralogy with spinel minerals group predominance. A sequential extractions method has permitted the determination of the amount of available metals (potentially mobile component) from the EAFD as follows: Cr (3%), Ni (6%), Pb (49%) and Zn (40%). Solubility controls on Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were identified in the EAFD. This means that the Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in solution were controlled by the solubility of some phases from EAFD. The concentrations of Ni and Zn, which are metals not regulated by TCRL were below 0.41 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively. The solubility control on Pb was sufficient to decrease its concentration (<0.24 mg/L) to a level below the TCRL. However, the control on Cr was not sufficient to decrease its concentration (between 117 and 331 mg/L) to below the TCRL.

  4. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work.

  5. Steel foundry electric arc furnace dust management: stabilization by using lime and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat

    2008-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate treatment for steel foundry electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) prior to permanent disposal. Lime and Portland cement (PC)-based stabilization was applied to treat the EAFD that contains lead and zinc above the landfilling limits, and is listed by USEPA as hazardous waste designation K061 and by EU as 10 02 07. Three types of paste samples were prepared with EAFD content varying between 0 and 90%. The first type contained the EAFD and Portland cement, the second contained the EAFD, Portland cement, and lime, and the third contained the EAFD and lime. All the samples were subjected to toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) after an air-curing period of 28 days. pH changes were monitored and acid neutralization capacity of the samples were examined. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reducing the heavy metal leachability to the levels below the USEPA landfilling criteria. An optimum composition for the EAFD stabilization was formulated as 30% EAFD +35% lime +35% Portland cement to achieve the landfilling criteria. The pH interval, where the solubility of the heavy metals in the EAFD was minimized, was found to be between 8.2 and 9.4.

  6. Experimental study of the mechanical stabilization of electric arc furnace dust using fluid cement mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, E F; Jiménez, J R; Ayuso, J; Fernández, J M; Brito, J de

    2017-03-15

    This article shows the results of an experimental study carried out in order to determine the maximum amount of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) that can be incorporated into fluid cement-based mortars to produce mechanically stable monolithic blocks. The leaching performance of all mixes was studied in order to classify them according to the EU Council Decision 2003/33/EC. Two mortars were used as reference and three levels of EAFD incorporation were tested in each of the reference mortars. As the incorporation ratio of EAFD/cement increases, the mechanical strength decreases. This is due to the greater EAFD/cement and water/cement ratios, besides the presence of a double-hydrated hydroxide of Ca and Zn (CaZn2(OH)6·2H2O) instead of the portlandite phase (Ca(OH)2) in the mixes made with EAFD, as well as non-hydrated tricalcium silicate. A mass ratio of 2:1 (EAFD: cement-based mortar) can be added maintaining a stable mechanical strength. The mechanical stabilization process also reduced the leaching of metals, although it was not able to reduce the Pb concentration below the limit for hazardous waste. The high amount of EAFD mechanically stabilized in this experimental study can be useful to reduce the storage volume required in hazardous waste landfills.

  7. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdel Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  8. Non-isothermal microwave leaching kinetics of zinc removal from basic oxygen furnace dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Hredzák

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic oxygen furnace (BOF dust is a hazardous metallurgical waste generated in the collection of particulate material duringsteel making processes. The occurrence and recovery of metallurgical wastes from steelmaking and iron making processes becomenowadays a great problem, mainly due to the big amount and environmental pollution by heavy metals potential. The research of nonisothermalkinetics by microwave heating was evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the most important factor that strongly affectedmicrowave acid extraction was the microwave power input. It is shown that approximately from 22 to 50°C the process is controlled bydiffusion with a low apparent activation energy value of Ea = 1.15 kJ/mol. With increasing temperature the Arrhenius slope is more steeperwith the apparent activation energy value of Ea = 22.01 kJ/mol, which proves that the microwave leaching process from 50°C is undercontrol by the surface chemical reaction. This indicates that the microwave promotes the mineral solid particle to burst effectively, makes theparticle to expose a fresh surface and strengthens the leaching process.

  9. Method and Mechanisms of Soil Stabilization Using Electric Arc Furnace Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Omar S. Baghabra; Al-Homidy, Abdullah A.; Maslehuddin, Mohammed; Saleh, Tawfik A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the method and mechanism for improving the strength of marl and desert sand utilizing electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), an industrial by-product, in lieu of cement or lime. EAFD was used in conjunction with a small quantity (2%) of cement. The mechanical properties and durability characteristics of marl and sand mixed with 2% cement plus 5-, 10-, 20- or 30%-EAFD, by weight of the soil, were evaluated. The soil-cement-EAFD mixtures were used to determine their unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and durability. The risk of leaching of toxic heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium, from the stabilized soils to the groundwater was also investigated. The mechanisms of stabilization of the selected soils due to the use of EAFD along with a small quantity of cement are also elucidated. The usage of 20 to 30% EAFD with 2% cement was noted to considerably improve the mechanical properties and durability of both marl and sand.

  10. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse; Caracterizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica visando o seu reaproveitamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, F.F.; Oliveira, E.B.G.; Oliveira, J.R. de, E-mail: fgrillo@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Telles, V.B.; Tenorio, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 {mu}m). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO e SiO{sub 2}. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  11. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD): part I: Characterization and leaching by diluted sulphuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustadakis, P; Tsakiridis, P E; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues.

  12. Long and short-term performance of a stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C Fernández; Galiano, Y Luna; Rodríguez-Piñero, M A; Parapar, J Vale

    2007-09-30

    The application of class F fly ash, cement and lime to the Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) of electric arc furnace dust containing hazardous metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr is described. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the setting conditions during the S/S treatment and to know the behaviour of an aged solidified and stabilized waste. In order to determine the efficiency attained by the S/S process, USEPA TCLP, and other leaching tests have been accomplished. In addition, the compressive strength of the solidified waste at different times has been determined. In order to study the influence of the environmental conditions in which setting occurs, experiments were carried out with samples of the same composition, under different setting conditions: laboratory environment, stove at a temperature of 40-60 degrees C and setting in a hermetically sealed plastic bag at room temperature. All the samples were subjected to the TCLP test at 28 days, and the metal content of the resulting leachates was analysed. The results show that in some cases the setting conditions of the mixtures have a noticeable influence on the characteristics of the leachate. The evolution with time of some S/S solids, one month after their manufacture and more than 9 years after that has also been evaluated, by means of their leaching behaviour. The results obtained in this work have shown, in all the laboratory cured samples that the leachate pH decrease in the course of time, and consequently the leaching behaviour is in general worse. This could be due to the carbonation of the S/S solid and the subsequent loss of alkalinity.

  13. Leaching of metals from copper smelter flue dust (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vítková, Martina; Ettler, Vojtěch; Hyks, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    ) and delafossite (CuFeO2) represented the principal phases of the studied dust. In contact with water, chalcanthite was dissolved and hydrated Cu sulphates precipitated at pH4–7. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and secondary Fe or Al phases were observed in the leached residues. Serious environmental impact due to leaching...... and PHREEQC-2 modelling were investigated in the pH range of 3–7. The highest concentrations of metals were released at pH 3–4.5, which encompasses the natural pH of the dust suspension (∼4.3). About 40% of the total Cu was leached at pH3, yielding 107g/kg. Chalcanthite (CuSO4·5H2O), magnetite (Fe3O4......The leaching behaviour of electrostatic precipitator dust from the Mufulira Cu smelter (Copperbelt, Zambia) was studied using a 48-h pH-static leaching experiment (CEN/TS 14997). The release of metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and changes in mineralogical composition using X-ray diffraction...

  14. 主烟道内置式余热锅炉在邯钢加热炉上的应用%Application of waste heat boiler built-in flue collector in heating furnace of Han steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武绍井; 吴斌; 李会朝

    2013-01-01

    The situation of application of waste heat boiler built -in flue collector in heating furnace of Han Iron and Steel was introduced .Actual running condition indicate that waste heat boiler installed in flue collector of hot rolling heating furnace can help reducing exhaust gas temperature and recovering waste heat, economic and social benefit is remarkable .It wills not effects regular production of the heating furnace depend on certain safety precautions .%介绍了主烟道内置式余热锅炉在邯宝钢铁有限公司热轧厂加热炉上的应用情况。实际运行情况表明,在轧钢加热炉主烟道内设置余热锅炉,可降低排烟温度,回收烟气余热,经济效益和社会效益显著。在采取一定安全措施后,不会对加热炉正常生产造成影响。

  15. Determination of zinc speciation in basic oxygen furnace flying dust by chemical extractions and X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut, M L; Rose, J; Masion, A; Fiani, E; Depoux, M; Ziebel, A; Hazemann, J L; Proux, O; Borschneck, D; Noack, Y

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the environmental and public health risks associated with airborne particulate matter (PM). The basic oxygen furnace is one of the most important atmospheric dust sources of the steel manufacturing process. It emits dust enriched in heavy metal such as Zn, which is assumed to contribute to the toxic potential of atmospheric PM. Dust collected before and after the filtration system was analyzed to determine Zn speciation. To this end, a variety of analytical tools were used and a sequential extraction protocol has been specifically developed for iron and steel dust. The Zn speciation results obtained by EXAFS and sequential extraction were in excellent agreement. Before filtration, the speciation of Zn in BOF was 43% ZnFe(2)O(4), 23% ZnCO(3) and 16% ZnO. The same species were detected after filtration with different proportions. BOF dust after filtration contains more soluble Zn phases which may play a role in the toxic effects of the emissions.

  16. Extraction of Nanostructured Metal Oxides from the Furnace Dust for the Realization of Low Cost Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisun, T. C. Sabari; Babeela, C.; Vidhya, V.

    This article reports the simple one step process for the extraction of nanostructured metal oxides from the industrial waste (EOFD) for the realization of low cost solar applications. By hydrothermal technique with NaOH and H2SO4, valuable metals were obtained in the form of metal oxides. The identification of compounds and structural characterization were carried out through XRD and SEM analysis. Thus the metal oxides derived could be helpful to reduce the burden on the environment from the electric oil furnace dust, increase the development of the source nano material and reduce the cost of raw materials for solar cell applications.

  17. Innovative Concept for the Recovery of Silver and Indium by a Combined Treatment of Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, S.; Steinlechner, S.; Leuchtenmüller, M.

    2016-11-01

    Industrial wastes such as slags, dust, or precipitation residues contain significant amounts of valuable metals like zinc, lead, and copper as well as precious metals like silver and indium. Nevertheless, a lot of these waste materials are not recycled, and therefore, many valuable metals end up being sent to landfills. Because of harmful components in the waste, it is often necessary to send it to specialized landfills for hazardous wastes, which leads to environmental problems as well as additional costs. Consequently, the recovery of the valuable metals from the residues represents a sensible task to decrease the negative impact on the environment and to reduce costs for maintaining a landfill. In addition, recycling helps to decrease the dependency from primary resources. The present study deals with the behavior of different metals in a pyro-metallurgical treatment for a mixture of jarosite and electric arc furnace dust with a special focus on indium and silver.

  18. Innovative Concept for the Recovery of Silver and Indium by a Combined Treatment of Jarosite and Electric Arc Furnace Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, S.; Steinlechner, S.; Leuchtenmüller, M.

    2017-02-01

    Industrial wastes such as slags, dust, or precipitation residues contain significant amounts of valuable metals like zinc, lead, and copper as well as precious metals like silver and indium. Nevertheless, a lot of these waste materials are not recycled, and therefore, many valuable metals end up being sent to landfills. Because of harmful components in the waste, it is often necessary to send it to specialized landfills for hazardous wastes, which leads to environmental problems as well as additional costs. Consequently, the recovery of the valuable metals from the residues represents a sensible task to decrease the negative impact on the environment and to reduce costs for maintaining a landfill. In addition, recycling helps to decrease the dependency from primary resources. The present study deals with the behavior of different metals in a pyro-metallurgical treatment for a mixture of jarosite and electric arc furnace dust with a special focus on indium and silver.

  19. Lightweight high temperature test furnace. 21st century technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, F.C.

    2004-02-01

    A new high-temperature lightweight furnace design offers potential energy savings, thus reducing emissions and costs, and improves product quality. The Gasunie Research 12 m3 test furnace results are: 36% less heat needed to heat up the furnace; first tests show that 18% of flue gas heat loss is saved through pulse/pause firing; reduced carbon dioxide and gaseous hydrogen fluorides (HF) emissions; improved temperature homogeneity in product batch enables higher throughput; new dust-free combination of Refractory Ceramic Fibres (RCFs) have been tested successfully up to 1250C; new high-temperature vitreous wool (RCFs) with high solubility in body fluids and hence no hazard classification has been successfully tested; furnace control system developed and tested with good results, based on a standard industrial PLC, within stringent gas safety requirements.

  20. To Reduce the Unburned Carbon in Flue Dust by the Combustion Adjustment%调整燃烧降低飞灰含碳量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚迪

    2015-01-01

    Unburned carbon in flue dust has important influence on the economic operation of the heat-engine plant. This paper adjusts the measures and methods to improve the efficiency and fuel economy of the boiler by analyzing the operation of combustion mode of boiler in heat-engine plant.%飞灰含碳量对火电厂经济运行有重要影响。本文主要研究通过对电厂锅炉燃烧方式的运行调整提高锅炉的效率和经济性的措施和方法。

  1. Plant uptake and geochemical phase distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn from soils after application of baghouse dust from the electric arc furnace production of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, J.H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Adriano, D.C. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to determine the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn from two soils (silt loam and sandy loam) by the common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber, and ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., after application of varying rates of flue dust, to determine the geochemical phase distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn of treated soils, to examine the effect of pH on the phase distribution and plant uptake and to measure the correlation between plant uptake and metals in the geochemical phases. Carbonate, including metal hydroxides, was the major geochemical phase for the metals in the flue dust and treated soils. Especially for the plants grown on the silt loam, yield decreased dramatically as flue dust treatment rate increased and a significant pH effect was observed. Plant uptake of the metals increased with increasing treatment level but the pattern of uptake varied with the element and plant species. Concentrations of the metals were generally greater in plant roots than leaves or stems. Due to very low biomass at high treatment levels, neither species seems to have potential for stabilization of highly contaminated soils but further studies are warranted on the use of the dandelion as a phyto-monitor. Typically, there was a significant correlation between plant concentrations and levels in all soil geochemical phases for all metals. The results of this study confirm the utility of selective sequential chemical extractants in predicting plant uptake of trace metals from contaminated soils

  2. Zinc recovery from the water-jacket furnace flue dusts by leaching and electrowinning in a SEC-CCS cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukongo, T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available recovery of zinc from industrial wastes, Resources Conservation & Recycling 23 (2001) 1- 22 [9]. Daniel Dayrell Pereira, Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha, Marcelo Borges Mansur, Recovery of zinc sulphate from industrial effluents by liquid-liquid extraction...

  3. A New Kind of Eco-Cement Made of Cement Kiln Dust and Granular Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A research project was conducted to manufacture eco-cement for sustainable development using cement kiln dust( CKD ) and granular blast furnace slag( GBFS ).In the project, the burning process and mineral compositions of CKD clinker were investigated.Dife rent mineralizers such as CaSO4 and CaF2 , sulfur and alkali content were considered.The strength of CKD and GBFS eco-cement were evaluated.The results indicate the CKD clinker can not only form ordinary cement clinker minerals such as C3 S, C2 S and C4 AF, but also form strength to the Portland cement grade 32.5 when blend proportion is properly applied.

  4. Investigation of possibility for stabilization and valorization of electric ARC furnace dust and glass from electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranitović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation of possibility for electric arc furnace dust (EAFD and electronic waste (e-waste valorization trough stabilization process, in order to achieve concurrent management of these two serious ecological problems. EAFD is an ineviTab. waste material coming from the electric arc furnace steel production process, classified as a hazardous waste. Furthermore, it is well known that residual materials generated in the ewaste recycling process, like LCD (Liquid crystal displays waste glass, are not suiTab. for landfill or incineration. In this study, these two materials were used for investigation of possibility for their valorization in ceramic industry. Thus, an innovative synergy of waste streams from metallurgical and e-waste recycling industry is presented. Investigation included a complex characterization of raw materials and their mixtures, using chemical methods, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, as well as methods for determining the physical and mechanical properties. Based on these results, it was found that material suiTab. for use in ceramics industry as a partial substituent of quartzite and fluxing components can be produced. Besides solving the environmental problem related to EAFD and LCD disposal, by replacement of raw materials certain economic effects can be achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  5. A two-stage metal valorisation process from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Issa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates possibility of separate zinc and lead recovery from coal composite pellets, composed of EAFD with other synergetic iron-bearing wastes and by-products (mill scale, pyrite-cinder, magnetite concentrate, through a two-stage process. The results show that in the first, low temp erature stage performed in electro-resistant furnace, removal of lead is enabled due to presence of chlorides in the system. In the second stage, performed at higher temperatures in Direct Current (DC plasma furnace, valorisation of zinc is conducted. Using this process, several final products were obtained, including a higher purity zinc oxide, which, by its properties, corresponds washed Waelz oxide.

  6. Investigations of co-combustion of plastics in a coal dust furnace; Untersuchungen zur Mitverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlestaubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD); Christill, M.; Kicherer, A.; Seifert, H. [BASF AG, Verfahrenstechnik-ZET/EH-L544, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In a cooperation project of the Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant TEchnology (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart and the BASF AG, investigations of co-combustion of plastic material in a coal dust furnace were carried out. The central question of the research work was the ignition and burnout of the particles in dependence of the residence time in the hot part of the furnace. Particle sizes were varied with the aim to define the largest possible particle size in order to minimize the cost of fuel preparation by grinding. On the other hand, tests were made with pure materials and synthetic mixtures of these in order to characterize the influence of different types of plastic. The investigations showed that plastics are suited as fuels for coal dust furnaces, and that the cost of fuel preparation can be reduced to an acceptable level. With polyethylene, which is difficult to ignite, an upper particle size limit of 1.25 to 1.5 mm was reached in the IVD test stand. In industrial applications with a different burner arrangement, even better results may be expected. (orig/AKB) [Deutsch] In einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart und der BASF AG wurden Versuche zur Coverbrennung von Kunststoffen in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung durchgefuehrt. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen standen Zuendung und Abbrand der Kunststoffpartikel in Abhaengigkeit von der Verweilzeit im heissen Bereich der Brennkanner. Variiert wurden hierzu zum einen die Partikelgroessen mit dem Ziel, den Aufbereitungsaufwand durch Zerkleinerung zu minimieren. Zur Charakterisierung der Einfluesse verschiedener Kunststoffarten wurden die Versuche mit unterschiedlichen Reinkunststoffen und synthetischen Mischungen durchgefuehrt. Die Versuche zeigen, dass sich Kunststoffe mit vertretbarem Mahlaufwand in der Staubfeuerung einsetzen lassen. Am Beispiel des Polyethylen, eines der thermogravimetrischen Analyse nach relativ

  7. Recycling of electric arc furnace (EAF dust for use in steel making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alencastro de Araújo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EAF dust is listed as hazardous waste from specific source, K061, according to ABNT 10004:2004 and constitutes one of the major problems of electrical steel plant. This work suggests recycling of the EAF dust by sintering of a composite, pre-cast agglomerate (PCA consisting of EAF dust agglomerate to coke particles, mill scale and ceramic fluorite into pellets. The work was divided into three stages, in the first stage the technical viability of using only solid waste industrial to produce a PCA was observed, in the second phase, the main effects between the components of the PCA to obtain the optimal formulation was tested. In the third phase the intensity of the variables, coke and fluorite ceramics, for removing zinc of PCA was checked. Every stage was chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The first two stages of the production PCA were carried out in a pilot plant sintering downstream and the third phase in a pilot plant upstream. As a result of the process two by-products were obtained, the pre-cast agglomerated, PCA, with total iron content exceeding 70%, object of the process of sintering and zinc dust, containing more than 50% zinc resulting from volatilization of this metal during the sintering process and collected by bag filter. In addition, approximately 90% of lead and cadmium contained in the initial EAF dust was extracted.

  8. Physicochemical properties of the zinc-containing dusts of electric furnace steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V. P.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Petrakova, N. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2013-07-01

    The properties of the dusts of electric-arc melting in the Severstal' metallurgical works are studied by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. The elemental compositions of dust particles of various sizes are determined, and the complex structural composition of iron-containing oxide phases is revealed. It is shown that, in these systems, the carbon reduction of zinc from zincite is possible in the solid state in the temperature range 600-1000°C. In this case, zinc passes into a gaseous phase and iron oxides are reduced to form metallic iron.

  9. Zinc availability for corn grown on an oxisol amended with flue dust Disponibilidade de zinco para o milho em latossolo vermelho tratado com pó-de-aciaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The costs related to the construction and maintenance of industrial landfills, and the environmental risks that they may represent, have increased the interest of several types of industries in studying the possibility of applying residues to agricultural soils. This study evaluates the efficiency of flue dust as a zinc source for corn, and the zinc availability for corn evaluated by four methods. A greenhouse experiment carried out at Campinas, SP, Brazil, evaluated the effect of two zinc sources (flue dust and zinc sulphate, at three rates (5, 50 and 150 mg dm-3, in one soil (Rhodic Hapludox under two pH conditions (5.0 and 6.0. The treatments were arranged in a randomized factorial scheme design with three replications. Zinc availability indexes were determined by the pH 7.3 DTPA, Mehlich-1, and Mehlich-3 methods. The free Zn2+ activity in soil solution was calculated by the MINTEQ computer model. The extraction methods and the activity of the free ion Zn2+ were equally reliable to evaluate zinc availability in the soil amended with flue dust. More than 70% of the total Zn present in the saturation extract was in the free ion form, and the remainder was mainly complexed to SO4(2- and OH-, independent of soil pH. Flue dust is a zinc supplier to plants. All tested methods were efficient in evaluating Zn availability for corn, independently of soil pH.Os custos com a construção e manutenção de aterros industriais e os riscos ambientais que podem representar têm aumentado o interesse de vários tipos de indústrias em estudar a viabilidade de aplicação de resíduos no solo agrícola. Este trabalho avalia a eficiência do pó de aciaria quanto ao suprimento de zinco para o milho e a disponibilidade desse metal comparada por quatro métodos de extração. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em Campinas, SP, Brasil, avaliando o efeito de duas fontes de zinco (pó de aciaria e sulfato de zinco, em três doses (5, 50 e 150 mg dm

  10. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values.

  11. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The characterization and the agitation leaching of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by diluted sulphuric acid have been studied in Part I, as a separate article. The aim of the present research work (Part II) is the development of a purification process of the leach liquor for the recovery of high-purity zinc by electrowinning. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of the following four (4) unit operations: (1) Removal of iron as easily filterable crystalline basic sulphate salt of the jarosite type, at atmospheric pressure, by chemical precipitation at pH: 3.5 and 95 degrees C. (2) Zinc solvent extraction by Cyanex 272 at pH: 3.5, T: 40 degrees C, with 25% extractant concentration. (3) Stripping of the loaded organic phase by zinc spent electrolyte (62.5 g/L Zn(2+)) at T: 40 degrees C with diluted H(2)SO(4) (3 mol/L). (4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2).

  12. Citotoxicity status of electroplating wastewater prior/after neutralization/purification with alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kopjar, Nevenka; Durgo, Ksenija; Elez, Loris; Gustek, Stefica Findri; Colic, Jasna Franekic

    2009-02-15

    Toxicological safety of new procedure for the neutralisation/purification of wastewater originated from zinc plating facility was investigated. Wastewater was treated with alkaline solid residue-by-product of zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust. For determination of cytotoxic potential of untreated and purified wastewater MTT test on HEp2 (human laryngeal carcinoma) and HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cells lines and alkaline comet assay on human leukocytes were used. Then 100% of the sample as well as different dilutions were tested. Compared to negative control 100, 75 and 50% of the sample of untreated wastewater significantly decreased survival of both HEp2 and HeLa cell lines. In the presence of undiluted sample survival percentage of HeLa and HEp2 cells were only 2.3 and 0.3% respectively. Only undiluted purified wastewater showed slight but insignificant decrease of the survival of both cell lines. Even 0.5% of the sample of original electroplating wastewater exhibited significantly higher value of all comet assay parameters compared to negative control. There was no significant difference between negative control and purified wastewater for any of comet assay parameters. Significantly lower level of primary DNA damage recorded after treatment with purified water, even comparable with negative control, confirmed effectiveness of the purification process.

  13. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study.

  14. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  15. Low-NO/SUB/x combustion of coal by vertical cyclone furnace (II): slag tap combustion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, M.; Kusakabe, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Miyajima, K.; Yamazaki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Slag tap combustion of coal was investigated in the hope of developing a method of low-NOx, low-dust combustion. Miike coal (heating value 7000 kcal/kg) was combusted with air preheated to approximately 650 C in the same experimental vertical cyclone furnace as that used in the previous study. The furnace temperature rose to 1510-1740 C and trouble-free slag tap combustion was achieved. The concentration of NO in the flue gas fell sharply with decreasing excess air ratio in the primary combustion chamber. 2 references.

  16. Recovering valuable elements from flue slime of blast furnace by combining process of mineral and metallurgy%选冶联合技术提取高炉瓦斯泥中有价元素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋霞; 邹玄; 张晓亮; 牛福生

    2015-01-01

    After analyzing the properties ,chemical composition of the flue slime from the blast furnace in Tangshan Iron & Steel Company ,the paper proposed the suggestion of recovering valuable elements from flue slime by combining process of mineral and metallurgy .The laboratory test results showed that the iron concentrate with the iron grade 53 .25% and recovery of 51 .05% by tabling gravity separation as well as the carbon concentrate with fixed carbon content of 74 .21% and recovery of 66 .39% by once rough separation and two times cleaning separation were obtained .The addition of sulfuric acid to the final flotation tailings , the leaching rate of zinc is 97 .85% .When the dosage of sodium sulfide is 200kg/t ,the recovery of zinc concentrate can reach to 86 .36% .%在对高炉瓦斯泥性质、矿物成分分析的基础上,采用选冶联合技术对其有价元素进行了提取研究。试验研究表明,瓦斯泥原料经摇床分选后,获得了铁品位为53.25%,回收率为51.05%的铁精矿;摇床尾矿经浮选柱一次粗选两次精选工艺流程,得到碳品位为74.21%、作业回收率为66.39%的碳精矿;最终尾矿采用硫酸进行浸锌试验,锌的浸出率可达97.85%,向浸出液中加入硫化钠用量为200kg/t时,Zn回收率达到86.36%。

  17. Stabilization and solidification of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel industry by using low grade MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayraktar Ahmet Can

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.

  18. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  19. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study.

  20. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size; Utilizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica na sinterizacao de minerio de ferro: influencia da granulometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, V.B.; Junca, E.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: victor_bridit@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 {mu}m and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  1. A numerical study of pulverized coal ignition by means of plasma torches in air-coal dust mixture ducts of utility boiler furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosevic, S.; Sijercic, M.; Stefanovic, P. [Institute for Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-04-15

    Paper presents selected results of numerical simulation of processes in air-coal dust mixture duct of pulverized coal utility boiler furnace with plasma-system for pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization. Application of the system in utility boiler furnaces promises to achieve important savings compared with the use of heavy oil burners. Plasma torches are built in air-coal dust mixture ducts between coal mills and burners. Calculations have been performed for one of rectangular air-coal dust mixture ducts with two opposite plasma torches, used in 210 MWe utility boiler firing pulverized Serbian lignite. The simulations are based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of mass, momentum and heat transfer in reacting turbulent gas-particle flow, specially developed for the purpose. Characteristics of processes in the duct are analyzed in the paper, with respect to the numerical results. The plasma-system thermal effect is discussed as well, regarding corresponding savings of liquid fuel. It has been emphasized that numerical simulation of the processes can be applied in optimization of pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization and enables efficient and cost-effective scaling-up procedure from laboratory to industrial scale.

  2. Comparative study of two co-combustion concepts for sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces; Vergleich zweier Mitverbrennungskonzepte fuer Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spliethoff, H.; Gerhardt, T.; Ruediger, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1996-12-31

    Processes for thermal use of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces were investigated at the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Boiler Technology (IVD) of Stuttgart university. Direct co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal dust furnaces is a simple concept, but it is useful provided that co-combustion has no negative effects in terms of performance, emissions and residue disposal. Externally dried sewage sludge has a residual water content in the same range as coal dust. The effects of co-combustion are discussed, and the experimentally determined effect in terms of emissions and residues is presented. Pyrolysis of the sewage sludge and use of the resulting gas as a reduction agent for denitrification may reduce negative effects of co-combustion on performance, emissions and residues.(orig) [Deutsch] Am Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) der Universitaet Stuttgart werden an Versuchsanlagen verschiedene Verfahren zur thermischen Nutzung von Klaerschlaemmen in Verbindung mit Kohlenstaufeuerungen untersucht. Die direkte Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kohlestaubfeuerungen ist ein einfaches Konzept, das dann sinnvoll ist, wenn die Mitverbrennung keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Verwertung der Rueckstaende mit sich bringt. Bei einer externen Trockung weist der Klaerschlamm einen aehnlichen Wassergehalt wie der Auslegungsbrennstoff von Steinkohlenstaubfeuerungen auf. Die moeglichen Auswirkungen der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm werden diskutiert und der im Versuch ermittelte Einfluss auf Emissionen und Reststoffe vogestellt. Durch Vorschaltung einer Pyrolyse des Klaerschlamms und Nutzung des erzeugten Gases als Reduktionsmittel zur Entsticklung kann die Auswirkung der Mitverbrennung auf Betrieb, Emissionen und Reststoffe der Feuerungsanlage vermindert werden. (orig)

  3. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R.Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8% of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5mol·L-1 NaOH solution for 42h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts wit hvarious contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  4. Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric; Lecuire, Jean Marie

    2002-04-26

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major mineralogical forms present in these wastes are Fe3O4, ZnO, ZnFe2O4 and PbOHCl. The proposed process consists of a hydrometallurgical treatment of wastes based on selective leaching of zinc and lead. Initially, a leaching is carried out utilizing a chelating agent, nitrilotriacetate anion (NTA3-), as the protonated form HNTA2-. Treatment of five EAFD samples for an hour at room temperature with a molar solution of reagent results in total leaching of the ZnO. In all cases the solubilized iron does not exceed 3 wt.%. The recovery of zinc and lead is performed by precipitation of metallic sulfides with a solution of Na2S4 sodium tetrasulfide 2M. These metallic sulfides can be used as metallurgical raw materials and the chelating reagent can be reused in the process after pH adjustment. The results of the normalized leaching test AFNOR X31-210 conducted on the leaching residues, shows that all the samples meet acceptance thresholds for hazardous wastes landfill. However, the residues contain a considerable amount of zinc as ZnFe2O4. The extraction of the zinc element requires the destruction of the ferrite structure. In this process, ZnFe2O4 is treated by FeCl3.6H2O. The reaction consists in a particle O2-/Cl- exchange allowing the recovery of zinc as ZnCl2 and iron as hematite Fe2O3. The separation of these products is accomplished by simple aqueous leaching. All of the zinc is extracted in a 8h treatment at 150 degrees C with a molar ratio FeCl3.6H2O/ZnFe2O4 equal to 10. Ultimate solid residues, which have been concentrated in iron, can be oriented towards the steel industry.

  5. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  6. Effects of cement flue dust from a cement factory on stress parameters and diversity of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serkan; Demirtas, Ayten

    2010-07-01

    Cement kiln dusts, made of a complex mixture of elements, include high levels of heavy metals such as fluoride, magnesium, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper, beryllium and some toxic compounds. Because of the toxic element compositions and radioactive isotope properties of cement kiln dusts, not only terrestrial but also aquatic ecosystems are subjected to greater stress. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of pollution caused by Askale-Erzurum cement factory (CF) on the stress parameters and diversity of aquatic plants. For this purpose, aquatic plant species were collected from the outer zone of the CF. Only three (Lemna minor, Ceratophyllum submersum and Potamogeton natans) of these species were able to be determined in the CF zone. Antioxidant enzyme activities of the collected aquatic plants were measured and compared to their controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of P. natans in the CF zone was significantly high compared to their respective control, while it was low in L. minor and C. submersum compared to their controls. Similarly, peroxidase (POX) activity of P. natans was high, while those of L. minor and C. submersum were low compared to their respective controls. On the other side, while catalase (CAT) activities of L. minor and C. submersum were low, that of P. natans did not show an important change compared to their respective controls. Furthermore, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of all the studied plants were also very high compared to their controls. According to these results, it is clear that pollution caused by the CF reduced diversity and number of aquatic plant species. Besides, the obtained data revealed that P. natans have a more resistant defense system than other species.

  7. Numerical simulation of the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace for zinc-containing metallurgical dust treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-liang; Jiang, Ze-yi; Zhang, Xin-xin; Wang, Peng; She, Xue-feng

    2013-07-01

    A mathematical model was established to describe the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF). In the model, heat transfer, mass transfer, and gas-solid chemical reactions were taken into account. The behaviors of iron metallization and dezincification were analyzed by the numerical method, which was validated by experimental data of the direct reduction of pellets in a Si-Mo furnace. The simulation results show that if the production targets of iron metallization and dezincification are up to 80% and 90%, respectively, the furnace temperature for high-temperature sections must be set higher than 1300°C. Moreover, an undersupply of secondary air by 20% will lead to a decline in iron metallization rate of discharged pellets by 10% and a decrease in dezincing rate by 13%. In addition, if the residence time of pellets in the furnace is over 20 min, its further extension will hardly lead to an obvious increase in production indexes under the same furnace temperature curve.

  8. 高炉出铁场除尘方案研究%Study on Dust Removal Scenario of Iron Tapping Field of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶锋勇; 石峻

    2014-01-01

    The iron tapping ifeld of blast furnace workshop of a certain iron and steel work generates a great lot smoke and dusts with high concentration in its production course, causing serious pol ution of atmospheric environment and circumjacent environment and at the same time harming the employee’ health. In accordance with the analysis of technology system of dust removal and ventilation status in the whole iron tapping ifeld and the actual application, the paper sums up the dust removal program of the system that adapts to the ifeld.%某钢铁企业高炉炼铁车间的出铁场在生产过程中产生大量高浓度的烟尘,对厂区的大气环境及周边的环境造成严重污染,同时直接危害了职工的身体健康。通过对整个出铁场除尘工艺系统及通风状况的分析及实际应用情况,总结出了适合该场合的系统除尘方案。

  9. Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity was evaluated. Cold bonded artificial aggregates were characterized by determining physical and mechanical properties of two selected size fractions of the granules for each studied mixture. Eighteen types of granules were employed in C28/35 concrete manufacture where coarser natural aggregate were substituted with the artificial ones. Finally, lightweight concretes were obtained, proving the suitability of the cold bonding pelletization process in artificial aggregate sustainable production. PMID:28811427

  10. Research on Zinc Extraction with Electric Arc Furnace Dust%电弧炉烟尘湿法提锌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟; 徐政; 张寒霜; 杨丽梅; 李岩

    2011-01-01

    The electric are furnace dust in Jiangsu Sugang Group contains Zn content of 15.4% and is mainly embedded in zinc ferrite. Results of the leaching tests on this dust showed that only 34.0% of zinc was extracted when sodium hydroxide as lixiviant in alkaline leaching. And about 98.7% of zinc was leached out with sulphuric acid as lixiviant under the experimental conditions of stirring at 420 r/min, 200 g/L of H2SO4 , reaction temperature 90 ℃, liquid to solid ratio 10:1 and reaction time 2 h.%江苏苏钢集团电弧炉炼钢烟尘含锌15.4%,并主要分布在铁酸锌中.对该炼钢烟尘进行浸出试验,结果表明:以氢氧化钠为浸出剂进行碱性浸出时,锌的浸出率仅为34.0%;以硫酸为浸出剂进行酸性浸出时,在搅拌转速为420 r/min,硫酸浓度为200 g/L,液固比为10:1,反应温度为90 ℃,浸出时间为2 h的条件下,锌的浸出率达到98.7%.

  11. A study on reduction of copper slag from the flash furnace with the use of anthracite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of a study on reduction of blister copper flash smelting slag with the use of anthracite dust are presented. The material, following proper preparation, can be used for slag processing as a substitute for currently applied coke breeze.

  12. 钢铁厂含锌尘泥转底炉炼铁工艺设计研究%Zinc Dust and Mud Rotary Hearth Furnace Ironmaking Process Design of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳龙

    2015-01-01

    因为环保和市场的需要,转底炉处理钢铁厂含铁尘泥及废弃物技术正在国内呈现出蓬勃的生命力。目前,国内已有多条转底炉直接还原生产线投入运行,转底炉技术能直接利用废弃粉尘中的碳还原氧化铁和氧化锌,金属化率达到70%,脱锌率达到80%,有效的解决了钢铁企业含锌粉尘的回收和利用。%Because of the need for environmental protection and market , furnace steel plant iron dust and waste technology is now full of vitality to the end .At present , there are a number of rotary hearth furnace direct reduction production line put into operation , the rotary hearth furnace technology can directly use the waste dust in carbon reduction of iron oxide and Zinc Oxide, metallization rate reached 70%, zinc removal rate reached 80%, effective solution containing zinc dust recov-ery and utilization of iron and steel enterprises .

  13. On the distribution and bonding environment of Zn and Fe in glasses containing electric arc furnace dust: a mu-XAFS and mu-XRF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Paloura, E C; Kavouras, P; Kehagias, Th; Komninou, Ph; Karakostas, Th; Erko, A

    2007-04-02

    We apply synchrotron radiation assisted X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), SR-XRF mapping as well as micro- and conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (mu-XAFS and XAFS) spectroscopies in order to study the bonding environment of Fe and Zn in vitrified samples that contain electric arc furnace dust from metal processing industries. The samples are studied in the as-cast state as well as after annealing at 900 degrees C. The SR-XRF results demonstrate that annealing does not induce any significant changes in the distribution of either Fe or Zn, in both the as-cast and annealed glasses. The mu-XAFS spectra recorded at the Fe-K and Zn-K edges reveal that the structural role of both Fe and Zn remains unaffected by the annealing procedure. More specifically, Fe forms both FeO(6) and FeO(4) polyhedra, i.e. acts as an intermediate oxide while Zn occupies tetrahedral sites.

  14. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  15. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  16. The Computation of Treatment Jet System of the Separating Sulfur from Flue Gas and Dust%烟气粉尘脱硫治理喷射系统的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金基; 詹胜; 陈海; 王树勇

    2000-01-01

    阐述烟气粉尘脱硫治理和喷射系统的结构。计算治理塔内液膜的层流底层和湍流层的速度、液膜的总流量及雾化旋动流体的附加流量。分析了治理塔内旋动气--固微粒流的分离性能,通过实验求得塔内旋流的准自由涡区的速度分布,计算分离的最小粒子直径。文中研究脱硫剂的动态喷雾与烟气含硫化合物的化学反应过程,讨论影响脱硫除尘治理效果的主要因素和喷射器的作用。最后介绍在工业炉窑烟气脱硫(SO2或硫化物)及除尘在环境治理工程中的应用。%The structures of system for separating sulfur from flue gas and dust and jet system are described. The velocities of turbu lent flow and laminar flow inside the tower, the total flow of liquid membrane, and the additional flow of rotation spraying fluid are calculated. The separating characteristic of notation ari-solid is analyzed on the tower. The velocity distribution in quasi-free vortex area is obtained from experiment. The minimum separated particle diameter is computed. The chemical reactions of flue gas contained sul fide with the dynamic spraying separating sulfur agent are studied. The main factors related to the effect of separating sulfur and dust and function of air ejector are discussed. At last, the applications of separating sulfur in industry stove and collecting dust in environ mental engineering are introduced.

  17. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions.

  18. Determinations of Sb and Mo in Cairo's dust using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Welz, Bernhard; Castilho, Ivan N. B.

    2013-12-01

    The present work describes the determination of Sb and Mo in dust deposited on tree leaves using direct solid sample analysis. Nineteen air particulate samples were collected from different districts of Cairo and surrounding cities. Since some samples have been taken from places less exposed to the pollution factors, the present study allows the comparison of air quality between high and low polluted areas. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated, using direct solid sample analysis. The optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for Sb were found to be 800 °C and 1900 °C, and 1200 °C and 2650 °C, respectively for Mo. The limits of detection and quantification for both, Sb and Mo, were 15 μg g-1 and 50 ng g-1, respectively. The characteristic mass at was found to be m0 = 38 pg for Sb (217.582 nm) and m0 = 28 pg for Mo (313.259 nm). The results obtained for three certified reference materials of urban particulate matter confirmed the validity of the investigated method. The content of Sb varied between 213 ± 1.3 μg g-1 and 1117 ± 230 μg g-1 with an average of 667 ± 339 μg g-1. On the other hand, the Mo content varied from 113 ± 2.3 μg g-1 to 361 ± 51 μg g-1 and its average value equals 190 ± 62 μg g-1.

  19. 煤粉添加高炉除尘灰混合燃烧特性及动力学研究%Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Blast Furnace Dust and Coal Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常健; 苏步新; 张建良; 胡正文; 孔德文; 王广伟

    2012-01-01

    Combustion characteristics and kinetic parameters of blast furnace dust and coal blends using non-isothermal combustion method were studied by thermo-gravimetric balance. The combustion characteristic parameters of samples in different ratios, such as ignition temperature, peak temperature at the maximum weight loss rate, burnout temperature and the maximum combustion rate, were studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis, and the kinetic parameters such as activation energy Ea and frequency factor A were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ea and A both decreased with increasing of blast furnace dust content in the blend, and the "kinetic compensation effect" existed in the two parameters. Ea decreased in the first and second stages of combustion of blast fumace dust and coal blends, but the influential degree changed largely for different coals. The calculation results of Ea showed that the blast furnace dust could improve the ignition property of coal, moreover there existed a synergistic effect in the combustion of blast furnace dust and coal blends, with the best property of 5% blending.%利用热重分析天平,采用非等温燃烧方法对除尘灰与2种煤粉的混合试样的燃烧特性及其反应动力学参数进行了实验研究.考察了不同配比的混合试样的着火温度、燃烧速率最大时温度、燃尽温度和最大燃烧速率等燃烧特征参数,计算了反应的动力学参数活化能Ea和指前因子A.结果表明,两参数均随混煤中除尘灰比例的增加而降低,存在“动力学补偿效应”.煤中掺入除尘灰后,试样燃烧的第一和第二阶段的Ea均呈现下降规律,但对不同煤粉影响效果程度有较大差别.Ea的计算表明,除尘灰的存在有助于改善煤的着火性能,对煤的燃烧有催化促进作用,且5%为最佳掺混比例.

  20. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC e de biodigestor (LB, escória de aciaria (E e lama cal (Lcal - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcário. As plantas de soja apresentaram maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio, em 2003, 2004 e 2005, e de potássio, em 2003 e 2004, em razão dos tratamentos LC, LB, E, Lcal e calagem. A produtividade da soja foi favorecida pela aplicação dos tratamentos no sistema plantio direto, em 2003, 2004 e 2005. O fósforo, e o cálcio contribuíram para o aumento da produtividade da soja em 2003 e 2004.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the surface application of sewage sludge, aqueous lime, flue dust and limestone on soybean nutrition and yield in notill system. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, in factorial scheme of 4x4+1, and consisted of four residues: centrifuged sewage sludge (CSS, biodigestor sewage sludge (BSS, flue dust (FD and aqueous lime (AL, at 0, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1, and one additional control treatment with dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The soybean plants showed greater contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in 2003, 2004 and 2005, and potassium contents in 2003 and 2004, due to the treatments CSS, BSS, FD, AL and limestone. Soybean grain yield was also enhanced due to surface applications of the treatments in notill system in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The phosphorus and calcium contributed to increase soybean yield in 2003 and 2004.

  1. 1750m3高炉煤气除尘改造及TRT发电技术的应用%De-dusting System Improvement and TRT Technology Application on the 1750m3 Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海刚; 许强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了济钢2座1750m3高炉煤气湿法改干法涂尘及TRT发电的主体设备、主要技术参数及取得的经济效益。%On the two 1750m3 blast furnaces of Jinan Iron and Steel Co., the wet BFG de-ducting system is replaced with the dry de-dusting system and the TRT generation unit is installed. These equipment and their technical data and economic benefits are presented.

  2. Failure Diagnosis and Proposals of Certain Foundry Medium Induction Furnace Dust Removal System%某铸造厂中频感应电炉除尘系统运行故障诊断与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦洪建; 刘统洲; 刘新江

    2012-01-01

    中频感应电炉在铸造生产中产生的烟尘粒径小、分散性大,治理难度较大.本文主要通过对某铸造厂中频感应电炉除尘系统除尘管路、除尘器及风机的实测和分析,找到其故障原因、提出改进方法,并给出运行、节能建议,对于铸造车间中频感应电炉通风除尘设计和现场管理具有一定的借鉴意义.%Measuring and analysis on dust removal system piping, filter and fan of a medium frequency induction furnace of an iron foundry have found out the reasons of the malfunction, give an improved method and the running, energy-saving recommendations which has referential significance for medium frequency induction furnace dust removal system design and field management.

  3. Recirculation of Chilean copper smelting dust with high impurities contents to the smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Fujisawa, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). EcoTopia Science Inst.; Montenegro, V. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Dust generated during the copper smelting process is generally stabilized using hydrometallurgical methods as it contains high concentrations of arsenic. In this laboratory study, dust was recirculated during the smelting process in order to recover more copper and decrease dust emissions while recovering more copper. The behaviour of impurities and their influence on matte quality was also investigated. Industrial matte, flue dust, slag, and copper concentrates from a Chilean smelter were used as test materials. Dust recirculation tests were conducted in a simulated electric furnace. Off-gases were collected in a reaction tube, and the condensed volatile matter, slag, and matte phases were analyzed for their elemental content by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution of arsenic (As); antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were investigated by varying the amounts of dust recirculating to the smelting stage with 21 per cent of the oxygen. Results showed that distributions of all analyzed elements increased with recirculation. It was concluded that copper can be recovered using the dust recirculation technique. However, impurities may limit the efficacy of the dust recirculation process. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. 低分压CO2回收新技术捕集水泥窑气中CO2的侧线试验%Bypass experiment for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas by low pressure CO2 recovery technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉根

    2011-01-01

    A bypass experiment facility for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas is designed. A self-developed blended amine is used for CO2 capturing. The experimental results show that the CO2 volume content in the purified gas is lower than 1.41%, while the CO2 purity of the product gas is higher than 99 %. Using this technology, CO2 emission reduction can be realized. At the same time, CO2 product with high purity can be produced. This technology can be used as an effective technological support for enterprises to reduce CO2 emission.%设计了一套水泥窑气CO2捕集的侧线试验装置,利用自主研发的复合胺溶剂捕集窑气中的CO2.试验结果表明.新型复合胺溶剂能使净化气中CO2体积分数降至1.41%以下,产品气中CO2体积分数达到99%以上.采用该技术,可实现CO2减排并获得高纯度的CO2产品气,为企业的CO2减排提供技术支持.

  5. 硅铁除尘系统中螺旋输灰机构参数的选择%SELECTION OF PARAMETERS OF SCREW CONVEYOR IN BAG HOUSE DUST COLLECTOR IN FeSi FURNACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鹏翔

    2001-01-01

    The screw conveyor was adopted in bag house dust collector in 12.5MVA FeSi furnace,and its parameters were calculated and selected.The practice showed that the screw conveyor runned well,the service effect was good.%12.5MVA硅铁炉布袋反吸烟气净化系统中采用了螺旋输灰机构,并对输灰机构的参数进行了计算和选择。经生产中使用,螺旋输灰机运行良好,取得了较好的使用效果。

  6. Studies on low concentration of dust emission test in coal -fired flue gas%燃煤烟气低浓度粉尘排放测试的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丁; 陈威祥; 郑芳

    2015-01-01

    GB/T 16157-1996中推荐的采样测试方法,仅适用于颗粒物浓度高于50 mg/m3的固定污染源采样。伴随着排放标准的提高,污染物控制技术与工艺日趋完善,部分示范工程颗粒物排放在线数据显示低于1 mg/m3,沿用原方法采样经常出现样品失重现象,从而无法得到烟气中真实的低浓度粉尘排放浓度。经多次试验研究,通过采用一体式低浓度采样头和大流量采样泵,增加采样体积、预留空白样、选用优质滤膜、对采样枪进行伴热改造等措施,针对低浓度排放测试的准确性和可靠性得到很大的提高,该法已在实际工程上得到应用,为我国颗粒物低排放测试技术的规范与成熟提供借鉴。%The traditional testing method mentioned in GB /T 16157-1996 only apply to stationary source with more than 50 mg/m3 particulate concentration.Pol ution control technologies and processes are maturing with the strict emission standards, the online data of some demonstration projects show the emissions of particulate are less than 1 mg/m3 .There are often occurring weightlessness phenomenon if fol owing the traditional testing methods, thus it cannot get real concentration of dust emission in flue gas.Through repeated experiments and practice, the weightlessness problem can be effectively solved by using one-piece sampling-head and high flow sampling pump, increasing the sampling volume, reserving blank samples, choosing high-quality filter membrane and heating sampling gun, and the accuracy and reliability have been greatly improved.The method has been applied in practical engineering, provided reference for practical engineering.

  7. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  8. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  9. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定高炉尘中铟%Determination of trace indium in blast furnace dust by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳; 王光明; 李辽沙

    2011-01-01

    After the sample was dissolved with mixed acid, excessive sodium hydroxide was added to dissolve indium hydroxide for separation and enrichment of trace indium in blast furnace dust. Then, the content of indium in sample was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Consequently, a simple determination method of trace indium in complex system was established. The influence factors on the dissolution and determination results were investigated including the dosages of acid, various alkaline liquors and the dosage of alkali. Moreover, the interference of coexisting ions was studied. Finally, the optimal experimental conditions were obtained. The results showed that sodium hydroxide could effectively dissolve trace indium hydroxide. Meanwhile, the ions of iron and magnesium were precipitated, removing most interference elements in blast furnace dust. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of this method was less than 4. 2 %, and the recoveries were 98 %-103 %.%采用混合酸溶样,过量氢氧化钠溶解氢氧化铟分离富集高炉尘中痕量铟,火焰原子吸收光谱法测定样品中铟含量,建立了一种测定复杂体系中痕量铟的简便方法.对实验过程中的酸用量、不同碱液及碱用量对溶解及测定结果的影响、共存离子的干扰等情况进行了考察,确定了最佳实验条件.实验结果表明,氢氧化钠能够有效的溶解痕量氢氧化铟,同时沉淀了铁、镁等离子,去除了高炉尘中大部分的干扰元素.方法相对标准偏差小于4.2%,回收率在98%~103%之间.

  10. Process for removing SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, and dusts from exhaust gas. Verfahren zur Abscheidung von SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, NO/sub x/ sowie von Staeuben aus Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-04-23

    This invention describes a method for the separation of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and NO/sub x/ in non-ferrous metallurgical processes, preferably in stages behind the converter furnace or the anode furnace. In order to simultaneously effect the separation of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and NO/sub x/ it is suggested to add an absorption solution, such as lime hydrate, to the heavy metal dusts for the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/. Moreover, in or after the addition point for the lime hydrate, the additive NH/sub 3/ with an adequate stoichiometrical quantity of NO/sub x/ parts is added. Due to the additional supply with NH/sub 3/ the flue gases of the heavy metal dusts can be used as a catalyst and thus contribute to the reduction of NO/sub x/.

  11. Preparation of high purity cadmium with micro-spherical architecture from zinc flue dust%以锌冶炼烟尘为原料制备高纯微球形貌镉粉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远; 郑雅杰; 孙召明

    2015-01-01

    采用酸浸和对环境友好的除杂方法处理锌冶炼烟尘回收提取高纯镉。结果表明,其最佳条件如下:硫酸浓度90 g/L、液固比6:1、反应温度60°C、浸出时间1.0 h,此条件下镉的浸出率达95.8%。采用FeCl3沉淀生成FeAsO4和Fe(OH)3来分离重金属和砷,当n(Fe)/n(As)为3:1、pH=6.0时,铁、铅和铜的去除率均超过98.9%,砷的去除率为99.6%。P204用于锌和镉的溶剂萃取分离,最佳萃取条件如下:P204浓度20%(体积分数,室温下用煤油稀释)、pH=3、相比O/A=1:1。在此条件下,锌的萃取率为99.2%。当还原温度为310°C时,镉粉的形貌为均匀球形,晶体结构为立方晶体,得到的镉粉纯度超过99.99%。%This research has focused on the treatment of zinc flue dust by an acid leach process, combining an environmentally suitable impurity removal process to recover cadmium. Optimum conditions were found as follows: H2SO4 concentration 90 g/L, liquid/solid ratio 6:1, leaching temperature 60 °C and leaching time 1.0 h. Under these conditions, 95.8% cadmium was recovered. FeAsO4 and Fe(OH)3 precipitates with FeCl3 are found to be highly effective to obtain a high degree of separation of heavy metals and the oxyanions of arsenic from the leachate. The overall separation of arsenic and other heavy metals and precipitate settling rates are optimum atn(Fe)/n(As) ratio of 3:1 and pH 6. The removal rates of Fe, Pb and Cu from the solution were greater than 98.9%, and As removal rate was 99.6%. A solvent extraction with P204 was used for the separation of zinc and cadmium. Optimum conditions are obtained as follows: 20% P204 (volume fraction) diluted with kerosene at room temperature, pH 3.0, and varying organic/aqueous (O/A) phase ratio 1:1. The extraction rate of zinc is 99.2% under these conditions. Spherical cadmium particles showing nearly uniform size were produced by hydrogen reduction at 310 °C and the crystal structure was cubic. In

  12. New Process for Comprehensive Utilization of Dust Containing Silver and Selenium from Silver-Refining Furnace%分银炉烟尘银、硒综合回收新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎英; 徐养良; 沙梅; 包榕

    2011-01-01

    A new process for comprehensive utilization of dust containing silver and selenium from silver-refining furnace was studied. The new technology adopted the acid-leaching and flotation process to accomplish the separation of silver and selenium from lead, bismuth, antimony and other impurities. The silver was recovered by its being enriched in silver concentrate, and selenium was enriched in the solution of acid-leaching and silver concentrate. The plant practice shows that the recovery of silver and selenium is above 95% and 85% respectively.%采用一种新的烟尘处理工艺技术,综合回收分银炉精炼过程中产生的含银、含硒烟尘中的银和硒.该技术采用酸浸-浮选工艺,实现烟尘中银、硒与铅、铋、锑等杂质元素的有效分离.烟尘中的银浮选富集进入银精矿,硒则通过浸出进入溶液和浮选进入银精矿的方式加以回收.生产实践表明,银、硒的综合回收率分别达到95%、85%以上.

  13. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro resíduos: lodos de esgoto centrifugado - LC e de biodigestor - LB, escória de aciaria - E, e lama cal - Lcal, interagindo com quatro doses (0, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1, aplicadas na forma seca mais uma testemunha (controle, constituída da aplicação de 2 t ha-1 de calcário. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com quatro repetições. A presença de Ca na composição de lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado, escória de aciaria e calcário permite o aumento da agregação das partículas, diâmetro médio ponderado, índice de estabilidade de agregados, porosidade e retenção de água, sendo essas alterações distintas para cada fonte, dose e profundidade de reação no solo. A aplicação superficial da lama cal na dose de 8 t ha-1, após 27 meses de reação, proporcionou a maior agregação das partículas no solo, desde a superfície até 40 cm de profundidade.The residues flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge (centrifuge and biodigestor may affect soil physical attributes. The use of industrial and urban residues in soil, with emphasis to sewage sludge, was done in tilled soil, and there are no repports on soil physical attributes affected by these residues on soil surface in no-till system The goal of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of a an Oxisol in no-till system by surface dispoasal of sewage sludge, flue

  14. A New Mathematical Simulation Approach for Thermal Cracking Furnace Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanXingying; XuChunming; GaoJinsen; ZhangHongmei

    2005-01-01

    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons for olefin production is normally carried out in long reactor tubes suspended in a large gas fired furnace. In this paper, a coupled furnace-reactor mathematical model based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is developed to simulate the complex fluid dynamics phenomena in the thermal cracking furnace. The model includes mass transfer, momentum transfer, and heat transfer, as well as thermal cracking reactions, fuel combustion and radiative heat transfer. The rationality and reliability of the mathematical model is confirmed by the approximate agreement of predicted data and industrial data. The coupled furnace-reactor simulation revealed the details of both the transfer and reaction processes taking place in the thermal cracking furnace. The results indicate highly nonuniform distribution of the flue-gas velocity, concentration and temperature in the furnace, which cause nonuniform distribution of tube skin temperature and heat flux of the reactor tubes. Profiles of oil-gas velocity,pressure, temperature and product yields in the lengthwise direction of the reactor tube are obtained. Furthermore, in the radial direction steep velocity and temperature gradients and relatively slight gradients of species concentration are found.In conclusion, the model can provide more information on the fluid dynamics and reaction behavior in the thermal cracking furnace, and guidance for the design and improvement of thermal cracking furnaces.

  15. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  16. Simulation of the influence of the baffle on flowing field in the anode baking ring furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 梅炽; 周孑民; 周乃君; 徐琼辉

    2002-01-01

    In an anode baking horizontal flue ring furnace, the temperature distribution is one of the key factors influencing the quality of baked anode and is closely correlated with the gas flow. To understand the gas flow distribution in the flue, Navier-Stokes equation with "k-ε" two-equation turbulence model was adopted and the simulation on the gas flow was performed. The numerical simulation results showed that the even direction of gas flow should be considered in the design of flue baffles and the gas flow distribution was really uneven in the flue in practical use. By adjusting the number and location of flue baffles rationally, the even distribution of gas flow can be improved obviously.

  17. Study on Leaching High Zn-Pb Dust from Rotary Hearth Furnace by Sulfuric Acid Solution%硫酸浸出转底炉高锌铅粉尘的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸荣孙; 吴争; 伊廷锋; 夏征宇

    2012-01-01

    研究了硫酸浸出转底炉高锌铅粉尘提取锌的工艺条件和参数.最佳浸出工艺条件为:搅拌速度400 r/min,硫酸浓度为1.0mol/L,浸出温度为25℃,固液比为1∶8,浸出时间为0.5h.在此条件下,锌的浸出率可达96%以上.采用针铁矿-氧化水解法除铁、过硫酸铵深度除铁锰、锌粉置换除杂的方法对浸出液净化处理,得到高纯度硫酸锌溶液,该溶液可直接电解制取锌或制取碱式碳酸锌和氧化锌.%The technological conditions and parameters of leaching high Zn-Pb dust to extract Zn from rotary hearth furnace by sulfuric acid solution were studied. The optimum leaching conditions were obtained as follows; the stirring rate was 400 r/min, sulfuric acid concentration was 1.0 mol/L, the leaching temperature was 25 ℃ , the solid-liquid ratio was 1:8 and leaching time was 0. 5 h. Under these conditions, the leching rate of zinc can reach above 96%. Purification treatment was conducted for the leaching liquid, including using geothite and oxidation-hydrolysis process to remove iron, using ammonium persulphate to remove iron and manganese, using zinc powder to replace and remove impurities, thus high purity zinc sulfate solution was obtained, which can be used to prepare zinc or basic zinc carbonate and zinc oxide by direct electrolysis.

  18. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; MENG Yuedong; YU Xinyao; CHEN Longwei; JIANG Yiman; NI Guohua; CHEN Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example,the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  19. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  20. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda%氢氧化钠浸取-浸取渣熔融法从炼钢厂烟尘中提取锌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R. Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8%of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5 mol. L-1 NaOH solution for 42 h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts with various contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  1. 恒风压变频调速模型在梅钢高炉出铁场除尘的应用%Application of Constant Pressure Variable Frequency Speed Regulation Model in Dust Removal for Casthous in Meigang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志平

    2015-01-01

    针对高炉不同的出铁工况,设计出一种高炉出铁场除尘恒风压变频调速模型,以满足高炉出铁过程中的正常风量需要,保持恒定的除尘总管风压;通过出铁场除尘阀门控制技术,将除尘控制设置在炉前泥炮操作室,完成对除尘阀门和风机的操作。梅钢5#高炉(4070 m3,风机装机量2×2240 kW)应用表明,出铁场除尘风机吨铁总电耗为5.78 kW·h,节能减排效果明显。%According to different conditions of blast furnace casthouse, the article designs a frequency control model of speed regulation which can keep dedust pressure constant for blast furnace casthouse dust, can meet the needs of normal flue gas volume in the process of blast furnace production, can keep the pressure constant of gas piping stress. By means of the field dedusting valve control technology, due to it is set in the dust control mud gun in front of the furnace operation room, it can finish the operation of the dedusting valve and fan. The application in Meigang’s No.5 blast furnace fan installed with 2×2 (4 070 m3, 240 kW) shows that the field of iron dust removal fan ton iron total power consumption is 5.78 kW·h, energy conservation and emissions reduction effect is obviously.

  2. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F. [University of the Basque Country, Nuclear Engineering and Fluids Mechanics (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Serrano, I. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing {sup 137}Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  3. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  4. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  5. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90

  6. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  7. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd, cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, mercúrio (Hg, chumbo (Pb e arsênio (As, por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, durante 2003 e 2004. A aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, até a dose 8 Mg ha-1, assim como o calcário na dose 2 Mg ha-1, não trazem problemas de disponibilidade ao ambiente, com relação aos metais pesados Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni e As, quando aplicados sobre a superfície em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no sistema plantio direto. A fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados às culturas da soja e aveia-preta foi nula, quando foram aplicadas doses de até 8 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto, escória e lama cal sobre a superfície do solo, no sistema plantio direto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil chemical attributes and exchange of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and arsenic (As by DTPA extractor in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge in rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 and one additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design under field conditions, in a no-tillage system in 2003 and 2004. The surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge centrifuge and biodigestor at 8 Mg ha-1, as well as the application of limestone at 2 Mg ha-1, cause no problems of exchange to the environment, related to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni

  8. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose de 2 t ha-1. A aplicação superficial de doses crescentes de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado permitiu verificar aumento do valor de pH no solo. Esses resíduos e o lodo de esgoto de biodigestor elevaram a saturação por bases e a disponibilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio até a profundidade de 40 cm no solo, com apenas três meses de reação. A pequena quantidade de ácidos orgânicos na parte aérea da aveia-preta não justificou o rápido deslocamento dos nutrientes e da neutralização do solo em subsuperfície. Os resíduos escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado podem ser utilizados como corretivos da acidez e aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema de plantio direto.The experiment was carried out under field conditions in a no-tillage system from 2002 to 2005, aiming to evaluate liming, base saturation and nitrate, calcium and magnesium mobility in a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox soil. The possible interference of organic acid catering of black oat through surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge from a centrifuge and a biodigestor were also evaluated at rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 as well as an additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2 t ha-1. Due to the increasing surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and

  9. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  10. Study on emission and retention of fluorine during coal combustion in the chain-grate furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Wu, X.; Yao, Q.; Cao, X.; Zhao, X.; Cen, K.

    1998-07-01

    The experimental results of emission and retention of fluorine during coal combustion in a pilot-scale test facility--0.5 tons steam/per hour chain-grate furnace are reported in this paper. The test coal is mixed coal of Yanzhou coal and Changguan coal. The fluorine content in the coal is 150 ppm. The fuel-bed temperature is 1,000--1,250 C. The results show about 80% fluorine in coal releases into the atmosphere. The gaseous state fluorine exists mainly as HF and SiF{sub 4}. In addition, the ratio of gas-fluorine and dust-fluorine in flue gas is obtained. The retention of fluorine by Calcium-based sorbent is the main work in this paper. An efficient sorbent for retention of fluorine is developed. The sorbent is mainly composed of industrial waste material with Calcium, such as carbide slag, white mud, steel residue, lime kiln residue and so on. The experimental results show that the retention of fluorine is related to the kind of sorbent, amount of sorbent, firing temperature. The efficiency of fluorine retention is about 70--80% for adding the sorbent of 7--12% by wt.

  11. Study on emission and retention of fluorine during coal combustion in the chain-grate furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianzhong Liu; Xiaorong Wu; Qiang Yao [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    The experimental results of emission and retention of fluorine during coal combustion in a pilot-scale test facility--0.5 tons steam/per hour chain-grate furnace are reported in this paper. The test coal is mixed coal of Yanzhou coal and Changguan coal. The fluorine content in the coal is 150ppm. The fuel-bed temperature is 1000-1250{degrees}C. The results show about 80% fluorine in coal releases into the atmosphere. The gaseous state fluorine exists mainly as HF and SiF{sub 4}. In addition, the ratio of gas-fluorine and dust-fluorine in flue gas is obtained. The retention of fluorine by Calcium-based sorbent is main work in this paper. A efficient sorbent for retention of fluorine is developed. The sorbent is mainly composed of industrial waste material with Calcium, such as carbide slag, white mud, steel residue, limekiln residue and so on. The experimental results show that the retention of fluorine is related to the kind of sorbent, amount of sorbent, firing temperature. The efficiency of fluorine retention is about 70%-80% for adding the sorbent of 7-12% by wt.

  12. 响应面法优化电炉炼钢粉尘中Zn的选择性浸出%Optimization of selective leaching of Zn from electric arc furnace steelmaking dust using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet KUL; Kürşad Oğuz OSKAY; MehmetŞİMŞİR; Halit SÜBÜTAY; Habip KIRGEZEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and optimize the effects of the leaching parameters on the selective leaching of zinc from electric arc furnace steelmaking dust (EAFD). The response surface method was applied on the basis of a three-level Box–Behnken experimental design method for optimization of selective leaching parameters of zinc from EAFD. The leaching recoveries of zinc (YZn) and iron (YFe) were taken as the response variables, where the concentration of sulphuric acid (X1, mol/L), leaching temperature (X2, °C), leaching time (X3, min), and liquid/solid ratio (X4, mL/g) were considered as the independent variables (factors). The mathematical model was proposed. Statistical ANOVA analysis and confirmation tests were applied. A maximum of 79.09% of zinc was recovered while the minimum iron recovery was 4.08% under the optimum conditions of leaching time 56.42 min, H2SO4 concentration 2.35 mol/L, leaching temperature 25 °C and liquid/solid ratios. By using ANOVA, the most influential factors on leaching of zinc and iron were determined as H2SO4 concentration and leaching temperature, respectively. The proposed model equations using response surface methodology show good agreement with the experimental data, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.98 for zinc recovery and 0.97 for iron recovery.%研究浸出参数对电炉炼钢粉尘灰中选择浸出性Zn的影响,以Zn和Fe的浸出率为响应变量,以硫酸浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间和液固比为独立变量,采用基于三水平Box−Behnken的响应面法对浸出参数进行优化。对试验结果进行ANOVA分析和验证。在硫酸浓度为2.35 mol/L,浸出温度为25℃,浸出时间为56.42 min,液固比为5的条件下,可得到Zn的最大浸出率为79.09%, Fe的最小浸出率为4.08%。通过ANOVA分析表明,对Zn和Fe浸出率影响最大的因素为硫酸浓度和浸出温度。基于响应面法的模型与试验数据具有很好的一致性,Zn和Fe

  13. Flue gas conditioning today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr. [Wahlco Engineering International Ltd., Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  14. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  15. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  16. Altitude effects on combustion in residential furnaces with fan assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.; Fleck, B.A.; Ackerman, M.Y.; Dale, J.D.; Wilson, D.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Five residential furnaces were tested to determine if altitude has an effect on the performance of modern furnaces equipped with fan assisted flue venting systems. The tests were conducted at 3 altitudes, 50 m, 685 m and 2050 m above sea level at sites in Vancouver, Edmonton, and Fortress Mountain, Alberta. Current furnace derating practices require that furnaces at high altitude have small fuel openings or decreased fuel supply manifold pressures. However, it is possible that modern furnaces with fan driven combustion venting do not have to be derated to the same extent. Propane and natural gas were the fuel sources for the tests. It was confirmed that since most residential systems are designed to operate at 100 per cent excess air, the current derating standard practice is overly conservative. The effects of altitude on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels were also examined, along with burner and igniter operating characteristics, heat exchanger operating temperatures, and blocked-vent shutoff combustion performance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  18. Purification technology of flue gas from remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩亭; 曾光明; 魏先勋; 袁兴中; 王丽平

    2002-01-01

    Through a practical example of treatment of the flue gas from the remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings, the design and calculation method of exhaust hood, as well as the principles and the equipments of dust removal, smoke abatement and harmful gas elimination were studied. Combination of centrifugal and wet dust removal can purify the dust high efficiently. The carbon black and harmful gases in the flue gas can be removed by adding a small quantity of activator to the absorption solution. The application results are that the dedusting efficiency is 97.43%, Cl2 control efficiency is 88.03%, the exhaust fume blackness is lower than Ringelman number I, and the purification device resistance is 1126Pa.

  19. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  1. [Atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory diseases in the blast-furnace areas of iron-works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, D; Valente, T; Rotunno, R; Giusto, R

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiologic research together with a study on the environmental pollution were carried out in order to evaluate the risk of chronic respiratory diseases of blast furnace workers. The environment study was performed mainly using personal samplers given to workers with different jobs. Observations on 222 work shifts have shown that the total dust concentration to which cast workmen, maintenance men and blast furnace service men were exposed, marginally exceed the TLV values. Furthermore the level of respirable dusts for blast furnace service men was found slightly excessive. The average SO2 concentration was largely below the TLV values. However this gas could be found in excess for very short periods during the work. The epidemiologic study, conducted on a cohort of blast furnace area workers against a control group cohort, indicated a moderate prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis amongst blast furnaces workers. The clinic and radiological pictures do not seem to go beyond the initial stages.

  2. Numerical modelling of a stoker furnace operated under indirect co-firing of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litka Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the CFD analysis presented in this paper is the process of biomass indirect co-firing carried out in a system composed of a stoker-fired furnace coupled with a gasification reactor. The installation is characterised by its compact structure, which makes it possible to minimise heat losses to the environment and enhance the physical enthalpy of the oxidising agent – flue gases – having a favourable chemical composition with oxygen and water vapour. The test results provided tools for modelling of biomass thermal processing using a non-standard oxidiser in the form of flue gases. The obtained models were used to optimise the indirect co-combustion process to reduce emissions. An overall effect of co-combustion of gas from biomass gasification in the stoker furnace is the substantial reduction in NO emissions by about 22%.

  3. Improved design and operation of crude furnace air preheater for cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollpudi, B. [Bantrel Co. (Canada); Nichols, D. [Husky Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, air preheaters are used to heat combustion air with hot flue gas. Flue gas contains significant amounts of sulphur oxides which can result in acid dew point corrosion on the flue gas side. The air preheater metal has therefore to be kept at a temperature higher than this dew point to provide trouble free operation. This paper relates a case of dew point corrosion damage in an air preheater and the design modifications made to solve the problem. The case studied took place at the crude furnace at Husky Energy's Lloydminster Upgrader where a plate exchanger air preheater was installed in 2007 and corrosion was noticed in 2009. It was found that hot air recirculation helps in maintaining a sufficiently high temperature and that the ducting design avoids dead zones. This paper showed that improved design can help to prevent damage occurring in the air preheater.

  4. Method of and apparatus for the discharge of a flue gas into the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.; Hein, K.R.G.; Gebhard, G.

    1989-03-28

    Desulfurized flue gas from a fossil-fuel power plant, for example, is discharged into the atmosphere through a low-slung cooling tower by passing this gas upwardly through a duct within the tower and terminating at a level with respect to the mist, dust, and smoke collector of the tower such that the collector is not traversed by the flue gas as it rises in the tower to mix with the cooling air. The duct is formed as an additional washing stretch so as to effect an afterwashing of the flue gas. This duct opens at a level above the level of the collector, and may be provided with a droplet separator which lies at or near the duct mouth. The additional scrubbing stage formed by the duct can be supplied with fresh scrubbing water. This eliminates any need for special treatment of the sump liquids of the cooling tower since droplets from the flue gas are not contributng anything to the sump. Furthermore, additional treatment of the flue gases in the duct significantly reduces the SO/sub 2/ content of the gases traversing the tower. Any traces of toxic and noxious components which may remain are diluted. The further scrubbing in the duct reduces cooling of the flue gases which might otherwise cause condensate formation and the deposit of fine droplets therefrom to cause deterioration of the sump liquid of the tower. The water which is collected from the duct and is thus enriched in SO/sub 2/ can be returned as the process water required for the original flue gas scrubbing step. 2 figs.

  5. 燃煤烟气汞排放与控制研究进展%Review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 左琛

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to make a review on the research progress of the mercury emission in flue gas in coal burning. As is known, mercury is known for its hypertoxicity, volatility and cumula-tiveness. To reduce and even get rid of such harmful effects of mercury on human body and environment, wide research has been done in the world in recent years, particularly in Asia, the most seriously polluted area in the world, for it is one of the continents fastest in accelerated industrialization. Mercury pollution and contamination can be summarized in the form of its distributions, such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in the coal fire flue gas, which can be determined by the relevant temperatures, Cl concentration, other contents in flue gas, coal chips, combustion devices, etc. The research results reveal that mercury can be removed by injecting adsorbents in the furnace. Since the commonly-used air pollution control systems can help to obtain different Hg removing results in various complicated ways, such as injection of adsorbents, the activated carbon or modified activated carbon absorption. Of all the ways, modified activated carbon absorption displays greatest efficiency on Hg removal though its cost is high. Catalytic oxidation technology by means of the action of SCR and other catalysts has also been tested to transfer Hg° to Hg2+ with a purpose to improve the Hg removal efficiency. Other novel mercury control methods are also under study, such as Low temperature plasma, ozone and UV irradiation, and so on. Comparing different technologies, we prefer to recommend the general integrated air pollution technology, such as bag-type dust collector with adsorbent injection or catalytic oxidation. The kinds of cheap Hg adsorbents, such as the modified fly ash should also be recommended. The next best available methods, just followed by flue gas desulfidation, are the catalysis, for example, SCR de-NOx, which can be used to oxidize Hg. Thus, it can be seen that the above review

  6. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  7. Method for the removal of dust from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzmann, H.; Wohlfarth, J.P.

    1976-11-02

    A stream of raw material is passed through a preheater to a furnace and a stream of exhaust gases from the furnace is passed through the preheater to preheat the raw material. Dust is electrostatically precipitated from the exhaust gases leaving the preheater, and the temperature of such exhaust gases is controllably raised to improve the efficiency of the dust removal by bypassing a controlled proportion of at least one of the streams around at least a portion of the preheater.

  8. A coal dust burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhrshev, B.M.; Khasnullin, I.G.; Krauze, Ye.G.; Ushakov, Yu.A.; Zinovyev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The burner for combustion of coal dust fuel, primarily, in rotating furnaces, contains coaxially disposed pipes, a branch pipe for feeding in the air mixture and a rotating mechanism. The first two pipes are switched in to an air source. The third pipe on the input end has an oblique section and the pipe may be rotated around an axis by a mechanism. The first pipe has ports and it may be moved in an axial direction. By installing the third pipe in the first and second positions, it is possible to direct the dust coming from the branch pipe along the central (the larger part of the dust) or the central pipe, respectively, which makes it possible to regulate the configuration of the torch and its temperature. Hot air is sucked from the furnace through the ports in the perforated first pipe to the mouth of the burner, which makes it possible to intensify combustion. By moving the fifitpipe to the right it is possible to overlap the ports with the projections and to rule out suction of the air. The possibility of regulating combustion in wide ranges makes it possible to reduce the expenditure of fuel by 2 to 3 percent.

  9. Flue gas dehydration using polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbesma, Hylke; Nymeijer, Kitty; Marwijk, van Rob; Heijboer, Rob; Potreck, Jens; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce electricity and in addition to that large volume flows of flue gas. To prevent condensation of the water vapor present in this flue gas stream, water has to be removed before emission to the atmosphere. The application of membrane technology for this separation is att

  10. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

  11. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of copper smelting flue dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Balladares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el procesamiento pirometalúrgico del cobre, hasta 10% de la carga alimentada a los hornos sale de estos en forma de polvo arrastrado por los gases conteniendo la mayor parte de las impurezas presentes en el mineral, así como cantidades significativas de cobre por lo que no pueden ser descartados como residuos industriales y debe tratarse para recuperar el cobre. La conceptualización de nuevos y mejores procesos requiere caracterizaciones de estos materiales más precisas. Se analizaron polvos provenientes de una caldera recuperadora de calor y de un precipitador electrostático, ambos de un horno de fusión instantánea. Las diferentes herramientas analíticas empleadas muestran que el cobre y el hierro se encuentran principalmente en fases solubles en agua tales como chalcantita. La fracción insoluble está formada mayoritariamente por hematita y magnetita, con probable presencia de delafosita. Parte del cobre detectada en la fracción insoluble se asocia al hierro en forma de espinela.

  12. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  13. Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.

  14. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  15. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  16. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  17. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  18. Feasibility of Furnace H-701 Energy Recovery in Sarkhoun and Qeshm Gas Refinery Using the Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khorshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation and thermal analysis relating to emissions of the flue-furnace H-701 of Sarkhoun and Qeshm Gas Refinery in Bandarabbas (IRAN and thermal load has been calculated. Then Study of the combustion process and calculation of required combustion air and the heating of air In order to increase its enthalpy using energy combustion gases is done by designing Heat Exchanger. This method helps to optimization of energy consumption and reduction of energy losses and prevents the increase in environment air and will help to cleanliness of the environment. Using this method efficiency of furnace will be increased by 8.63%.

  19. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle

  20. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  1. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  2. Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Qasem M; Momani, Kamal A; Jbarah, Abdel-Aziz Q; Massadeh, Adnan

    2004-10-01

    This article deals with the determination and comparison of heavy metals and water-soluble anions and cations in indoor dust and outdoor dust fall in the petroleum refinery area in Jordan. Three sampling sites were considered in the Jordanian petroleum refinery complex for the collection of dust fall and office dust samples. These samples were analyzed for water-soluble anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, C2O4(2-), and SO4(2-)) and cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) using auto-suppressed ion chromatography. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Al) were determined using flame or graphite-furnace atomic absorption. No correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in dust fall and office dust samples, indicating different sources. High enrichment factors for heavy metals were found in dust-fall samples, except for Fe and Cr. Zinc showed the highest and cadmium the lowest flux rates.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  4. Slagging and Fouling Characteristics of HRSG for Ferrosilicon Electric Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The slagging and fouling characteristics of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG for ferrosilicon electric furnaces are discussed in this paper. Three ash samples were taken from the HRSG of a ferrosilicon furnace in Ningxia Province, China, which suffered from serious slagging and fouling. X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to analyze the ash samples. The results show that low melting point salt Na2SO4 and composite salts Na (AlSi3O8 and 3K2SO4·CaSO4 deposit on the superheater tube walls in aerosol form and solidify to form the initial slag layer. With the continuous deposition of the low melting point compounds, more and more ash particles in the flue gas adhere to the slag surface to form a thicker slag. Low melting point composite salt NaO·Al2O3·SiO2 is absorbed on the evaporator tube walls in aerosol form. With the deposition of NaO·Al2O3·SiO2, more and more ash particles are absorbed to form the fouling. Since there is less space between pin-finned tubes, the large iron-rich slag particles are easily deposited on tube walls and fin surfaces, which is advantageous to the fouling process. There are large quantities of superfine ash particles in the flue gas that easily adhere to other particles or tube walls, which facilitates the slagging and fouling process.

  5. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  6. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC VERNEUIL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIGH TEMPERATURE, *PLASMA JETS, *REFRACTORY MATERIALS, ALTERNATING CURRENT, CELLULOSE ACETATES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, CRYSTALS , GAS DISCHARGES, GROWTH ...PHYSIOLOGY), LABORATORY FURNACES, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, SINGLE CRYSTALS , THEORY.

  8. 裂解炉数学模拟新方法%A New Mathematical Simulation Approach for Thermal Cracking Furnace Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝兴英; 徐春明; 高金森; 张红梅

    2005-01-01

    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons for olefin production is normally carried out in long reactor tubes suspended in a large gas fired furnace. In this paper, a coupled furnace-reactor mathematical model based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is developed to simulate the complex fluid dynamics phenomena in the thermal cracking furnace. The model includes mass transfer, momentum transfer, and heat transfer, as well as thermal cracking reactions, fuel combustion and radiative heat transfer. The rationality and reliability of the mathematical model is confirmed by the approximate agreement of predicted data and industrial data. The coupled furnace-reactor simulation revealed the details of both the transfer and reaction processes taking place in the thermal cracking furnace. The results indicate highly nonuniform distribution of the flue-gas velocity, concentration and temperature in the furnace, which cause nonuniform distribution of tube skin temperature and heat flux of the reactor tubes. Profiles of oil-gas velocity,pressure, temperature and product yields in the lengthwise direction of the reactor tube are obtained. Furthermore, in the radial direction steep velocity and temperature gradients and relatively slight gradients of species concentration are found.In conclusion, the model can provide more information on the fluid dynamics and reaction behavior in the thermal cracking furnace, and guidance for the design and improvement of thermal cracking furnaces.

  9. Furnaces. The manufacturer turns to the engineering office; Les fours. Le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Selas SA, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the actions carried out by the Selas company involved in the manufacturing of industrial furnaces in order to respect the environmental regulations of the French 2910 by-law: particularity of industrial furnaces, activities of the Selas company (surface cleaning process for iron and stainless steel sheets, quenching of glass panes), reduction of dust, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and organic compound emissions from combustion systems and burners. (J.S.)

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  11. A study of flue gas emission reduction from cremation processes by the "Amalgator"

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    On 1 April 1999 a study, commissioned by Vermeulen Product Engineering, was conducted by the Department of Thermal Conversion Technology of TNO-MEP of the filter efficiency of the Amalgator at the Crematorium Nedermaas in Geleen in the Netherlands. At this crematorium a cremator of the "warm-start"type is in-stalled. The Amalgator is a filter system developed for the reduction of mercury, dust and PCDD/PCDF emissions in the flue gasses of cremators. It consists of a dustfilter, a catalytic be...

  12. An extended two-dimensional mathematical model of vertical ring furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, S.; Charette, A.; Bui, R. T.; Tomsett, A.; Potocnik, V.

    1996-04-01

    An extended two-dimensional (2-D+) mathematical model of vertical anode baking furnaces has been developed. The work was motivated by the fact that a previous 2-D model was unable to predict the nonuniform baking in the transverse direction, i.e., perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the furnace. The modeling strategy based on dividing each section in four zones (underlid, pit, underpit, head wall and fire shaft zones) and introducing two symmetry planes in the exterior pits is explained. The basic heat-transfer relations used are also detailed. Selected results shown include draught and oxygen concentration profiles in the flue, gas and anode temperature distributions and fuel consumption in the back fire ramp. Simulation and experimental results are compared.

  13. Numerical study of bituminous coal combustion in a boiler furnace with bottom blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Results obtained by the numerical study of a solid fuel combustion scheme with bottom blowing using Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk bituminous coals of different fractional makeup are presented. Furnace chambers with bottom blowing provide high-efficiency combustion of coarse-grain coals with low emissions of nitrogen oxides. Studying such a combustion scheme, identification of its technological capabilities, and its further improvement are topical issues. As the initial object of study, we selected P-57-R boiler plant designed for burning of Ekibastuz bituminous coal in a prismatic furnace with dry-ash (solid slag) removal. The proposed modernization of the furnace involves a staged air inflow under the staggered arrangement of directflow burners (angled down) and bottom blowing. The calculation results revealed the specific aerodynamics of the flue gases, the trajectories of solid particles in the furnace chamber, and the peculiarities of the fuel combustion depending on the grinding fineness. It is shown that, for coal grinding on the mill, the overall residue on the screen plate of 90 µm ( R 90 ≤ 27% for Ekibastuz coal and R 90 ≤ 15% for Kuznetsk coal) represents admissible values for fuel grind coarsening in terms of economic efficiency and functional reliability of a boiler. The increase in these values leads to the excess of regulatory heat losses and unburned combustible losses. It has been established that the change in the grade of the burned coal does not significantly affect the flow pattern of the flue gases, and the particles trajectory is essentially determined by the elemental composition of the fuel.

  14. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  15. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  16. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  17. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; NI Guohua; JIANG Yiman; YU Xinyao; ZHAO Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash,OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results.Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected.The distribution of heavy metals of Pb,Cd,As,and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed.Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work,carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced.Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations,a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect.The results indicate that,a.when melted,the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly;b.it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly,and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace.

  18. Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Małecki, Stanisław; Gargul, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

  19. Installation and Trial Run of the Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of neutron experiment in the future, the neutron lab equips with extreme temperature furnace (Fig. 1), the furnace is designed and produced by the professional producer-Scientific

  20. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  1. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  2. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  3. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: the Indaver case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, C; Wauters, G; Arickx, S; Jaspers, M; Van Gerven, T

    2007-01-01

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

  4. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  5. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  6. Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) by seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Arce, A.; Baalina Insua, A.; Rodriguez Suarez, E.; Santaballa Lopez, J.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1995-12-31

    Emission of large sulphur dioxide quantities proceeding from combustion processes is one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. These emissions may be controlled and reduced by means of the flue gases treatment before releasing them into the atmosphere. In this sense, seawater scrubbing process applied in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) have a great industrial application and constitute an interesting method for atmospheric pollution control. In the seawater scrubbing, SO{sub 2} is absorbed and returned to the sea in the original form of sulphate salts. This paper presents an experimental research on sulphur dioxide scrubbing processes in a packed tower that uses seawater as absorbent agent, with the aim of studying the absorption conditions with different packing and effluent characteristics, in order to understand the real conditions in which FGD occurs. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkonen, V.A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  9. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  10. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  11. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  12. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  13. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  14. Determination of Content of Nitrate Removal of Ammonia in Ash of Boiler Flue Gas of Coal-ifred Units%燃煤机组锅炉烟气脱硝灰中氨含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政修

    2015-01-01

    NOx is one of the main pollutants in the atmospheric environment, which is mainly from the thermal power generating units. Rely on low nitrogen combustion technology, far less than the emission requirements. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is the power plant flue gas DeNOx Technology is currently the most widely the highest efficiency and most mature, application. At present, online ammonia escape monitoring technology has many problems, affecting the ammonia escape the accuracy and stability of the monitoring data. In determining the type of fuel, furnace structure, the arrangement of heating surface, excess air, furnace air distribution and denitration catalyst type and other conditions, good control of ammonia addition amount and escape volume is the key to guarantee the NOx removal rate. Coal-fired boiler dust fly ash ammonia content can reflect the denitration ammonia escape rate conditions. According to foreign reports, under normal circumstances, the ammonia content in flue dust electricity is generally in the range of 50mg/kg-100mg/kg. The determination method of ammonia is no ash in domestic, no denitrification operation of fly ash containing ammonia affects the amount of accumulated data. In this paper, through a lot of experiments, the conditions of ammonia dissolved in ash determined (such as dissolution time, mixing state, cement water ratio, ash sample quantity and stability), developed methods for determination of ammonia in ash.%NOx是大气环境的主要污染物之一,其主要来源为火力发电机组。依靠低氮燃烧技术,远达不到排放要求。选择性催化还原脱硝(简称SCR)技术是目前效率最高、最成熟、应用最广泛的电厂烟气脱硝技术。目前,在线氨逃逸监测技术存在诸多问题,影响了氨逃逸监测数据的准确度和稳定性。在燃料种类、炉膛结构、受热面布置、过量空气量、炉膛气流分布以及脱硝催化剂类型等条件确定的情

  15. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  16. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  17. Particulate emissions in the flue gas of flat glass production after electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, A.; Carduck, E.; Manges, M.; Stadelmann, H.; Klinkers, J. [Saint-Gobain Glass Deutschland GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    As a contribution to the current discussion about fine dust and fine quartz and cristobalite particulate emissions and immissions, the authors point out the role the flat glass industry plays in this context. The main part of the raw material used in this industry is quartz sand (about 60%), but the latter's granulometry is such that it contains practically no fine particles. This fact is inherent in undisturbed glass production because quartz sand particles with grain size below 80 {mu}m would cause bad glass quality. Also other possible sources for silicon dioxide in the flue gas are discussed. In order to show the composition of the dust escaped to the electrostatic precipitators (EPs), the filters exclusively used in flat glass production, a number of quartz glass fiber filters used to measure the dust content in various plants were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Only in one case a quartz or cristobalite grain was identified, but with 30 {mu}m it was bigger than the respiratory fraction (<10 {mu}m) under discussion. In summary, it can be said that the findings are not at all alarming. In order to finally prove that there is no need to worry about emissions of carcinogenic dust for the whole glass industry future cooperative research will be necessary. (orig.)

  18. Influence of operation parameters on flash smelting furnace based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinfeng Li; Shiheng Peng; Xiangli Han; Chi Mei; Tianyuan Xiao

    2004-01-01

    The influence of three important operation parameters in Jinlong flash smelting furnace, including the distributing blast speed, the oxygen enrichment rate of process air and the ratio of central oxygen to overall oxygen (Oc/Oo), has been investigated using a virtual simulation system on copper flash smelting furnace. The core of this virtual simulation system is a numerical simulation of CFD (computational fluid dynamics), and this system incorporates coupling momentum transport, heat transport, mass transport,reaction kinetics between gas and particles and chemical reactions between gas and gas. A set of numerical predicted data were obtained. The CFD simulation shows that there is a sensitive zone of the distributing blast speed, and the dust content ascends when the speed exceeds 180 m-s-1. Increasing the oxygen concentration of processing air benefits the efficient production of the flash smelting furnace.

  19. Flue gas condensation with oil heating. The effect on economics and the environment. Roekgaskondensering vid oljeeldning. Inverkan paa ekonomi och miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerner, B.

    1988-01-01

    For a couple of years operation experience and experimental data have been collected from a 685 kW oil-fired boiler equipped with a flue gas condenser. The report presents data and conclusions on heat economy, corrosion and sealing, emission, condensate properties. The concept studied gives at nominal load c. 10% oil saving. The corrosion attack is negligible and the cooler installation leads to environmental advantages. The dust content of discharged flue gas decreases by c. 80%. A reduction of the same order of magnitude has been established for SO/sub 3/. Also the amount of Hg and Cd decreases, the reduction being 30-40%. The condensate can be discharged to the municipal sewage system after neutralization. Total emission is decreased by the energy conservation obtained but also because of concentration of dust and certain trace substances in liquid phase. (O.S.).

  20. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  1. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.31 Flues to be removed. (a) Inspection of the boiler interior. During the 1472... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam...

  2. Two Dimensional Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis for a Packed Bed Regenerator Used in a Reheating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packed bed is widely used for different industries and technologies, such as heat exchangers, heat recovery, thermal energy storage and chemical reactors. In modern steel industry, packed bed regenerator is widely utilized in the reheating furnace to increase the furnace efficiency. This study established a two dimensional numerical model to simulate a packed bed used in regenerative furnaces. The physical properties of fluids and packed stuffing (such as density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat are considered as functions of temperature to adapt the large temperature variation in operation. The transient temperature profiles of the flue gas, packed bed, and air during the heating and regeneration period are examined for various switching time (30, 60, 120, and 240 s. The results reveal that, during the heating period, the spanwise averaged heat transfer coefficient is decreased along the longitudinal downstream direction, while during the regeneration period, the opposite trend is true. Moreover, the regenerator thermal effectiveness is decreased by increasing the switching time.

  3. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  4. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  5. 50t炼钢电弧炉烟气余热回收系统的设计应用%The Design and Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery System for 50 t Steelmaking EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶务纯; 杨波; 朱宝晶; 王宝

    2012-01-01

    以电弧炉炼钢过程烟气余热的回收利用及烟气净化除尘为主线,以热管蒸发器为换热元件,合理控制烟气流速,解决高温烟尘的沉降和蒸发器热管灰堵以及烟气温度波动大的难题,完成了50t电弧炉烟气余热回收净化系统设计与施工.对电弧炉炼钢过程中所产生的高温烟气直接进行余热回收,满足电弧炉炼钢流程VD真空处理对蒸汽的需求,实现了高温烟气余热回收利用和环境净化,为国内电弧炉节能降耗和清洁生产进行了有益的探索.%Taking the flue gas waste heat recovery utilization and flue gas cleaning dusting in the EAF steelmaking process as main line and taking heat pipe evaporator as heat transfer element and reasonable control flue gas flow rate, the high temperature dust precipitation and evaporator heat pipe ash plugging and large flue gas temperature fluctuation etc problem were fully solved. The design and construction of flue gas waste heat recovery cleaning system for 501 EAF were completed. High temperature flue gas waste heat produced by EAF under steelmaking process was directly recovered, in order to meet the needs of steam under the VD steel making. Thus high temperature flue gas waste heat recovery utilization and environmental cleaning were realized. For the purpose of energy saving and consumption reducing and clean production in domestic EAF, above-mentioned helpful discussion was carried out.

  6. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  7. OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC MELTING FURNACE DEPENDING ON QUALITY OF FURNACE CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Steblov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of furnace charge in an electric arc melting furnace to a large extend determines the efficiency of melting. With a tendency of increase of light scrap with a high content of non-iron impurities scrap fine crushing can increase the metallurgical value of scrap and improve technical and economic parameters of electric arc furnace operation.

  8. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  9. Sediment of flus gas in direct reduction treated by zinc-bearing metallurgical dust%含锌冶金尘泥还原烟气沉积特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何环宇; 陈振红; 崔一芳; 王杰奇

    2015-01-01

    含锌烟气沉积堵塞是制约转底炉处理冶金尘泥生产的关键所在.采用高温管式炉模拟冶金尘泥球团还原产生的含锌烟气沉积试验,对沉积物的质量分布、形貌及主要组分等沉积特性进行分析,研究了温度、碱金属及烟气气氛对烟气沉积的影响.研究结果表明,温度对烟气沉积特性影响显著,烟气沉积过程从950~1 000℃开始,在600~750℃达到最大沉积量,温度低于600℃后沉积逐渐结束,并且沉积物晶粒尺寸随温度降低逐渐减小,析出物混乱度逐渐增大;沉积富集区域烟尘锌质量分数为58.50%~65.23%,沉积物主要物相为ZnO、NaCl、KCl和Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O,碱金属氯化物在沉积富集区的物态变化促进了烟尘颗粒的相互聚集、团聚;烟气的氧化性不足,使布袋除尘灰中还存在大量单质锌.%The blocking by zinc-bearing flue gas is the key of restraining the treatment of metallurgical dust in rotary hearth furnace. In the current study,the high-temperature tubular furnace was used to mimic the deposition of flus gas sed-iment produced by the reduction reaction of metallurgical dust,then,the characteristics of depositions including the distri-bution of quality,the morphology and the main components of depositions were analyzed,the effects of temperature,al-kali metal and tail gas atmosphere on the characteristics of flus gas sediment were also studied here. The results showed the deposition started from 950-1 000℃,with the maximum amount of deposition reached at 600~750℃and ended un-der 600℃indicating that the temperature had a significant influence on the characteristics of flus gas sediment. In addi-tion,the lower temperature decreased the size of deposite and increased of the chaos of deposite. The main phase in the enrichment region of dust disposition was composed of ZnO,NaCl,KCl and Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O,in which the zinc content was 58.50%-65.23%. The state change of the alkali metal chloride in enrichment

  10. A comparison of fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approaches for heat transfer modeling in a 1296 t/h CFB boiler with low level of flue gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczuk, Artur; Krzywański, Jarosław

    2017-03-01

    The interrelation between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approaches for heat transfer modeling in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) has been established based on a local furnace data. The furnace data have been measured in a 1296 t/h CFB boiler with low level of flue gas recirculation. In the present study, the bed temperature and suspension density were treated as experimental variables along the furnace height. The measured bed temperature and suspension density were varied in the range of 1131-1156 K and 1.93-6.32 kg/m3, respectively. Using the heat transfer coefficient for commercial CFB combustor, two empirical heat transfer correlation were developed in terms of important operating parameters including bed temperature and also suspension density. The fuzzy logic results were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental heat transfer data obtained based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient covered a range of 109-241 W/(m2K) and 111-240 W/(m2K), for fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach respectively. The divergence in calculated heat flux recovery along the furnace height between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach did not exceeded ±2%.

  11. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  12. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  13. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  14. Simulation analysis of the influence of working medium pressure of dust removal system on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dust of blast furnace gas deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve, which causes serious stuck and damage of the valve plate, thereby affects blast furnace product and brings great economic loss. To reduce the dust deposition, a kind of automatic dust removal system is designed and its efficacy is simulated. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, as well as standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of the influence of 3 inlet pressures (0.25,0.30,0.35 of working medium (N2 in dust removal system and 2 different valve plate jaw openings (45°,90° on the dust deposition trajectory in butterfly valve region are conducted, and the influence mechanism of inlet pressure on the dust deposition is analyzed. The results show that the dust removal system can reduce the dust deposition under five combined conditions except under the condition of a valve plate jaw opening of 45°and an inlet pressure of 0.25 MPa. The dust removal system has much better effect under the following conditions: valve plate jaw opening of 45° and inlet pressure of 0.30 MPa, or valve plate jaw opening of 90° and inlet pressure of 0.25 MPa.

  15. Characterization of flue gas, fly ash, aerosol and deposit compositions as a function of waste composition and grate operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    was incinerated. However, a main environmental concern for waste incineration is the leaching of hazardous elements from the solid residues. In addition, some elements may constitute operational problems, as they may accelerate the deposition and corrosion processes in furnace. In the present work, a full......The Danish strategy for waste management is still to increase recycling and on the same time to reduce the volume of land-filled waste, in order to avoid loss of resources, and waste incineration is an important part of this strategy. In 2004, 26 % of the total reported Danish waste production......-scale measuring campaign have been conducted at a 22 MWth waste incinerator, in order to investigate the effects of waste composition and plant operation on formation and characteristics of ashes and deposits. The present work focuses on the characterization of flue gas, deposits, fly ash and aerosols, sampled...

  16. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  18. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  19. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  20. Acoustic characteristics of electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Ognev, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to describe the appearance and development of the noise characteristics of superpower electric arc furnaces. The noise formation is shown to be related to the pulsation of the axial plasma flows in arc discharges because of the electrodynamic pressure oscillations caused by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the current passing in an arc. The pressure in the arc axis changes at a frequency of 100 Hz at the maximum operating pressure of 66 kPa for an arc current of 80 kA. The main ac arc sound frequencies are multiples of 100 Hz, which is supported in the practice of operation of electric arc furnaces. The sound intensity in the furnace laboratory reaches 160 dB and is decreased to 115-120 dB in the working furnace area due to shielding by the furnace jacket, the molten metal, and the molten slag. The appropriateness of increasing the hermetic sealing of electric furnaces and creating furnaces operating at low currents and high transformer voltages is corroborated.

  1. [The industrial environment in the electric-furnace steel smelting, converter and open-hearth furnace methods of manufacturing manganese-alloyed steels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Petrov, G A; Gapon, V A; Poslednichenko, I P; Shmidt, S E

    1992-01-01

    Inspection of the environment in manganese-alloyed steel production showed inadequate hygienic conditions of the technological processes employed. Air was more polluted by manganese oxides during the oxygen-converter process though their highest concentrations, 38 times exceeding the MAS, appeared during the casting of steel. An electric furnace coated by dust-noise-proof material and gas cleaning is preferable from a hygienic point of view. The influence of unfavourable microclimate, intensive infrared irradiation and loud noise on workers necessitates automation and mechanization of the process in order to improve the working conditions.

  2. Characteristics study on application of blast- furnace gas and converter gas in regenerative heating furnace%高、转炉煤气应用于蓄热式轧钢加热炉的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋中华; 丁翠娇; 欧阳德刚; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    研究了高炉煤气和转炉煤气的燃烧温度变化规律及应用特点.通过理论计算,分析了炉气成分及燃气种类对炉气发射率和炉内传热过程的影响规律.进行了蓄热式加热炉在蓄热过程中的热量平衡计算,得到了空、煤气在不同预热温度下烟气利用率的变化规律,并进一步分析了烟气利用率对加热炉产生的影响.此外,对比分析了使用两种煤气时对设备投资及现场空间布置的影响.%The combustion temperature change rule and the applied characteristics of blast furnace gas and converter gas were analyzed. Through calculation, the effect of furnace gas composition and gas type on the exhaust gas emission rate and the heat transfer process in the furnace of the influence law was analyzed. The heat balance in storing process of regenerative was calculated. The variation trend of flue gas utilization ratio in deferent preheating temperature was obtained and the effects of flue gas utilization ratio on heating process were further investigated. In addition, the effects of two gases on the e-quipment investment and space layout were analyzed.

  3. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Venkatasubramanian

    2001-06-01

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material being heated can be prevented from depositing on the windows of the absorption cell by maintaining a higher temperature at both the ends of the absorption cell.

  4. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  5. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  6. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  7. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  8. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  9. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  10. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  11. LPCVD Furnace: Tystar Mini Tytan 4600

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Names: SiN LPCVD, Poly LPCVD, LTO LPCVD This three stack furnace system is utilized to deposit silicon nitride, polysilicon, and low temperature...

  12. Arc -furnace Flicker Compensation in Ethiopia.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supply system of the Ethiopian Electric Light and ... independent of the magnitude of the arc furnace load. They were intolerable ..... Weather sealing (Important in Ethi- opia). 3. .... nace currents during the worst periods of initial melt- ing down.

  13. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  14. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  15. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

    1996-03-20

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Modified sorbents for flue gas desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bis, Z.; Radecki, M. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Nowak, W.; Szymanek, A. [Czestochowa Technical Univ., Dabrowskiego (Poland). Dept. of Heting, Ventilation and Air Protection

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a technological description of modified sorbents that are highly reactive and which offer possibilities for economic ash utilization from atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed boilers (ACFB). Effective methods to use solid combustion products are becoming a necessity to reduce emissions to the atmosphere. Desulphurization products and limestone are compounds derived from ash from fluidized bed and other boilers where dry, or self-dry methods, of desulphurization are used. The safe disposal or effective utilization of solid waste produced during simultaneous processes of combustion and waste gas desulphurization is a challenge because of the high cost of capturing sulphur from flue gases and the high cost of sorbents. Efforts are being made to find new kinds of sorbents so that their consumption can be lowered substantially. The economic use of solid wastes from combustion and desulphurization processes is also being investigated. This paper described the basic aspects of sulphur capture by calcined sorbents, and the mechanical activation of sorbents. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  18. Magnesia-Chrome Refractories for Flash Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CHEN Kaixian; LU Xinghua; LIU Jianlong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2002-01-01

    The rapid development of our country's heavy nonferrous metallurgical technology and the revolution in new type of heavynon-ferrous metallurgical furnace have imposed more critical demand on the refractory materials ,i. e. high quality and long service life. This paper presents the domestic status of the refractories for flash furnace , briefly describes the wear of the refractory used , and it is considered that the domestic in refractories for flashfurnace can be surely realized.

  19. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  20. Firing temperature accuracy of four dental furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per; Ciber, Edina; Dérand, Tore

    2011-01-01

    In spite of using recommended firing and displayed temperatures, low-fired dental porcelain more often demonstrates unsatisfactory results after firing than porcelain fired at higher temperatures. It could therefore be anticipated that temperatures shown on the display are incorrect, implying that the furnace does not render correct firing programs for low-fired porcelain. The purpose of this study is to investigate deviations from the real temperature during the firing process and also to illustrate the service and maintenance discipline of furnaces at dental laboratories. Totally 20 units of four different types of dental furnaces were selected for testing of temperature accuracy with usage of a digital temperature measurement apparatus, Therma 1. In addition,the staffs at 68 dental laboratories in Sweden were contacted for a telephone interview on furnace brand and on service and maintenance program performed at their laboratories. None of the 20 different dental furnaces in the study could generate the firing temperatures shown on the display, indicating that the hypothesis was correct. Multimat MCII had the least deviation of temperature compared with displayfigures. 62 out of 68 invited dental laboratories chose to participate in the interviews and the result was that very few laboratories had a service and maintenance program living up to quality standards. There is room for improving the precision of dental porcelain furnaces as there are deviations between displayed and read temperatures during the different steps of the firing process.

  1. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  2. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, C

    1999-03-01

    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  3. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  4. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  5. Recent developments in novel sorbents for flue gas clean up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Bisson, Teresa M.; Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Coal combustion is one of the most important energy sources for electricity generation, but also produces airborne pollutants. The amount of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for example, is in the order of hundreds to thousands of ppm, and tens to hundreds of ppm, respectively, while Hg in flue gases could be up to tens to hundreds of ppb. Flue gas desulphurization technology is already in place for SO{sub 2} removal, and new sorbents such as zeolites are being investigated for such an application. NO{sub x} can be removed by selective catalytic reduction with various catalysts. Mercury is the hardest to remove due to its persistent nature and relatively low concentration in flue gases. New sorbents have also been developed for mercury removal applications. A current trend in flue gas emission control is to remove Hg, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously. Various catalytic sorbents have been investigated to remove two or more of these pollutants concurrently. This article reviews recent developments made for emission control of coal-fired power plant flue gases using novel sorbents to target individual or multiple pollutants. (author)

  6. A new approach to design a control system for a FGR furnace using the combination of the CFD and linear system identification techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Zhang, C.; Jiang, J. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new approach to design control systems for an industrial furnace with flue gas recirculation (FGR) is presented. To facilitate the control system design, a linear dynamic model is needed for the furnace. Full-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to generate the required small signal input and output data sets. Subsequently, a least squares based system identification technique is used to obtained the linear dynamic models. After model validation, feedback controller is designed based on these linear dynamic models. Finally, the performance of the designed closed-loop control system is also evaluated using both linear dynamic model and full-scale nonlinear CFD model. The comparison shows that the control system designed using the proposed approach can minimize the deviation of nitric oxides (NO) emission from the design point by minimize the dynamic NO formation, hence to prevent any excessive NO formation in the combustion process when the system subjects to disturbances.

  7. Properties and efficiency of a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst applied in a solid fuel thermo-accumulating furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRDJAN BELOSEVIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a solid fuel thermo-accumulating furnace has been developed. In order to achieve a higher combustion efficiency, a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst in the form of 3 ± 0.3 mm spheres was applied, which enabled further combustion of flue gases within the furnace. Experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst on the conversion of CO has been done for different operation regimes and positions of the catalyst. Paper presents selected results regarding CO emission during wood and coal combustion. Investigations suggest a considerable effect of the catalyst and a strong influence of the catalyst position to CO emission reduction. The microstructure of the catalyst beads, characterized by selective chemisorption of CO, has shown the decrease of the number of Pt sites as a consequence of blockage by coke deposits formed during the combustion of solid fuel.

  8. Fiscal 1996 project on the modeling for effective energy consumption in developing countries under a consignment from NEDO. Recent on the results of the demonstrative study on scrap preheater of electric furnace in the iron making process (for public); 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Seitetsu katei ni okeru denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Indonesia is the biggest iron steel producing country in the ASEAN countries. Most of the production is produced by the electric furnace method in which iron steel scrap is used as a material. However, an energy saving measure in this method, the electric furnace scrap preheater using flue gas, has not yet been spread on a full scale. This R and D is aimed at developing jointly with Indonesia an electric furnace scrap preheater for medium/small size electric furnaces which are adoptable to the present iron making situation in Indonesia and installing it to the electric furnace of the iron making plant in Indonesia for a demonstrative study on energy saving, etc. Spread/expansion of the electric furnace scrap preheater which is an excellent energy saving system targeted expansion of energy saving technology not only of Indonesia, but of ASEAN countries and Japan. In this fiscal year, remodeling of part of the system was made by change of flue gas flow for increasing the energy saving effect, and at the same time, a research study was made of a scrap reheater effective as a total system. Moreover, the paper investigated technical data/information in Japan and overseas. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  10. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  13. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  14. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  15. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  16. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  17. Heat Transfer in Flue Gas with Vapor Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾力; 彭晓峰

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines the film model with Nusselt's condensation theory to analyze the effects of water vapor condensation on the heat transfer performance of flue gas flowing through a vertical tube. The analysis compares the condensation and convective heat transfer rates. For the concentration range investigated, the water vapor condensation transfers more energy than the flue gas convection, but the convective heat transfer can not be neglected. The heat transfer intensification due to the condensation increased as the water vapor fraction increased. The theoretical results compared well with experimental data.

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  19. Flue gas cleaning for co-combustion of waste in biomass boilers 10-25 MW; Roekgasrening vid samfoerbraenning i biobraenslepannor i storleken 10-25 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Larsson, Sara [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Incineration of waste fuel in existing biomass boilers in the power range 10-25 MW is not very common in Sweden today. With increasing waste streams it will be interesting to use such fuel also in these types of boilers. This report gives a description of which regulations you have to comply with when you start to burn waste fuel, the increasing costs it will bring, and different types of flue gas cleaning equipment that are available. For existing boilers the EC-directive for incineration of waste will have to be implemented from 2005. Newly built boilers have to implement the directive from the start. The new requirements that have to be met for co-combustion plants are: The flue gas has to have a temperature of 850 deg C or more for at least two seconds in the combustion chamber. Exceptions can be allowed, but then the emission limit for CO for waste combustion must be met. The emission limit will then be 50 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2}. Exceptions can be allowed for fluid-bed combustion if 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2} as a hourly average can be met. There has to be a fuel handling system that automatically stops the waste flow if the temperature drops below 850 deg C, or when any of the emission limit values are exceeded. Some operating parameters have to be measured continuously. Emission limit values for dust, TOC, HCl, HF, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, metals, dioxins and furans. Increased documentation, reporting and control. This report has been focusing on how to meet the regulations on emissions to air. Following conclusions have been drawn: To avoid exceeding the limit value for dust emission a bag filter or an electric precipitator will be needed. Multi-cyclones are not enough. If the limit value for dust is met, the limit value of metals will also be met. To avoid exceeding the limit value for chloride a flue gas condenser/scrubbing tower or a dry flue gas cleaning system is needed, if the waste fuel is not very low in chloride. With a low sulphur

  20. 台车加热炉的节能技术改造%Energy-Saving Technical Renovation on Car-Bottom Heating Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫同印; 邱峰; 孙翰文

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese 1st successfully application of coke oven gas burning, air single-regenerative, completely use of flue-gas, no-chimney on furnace body type with the combustion system of extreme energy saving technology renovation on car-bottom heating furnace is introduced. The energy-saving efficiency of this technique is 15% more than the heating furnaces those are widely use air single-regenerative, auxiliary chimney on furnace body type ones and 40% more than the ordinary burner with recuperator type ones. So, this technique raises the regenerative combustion technologies to a higher level.%介绍了中国首例燃焦炉煤气,空气单蓄热、全烟气利用,取消了炉体烟囱的燃烧系统近极限节能台车式加热炉改造后运行状况.比目前普遍采用的空气单蓄热、炉体带辅助烟道的加热炉节能15%以上,获得了比常规烧嘴配有换热器的加热炉节能40%以上的良好效果,将蓄热式燃烧技术提高到一个新水平.

  1. Efficiency of using direct-flow burners and nozzles in implementation of dry-bottom ash removal at the TPP-210A boiler furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Kanunnikov, A. A.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Chernov, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In reconstruction of operating pulverized coal-fired boilers, one of the main factors is the choice of a method for slag removal: dry bottom ash removal (DBAR) or slag-tap removal (STR). In this case, ecological and economic aspects should be taken into account, and also the early ignition of pulverized coal fuel, the reliability of operation of the furnace walls in the mode without slagging, and the stability of slag removal should be provided. In this work, issues of changeover of the pulverized coal-fired boilers of the TPP-210A type from the STR mode to the DBAR mode are considered. As of today, the main problems during the operation of these boilers are the high emissions of nitrogen oxides together with flue gases into the atmosphere and the appropriated payoffs, a small range of loads available, the necessity of stabilization of the pulverizedcoal flame sustainability by using the highly reactive fuel, large mechanical fuel underburning, etc. Results of studying aerodynamics of a furnace with DBAR obtained in the process of physical simulation are given; technical solutions and preliminary design (configuration of burners and nozzles in the boiler furnace, conceptual design of the pulverized coal burner, configuration of TPP-210A boiler with the low heat liberation of furnace cross-section and volumetric heat release) are set forth, which are associated with the optimization of aerodynamics of furnace volume, when the direct-flow burners and nozzles are used, and with organization of the efficient staged combustion of solid fuel. Two versions of possible modernization of a boiler unit are considered. Under conditions of the planned increase in the steam production capacity, the most promising measures are as follows: the DBAR implementation with reducing heat releases of the cross-section and volume of the furnace approximately by half, the installation of the direct-flow burners and nozzles with injection of recirculation gases into the active combustion

  2. Software sensor for slab reheating furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Xiong; Guohong Huang; Huihe Shao

    2005-01-01

    It has long been thought that a reheating furnace, with its inherent measurement difficulties and complex dynamics, posed almost insurmountable problems to engineers in steel plants. A novel software sensor is proposed to make more effective use of those measurements that are already available, which has great importance both to slab quality and energy saving. The proposed method is based on the mixtures of Gaussian processes (GP) with the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm employed for parameter estimation of the mixture of models. The mixture model can alleviate the computational complexity of GP and also accords with the changes of operating condition in practical processes. It is demonstrated by on-line estimation of the furnace gas temperature in 1580 reheating furnace in Baosteel Corporation (Group).

  3. Use of solar furnaces. II - Thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, D.; Charters, W. W. S.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    The various ways in which solar furnaces have been used to measure the high-temperature thermophysical properties of materials are reviewed, with attention given to the advantages and disadvantages of these furnaces. Thermal expansion experiments are seen as lacking accuracy. By introducing homogeneous heating methods, as well as precision dilatometers, this defect could be overcome. Solar furnaces must be designed so as to give larger focal areas of uniform flux density. Modifying the pulsed method so as to eliminate the requirement for homogeneity of the energy flux is thought desirable. It would also be worthwhile to design a suitable loading device to obviate complications arising out of elongation of the specimen during tests.

  4. Optimization of Temperature Controller for Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of natural selection and the optimization of natural generation. We can select the number of the bit strings and mutation rate reasonably, the global optimal solution can be obtained. GAs adopt the binary code as optimizing parameter and this binary code can be used in computer controller easily. This paper studies the application of the GAs to the electric furnace temperature control. When the electric furnace mathematics model varies with the working condition, the parameter of controller can be optimized on line. So the system performance can be improved effectively.

  5. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  6. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  7. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  10. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  12. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    for absorption of NOX, CO2 and SO2 are demonstrated and the possible mechanism of absorption described on the molecular level. Special focus regards the interaction of the ILs with water vapor, which is an important feature in envisaged application of flue gas cleaning in power plants, waste incineration plants...

  13. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  14. Flue gas condensing with heat pump; Roekgaskondensering med vaermepump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Pettersson, Camilla [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Flue gas condensing is often both a technically and economically efficient method to increase the thermal efficiency in a plant using fuels with high moisture and/or high hydrogen content. The temperature of the return water in district heating systems in Sweden is normally 50 deg C, which gives quite high efficiency for a flue gas condenser. The flue gas after the flue gas condenser still contains energy that to some extent can be recovered by a combustion air humidifier or a heat pump. The object of this project is to technically and economically analyse flue gas condensing with heat pump. The aim is that plant owners get basic data to evaluate if a coupling between a flue gas condenser and a heat pump could be of interest for their plant. With a heat pump the district heating water can be 'sub cooled' to increase the heat recover in the flue gas condenser and thereby increase the total efficiency. The project is set up as a case study of three different plants that represent different types of technologies and sizes; Aabyverket in Oerebro, Amagerforbraending in Copenhagen and Staffanstorp district heating central. In this report a system with a partial flow through the condenser of the heat pump is studied. For each plant one case with the smallest heat pump and a total optimization regarding total efficiency and cost for investment has been calculated. In addition to the optimizations sensitivity analyzes has been done of the following parameters: Moisture in fuel; Type of heat pump; Temperature of the return water in the district heating system; and, Size of plant. The calculations shows that the total efficiency increases with about 6 % by the installation of the heat pump at a temperature of the return water in the district heating system of 50 deg C at Aabyverket. The cost for production of heat is just below 210 kr/MWh and the straight time for pay-off is 5,4 years at 250 kr/MWh in heat credit and at 300 kr/MWh in basic price for electricity. The

  15. Modeling and optimization of rotary kiln treating EAF dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust from steel industries is listed by the United Sates EPA as a hazardous waste under the regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act due to the presence of lead, cadmium and chlorine. The disposal of the approximately 650000 t of EAF dust per year in the U.S. and Canada is an expensive and unresolved problem for the majority of steel companies. The Waelz process has been considered as the best process for treating the EAF dust. A process model, combined thermodynamic modeling with heat transfer calculations, has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions, mass and heat transfer and heat balance in the kiln. The injection of air into the slag and the temperature profile along the kiln have been modeled. The effect of (CaO+MgO)/SiO2 on the solidus temperature of slag has also been predicted and discussed. Some optimized results have been presented.

  16. Modeling of thermal conductivity of stainless-steelmaking dust pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭兵; 彭及; 余笛

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of stainless-steelmaking dust pellets, an important parameter for the direct recycling of the dust, is naturally of interest to metallurgists. The measurement of central temperature and surface temperature was taken in a furnace. The physical model and calculation model for the heating process were set up to check the thermal conductivity of the dust pellets. The physical structure parameters δ and λ of the basic unit are 0.92 and 0.45 based on the calculation. The temperature in the pellet can be expressed in a linear equation a5 Tp =a1 TN +a2 TM +a4. This is convenient to determine the central temperature of a pellet in the direct recycling process.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  18. Calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Wickström, U.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of CEN/TC 127 "Fire Safety in Buildings", a series of tests has been carried out to evaluate and complete the draft calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces [4]. Fourteen laboratories in nine European countries participated in the test series, each carrying out one calibration te

  19. High Vacuum Furnace for HIRFL-CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of ultra-high vacuum and low out-gassing rate of materials which are used to make HIIRFL-CSR vacuum chambers, a high vacuum furnace for degassing the beam chambers, flanges, and the other vacuum components has been designed and manufactured by IMP and Vacuum Equipment Factory in Lanzhou.

  20. Calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Wickström, U.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of CEN/TC 127 "Fire Safety in Buildings", a series of tests has been carried out to evaluate and complete the draft calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces [4]. Fourteen laboratories in nine European countries participated in the test series, each carrying out one calibration

  1. Thermal exposure in fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, P.H.E. van de; Twilt, L.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last six years, CEN TC 127 and more in particular its working groups ad hoc 14 and ad hoc 7 have been active in evaluating and improving the reproducibility of fire resistance testing. Ad hoc 14 developed a draft procedure for the evaluation of the performance of fire resistance furnaces in

  2. A Solar Furnace for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edwin C.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial arts students at Litchfield (Minnesota) High School designed and built a solar furnace for research and experimentation and to help heat the industrial arts department. A teacher describes the construction process and materials and the temperature record keeping by the physics classes. Student and community interest has been high. (MF)

  3. Titanat aluminium synthesized in a solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleimanov, S.; Gulamova, D. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Materials Science Inst.; Boehmer, M.; Fend, T.; Rietbrock, P. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). MD-ET

    1997-12-31

    Solar furnace technology is an ecologically clean and economically attractive way, most suitable for research and development of new advanced materials. Such features of the solar furnace as sterile conditions of heating, high speed temperature delivering, materials processing in the whole range of the solar spectrum, quenching of the melt with rates of {proportional_to}10{sup 6} K/s, possibility of melting in the cold crucible etc. allow to synthesize complex oxide compositions, such as Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The study of Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized in the solar furnace has shown that the material is pure {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and possesses orthorhombic crystal structure. Microstructure of the material obtained from the melt has a prolonged prismatic shape. When the material is obtained by quenching the microstructure displays fine-grain structure with crystallites of 3-5 micron in size. Raman spectroscopy investigations have been performed on {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized on the solar furnace. It has been observed a distinct band at 900 1/cm which is not presented in other six coordinated titanates. Most probably this band is connected with valent vibrations of the Al-O coupling in distorted octahedrons [AlO{sub 6}]. (orig.)

  4. Energy conservation in cupolas and annealing furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeno, S.; Kumagaya, M.; Azuma, T.

    1984-01-01

    Successive reductions in the amount of coke and fuel oil used in cupolas and annealing furnaces are reported. In the cupolas, 2% oxygen enrichment resulted in a 0.9% drop in coke ratio and a 13.3% increase in output of pig iron. Coke ratios of 9.3-9.5% were obtained by tuyere blow-in of inexpensive carbon materials instead of expensive coke, by the use of formed coke, and by employing a dehumidified blast. In the case of the fuel oil-fired annealing furnaces, fuel oil consumption rates were reduced by treating two charges per heat instead of one. Energy consumption was successively reduced by 25-71% by 1) adopting a ceramic fibre heat-insulating material, 2) changing to low-oxygen combustion by increasing the number of burners, 3) lengthening the time during which the furnace high-temperature zone is maintained, 4) raising the combustion chamber load by using ceramic fibres in the furnace casing. 3 references.

  5. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  6. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  7. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  8. Thermal exposure in fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, P.H.E. van de; Twilt, L.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last six years, CEN TC 127 and more in particular its working groups ad hoc 14 and ad hoc 7 have been active in evaluating and improving the reproducibility of fire resistance testing. Ad hoc 14 developed a draft procedure for the evaluation of the performance of fire resistance furnaces in

  9. Report on research results of the development of high efficient boilers in fiscal 1996. Research development of high efficient industrial furnaces, etc; Koseino boiler no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Out of the developments of high efficient boilers which have been continued since fiscal 1993, the paper reported the result of the development conducted in fiscal 1996. The oxygen combustion (the oxygen enrichment combustion including 100% oxygen combustion) decreases the amount of flue gas and reduces heat loss of the flue gas, and is also effective as NOx reduction measures. The experiment was conducted using testing furnace. The boiler efficiency rapidly increased with the increasing concentration of oxygen enrichment. In the pure oxygen combustion, the overall boiler efficiency of a 106% level (low heating value standard) is expected. Since the boiler wet flue gas is decreased, the NOx emission is reduced. The boiler can raise the combustion temperature with no fear of NOx and can be reduced in size. CO2 decreases in proportion to the energy saving effect. The development of a condensation flue gas heat exchanger is aimed at recovering heat down to the low temperature. Prediction of heat transfer in the steam condensation region becomes possible, and the size reduction can be expected. Dew point corrosion resistant materials were also selected. As to the high speed combustion control, a simple type using micro-processor was developed. Obtained were high speed, compactness, electric power saving, and high controllability. 14 refs., 306 figs., 88 tabs.

  10. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  11. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  12. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  13. SO sub 2 production for simultaneous washing of SO sub 2 and NO sub x in simultaneous washers downstream of flue gas desulfurization plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-03-05

    It is well known that in slag tap fired boilers the ratio of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} is partially so unfavourable that a reasonable process for the separation of NO{sub x} cannot be ensured. For this reason disulphite must often be added to the scrubbing liquid. In order to avoid this it was often suggested to recycle the gypsum into the combustion chamber of the slag tap furnace. By this a decomposition for the separation of SO{sub 2} could only partially be achieved. In order to overcome this disadvantage it is suggested, according to the invention, to mix the gypsum obtained from the flue gas desulphuration plant with coal and to feed it in finest dispersion into the combustion chamber via the burner so that through a sufficient retention time the removal of SO{sub 2} from gypsum can be ensured.

  14. Utilization of the Net Heat Process Tail Gases in the Reactor for the Production of Oil-Furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tail gases of low calorific value, which are the by-product of oil-furnace carbon black industrial production, can be efficiently used as energy before their final release into the atmosphere. Apart from being used mainly for heating dryers, production of steam, electricity, or flared, they can also be used as a substitute for fuel in the reactor for the production of oil-furnace carbon blacks, thus increasing the efficiency of the hydrocarbon raw feedstock.This technical paper represents the technical-technological solution for applying the waste heat of the low calorific tail gases in the reactor for the production of "hard" grade oil-furnace carbon blacks with savings of the hydrocarbon raw feedstock.The introduction of the preheated low calorific tail gases in the reactor for the production of "hard" grade oil-furnace carbon blacks is achieved by serial cascading of four fans. The system consists of fans designed to pneumatically transport the mixture of process tail gases and oil-furnace carbon black dust particles. This ensures a stable technological process for the introduction of the low calorific process tail gases into the reaction zone where the natural gas and preheated air are combusted.In the production of oil-furnace carbon black N220, it is shown that by using low calorific process tail gases in the amount from 1000 to 2000 m3 h–1 per reactor, savings from 10 to 20 % of natural gas and simultaneously 7 to 9 % of the hydrocarbon raw feedstoks were achieved.

  15. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  16. Dust in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  17. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  18. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  19. Performance improvement of a 330MWe power plant by flue gas heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a utility boiler, the most heat loss is from the exhaust flue gas. In order to reduce the exhaust flue gas temperature and further boost the plant efficiency, an improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system and an additional economizer system are proposed. The waste heat of flue gas is used for high-pressure condensate regeneration heating. This reduces high pressure steam extraction from steam turbine and more power is generated. The waste heat recovery of flue gas decreases coal consumption. Other approaches for heat recovery of flue gas, direct utilization of flue gas energy and indirect flue gas heat recovery system, are also considered in this work. The proposed systems coupled with a reference 330MWe power plant are simulated using equivalent enthalpy drop method. The results show that the additional economizer scheme has the best performance. When the exhaust flue gas temperature decreases from 153℃ to 123℃, power output increases by 6.37MWe and increment in plant efficiency is about 1.89%. For the improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system, power output increases by 5.68MWe and the increment in plant efficiency is 1.69%.

  20. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  1. 一种车载医疗垃圾热解炉设计%Design of on-board medical waste pyrolysis furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊淑; 吴丽华; 张文昌; 王政

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design an on-vehicle medical waste pyrolysis furnace for the safe disposal of medical wastes, which could disposal 1t wastes each day. Methods A furnace was designed by in-depth research of pyrolysis, calculation analysis in detail, and taking the experimental results and other factors in. The flue gas treatment system of this medical waste pyrolysis furnace was designed through 3T principle.Results This furnace behaved well in configuration, reliability and self support, whose dioxin emission was limited as 0.213 ng/m3.Conclusion The on-vehicle medical waste pyrolysis furnace gains advantages in safety and environment protection, and has a brilliant future in practice.%目的:设计一种日处理量不小于1t的车载医疗垃圾热解炉,用于医疗垃圾的无害化处理.方法:通过对热解原理的深入研究和详细的计算分析,并综合考虑试验结果及其他各种因素的影响进行炉体设计,并采用3T(time, temperatme,turbulence)原则设计该热解炉的烟气处理系统.结果:设计的车载医疗垃圾热解炉结构合理、工作可靠、自持能力强,二噁英排放为0.213 ng/m3.结论:设计的车载医疗垃圾热解炉具有安全环保等优势,具有广阔的应用前景.

  2. Industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Romanowski, Micna; Koperski, Kazimierz

    1995-09-01

    The positive results of the tests performed on laboratory and pilot installations in Poland, Japan, USA and Germany have led to decision concerning design and construction of the industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment. The planned flue gas purification installation will treat tlue gases from a block which consists of two Benson type boilers of power 56 MWe each supplying additional steam for heating purposes up to 40 MWth each. The 270 000 Nm3 /h tlue gases (half of produced by the block) will be treated with efficiency of 90% for SO2 and 70% for NOx. This meets Polish regulations which will be imposed in 1997. The technical and economical description of the project is presented in the paper.

  3. Capture of CO2 From Recirculating Flue Gas Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The possible need for an economical method for the separation of CO2 from flue gas adds a new set of challenges to power plant design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Many of the new requirements of CO2 separation are similar in nature to those addressed by the mature chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining and industrial chemical production. Chemical engineering processes are regularly used to separate heterogeneous vapors in processes such as the fractionation of hydrocarbons or the separation of the components of air. This paper addresses the application of chemical engineering processes to the mixtures of gases and vapors found in the flue gas of recirculating boilers. Adaptation of these techniques can lead to a reduction in the energy required to capture CO2.

  4. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  5. Algal biomass production and carbon fixation from flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; ZHU Jing

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuel has established as one of renewable energy. In this study, Nannochloropsis salina was cultured to test feasibility of biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas. Firstly, cultivation was conducted under different light intensity. Results showed that the highest dry biomass of 1.25±0.061 g/L was achieved at light intensity of 10klux, while the highest total lipids was 33.677±1.9% at light intensity of 15klux. The effect of mercury on algae growth was also investigated, the algae growth was serious limited at the presence of mercury, and there was no any difference at the range of 10-50 ug/m3. These results provide useful information for algal biomass production and CO2 fixation from flue gas.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  7. Second generation rotary furnaces, an even more viable alternative to cupola and electric induction furnaces; La seconde generation de fours rotatifs, un appareil qui peut se substituer avantageusement au cubilot et au four electrique a induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, D. [Air Liquide 38 - Sassenage (France)

    2001-10-01

    Rotary furnaces are a well established alternative to cupola furnaces. Recent innovations in oxygas furnaces have made them the preferred choice even over medium-frequency electric furnaces in many European foundries. The article explains in what respects the rotary furnace is a new iron smelting concept, as different from the cupola furnace as the medium-frequency electric furnace. (author)

  8. Stress analysis of the O-element pipe during the process of flue gases purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekvasil R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipment for flue gases purification from undesired substances is used throughout power and other types of industry. This paper deals with damaging of the O-element pipe designed to remove sulphur from the flue gases, i.e. damaging of the pipe during flue gases purification. This purification is conducted by spraying the water into the O-shaped pipe where the flue gases flow. Thus the sulphur binds itself onto the water and gets removed from the flue gas. Injection of cold water into hot flue gases, however, causes high stress on the inside of the pipe, which can gradually damage the O-element pipe. In this paper initial injection of water into hot pipe all the way to stabilization of temperature fields will be analyzed and the most dangerous places which shall be considered for fatigue will be determined.

  9. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  10. FEM Optimisation of Spark Plasma Sintering Furnace

    CERN Document Server

    Kellari, Demetrios Vasili

    2013-01-01

    Coupled electro-thermal FEM analysis has been carried out on a sintering furnace used to produce new materials for LHC collimators. The analysis showed there exist margins for improvement of the current process and equipment through minor changes. To optimise the design of the furnace several design changes have been proposed including: optimization of material selection using copper cooling plates, control of convection in cooling plates by lowering the water flow rate, modifying the electrode shape using unsymmetrical electrodes and upgrading the thermal shielding to make use of multilayer graphite shields. The results show that we have a significant improvement in temperature gradient on the plate, from 453 to 258 °C and a reduction in power requirement from 62 to 44 kW.

  11. Solar furnace sintering of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilinska, N.; Zalite, I.; Korb, G.; Angerer, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Martinez, D.

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports on the current status of application of solar furnace for sintering of TiCN, TiO2 and Al2O3 nano powders with the specific surface area of 30-50 m''2/g and average particle size of 30-50 nm. The powders have been prepared by the plasma chemical synthesis and other methods. This work relates to innovative methods of sintering in the solar furnace at Plataforma Solar de Almeria and the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The influence of sintering temperature, sintering time and heating rate on the densification behaviour of the nanopowders was investigated. The results were compared with the data obtained using commercial powders. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Concentration of a Cassegrain solar furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A solar furnace comprising a paraboloidal mirror for tracking the sun and a hyperboloidal reflector having one focus in common with the paraboloid is analyzed to determine the geometric concentration of the system. A numerical ray-trace analysis was carried out to study various geometrical configurations of the two reflectors. In particular, the geometric concentration is calculated for the case when the line joining the foci of the hyperboloid and the axis of revolution of the paraboloid are not coincident.

  13. Temperature Controller for a Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R.; Mcdougal, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    Relatively-simple movable sheild has been suggested for controlling temperature of solar furnace. Temperature modulator can be set to have collected solar energy fully "on", fully "off" or any intermediate level. Parabolic mirror concentrates Sunlight into receiver. Shade plate that blocks insolation at back of receiver produces shade zone in center of collector. No radiation is returned to receiver from shade zone; only rays falling on other areas of reflecting surface are directed back toward receiver.

  14. Carbon sublimation using a solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplaze, D. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees; Bernier, P. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees; Journet, C. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees; Vie, V. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees; Flamant, G. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees]|[Inst. de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes, Centre du Four Solaire Felix Trombe, Font-Romeu (France); Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (France). Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees]|[Inst. de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes, Centre du Four Solaire Felix Trombe, Font-Romeu (France)

    1997-02-28

    We have previously shown that the high intensity of solar radiation, obtained with the Odeillo (France) solar furnace facilities, can be used to vaporize graphite in inert gas atmosphere to produce fullerenes. After a short survey of the possible mechanisms of formation of these molecules, we report some results in agreement with the proposed model and discuss the possibilities of increasing the fullerene yield which currently reaches 20% (orig.)

  15. Fabrication of the solar furnace`s segmental main parabolic mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, K. [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Tagajo, Miyagi (Japan); Kitahara, H. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Fujisaki, H.; Shoji, T. [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Tagajo, Miyagi (Japan); Shibata, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Sugiura, M. [Koyodai High School, Miyagi, Sendai (Japan); Nagai, Y. [Press Kogyo Company Ltd., Fujisawa (Japan); Kobayashi, H. [Tokyo Special Glass Company Ltd., Fujioka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The development of a new energy system based on the concentration of the rays of the sun was trialed and four solar furnaces produced. However, the fabrication of the segmented main parabolic mirror required high precision and was found to be very difficult. The main parabolic mirror of the furnaces were of the segmental type. The mirrors in the large furnace of the first trial in 1962 were made by a cutting machine with a cam mechanism and then finished by grinding and polishing. The segmental main parabolic mirrors of the small and medium-size furnaces (2nd and 3rd trials) were made using master molds (for softening the glass segments) that were fabricated using a cutting machine having a link mechanism. The fourth furnace used mirrors composed of super reflecting A1 plate cemented on a stamped plastic base. The cutting techniques and the grinding and polishing of the glass to fabricate the fan-shaped segmental parabolic mirrors were successful, but the softening results were not ideal. Better results were obtained on softening narrow fan-shaped glass plates and the ideal tools for cutting the master molds of soft brick are considered to be the glass gauge or cylinder tube. 10 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-10-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation.

  17. High temperature solar furnace: current applications and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorndalen, N. [Dalhousie Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2003-02-15

    The high temperature solar furnace can offer great opportunities for the production of many types of products worldwide, but recent advances in this technology have been limited to metal reduction. The production of semiconductors, which are utilized to a great extent in the electronic industry, is a viable option for this technology that has been overlooked. Especially where sand and sunlight are plentiful (countries that surround the equator), silicon chips produced with a solar furnace can have great economical value. This paper describes current and potential solar furnace technologies. The components of the solar furnace are described, as well as metal reduction processes including zinc and aluminum production. The viability of silicon chip production is also examined. The possibilities for other product development using an extremely (up to 10,000 deg C) high temperature solar furnace are also discussed. Economically, the benefits of solar furnaces are great, with only high initial start-up costs and little operation costs. Metal reduction processes can also be enhanced with high temperature solar furnaces in that plugging problems are eliminated. By replacing conventional furnaces, such as blast and electric arc furnaces, with a high temperature solar furnace, CO{sub 2} emissions and energy consumption can be greatly reduced, which will bring in added dividends to the society. (Author)

  18. A virtual crystallization furnace for solar silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, I.; Franke, D. [ACCESS e.V., Aachen (Germany); Krumbe, W.; Liebermann, J. [Bayer AG, Krefeld-Uerdingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Blocks of silicon for photovoltaic applications are economically crystallized in large casting furnaces. The quality of the material is determined by the velocity of the crystallization front, the flatness of the liquid-solid interface and the thermal gradients in the solid during cooling. The process cycle time, which is determined by the rate of crystallization and cooling, has a large effect on the process economic viability. Traditionally trial and error was used to determine the process control parameters, the success of which depended on the operator`s experience and intuition. This paper presents a numerical model, which when completed by a fitted data set, constitutes a virtual model of a real crystallization furnace, the Virtual Crystallization Furnace (VCF). The time-temperature distribution during the process cycle is the main output, which includes a display of actual liquid-solid front position. Moreover, solidification velocity, temperature gradients and thermal stresses can be deduced from this output. The time needed to run a simulation on a modern work-station is approximately 1/6 of real process time, thereby allowing the user to make many process variations at very reasonable costs. Therefore the VCF is a powerful tool for optimizing the process in order to reduce cycle time and to increase product quality.

  19. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  20. Separation of submicron particles from biofuel combustion with flue gas condensation or wet condensing electrostatic precipitator. Analysis of possibilities; Avskiljning av submikrona partiklar vid biobraenslefoerbraenning med roekgaskondensering eller kondenserande vaata elfilter. Analys av moejligheterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Dust particles in flue gas larger than 1 {mu}m are well separated by conventional techniques, while submicron particles are poorly separated. As the use of biofuels with high ash content is increasing, as well as knowledge about negative health effects from inhalation of submicron particles, the interest for reduction of emissions of submicron particles will probably increase. The aim of this project is to investigate possible techniques for separation of submicron particles during flue gas condensation through modification of conventional technique, or with available techniques not usually used with combustion of biofuels, e.g. a wet electrostatic precipitator. Mechanisms for separation of dust particles are briefly described. Cyclones separates particles larger than about 1 {mu}m. Fabric filters separates all particles sizes, but the efficiency reduces as the size reduces. In flue gas condensers and scrubbers the speed and size of water droplets are important for the reduction efficiency. Dry electrostatic precipitators work for all particle sizes, but with reduced efficiency for sizes between 0.1 and 3 {mu}m. Wet electrostatic precipitators separates submicron particles much better. One reason for this is that the potential between the electrodes can be higher. Among conventional flue gas condensers and scrubbers there are two types that, properly designed, can separate submicron particles, namely 'type venturi scrubbers', i.e. a scrubber where a high flue gas velocity is used to form many, small water droplets by friction forces in a nozzle, and 'type scrubber with nozzles', i.e. a scrubber where nozzles supply droplets to the flue gas. For a scrubber with nozzles, the falling velocity of the droplets must be lower and the size smaller than is common today. Also the wet electrostatic precipitator separates submicron particles with high efficiency. They are used today mainly for problematic particles, e.g. sticky or corrosive ones, or for

  1. 危险废物焚烧工程烟气治理工艺设计%Process Design on the Treatment of Flue Gas from Hazardous Waste Incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳强; 范亚民; 耿磊; 郑晖; 王金龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of flue gas from hazardous waste rotary kiln, the process of waste heat boiler, quench tower, activated carbon adsorption, bag-type dust collector, wet deacidification was put forward. It can effectively inhibit the resynthesis of dioxins. And the flue gas can reach the standard of Pollution Control Standard for Hazardous Wastes Incineration (GB 18484—2001) after treatment.%根据危险废物回转窑焚烧烟气的特点,提出采用余热锅炉、急冷塔、活性炭吸附、布袋除尘、湿法脱酸的烟气治理工艺,可有效抑制二恶英的再合成,排放的烟气能够达到GB 18484-2001危险废物焚烧污染控制标准的要求.

  2. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  3. Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, S.S.; Chen, C.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Wu, C.W.; Ou, J.J.; Lin, T.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions.

  4. Assessment of in-furnace dry sorbent injection experimental results burning low sulphur content coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [Univ. de Zaragoza (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to adjust the SO{sub 2} emissions of coal power stations to the current air pollutant standards, established by the EC, flue gas desulfurization tests with in-furnace dry sorbent injection technology in the Spanish coal power station ``Litoral`` (tangentially-fired) were performed. The measured retentions were lower than predicted through a one-dimensional model. Then, it was thought that a CFD 3D simulation of the injection would help to understand the complex relationships of the process. The simulation was divided in two stages: in the first one, the turbulent velocity and the temperature field were solved. In the second one, representative sorbent particles were injected in the turbulent field previously solved, the focus of this work being the global sulphur capture modeling and its validation through the experimental measurements obtained. After a revision of the models proposed in the specialized literature, a global sulfation model is chosen, being compared with the experimental data obtained in the power station. Because of the main results of this work, the authors can highlight the testing of the laboratory-scale correlations against full-scale results, and can mitigate the difficulty of estimating the actual temperature profile by experimenting with the particle and its residence time without the aid of a CFD code.

  5. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  6. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, James P.; Johnson, Beverly E.; Beri, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  7. Inflience of Co{sub 2},So{sub 2} and no in flue gas on microalgae productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Hamasaki, A.; Sioji, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Takasago Research; Ikuta, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan). Chemical Plant Engineering and Construction

    1997-08-01

    The influence of CO2, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and soot dust on the productivity of microalgae was considered using Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalgae are viewed as a possible means of combeting global warming. These microalgae can be easily cultivated in a high CO2 gas concentration of 15 vol%. SO2 gas itself does not influence the growth of microalgae. However, when the SO2 concentration is high, the pH of the medium decreases and the productivity of the microalgae is lowered. The presence of NO does not influence the growth of microalgae. No absorbed in the medium is changed to NO2{sup -} and utilized as a nitrogen source. As for Ni and V contained in soot dust, when the dissolved concentrations of these metals in the medium exceed more than 1 and 0.1 ppm, respectively, the microalgae productivity decreases, however, under actual conditions, their concentrations are normally lower than these values. The above results obtained in a small scale test using a simulated gas were confirmed in a field test using a raceway-type reactor with actual flue gas. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  9. 77 FR 76831 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Furnaces and Boilers (June 7, 2010),\\5\\ the ENERGY STAR Product Databases for Gas and Oil Furnaces (Jan. 4, 2010),\\6\\ the California Energy Commission's Appliance Database for Residential Furnaces and Boilers,\\7.... Department of Commerce, ENERGY STAR Furnaces--Product Databases for Gas and Oil Furnaces (Jan. 4,...

  10. Anomaly detection of blast furnace condition using tuyere cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamahira, Naoshi; Hirata, Takehide; Tsuda, Kazuro; Morikawa, Yasuyuki; Takata, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    We present a method of anomaly detection using multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) to detect the abnormal behaviors of a blast furnace. Tuyere cameras attached circumferentially at the lower side of a blast furnace are used to monitor the inside of the furnace and this method extracts abnormal behaviors of intensities. It is confirmed that with our method, detecting timing is earlier than operators' notice. Besides, misalignment of cameras doesn't affect detecting performance, which is important property in actual use.

  11. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  12. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  13. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV oxide, carbon(II oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.The quantitative composition and lower caloric value of process tail gases change depending on the type of feedstock used in the production, as well as the type of process. The lower caloric value of process tail gases is relatively small with values ranging between 1500 and 2300 kJ m–3.In the conventional production of oil-furnace carbon black, process tail gases purified from carbon black dust are freely released into the atmosphere untreated. In this manner, the process tail gases pollute the air in the town of Kutina, because their quantitative values are much higher than the prescribed emissions limits for hydrogen sulfide and carbon(II oxide. A logical solution for the prevention of such air pollution is combustion of the process tail gases, i. e. their thermal oxidation. For this purpose, a specially designed flare system has been developed. Consuming minimum amounts of natural gas needed for oxidation, the flare system is designed to combust low caloric process tail gases with 99 % efficiency. Thus, the toxic and flammable components of the tail gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon(II oxide, methane and other trace hydrocarbons would be transformed into environmentally acceptable components (sulfur(IV oxide, water, carbon(IV oxide and nitrogen(IV oxide, which are in compliance with the emissions limit values prescribed by law.Proper operation of this flare system in the production of oil-furnace carbon black would solve

  14. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  15. Slag wool manufacturing from blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Руських

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slag wool is the most expensive and valuable product of blast furnace slag processing. Slag wool is in great demand nowadays. The article highlights the factors influencing the mineral wool quality: chemical composition that determines the acidity of the module, the temperature of the molten slag and the required slag jet thickness consistency. Mineral wool is produced by blowing air or steam into a jet of molten slag. As a result of it the slag crushes into droplets stretching. The resulting wool contains 5% slag and 95% air. The quality of the obtained slag wool depends on the module acidity of the slag. The blast furnace slags of «Ilyich iron and steel works of Mariupol» and «Azovstal iron & steel works» are the main (short slags – they give short fibers. To obtain high-quality long fiber wool it is necessary to add admixtures into basic blast furnace slag to reduce its basicity. As a result of the fuel and energy rising prices and the necessity to reduce the slag wool cost it is necessary to develop a new technology with fiery-liquid slag, with the removal of iron compounds and sulphur from the melts and the introduction of corrective additives to improve the quality of slag wool. Good thermal conductivity (about 0,03 kcal/m∙h∙°C and other indicators (resistance, volume weight make it possible to use the materials from slag wool (pads, rigid and semi-rigid plates as heat and sound insulating materials

  16. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  17. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  18. Vacuum Furnace - Integrated "Sub zero" Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zieger; Hubert Schulte

    2004-01-01

    The vacuum heat treatment with overpressure gas quenching is more and more accepted due to considerable advantages compared to the traditional oil and salt bath processes. Continuous further developments and new concepts like multi-directional cooling systems, a separate quenching chamber and "sub zero" systems lead towards an oxidation free and low distortion vacuum heat treatment for a broad range of parts and materials. Short and energy saving processes guarantee a high economic efficiency and environmental compatibility.The "sub zero" system which is integrated into the standard vacuum furnace achieves a heat treatment result with a high conversion of retained austenite in fully automatic hardening and tempering processes.

  19. Pyrometric temperature measurements in the solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, H.-R; Mueller, Ch.

    2000-07-01

    Surface temperatures are key parameters in many applications of concentrated solar radiation. Pyrometric temperature determination is here hampered by the reflected solar radiation. Two approaches to solve this problem were experimentally tested with the TREMPER reactor in the solar furnace at PSI: the flash assisted multiwavelength pyrometry (FAMP) developed at PSI and a so called 'solar-blind' pyrometer developed by IMPAC Electronic GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany, in collaboration with PSI. Performance, advantages and disadvantages of the two different pyrometers are reported and discussed. (authors)

  20. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  1. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  2. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  3. Capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas by coupling free and immobilized amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel system has been proposed for the capture and separation of CO2 from flue gas. In this method, a resin isemployed to regenerate the amine capturing CO2 from flue gas atroom temperatures. The feasibility for the resin to regenerateamines such as MEA, MAE, TEA, and ammonia has been demonstrated. It was also discovered that the resin could be regenerated by hotwater.

  4. CO2 , NOx and SOx removal from flue gas via microalgae cultivation: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Flue gas refers to the gas emitting from the combustion processes, and it contains CO2 , NOx , SOx and other potentially hazardous compounds. Due to the increasing concerns of CO2 emissions and environmental pollution, the cleaning process of flue gas has attracted much attention. Using microalgae to clean up flue gas via photosynthesis is considered a promising CO2 mitigation process for flue gas. However, the impurities in the flue gas may inhibit microalgal growth, leading to a lower microalgae-based CO2 fixation rate. The inhibition effects of SOx that contribute to the low pH could be alleviated by maintaining a stable pH level, while NOx can be utilized as a nitrogen source to promote microalgae growth when it dissolves and is oxidized in the culture medium. The yielded microalgal biomass from fixing flue gas CO2 and utilizing NOx and SOx as nutrients would become suitable feedstock to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In addition to the removal of SOx , NOx and CO2 , using microalgae to remove heavy metals from flue gas is also quite attractive. In conclusion, the use of microalgae for simultaneous removal of CO2 , SOx and NOx from flue gas is an environmentally benign process and represents an ideal platform for CO2 reutilization. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  7. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  8. Dust escape from Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  9. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  10. Cold Agglomeration of Ultrafine Oxidized Dust (UOD from Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ordiales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different wastes are generated in ferromanganese and silicomanganese alloy production. One of them is the ultrafine oxidized dust (UOD produced in the collection and control of flying dusts in the ferroalloy industry. This waste has fairly high manganese content (20%–40% Mn, making it suitable to be a secondary raw material for the ferromanganese industry. This research proposes a method for the transformation of UOD into a useable raw material. Cold agglomeration is the best option, due to its low energy consumption. Portland cement and refractory cement are compared as suitable candidates in the management of the UOD for their reuse in the electric arc furnace feed.

  11. The effect of various types of cement dust on sulphur dioxide oxidation in the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadjić, V; Gentilizza, M; Halle, R

    1988-07-01

    The effect of various types of cement dust on the behaviour of sulphur dioxide in the air was investigated on model systems in different experimental conditions.Experiments were carried out with PC-15z-45s (Portland-blast furnace cement containing 15% blast furnace slag), PC-25p-35s (Portland-pozzolan cement containing 25% pozzolan) and EFD (electrofilter dust).EFD most effectively removed SO2 from the air stream. The next efficacious was PC-15z-45s, whereas PC-25p-35s was the least efficient. The efficacy of cement dusts for SO2 removal from the air stream depended on their chemical and granulometric composition and in particular on the size of specific surface.The rate of reaction was also influenced by experimental conditions-relative humidity, the length of contact, that is, the flow rate of gaseous mixture through the reactor, and the amount of cement dust.The experimental data show that in the contact between SO2 and cement dust catalytic oxidation of SO2 to sulphates takes place. Sulphates remain bound to the surface, from which they cannot be thermally desorbed, but can be released by extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus.

  12. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002.

  13. Separation of Flue Gas Components by SILP (Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase) Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, P.; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Mossin, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    -Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow processes for flue gas cleaning......Reversible absorption of the flue gas components CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 has been tested for different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions where porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid....... The results show that CO2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperature, pressure and gas concentration. © 2012...

  14. How to have the shortest level emission of a furnace off-gas; Como alcanzar el nivel mas bajo de emision de un horno de arco electrico en el mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naaby, H.; Abildgaards, O.; Pedersen, J.

    1996-06-01

    With a starting point in the requisite of an improved internal work environment and an expected demand for very low dust emission limits for Danish Steel works Ltd (DDS), the furnace off-gas from the two 110t EAF`s was led to a new filter system with a continuously registered exhaust through a stack. At the same time a survey was carried out regarding formation and possible removal of dioxin and furans in scrap based steel making. The results of the improvements have shown, that it is possible to reduce the dust emissions to less than 1 mg/m{sup 3} - STP (the local limit is 5 mg/m{sup 3} - STP) corresponding to app. 1 g./t. produced steel. The dioxin emission in less than lg./year, corresponding to 1500 TCDD-eq ng/t. produced steel. It has been proved that the metallurgy-, energy-, and furnace off-gas conditions are of the greatest importance for the lowering of dust and dioxin emissions, as well as for the optimization of the energy consumption. Therefore investigations of the energy conditions in the furnace are made and the furnace has been rebuild to ensure a sealed furnace. These improvements have reduced the quantity of gas to be filtered from the previous 90.000 m{sup 3} - STP/h to 40.000 m{sup 3} - STP/h from each furnace. It has also been shown, that a continuous monitoring and control of the consumption with approximately 10%. danish Steel Works Ltd. has led a project in an ECSC project which is going to find a economically and energy-wisw optimised way for further reduction of the dioxin emission. the results of the latest improvements are reported in this paper. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  16. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  17. Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

  18. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  19. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C.; Reeves, F. A.; Jeter, L. B.; Sledd, J. D.; Cole, J. M.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a five zone tubular furnace designed for Bridgman-Stockbarger, other techniques of crystal growth involving multiple temperature zones such as vapor transport experiments and other materials science experiments. The five zones are primarily designed to produce uniform hot and cold temperature regions separated by an adiabatic region constructed of a heat extraction plate and an insert to reduce radiation from the hot to the cold zone. The hot and cold zone temperatures are designed to reach 1600 C and 1100 C, respectively. AADSF operates on a Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) within the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle on the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) missions. Two successful flights, both employing the directional solidification or Bridgman Stockbarger technique for crystal growth have been made, and crystals of HgCdTe and PbSnTe grown in microgravity have been produced on USMP-2 and USMP-3, respectively. The addition of a Sample Exchange Mechanism (SEM) will enable three different samples to be processed on future flights including the USMP-4 mission.

  20. Design and construction of a new furnace combustion pilot in IIE; Diseno y construccion de un nuevo horno experimental de combustion en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Tamayo Flores, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mamf@iie.org.mx; gatamayo@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    To expand the scope of studies and technological developments in the Laboratory of Combustion of the Thermal Process Management a new experimental furnace with a capacity of 1.5 MWt was designed and built. Spray design studies with real operational evaluation (comparison of emission of Combustion products and thermal behavior) as well as information on the behavior of the NO{sub x} emissions will be produced. An automatic control system using a water cooling jacket provides the cooling of the furnace. The furnace design is modular, consisting of six sections. Currently three trials to its maximum load of operation have been performed. The results show that the global energy balance of the furnace matches the design. The flue gas residence time and temperature also match those at the exit of steam generators of big capacity. [Spanish] Para ampliar las posibilidades de estudios y desarrollos tecnologicos del laboratorio de combustion de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, se diseno y construyo un nuevo horno experimental con capacidad maxima de 1.5 MegaWatts termicos (MWt). Este horno permitira realizar estudios de diseno de atomizadores con evaluacion de operacion real (comparacion de emision de productos de combustion y comportamiento termico), asi como ampliar la informacion que se tiene en el comportamiento de la emision de los oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) que se producen en el horno. El diseno del horno es modular, compuesto por seis secciones, las cuales se enfrian de forma independiente a traves de un sistema de control automatico, empleando una chaqueta de enfriamiento por la cual circula agua. Actualmente se han realizado tres encendidos hasta alcanzar su carga maxima de operacion, los resultados obtenidos muestran que el balance de energia global del horno experimental es practicamente el de diseno y cumple con las caracteristicas de tiempo de residencia y temperatura de gases a la salida del horno de Generadores de Vapor de gran capacidad.

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  2. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  3. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  4. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  5. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  6. Resistance furnaces. General presentation; Fours electriques a resistances. Presentation generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J.F.; Girault, A.; Jaume, R.; Le Boulch, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Recherche and Developpement, 75 - Paris (France); Oberlin, C.

    2005-04-01

    The resistance furnace is certainly the better known electro-thermal device. Its first industrial use started around 1920 and its technology has improved continuously. It's an indirect heating system: the heat produced by Joule effect is transmitted to the load by radiant heat transfer and convection. In this article, stress is put on the specific characteristics of resistance furnaces, in particular the nature and efficiency of resistors, their implementation, the heat transfer from the resistors to the load and the operation and control of these furnaces: 1 - general considerations; 2 - resistors/load thermal exchanges: conduction, radiant heat transfer, forced convection, global heat transfers; 3 - power of resistance furnaces: energy absorbed by the load, by the furnace walls, heat losses, power needs, efficiency, dimensioning; 4 - different types of resistance furnaces: with hearth, with bell, with revolving plate, with chains and conveyor, with charging carriage, drying ovens, special furnaces; 5 - thermal insulation of resistance furnaces: classification according to standards, types and characteristics of the most used materials, lining characteristics and implementation. (J.S.)

  7. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  8. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  9. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Oeini, J.; Koskiahde, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyykkoenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  11. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  12. Considerations for Scale-Up of Ferronickel Electric Smelting Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundermark, R. J.; Nelson, L. R.

    2017-02-01

    In ferronickel smelting, the selective carbothermic reduction of calcined nickel laterite ores in large electric furnaces yields a crude ferronickel product. The optimal process for nickel laterite smelting requires a fine balance between the metallurgical requirements of the process (feed composition, nickel recovery, energy consumption, product quality) and the capabilities of the feeding, tapping and off-gas systems, and especially of the furnace crucible and electrical system. The scale-up of nickel laterite smelting operations over the last 50 years has seen a tenfold increase in furnace power input. Furnace operations within the industry are examined to identify common trends and some new metrics are proposed which incorporate the combination of electrode power densities and the impact of alloy nickel grade on gas generation rates, and hence local electrode gas fluxes, which may impact on future scale-up of ferronickel furnaces.

  13. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  14. Process for flue gas cleaning. Verfahren zur Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-03-05

    It is well known fact that for the simultaneous separation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from flue gases, the redox potential must be taken into the minus area in a controlled way. To set the redox potential of the washing liquid, additives like sodium ditionite are used, for example. It is also well-known that the redox potential can be controlled electrolytically and/or by means of an iron reactor. In order to guarantee high availability of flue gas desulphurisation plant, the invention proposes that the washing liquid should have metallic granulate balls added in the direct washer sump or in a bypass and the washing liquid should be taken through a fluidized bed reactor, in which the iron granulate takes over the task of controlling the redox potential. The casing of the fluidized bed reactor can be made of plastic, so that the quantity of liquid and metal granulate can be controlled electrolytically as a fluidized bed.

  15. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  16. Using an oxygen content indicator in a coal-dust boiler fuel controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.V. Artamonov; V.N. Barbakov; A.E. Zemlyanoi; K.V. Soldatenko; Y.G. Metal' nikov [Novocherkassk State Regional Electric Power Plant, Novocherkassk (Russian Federation)

    2008-03-15

    The results of installing a circuit for regulating the fuel input to the 300 MW coal-dust power plant at the Novocherkassk State Regional Electric Power Plant (Novocherkasskaya GRES) based on an indicator of the oxygen content in the flue gases are described. The goal is to improve the quality of the controller response to perturbations in the fuel channel. The system and its structure are described, as well as transient control processes in the original and new systems in response to standard perturbations. The regulation quality is at least twice as good in the new scheme.

  17. Measures to observe the current dust emission limit; Massnahmen zur Einhaltung des aktuellen Staubemissionsgrenzwerts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evard, Michael [Vattenfall Europe Waerme AG, Berlin (Germany). Betrieb Heizkraftwerk Moabit

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes the operational experience and optimisation approach for a hot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a flue gas temperature of approximately 350 C as part of a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. It is particularly dealing with fault finding and cleaning after 20 years of operation. From the beginning of January 2011, new laws have come into force regulating dust emission limits. Therefore, it was necessary that existing ESP systems operate optimally. The ESP is a part of a hard coal-fired CFB boiler. (orig.)

  18. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  19. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  20. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  1. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  2. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  3. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  4. FAILURES AND THE LIFE OF FURNACE TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Z.Shen; Y.Ding; D.M.Hou; Z.P.Ning; Y.Lü; T.B.Dong; A.R.Tuohuti

    2004-01-01

    It is showed after the furnace tubes serviced for 8-10 years that the density of damage in the HAZ (heat affected zone) of the weld has higher than in parent metals, though the depth of damage is not equal to. By the test of creep crack growth, it is also acquired that under same mechanic parameter C* (t), the rate of creep crack growth in the HAZ is more than twice as fast as in parent metals. Two mechanisms (overheating and thermal shock) of failure occurred in an accident are presented. The stress of thermal shock is analyzed, in which the change of the elasticity modulus with the radius ET = f(r) is considered. Based on it, the safety region of the thermal shock is obtained. Finally, two sets of curves for the safe life are suggested which can facilitate to estimate the remaining life of HK-40 or HP-Nb tubes by their creep rupture data.

  5. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  6. PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work is to improve continuous working hours,reducing preparation time, reducing losses in melting, reducing slag formation and to increase the combustion efficiency of coke and overall productivity and to improve the quality and Mechanical properties of steel using Cupola.

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  8. Technical transformation of the furnace in atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit%常减压加热炉技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向蒙

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of the furnace in No.2 atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit of JPC refinery was low,the causes of which,such as dew point corrosion,high flue gas temperature in the convention chamber and poor performance of the thermal insulation linling etc. were analyzed.The adopted transforming measures including the application of sonic soot removing system,flue gas recovery system,fiber spray coating,rock wool spray coating and correspondent adjustment of flow scheme,as well as the analysis of the results,were presented.%介绍了金陵石化公司炼油厂二套常减压装置加热炉存在露点腐蚀、对流室排烟温度高以及炉子保温衬里效果差等问题,分析了加热炉效率较低的原因。采用声波除灰系统、烟气回收系统、纤维和岩棉喷涂及相应的流程调整等措施进行改造,并对改造效果作了分析。

  9. Dust Versus Cosmic Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A N

    1999-01-01

    Two groups have recently discovered a statistically significant deviation in the fluxes of high-redshift type Ia supernovae from the predictions of a Friedmann model with zero cosmological constant. This letter argues that bright, dusty, starburst galaxies would preferentially eject a dust component with a shallower opacity curve (hence less reddening) and a higher opacity/mass than the observed galactic dust which is left behind. Such dust could cause the falloff in flux at high-z without violating constraints on reddening or metallicity. The specific model presented is of needle-like dust, which is expected from the theory of crystal growth and has been detected in samples of interstellar dust. Carbon needles with conservative properties can supply the necessary opacity, and would very likely be ejected from galaxies as required. The model is not subject to the arguments given in the literature against grey dust, but may be constrained by future data from supernova searches done at higher redshift, in clust...

  10. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces.

  11. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas, E-mail: michael.kopp@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: thomas.haugg@physik.lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, 80333 (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  12. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  13. Formation of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suetens, T., E-mail: thomas.suetens@mtm.kuleuven.be; Guo, M., E-mail: muxing.guo@mtm.kuleuven.be; Van Acker, K., E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be; Blanpain, B., E-mail: bart.blanpain@mtm.kuleuven.be

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber.

  14. The influence of biomass quality on the purification of flue gases and multicyclone assembly material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Čikić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types, forms and states affect the heating value of biomass and its conversion into exploitable energy forms. As a result of biomass quality investigations, the share of solid particles in flue gases purified in a multicyclone was measured and analyzed at various heating loads of a boiler, the maximum power of which amounts to 2,2 MW. This paper presents the influence of flue gases on the roughness and corrosiveness of multicyclone material inner wall. A corrective dimensional parameter of the multicyclone was suggested for the purpose of maximum purification of flue gases at unfavorable incineration conditions and biomass characteristics.

  15. Brayton-cycle heat recovery-system characterization program. Subatmospheric-system test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmeier, L.; Leung, S.

    1981-07-31

    The turbine tests and results for the Brayton cycle subatmospheric system (SAS) are summarized. A scaled model turbine was operated in the same environment as that which a full-scale SAS machine would experience from the hot effluent flue gas from a glass container furnace. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the effects of a simulated furnace flue gas stream on the turbine nozzles and blades. The following specific areas were evaluated: erosion of the turbine nozzles and blades from the dust in the flue gas, hot corrosion from alkali metal salts in the dust and acid vapor (sulfur trioxide and hydrogen chloride) in the flue gas, and fouling and flow blockage due to deposition and/or condensation from the flue gas constituents.

  16. In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

  17. Application study of complex control algorithm for regenerative furnace temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lusheng GE

    2004-01-01

    Altemative switch combustion mode of air and gas is adopted on the two sides of the regenerative furnace, its temperature is in uncontrolled state in the switching process and the switch period is generally 3 ~ 5 min. Thus, the conventional bi-cross limited combustion control method is no longer applicable to the object. This paper makes use of neutral network algorithm to adjust the static operating point. On this basis, fuzzy control strategy is used for the furnace temperature control. The actual application result shows that the control strategy is effective to solve the problem of the combustion control for regenerative furnace.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia; Adriano Moehlecke; Izete Zanesco

    2012-01-01

    Solar cell world market had an exponential growth in the last decade and nowadays it continues in expansion. To produce solar cells, dopants need to be introduced into the crystalline silicon wafer in order to form the pn junction. This process is carried out in diffusion furnaces. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a compact diffusion furnace to process up to 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafers and to operate at temperature up to 1100°C. The furnace is automated an...

  19. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsohsiu; Qing, Cheng-Rui; Chen, Ying-Tian

    2011-05-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction. It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universal in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  20. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Tsohsiu; QING Cheng-Rui; CHEN Ying-Tian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al.to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces.The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction.It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universall in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  1. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODELOF REHEATING FURNACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立云; 张斌; 王景成; 邵惠鹤

    2001-01-01

    This paper presented a dynamical mathematical model for reheating furnace based on energy balance, which consists of three submodels. With the inputting parameters, adopting the finite difference technique, not only the combustion gas temperature but also the temperature distribution of slabs in the furnace can be predicated. The dynamical mathematical model is the base for the further control and it also can be treated as a simulator of a reheating furnace, optimal and advanced controlling strategies can be applied based on the dynamical model.

  2. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  5. Research on Circular Flue Application in Flue Gas Desulfurization System%圆形烟道在烟气脱硫装置中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚超; 朱桂明; 郝若锦; 王鲁斐

    2013-01-01

    The square flue' s strength of the flue gas desulfurization system in a power plant was calculated with ANSYS,including the analysis of both inner and outer pressure and the dead weight which influencing the flue's structural stress and the load-carrying capability of cross-section circular flue,as well as the specifications of lateral reinforcement ribs of the circular flue with large diameter.the research results can provide the reference for the later engineering design.%利用大型有限元分析软件ANSYS对某电厂发电机组烟气脱硫装置的方形烟道进行了强度计算,并针对烟道内压、外压及自重等因素对结构应力的影响进行了分析,并以此为基础,研究了等截面的圆形烟道的受力情况,延伸了大直径圆形烟道横向加固肋的规格型号,研究结果可作为日后工程优化设计的参考.

  6. Fine and ultrafine emission dynamics from a ferrous foundry cupola furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Antton; García, Estibaliz; Carnicer, Pedro; Pena, Egoitz; Larrión, Miren; Legarreta, Juan Andres; Gutiérrez-Cañas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol size distributions from ferrous foundry cupola furnaces vary depending on semicontinuous process dynamics, time along the tap-to-tap cycle, dilution ratio, and the physical and chemical nature of the charge and fuel. All of these factors result in a highly time-dependent emission of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 pm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)--even on a mass concentration basis. Control measures are frequently taken on the basis of low-reliability parameters such as emission factors and loosely established mass ratios of PM2.5 to PM 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM1.0). The new environmental requirements could entail unexpected and undesired drawbacks and uncertainties in the meaning and effectiveness of process improvement measures. The development of process-integrated and flue-gas cleaning measures for reduction of particle emissions requires a better knowledge of generation mechanisms during melting. Available aerosol analyzers expand the range of control issues to be tackled and contribute to greatly reduce the uncertainty of engineering decisions on trace pollutant control. This approach combines real-time size distribution monitoring and cascade impactors as preseparators for chemical or morphological analysis. The results allow for establishing a design rationale and performance requirement for control devices. A number size distribution below 10 microm in aerodynamic equivalent diameter was chosen as the main indicator of charge influence and filter performance. Size distribution is trimodal, with a coarse mode more than 12 microm that contributes up to 30% of the total mass. A temporal series for these data leads to identification of the most relevant size ranges for a specific furnace (e.g., the most penetrating size range). In this cupola, this size range is between 0.32 and 0.77 microm of aerodynamic equivalent diameter and defines the pollution control strategy for metals concentrating within this size range. Scrap

  7. Pilot‐scale investigation and CFD modeling of particle deposition in low‐dust monolithic SCR DeNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiredal, Michael Lykke; Jensen, Anker Degn; Thøgersen, Joakim Reimer

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of particles in selective catalytic reduction DeNOx monolithic catalysts was studied by low‐dust pilot‐scale experiments. The experiments showed a total deposition efficiency of about 30%, and the deposition pattern was similar to that observed in full‐scale low‐dust applications....... On extended exposure to the dust‐laden flue gas, complete blocking of channels was observed, showing that also in low‐dust applications soot blowing is necessary to keep the catalyst clean. A particle deposition model was developed in computational fluid dynamics, and simulations were carried out assuming...... either laminar or turbulent flow. Assuming laminar flow, the accumulated mass was underpredicted with a factor of about 17, whereas assuming turbulent flow overpredicted the experimental result with a factor of about 2. The simulations showed that turbulent diffusion in the monolith channels and inertial...

  8. New pyrometallurgical process of EAF dust treatment with CaO addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romchat Chairaksa-Fujimoto; Yosuke Inoue; Naoyoshi Umeda; Satoshi Itoh; Tetsuya Nagasaka

    2015-01-01

    The non-carbothermic zinc pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was investigated on a laboratory scale. The main objective of this process was to convert highly stable zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), which accounts for more than half of total zinc in the EAF dust, into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 by CaO addition. The EAF dust was mixed with CaO powder in various ratios, pressed into pellets, and heated in a muffle furnace in air at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100°C for a predetermined holding time. All ZnFe2O4 was transformed into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 at a minimum temperature of 900°C within 1 h when sufficient CaO to achieve a Ca/Fe molar ratio of 1.1 was added. However, at higher temperatures, excess CaO beyond the stoichiometric ratio was required because it was consumed by reactions leading to the formation of compounds other than ZnFe2O4. The evaporation of halides and heavy metals in the EAF dust was also studied. These components could be pref-erentially volatilized into the gas phase at 1100°C when CaO was added.

  9. A Survey Study of the Blast Furnace at Kuangshan Village Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Huang, Xing; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The blast furnace from the Northern Song Dynasty at Kuangshan Village is the tallest blast furnace that remains from ancient China. Previous studies have assumed that the furnace had a closed mouth. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the blast furnace is constructed using 3D laser scanning technology, and accurate profile data are obtained using software. It is shown that the furnace throat is smaller than had been previously thought and that the furnace mouth is of the open type. This new furnace profile constitutes a discovery in the history of iron-smelting technology.

  10. Oblique dust density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  11. Comparison of in-furnace dry sorbent injection full-scale tests with laboratory-scale sulfation correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to limit SO{sub 2} emissions to the current EU air pollutant regulations, flue gas desulfurization tests were performed with in-furnace dry sorbent, Ca(OH){sub 2}, injection technology in the Spanish coal power station 'Litoral.' The measured SO{sub 2} removals 19.5% using a CaS ratio of 3 for a coal containing 0.53% of sulfur, and 26.4% with Ca/S=1.75 for a coal with 0.73% of sulfur were lower than predicted through a 1-D model. Hence, it was thought that a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the injection of sorbent particles would assist in understanding this complex process. After the turbulent velocity and temperature fields in the furnace were modeled, representative sorbent particles were injected, obtaining the temperature and SO{sub 2} concentrations encountered by the particles as a function of time. These data were the input to the global sulfur capture model used to simultaneously analyze calcination, sintering and sulfation. The simulation compared well with the data measured in the power station, thus verifying laboratory-scale correlations. The main conclusion is that the first temperatures encountered by the particles (in addition to the mean diameter, the sulfur content and the Ca/S ratio) control the sulfur retention. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to accurately predict these temperatures without a CFD simulation. Low retentions were due to low sulfur concentration, the high mean diameter of the particles, and the position of the injection nozzles.

  12. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  13. Experimental and numerical study on combustion of baled biomass in cigar burners and effects of flue gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erić Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and numerical investigation addressing combustion of baled agricultural biomass in a 50 kW experimental furnace equipped with cigar burners. Experiments performed included measurements of all parameters deemed important for mass and energy balance, as well as parameters defining quality of the combustion process. Experimental results were compared with results of numerical simulations performed with previously developed CFD model. The model takes into account complex thermo mechanical combustion processes occurring in a porous layer of biomass bales and the surrounding fluid. The combustion process and the corresponding model were deemed stationary. Comparison of experimental and numerical results obtained through research presented in this paper showed satisfactory correspondence, leading to the conclusion that the model developed could be used for analysis of different effects associated with variations in process parameters and/or structural modifications in industrial biomass facilities. Mathematical model developed was also utilized to examine the impact of flue gas recirculation on maximum temperatures in the combustion chamber. Gas recirculation was found to have positive effect on the reduction of maximum temperature in the combustion chamber, as well as on the reduction of maximum temperature zone in the chamber. The conclusions made provided valuable inputs towards prevention of biomass ash sintering, which occurs at higher temperatures and negatively affects biomass combustion process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42011: Development and improvement of technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound use of several types of agricultural and forest biomass and possible utilization for cogeneration i br. TR33042: Fluidized bed combustion facility improvements as a step forward in developing energy efficient and environmentally sound waste combustion

  14. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  15. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  16. Utilization of carbon dioxide in industrial flue gases for the cultivation of microalga Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Hsiun-Yu; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. MTF-15 cultivated using aeration with flue gases from a coke oven, hot stove or power plant in a steel plant of the China Steel Corporation in Taiwan were investigated. Using the flue gas from the coke oven, hot stove or power plant for cultivation, the microalgal strain obtained a maximum specific growth rate and lipid production of (0.827 d(-1), 0.688 g L(-1)), (0.762 d(-1), 0.961 g L(-1)), and (0.728 d(-1), 0.792 g L(-1)), respectively. This study demonstrated that Chlorella sp. MTF-15 could efficiently utilize the CO₂, NOX and SO₂ present in the different flue gases. The results also showed that the growth potential, lipid production and fatty acid composition of the microalgal strain were dependent on the composition of the flue gas and on the operating strategy deployed.

  17. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  18. Evaluation of the emission characteristics of PCDD/Fs from electric arc furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Huang, Hung Chi; Tsai, Shian Sheng; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping

    2006-03-01

    Distribution of PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran) congeners at two electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in Taiwan is evaluated via intensive stack sampling and analysis. Two kinds of exhaust system in EAFs including stack system and shutter system are selected for measuring dioxin emissions. In addition, dioxin emissions during oxidation and reduction stages at EAF-A were characterized. Results indicate that the PCDD/F concentration of stack gas in EAF-A was 4.39 ng/Nm(3) while total Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration was 0.35 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). The PCDD/F concentration of stack gas in EAF-B was 2.20 ng/Nm(3) and the TEQ concentration was 0.14 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H(p)CDF, OCDD and OCDF are the major contributors of the dioxin concentrations for two EAFs investigated and the percentage of PCDD/F in particulate phase increases as the chlorination level of the PCDD/F congener increases. The results obtained on gas/particulate partitioning of PCDD/Fs in flue gases prior to the APCD in EAFs indicate that more than 90% exists in particulate phase. In EAF-A, the PCDD/F concentration during oxidation stage is slightly higher than that measured during reduction stage, including the sampling points of CO converter outlet, prior to bag filter and stack. Majority of PCDD/Fs emitted from steel-making processes exists in particulate-phase (about 60-70%) at both EAFs investigated.

  19. High Quality Silica Bricks for Glass Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification, technical requirements, test method, inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of high quality silica bricks for glass melting furnace.

  20. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  1. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar

    2004-10-18

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution.

  2. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace. ... Journal Home > Vol 18 (2011) > ... In our design, a new system of fuel supply was developed in order to achieve optimum fuel consumption, high temperature, and low cost of ...

  3. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  4. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  5. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  6. Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Blanchetais, Ch. H.

    The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial usage. It was found that the reliability of the furnace depends on the annual insolation, that the solar furnaces must be designed to meet specific thermal goals, that simplification and optimization are needed for the orientation and focusing mechanisms, and that solar furnaces are ideally suited for developing nations which experience high levels of insolation. A stepped paraboloid is described for improving the efficiency of a heliostat system, while still employing plane parallel mirrors.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell world market had an exponential growth in the last decade and nowadays it continues in expansion. To produce solar cells, dopants need to be introduced into the crystalline silicon wafer in order to form the pn junction. This process is carried out in diffusion furnaces. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a compact diffusion furnace to process up to 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafers and to operate at temperature up to 1100°C. The furnace is automated and it is constituted by a heating system with three zones and systems to introduce the wafers inside the furnace as well as to control of gas flows. This equipment is the first one developed in Brazil to promote impurity diffusions in order to produce silicon solar cells and it was manufactured jointly with a Brazilian company.

  8. Hopewell Furnace NHS Small Scale Features (Linear Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents the linear small scale features found at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site based on the Cultural Landscape Report completed in...

  9. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  10. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  11. CMOS Thermal Ox and Diffusion Furnace: Tystar Tytan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Names: CMOS Wet Ox, CMOS Dry Ox, Boron Doping (P-type), Phos. Doping (N-Type)This four-stack furnace bank is used for the thermal growth of silicon...

  12. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  13. MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

  14. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas with dust size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Kai-Biao [Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves which are described with a Kortweg-de vries (KdV) equation by using the reductive perturbation method, are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively-charged dust particles of different sizes and masses. The effects of the power-law distribution of dust and other plasma parameters on the dust-acoustic solitary waves are studied. Numerical results show that the dust size distribution has a significant influence on the propagation properties of dust-acoustic solitons. The amplitudes of solitary waves in the case of a power-law distribution is observed to be smaller, but the soliton velocity and width are observed to be larger, than those of mono-sized dust grains with an average dust size. Our results indicate that only compressed solitary waves exist in dusty plasma with different dust species. The relevance of the present investigation to interstellar clouds is discussed.

  15. Carbothermal reduction process of silica formed from shirasu volcanic ash using solar furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama Keisuke; Sato Keigo; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Metallurgical grade silicon was formed using Shirasu volcanic ash as starting material with solar furnace. The solar furnace was composed of two parts: Fresnel lens and reacting furnace. The reacting furnace was composed of a cylindrical vacuum chamber and quartz glass plate functioning to guide the concentrated sunlight into the furnace, and was placed at the focal point of the Fresnel lens. The sample was made from a mixture of silica formed from Shirasu volcanic ash and carbon, and placed ...

  16. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  17. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  18. Modelling the CANMET and Marchwood furnaces using the PCOC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P.J.; Marriott, N. (AEA Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste, Harwell (UK). Theoretical Studies Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Pulverised coal combustion models are validated by detailed comparison with in-flame measurements of velocity, temperatures and species concentrations on two axisymmetric tunnel furnaces. Nitric oxide formation by the thermal and fuel nitrogen mechanisms is also calculated and compared with experiment. The sensitivity of the predictions to the various aspects of the model and the potential for modelling full-scale, power-generating furnaces are discussed. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  20. Development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace as the technologies of blast-furnace smelting are improved are considered. It is shown that there are two zones of intense heat-transfer, and in modern conditions, when different kinds of iron ore are smelted, the use of combined blast with high parameters is a prerequisite for the stability of blastfurnace smelting operation and the smelting efficiency.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALISYS OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia; Adriano Moehlecke; Izete Zanesco

    2013-01-01

    The solar cell industry has presented high growth rates and dealt with a large portfolio of suppliers for specific equipments like diffusion furnaces needed to produce the pn junction in the fabrication of silicon devices. The aim of this paper is to present the thermal analysis and the characterization of diffusions carried out in the first diffusion furnace developed and fabricated in Brazil. Longitudinal and radial temperature profiles were measured and analyzed. Results of the...

  2. MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

  3. Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

  4. Slagging and Fouling Characteristics of HRSG for Ferrosilicon Electric Furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The slagging and fouling characteristics of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) for ferrosilicon electric furnaces are discussed in this paper. Three ash samples were taken from the HRSG of a ferrosilicon furnace in Ningxia Province, China, which suffered from serious slagging and fouling. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze the ash samples. The results show that low melting point salt Na 2 SO 4 and composit...

  5. Investigation of radiative heat transfer in fixed bed biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Klason; X.S. Bai; M. Bahador; T.K. Nilsson; B. Sunden [Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Division of Fluid Mechanics

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the radiative heat transfer process in two fixed bed furnaces firing biomass fuels and the performance of several widely used models for calculation of radiative heat transfer in the free-room of fixed bed furnaces. The effective mean grey gas absorption coefficients are calculated using an optimised version of the exponential wide band model (EWBM) based on an optical mean beam length. Fly-ash and char particles are taken into account using Mie scattering. In the investigated updraft small-scale fixed bed furnace radiative transfer carries heat from the bed to the free-room, whereas in the cross-current bed large-scale industry furnace, radiative transfer brings heat from the hot zones in the free-room to the drying zone of the bed. Not all the investigated models can predict these heat transfer trends, and the sensitivity of results to model parameters is fairly different in the two furnaces. In the small-scale furnace, the gas absorption coefficient predicted by using different optical lengths has great impact on the predicted temperature field. In the large-scale furnaces, the predicted temperature field is less sensitive to the optical length. In both furnaces, with the same radiative properties, the low-computational-cost P1 model predicts a temperature field in the free-room similar to that by the more time consuming SLW model. In general, the radiative heat transfer rates to the fuel bed are not very sensitive to the radiative properties, but they are sensitive to the different radiative heat transfer models. For a realistic prediction of the radiative heat transfer rate to the fuel bed or to the walls, more computationally demanding models such as the FGG or SLW models should be used. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  7. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  8. [Emission characteristics of PM2.5 from blast furnace iron making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-zhen; Zhao, Ya-li; Zhao, Hao-ning; Liang, Xing-yin; Sun, Jing-wen; Wang, Bao-gui; Wang, Ya-jun

    2014-09-01

    Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to online analyze the PM2.5 particle size and mass concentration distribution in the trapping field and ore tank of blast furnace iron-making plant. Results showed that the grain number concentration of PM2.5 in trapping field after dust removal was in the range of 10(5)-10(6)cm-3 , and the particle size was mainly below 0. 1 μm. While the grain number concentration of the PM2.5 in ore tank after dust removal was in the range of 10(4)-10(5) cm-3, the particle size was mainly below 1.0 μm, and the mass concentration distribution showed a single peak. The micro-morphology of PM2.5 monomer was mainly divided into two categories, spherical particles and irregular aggregates. Chemical composition analysis indicated that the concentrations of water soluble SO(2-)(4) , K+ , Ca2+ were higher than other ions in PM2.5, with the percentage of 10. 32% -28.55% , 10. 36% -12. 15% , 3.97% -15. 4% , respectively. The major elements was Fe, Si, Al, with 16. 8% -31. 62% , 2. 24% -8.76% , 1.24% -5. 89% of total mass, respectively; organic carbon and elementary carbon were 2. 7% -4. 6% and 0. 8% -1. 3% , respectively. The emission factors of PM2.5 in trapping field and in ore tank after dust removal were ranged from 0.045 to 0.085 kg t(-1) and 0.042 to 0.071 kg t-1, respectively.

  9. Monitoring Method for Blast Furnace Wall With Copper Staves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; QIAN Liang; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring method that has been designed for the first time for blast furnace wall with copper staves manufactured in China was introduced. Combining the method of "inverse problem" and the concept "non-inverse problem", the monitoring program for blast furnace wall with copper staves has been realized, which can be used to calculate online the accretion thickness and temperature of hot surface of copper staves after obtaining the values of thermocouples of copper staves. The accretion state obtained in the actual investigation has proved that the result of the program is correct. The monitoring program shows that the accretion would easily fluctuate when the accretion layer is extremely thick or thin, thereby the stable and smooth operation of the blast furnace is hindered. By maintaining appropriate accretion thickness, both long campaigns and high productivity of the blast furnace can be achieved; furthermore, it can also optimize the operation of blast furnace and maximize its production. Approximately 30-50 mm in thickness of accretion layer is maintained on the wall of Shougang blast furnace 2, which can meet the requirement for obtaining both long campaign and high productivity.

  10. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

    2005-09-01

    A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

  12. A pressurized drop-tube furnace for coal reactivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shan; Yeasmin, Hasina; Mathews, Joseph

    1998-08-01

    The design and characterization of a pressurized drop-tube furnace for investigation of coal devolatilization, gasification, and combustion are presented. The furnace is designed for high-temperature, isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. It can be operated at pressures up to 1600 kPa, and temperatures up to 1673 K, with variable reaction time, particle feeding rate, and with inert and various oxidizing atmospheres. Particle residence times can be varied between ˜0.02 and ˜10 s depending upon operating conditions and positions of injection and sampling probes. Observations ports are available for sample collections and for optical investigation of the reactions or temperature measurements. Characterization of gas temperature in the furnace shows that, although the gas temperature profile in the furnace is affected by the water-cooled injection probe, the furnace is able to achieve isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. Results from a series of brown coal devolatilization tests demonstrated the suitability of the furnace for experiments in coal research.

  13. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  14. Dust Devil Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 6 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Dust devils, small cyclonic wind storms, are common in the American Southwest and on Mars. As the dust devil moves across the surface it picks up the loose dust, leaving behind a dark track to mark its passage. These dust devil tracks are in the Argyre Basin. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -46.6, Longitude 317.5 East (42.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the

  15. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Fenton, Lori; Neakrase, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michael; Statella, Thiago; Whelley, Patrick; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Balme, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth's surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ˜1 m and ˜1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550-850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300-1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand

  16. Dust during the Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Elfgren, E; Elfgren, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that population III stars have reionized the Universe at redshifts greater than 6 has recently gained momentum with WMAP polarization results. Here we analyse the role of early dust produced by these stars and ejected into the intergalactic medium. We show that this dust, heated by the radiation from the same population III stars, produces a submillimetre excess. The electromagnetic spectrum of this excess is compatible with the FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) cosmic far infrared background. This spectrum, a Doppler spectrum times the $\

  17. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  18. Boundary Identification for a Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss an inverse boundary problem for the axisymmetric steady-state heat equation, which arises in monitoring the boundary corrosion for the blast-furnace. Measure temperature at some locations are used to identify the shape of the corrosion boundary.The numerical inversion is complicated and consuming since the wear-line varies during the process and the boundary in the heat problem is not fixed. The authors suggest a method that the unknown boundary can be represented by a given curve plus a small perturbation, then the equation can be solved with fixed boundary, and a lot of computing time will be saved.A method is given to solve the inverse problem by minimizing the sum of the squared residual at the measuring locations, in which the direct problems are solved by axisymmetric fundamental solution method.The numerical results are in good agreement with test model data as well as industrial data, even in severe corrosion case.

  19. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  20. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.